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AP US History Outline- Chapter 3

I. As more English settlers arrived and pushed inland into the Connecticut River valley, the
fights between Indians and Whites got worse and more frequent.
a. In 1637- English settlers annihilate Pequot tribe. After this there were 4 years of
uneasy peace between the Puritans and the Indians.
b. Puritans tried to convert remaining Indians to Christianity- didn’t care as much as
Catholics from France and Spain but got a few converts.
c. 1675- Metacom forged an alliance with King Phillip then attacked fifty-two Puritan
towns (many villages in New England) and destroyed 12.
i. Called King Phillip’s War
ii. Frontier settlements were hit the hardest
iii.People that survived ran to Boston for safety
iv.Hundreds of colonists died, but more Indians died
v.Metacom’s wife and son were sent into slavery and he was beheaded.
His head was carried on a pike to Plymouth to be displayed for years
d. After king Phillip’s war the Indians were much less in number and were
dispirited therefore only posed threats rarely

II. 1643- four colonies joined to form New England Confederation


a. Made because:
i. colonists had no help from England because they were in a war
ii. to defend themselves against foes- mostly Indians, French and Dutch
iii.Could get a slave or criminal in trouble if they ran way from a colony into
another because they were all under the jurisdiction of the confederation
b. Each colony had 2 votes—regardless of size most populous colony,
Massachusetts Bay did not like this
c. Was exclusively Puritan
d. Consisted of the two Connecticut colonies and the two Massachusetts colonies
e. Excluded specifically: Rhode Island and Maine- because they had “too many
heretics and undesirable characters” ex. Maine made a tailor their mayor
f. Was weak, yet a milestone on the long road of colonial unity
g. For a while the colonies were neglected by England but later on when Charles II
was restored to the throne (1660) he took a more active hand in managing the
colonies. He conflicted with the ideas of the colonists that they got used to while
having relative independence
h. Massachusetts was very rebellious against England Charles II gave an
awesome charter to their rivals, Connecticut. He also gave Rhode Island (their
outcasts) a new charter allowed to have religious tolerance. Finally, he revoked
Massachusetts Bay colony’s charter.

III. 1686- Dominion of New England was created by royal authority in England (imposed
from London unlike homegrown confederation)
a. Included all New England & later on- New York and east and west Jersey.
b. Wanted to strengthen colonial defense in case of a war with Indians (looked like
the parliament had concern for the public good)
c. Purpose was to prevent states from having trade with other countries (not ruled
by English crown)  colonists became great at smuggling goods
d. Sir Edmund Andros became head of dominion
i. A smart English military man diligent, hard-working
ii. Didn’t care about the colonists
iii.Was open about his affiliation with the despised Church of England
people didn’t like him
iv.Laid heavy restrictions on the courts, press and schools
v.Revoked all land titles
vi.Taxed people without representation
vii.Strove to support Navigation Laws and suppress smuggling
e. Glorious (Bloodless) Revolution (1688-1689) in England
i. Catholic James II was removed from throne and Protestant ruler William
III and his wife Mart became king and queen.
ii.News reached America Dominion collapsed. A Boston mob rose
against the existing govt. Sir Edmund tried to escape but they caught him
and shipped him to England
f. Massachusetts did not actually gain from this change.
i. 1691- became a royal colony old charter officially removed
ii. Got a new royal governor
iii.Voting was only allowed by qualified male property owners—no longer
monopoly of church members
g. Other colonies wanted to strike against royal authority in America. After period of
unrest in NY and Maryland (1689-91) newly appointed royal governors restored
some order.
h. New monarchs started a period of “salutary neglect”- Navigation Laws became
weakly enforced.
i. More English officials—judges, clerks, custom officials were sent from England to
staff America.
i. They were incompetent, corrupt, did not care about American affairs
ii. Sent by influential patrons in England
iii.Prevented Americans from rising to positions of political power.

IV. Oppressed people in Netherlands revolted against Catholic Spain with help of Protestant
England. They won their independence in the late seventeen hundreds.
-Seventeenth century was golden age in Dutch history.
a. It emerged as a naval and commercial power
b. Ungratefully challenged the supremacy of England (who helped them)
c. Anglo- Dutch naval wars were fought.
d. Dutch Republic became a leading colonial power with greatest activities in the
East Indies. Maintained an enormous and profitable empire there for over 300
years.
e. Dutch East India Company was huge and powerful
f. Employed English explorer Henry Hudson to make them more money
g. He explored Delaware Bay and New York Bay in 1609.
h. Dutch West India Company was much less powerful but still made $
i. Had enterprises in the Caribbean
ii. More interested in raiding (stealing from Spanish ships) than trading
iii.Had outposts in Africa
iv.Had a thriving sugar industry in Brazil
v.Established New Netherland in the Hudson River area.
1. Was made for quick-profit fur trade—didn’t really care about the
land
2. Bought Manhattan Island from Indians practically for free
(awesome investment)
3. New Amsterdam (later NYC) was a company town: run by/for
Dutch company in the interest of stockholders
a. Investors had no enthusiasm for:
i. religious toleration
ii. Free speech
iii.Democratic practices
b. Quakers were abused for a while as well as people who
opposed the official Dutch Reformed Church.
c. Local body (limited law-making power) was made in
response to protests
d. Was very aristocratic
i. Had vast feudal estates facing the Hudson river
(called patroonships)
1. They were granted to people who agreed to
settle 50 people there.
2. Each was a little bigger than Rhode Island.
e. Had many diverse groups of people living there

