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3- Hypothesis

Any old or new culture can be easily affected by another with keeping of some convention and customs of his/her former culture.

4 Aims and b!ectives"

#$ %very one has to pay attention and respect to all culture.

&$ 'he importance of culture in relation to the individual and his belongingness to that culture.

3$ At is necessary to defend and maintain of old culture even if one does not follow its principles customs and conventions.

#-()'* +,-'( )

.idiadhar /ura! 0rasad )aipaul was born in -haguans1 small town on the -aribbean island of 'rinidad1 in August #234. He was the grandson of Hindu immigrants form %ast (ndia. +uring )aipual3s si4 years1 his family lived in this maternal grand parent3s imposing home1 which was known as lion mouse and which formed the madal for the 'ulsi home in A house for 5r. 6(/7A/.

../. )aipaul the writer of the novel A house for 5r. 6iswas was a good student1 so he won a scholarship to 'rinidad3s finest high school and later government scholarship to study aboard. He passed graduation from 4ford ,niversity. He has won )obel 0ri8e for literature1 in #29# A House for 5r. 6(/7A/ became )aipual3s fourth published work and brought him international attention.

'he novel takes place over a period of almost fifty years. 'he life time of 5ohan 6iswas during the first half of the twentieth century1 the setting is the -aribbean is land of 'rinidad1 which is part of the *epublic of 'rinidad and 'obago.

'he story of the novel is about 5r. 5ohan 6iswas in a poor 6rahmin family. :rom the first moment of his birth1 the pundit foretells that he will be a spendthrift1 a liar and a lecher1 but he becomes an unlucky person1 his father died his

family is break up and he went with his mother to his aunty 'A*A. 'hen his aunty 'ara takes him to a Hindu priest1 pundit ;A(*5 to become a pundit.

5r. 6iswas leaves the training and goes to world in the rum-shop which is belong to 6andat the brother of 'ara3s husband. 6ut soon 5r. 6iswas leaves him because he found him a cheater and also he accuses 6iswas of stealing.

5r. 6iswas again gets a !ob in painting. He paints sings 'ulsi store1 on the ground floor of Hanuman House. He starts meeting /hama and feels attracted to her1 /hama is the daughter of 5rs. 'ulsi. 'hen 6iswas gets marry of /hama and become one of the sonsin-law of 5rs. 'ulsi and a member of Hanuman house in the capacity of being the husband of /hama.

(n a short time /hama and 6iswas start <uarrelling1 blaming each other3s families1 6iswas blames even the relatives of 'ulsi /eth the brother3s of 5rs. 'ulsi3s husband =ovind one of 5rs. 'ulsi3s sons-in-law and others tried to persuade 6iswas to stay there +irectly 6iswas moved to the village to work or run the 'ulsi food-shop there.

:rom that time on1 5*. 6iswas starts thinking of this independence1 he does not want to be an dependent on any one even if they are the family of his wife. (n fact 5r. 6iswas not in this desire to get his independence and get a new house resenting himself only but everyone in any society search for identity and independence.

/o1 in this study well focus on the struggle of 5r. 6iswas to get this independence and a new house and also the conflict between the two culture at that time1 the old Hindu culture and western culture.

&- 7hat (s -ulture

A culture is way of life of a group of people the behaviors1 beliefs1 values and symbols that they accept1 generally without thinking about them1 and that are passed a long by communication and imitation from one generation to the ne4t.

'he culture of any people include everything about1 their life1 their customs1 their religion1 their conventions1 their language which is their way to transfer their culture to other culture in this world. /o everyone has to recogni8e and respect the culture of the other1 because as we said it resent his1 even if that if that culture seems to you that it is something funny1 but we have to respect it and do not dispraise if at least in front of the concerned.

3- '*A+('( )A> H()+, -,>',*%

'he Hindu culture is a one of the most ancient cultures in the world especially the old Hindu cultures1 so dealing with such sub!ects needs a great effort to gather all the needed information which will clarify the main articulation to this culture. 7ith about ?@A million believers1 Hinduism is one of the worlds ma!or religions. Hinduism developed in (ndia around @AA 6. - and is the religion of the ma!ority of (ndians1 Hindus also live in many other countries1 including )epal1 5alaysia1 =uyana1 /uriname and /ri >anka. 5ore than #-& million Hindus live in the ,nited /tates.

Hinduism differs from other religions in being polytheistic1 the other religion activities are done in a public group activities where as the Hindus. Hindus practice many private rituals1 either at home for important events like marriage1 birth and deaths or at temples which are a places for worship.

'he Hindu society has traditionally been divided into groups called castes1 based on heredity1 which determine a person3s occupation and status. However the influences of caste has been weakening and discrimination based on caste is now frowned upon in democratic (ndia.

3-#-HA),5A) H ,/% Hanuman house is the house of the 'ulsi family. After the death of 5r. 'ulsi. 5rs. 'ulsi becomes the head of the family with the assistance of /eth brother of 5rs. 'ulsi3s husband. All the sons-in-law live in the house. 'hey have to obey the orders of 5rs. 'ulsi. After his marriage from /hama1 6iswas becomes one of the sons-inlaw of 5rs. 'ulsi3s. 6ut because 6iswas does not like to obey the orders especially from his mother-in-law and his self-respect1 6iswas was unable to live with 'ulsi3s family.

Hanuman house in a house for 5r. 6iswas is as the B>ion House C where the family of )aipaul lived and it is also the house of )aipual3s maternal grandparent3s. Hanuman House represent the old Hindu culture in this house everything is controlled by a number of rules and nobody can break these rules for traditional and religious considerations each one of the sons-in-law has to do specific work and he will get his food and dwelling. %ven the daughters whom they are the wives of the son-in-law have to work for the same purpose.

(n the view of the fact that 5r. 6iswas is one of the sons-in-law of 5rs. 'ulsi and becomes one of the members of Hanuman house1 he has to do what ever 5rs. 'ulsi and her brother-in-law1 /eth1 want to but 5r. 6iswas does not like this and starts <uarrelling with his wife3 /hama. He starts blaming her family and even the relatives of her family. /hama returns to his speech with the same words or even than them.

>ife in Hanuman House was consisting in red-tape or routine1 doing the same work daily and nobody says Bthank youC for you and not only this but they may scold you and treat you like a slave. +o your work to get your food and dwelling in return1 like the military life1 you have to say Byes1 sirC no some more1 even if you do not like to do that work1 do it without any discussion an ob!ection.

5r. 6iswas as he represents the opposite side to Hanuman House or the traditional Hindu culture up raised to re!ect that culture and tries to scatter or send his message to the societies search for identity and his love for independence during his thought about re!ecting the enslavement of the other and his desire to get a new house1 5r. 6iswas represent all the poor young men who has recently married and have the ability to live in an independence house1 either because they follow the desires of their wives or motherin-law.

3-&D5rs. 'ulsi

5rs. 'ulsi is the wife of 5r. 'ulsi who was a very rich man in a village named Arwacas1 he dies in a motor car accident. /o 5rs. 'ulsi becomes the head of the family after his death. (t is a big family1 so she has to has best to run the house as it should be. 5rs. 'ulsi is a strict and sly woman. /he runs the house with worldly wisdom1 she gives the orders and all have to obey. /he sets and to make the sons-in-law work like slaves and receiving the orders from her and to do whatever she wants to be done. /he also makes

her daughters whom they are the wives of her sons-in-law work like their husbands to get food and dwelling in return.

5rs. 'ulsi represents the old Hindu culture which is the culture of the old (ndians1 the old men and women who believe in superstitions and also thinks that everyone in their society was to be ideal in his behavior and has to follow the instructions of the religion and the community they re!ect the new ideas of the young men and women in food and clothes and even in their behavior and talking. /o 5rs. 'ulsi does not like the style or the behavior of 5r. 6iswas in blaming the Hunuman house and his search for identity. /he scolds him and hates him for these thinks and does her best to more him a way

:rom her house so as not to affect on the others who are the sons-in-law. /he does not like him to stay and spread his ideas to the others1 because these ideas may affect on the others and make them rebel against her and against the old Hindu culture. 'he confrontation between 5rs. 'ulsi and 5r. 6iswas represents the conflict between the old Hindu culture and the new one. 7hen 6iswas started his struggle to get his independence and his search for identity1 5rs. 'ulsi feels that 6iswas may destroy everything1 he may split the whole family he may break the Hanuman House into pieces1 so this means that he will demolish the old Hindu -ulture.

'he confrontation between the two cultures continued and 6iswas stills searching for his identity and for independence1 he always tries to get a new House1 he sometimes borrows some money to a new house or build one as he does not like the life of the dependent and wishes to have his own house1 goes comes1 sleeps1 wakes up1 shouts and eats as he likes for 5r. 6iswas a new house or your own house means that you can do whatever you want to be done1 talk walk and even wear. (t means the freedom space whole you can e4press your feelings and emotions and reactions. 6ut for 5rs. 'ulsi you have always to be subordinate and obey orders and you do not have to e4press yourself1 only obey no one has to re!ect her orders.

3-3. /eth

/eth is the brother of 5r. 'ulsi1 brother in law of 5rs. 'ulsi. He becomes the right hand of 5rs. 'ulsi after the death of 5r. 'ulsi. He assists 5rs. 'ulsi and supports her in managing Hanuman House. He is responsible of not only about helping her in managing the house but also about the 'ulsi animals1 the 'ulsi hands1 'he 'ulsi estates and shops.