V. Too many vexations overwhelmed the Dutch company-colony (New Netherlands)


a. Directors were incompetent
b. Company shareholders demanded their share even if it was bad for the colonies
well-being.
c. Indians had many massacres because of how cruelly the Dutch treated them
i. Settlers put up a wall in Manhattan to defend themselves from Indians
(now called Wall Street)
d. 3/4 states in the N.E Confederation wanted to wipe out New Netherlands, but
Massachusetts (who had the troops) didn’t agree to it.
e. Swedish people made a colony – New Sweden, on the Delaware River (kind of
on Dutch territory)
i. Dutch were angry- started war against New Sweden
1. Leader was Peter Stuyvesant (“Father Wooden Leg”)
2. Main fort fell after a bloodless siege
3. Swedish rule came to a quick end
4. The colonists from there became part of New Netherland
VI. New Netherland’s Days on the Hudson were numbered
a. Why:
i. lacked vitality and wasn’t really important to the Dutch
ii. thousands of English people moved there (could take control from within)
iii.English people regarded Dutch as intruders
b. English, Charles II gave the land to his brother, the Duke of York
i. Peter Stuyvesant surrendered without a shot (because had no munitions)
ii.New Amsterdam was renamed New York
iii.Was still autocratic and even more aristocratic
1. Influential, land-owning families, had a disproportionate amount
of power in the affairs of NY
a. This discouraged many European immigrants from settling
there
b. The physical growth of NY was slowed
iv.Dutch had an imprint on NY
1. Named places; such as Brooklyn, Harlem and Hell Gate
2. Influenced architecture – gambrel roofs
3. Started social customs and folkways
a. Easter eggs and Santa Claus
b. Waffles and sauerkraut
c. Bowling, sleighing, skating and kolf (golf)

VII. Quakers arise in Pennsylvania (1600’s)


a. “quaked” under deep religious emotion- officially known as Religious Society of
Friends
b. Quakers were offensive to authorities both religiously and civilly
i. Refused to pay taxes to support church of England
ii. Took no oaths because Jesus said “swear not at all”- this was bad when
govt. officials made people take oaths to make sure a person was not a
Roman Catholic
iii.Congregated without a paid clergy and “spoke up” in meeting when
moved
c. They hated strife and warfare- refused military service
i. advocates of passive resistance- would just turn their cheek and rebuild
another meeting house after an enemy destroyed it

d. Had devotion to principles- fought for religious and civic freedom


e. William Penn
i. Wanted to be a Quaker (1660) started at age 16- embraced faith and was
persecuted
ii. Courts called him “saucy and impertinent” (disrespectful)
iii.During this time many Quakers were killed and fined
iv.Hoped to establish an asylum for his people and to make a profit
1. Managed to get a ton of fertile land from the king because the
king owed his father a lot of money and his father died
2. Called the area Pennsylvania (named by the king)
3. Advertised by sending out pamphlets- for people to settle in PA.
4. Many immigrants came because of his liberal land policy
5. He welcomed substantial citizens such as carpenters, masons,
shoemakers and more

VIII.Pennsylvania becomes a colony (1681)


a. Already had thousands of people because Dutch, Swedish, English and Welsh
people were already scattered around the area
b. Philadelphia was carefully planned and as a result was attractive and had wide
streets
c. Penn treated the natives (Indians) extremely well. For a short time it seemed that
Pennsylvania would be a land of amicable Indian-white relations
d. Many colonists from other colonies came to PA, seeking the Quaker haven but
their tolerance ironically undid the Quaker Indian policy. How?
i. Many of the new settlers that came were feisty and didn’t treat the
Indians well because they didn’t believe in Quaker idealisms.
e. PA was proprietary. Penn’s regime was extremely liberal and included a rep.
assembly that was elected by the landowners.
i. Freedom of worship to everyone with exception of:
1. Jews and Catholics who couldn’t vote or hold office. Why? Penn
was forced by the pressure from England to deny them freedom
of worship
ii. Death penalty was only imposed for treason and murder (in England
there were 200 + crimes that deserved death penalty)
iii.Had no military, placed no restrictions on immigration and disliked black
slavery.
1. Because of these liberties, PA attracted a wide range of ethnic
groups.
f. PA exported a lot of grain; made a high profit. Had third to highest population and
wealth of any colonies after only 19 years.
g. Penn wasn’t appreciated
i. His governors were incompetent and argued with the people
ii.Became too friendly with Catholic James II and was arrested for treason
3 times and was thrown into debtors prison
iii.Had a paralytic stroke died full of sorrows
h. New Jersey was started in 1664- it was a small Quaker settlement next to PA
i. Two noble proprietors received the land from the Duke of York
ii. Many New Englanders went to NJ
iii.Quakers eventually took over the area (first West then East Jersey and
then they were combined)

IX. The Middle Colonies- New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania
a. Had fertile soil and broad land without a lot of rocks- were called “bread colonies”
because of their heavy exports of grain
b. Had rivers- good for fur-trade, beckoned adventuresome spirits to come, but
didn’t have enough waterfalls to have water-wheel power.
c. Was the intermediate between New England and the Southern Colonies
i. Except in NY (aristocratic) landholding were intermediate in size (smaller
than those in the South and bigger than in NE)
ii. Government was less personal than in NE but more close knit than in
South
iii.Had fewer industries than in NE but more than in the South
d. Had most ethnically diverse populations
e. Had an unusual degree of religious tolerance and democracy (thanks to the
Quakers)
f. Benjamin Franklin was a child of the middle colonies (born in Boston but came to
life in Philadelphia when he was 17)
X. Populations in the colonies were growing quickly. Transportation and communication
were gradually improving. They ran their own governments and churches, for the most
part. They had intercolonial trade. Americans realized that they were not merely
surviving while being far from their mother country, but they were thriving.