/eth is the second one in Hanuman House and this means that he also represents1 the old Hindu -ulture. He advocates and supports 5rs. 'ulsi in her ideas and help her in practicing them.

/eth is shrewd like 5rs. 'ulsi and he shows his shrewdness at the very outset when he lures 5rs. 6iswas into agreeing to marry /hama. /o he has an important role in the marriages of 6iswas and /hama1 and he is the responsible for bringing 6iswas to Hanuman House.

9- 'he alien western culture represented by 5r. 6iswas.

'he 'ulis is the mother country1 =reat 6ritain1 which strictly controlled the colony3s daily life and development. 5r. 6iswas represents the coloni8ed people so 5r. 6iswas is dependent in this case1 he calls 5rs. 'ulsi Bthe old <ueenC who may mean B<ueen .ictoriaC. 'hen 5r. 6iswas starts his struggle for independent and freedom but slowly.

%arly in his life1 5r. 6iswas develops unorthodo4 ideas. (n spite of his training under the supervision of pundits ;airam1 he does not influence of the orthodo4y1 5r. 6iswas had also spent several years under a -hristian teacher1 >al he also had a -hristian friend boy called Ale41 this has developed his new ideas about society and independence1 then1 when he comes into contact with 5isir and meets a missionary preaching the ideas of Arya /ama!1 he adopts these ideas.

5r. 6iswas has grown in a more liberal environment. /o he starts his rebellion against the 'ulsi after he gets married of their daughter /hama discovers that they represent an old culture which calls the power and authority upon the others. He starts searching for his independence and his identity even in Hanuman House. He blames the family of /hama and called it with names.

5r. 6iswas calls freedom. He wants to be independent by having his own house he thinks that having a new house means that times to get his own house. :irst1 he

decides to work but the construction remains incomplete because 6iswas has not get enough money1 only for one room1 6ut 6iswas did not submit and live that completed room only to feel that he makes something and that shock and is taken to Hanuman House.

'hereafter 5r. 6iswas builds a house of his own at short hills. He goes these to live with his family. 6ut the house catches fire and is partially destroyed and again he and his family return to live in 'ulsi3s House.

>ater on 5r. 6iswas Has taken a loan from A!odha who is the husband of 6iswas aunt1 'ara1he bought a house for his own himself. 6ut he loses his !ob of reporter of the newspaper Bthe trinida sentinelC and become very difficult for him to pay back the loan. He gets two heart-attacks and has to live in hospital for some days. At that time savi returns and gets a!ob at a big salary. /o 6iswas feels relieved1 but soon he dies at the age of forty-si4.

Hence1 A House for 5r. 6iswas can be read as an account of )aipual3s father3s struggle to make a life for his family1 as an autobiographical account of how )aipaul came to be an author and an outcast from his homeland1 or as a personali8ed account of the e4periences of thousands of (ndian immigrants in 'rinidad.

? 'he effect of the alien western culture on the old Hindu culture

(t is obvious that the alien western culture has made a great effect on the old Hindu culture. 6eing the 'ulsi3s are the representator of the ld Hindu culture1 at the end1 most of the 'ulsi daughters have gone to live with their husbands families. Also some of them have their own houses. /o the signs of change have been shown on the life of the 'ulsi3s.

'he 'ulsi3s start sending their children to city schools1 and they begin speaking in %nglish more than Hindi. 'hey listen to western songs1 and western food. 5ost of the customs and conventions have changed and the 'ulsi3s have to accept it1 %ven 5rs. 'ulsi starts to accept this change1 she does not oppose her sons to marry -hristian girls. 'hus during the time1 'ulsi changes into a mi4ture of old and new culture.

E -onclusion

7e can not say that old Hindu culture is the perfect culture or not or the alien western culture is the needed culture for this world.

%ach culture has its own customs1 conventions. 'he people take pride on his culture and consider it as the perfect culture and it is the suitable of all the world1 simply because it is his culture1 and they believe that there is no culture better than their culture.

'hus the old Hindu culture has influenced clearly by the alien western culture represented not only by 5r. 6iswas1 but also by some of the members of the 'ulsi3s.

7e get to see a perfect blend of the Hindu and the western culture. 'he (ndian immigrants in 'rinidad after spending more than #AA years chose to adopt a bit of western culture to cope up with the changing scenario of the place. %specially the 'ulsi3s who welcomed certain names of western culture keeping their innate (ndian culture intact.


# >all1 *an!i. A House for 5r. 6iswas1 *ama 6rothers (ndia pvt. >td1 &AA2.