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# The Islamic university - Gaza Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering Department

## Instructor : Dr. Jehad Hamad

DEFINITION OF SOIL
Soil is a mixture of irregularly shaped mineral particles of various sizes containing voids between particles. The particles are a byproduct of mechanical and chemical weathering of rock and described as gravels, sands, silts, and clays. Any manmade structure should, one way or another, rest and/or transmit its load to the underlying soil

## BEARING CAPACITY OF SOILS

oBearing capacity: is the ability of soil to safely carry the pressure placed on the soil from any engineered structure without undergoing a shear failure with accompanying large settlements. oTherefore, settlement analysis should generally be performed since most structures are sensitive to excessive settlement.

Types of Foundations
Shallow Foundations

Spread

Mat or Raft

Deep Foundations

Belled Pier

Friction Piles

## Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations

Soil Bearing Capacity is Controlled by:
Bearing Capacity Analysis: Terzaghis Theory (1943), based on Prandtl theory (1920). General B.C. Equation. Settlement Analysis: Immediate Settlement. Consolidation Settlement.

## Failure Modes for Shallow Foundations

oGeneral Shear Failure

## oPunching Shear Failure

This failure alerted engineers to the mechanism of how surface loads may exceeded the shear strength of the soils beneath the foundation.

## Terzaghi B/C Assumptions

The foundation is considered to be shallow if D f B However ,in recent studies ,the foundation is considered to be shallow if D / B 4 . Other wise it is considered to be f deep foundation. Foundation is considered to be strip if B/ L 0.00 The soil from the ground surface to the bottom of the foundation is replaced by a surcharge q = D f .

## oModes of foundation failure in sand

General Concept

Z o n e I, A c tiv e Z o n e s III , P a s s iv e

Z o n e s II , T ra n s itio n

General Concept
o

## Three zones do exist:

o o

Active zone, just below the foundation. Transition zone, between the active and passive zones. Passive zone, near the ground surface, just beside the foundation.

passive Transition

active

## Terzaghi Bearing Equation qult = qult = c Nc Cohesion Term Above F.L.

qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq

## Terzaghi Bearing Equation

Nc, Nq, N are Terzaghi B/C Coefficients ,f()
(See table 3.1- P139)

## are the soil shear strength parameters

oVariation of & for circular and rectangular plates on the surface of a sand.

## 2 1 ' ' q u = cN c + qN q + BN ' 3 2

' q u = 0 .867 cN c' + qN q + 0.4BN '

## 2 ' = tan1 tan 3

' Nc' , Nq , N' Factors for bearing capacity given from

## table 3.2 P.140

Bearing Capacity of Clay, = 0 qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq + 0.50 B 2 N For Clay: Nc = 5.70, Nq = 1.0, N = 0.0 qult = 5.70 cu + 1 D qult net = 5.70 cu qall net = 1.90 cu

## Bearing Capacity of Sand, cu = 0

qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq + 0.50 B 2 N For Sand: Nc, Nq, N are determined from curve, and cu = 0, then: qult = 1 D Nq + 0.50 B 2 N

## Gross and Net Bearing Capacity Factor of Safety

q all qult = F .S.
Gross allowable bearing capacity

## qult (net)= qult - 1 D Net ultimate B/C

q all net qult net = F .S.
Net allowable B/C 1 D is the overburden pressure

## Effect of Water Table on B/C

qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq + 0.5B 2 N Case (1): 1 D = D1 + sub D2, 2 = sub

## Effect of Water Table on B/C

qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq + 0.5B 2 N Case (2): 1 D = Df , 2 = sub+d/B (sub)

## Effect of Water Table on B/C

qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq + 0.5B 2 N Case (3): The water has no effect on bearing capacity
= Bulk unit weight sub = Submerged Unit weight sub = sat - water

Meyerhofs equation
qu = cN c Fcs Fcd Fci + qN q Fqs Fqd Fqi + 0.5BN Fs Fd Fi
Nc, Nq, N are Meyerhofs B/C Factors, f(!)
(See table 3.3- P144)

## Shape Factors Depth Factors Inclination Factors

(See table 3.4 in the text book)

L P P

!"

## q = cNc Fcs Fcd Fci + qNq Fqs Fqd Fqi + 0.5B N Fs Fd Fi

' u '

B=B-2e , L=L , A=B*L To find shape factors: use B,L To find depth factors: use B, L ' ' Q = q A To find the gross ultimate load u u

oFor e<B/6:
P Mc q= A I A = B L M = Pe .I = 1 3 BL 12 c = B/ 2 q= P P e B/ 2 P P e P P 6e 6P e = = 2 = 1 1 3 B L B L 1 2 B L B L B L B BL BL 12 6
P 1 + B L P = 1 B L 6e B 6e B

q max = q min

oFor e = B/6:
q max = q min P 6e + 1 B L B = 0 .0

q max

4P = 3L( B 2e)

## Two way eccentricity

M x = P eL M y = P eB

## How to find A' ?

oCase (I)
eL 1 eB 1 & L 6 B 6
1 B1 L1 2 3e B1 = B1.5 B B 3e L1 = L1.5 L L A' = L' = max( B1 , L1 ) A' B = ' L
'

oCase (II)
eL 1 eB 1 < &0 < < L 2 B 6
1 (L1 + L2 )B........ L' = max( L1 , L2 ) 2 ' A B' = ' L To find L 1 and L 2 look at figure . A' = y - axis : eL L x - axis : L1 L & 2 L L

eB : Through th e graph. B

oCase (III)
eL 1 eB 1 < &0 < < L 6 B 2
1 (B1 + B2 )L 2 A' ' B = L To find B1 and B 2 look at figure beside A' = eB B B B x - axis : 1 & 2 B B eL : Through the graph. L y - axis :

oCase (IV)
eL 1 eB 1 < & < L 6 B 6
A' = L2 B +
'

1 (B + B2 )(L L2 ) 2

A' B = L To find L 2 and B 2 look at figure beside eB B B L x - axis : 2 & 2 B L eL : Through the graph. L y - axis :

## The Islamic university - Gaza Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering Department

CHAPTER (4)
ULTIMATE BEARING CAPACITY OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS: SPECIAL CASES

## Instructor : Dr. Jehad Hamad

Introduction
In practice the foundation may be based on layered soil profile, or in some times we have to replace adequate thickness of weak soil by stronger one. Calculating the ultimate bearing capacity for such case have some different as that will be shown below.

## Foundation supported by a soil with A rigid base at shallow depth

(a)Failure surface under a rough continuous foundation; (b) variation of D>B with soil friction angle

Failure surface under a rough, continuous foundation with a rigid, rough base located at a shallow depth

## Bearing capacity of layered soils : Stronger soil Underlain by Weaker Soil

qu = qb +

D f K s tan 1 2c a H 1+ + 1H 2 1 H q1 H B B

## q1 = c1 N c (1) + q1 N q (1) + 0.5 1 BN (1) q = 1 D f

Nc (1) N (1) N q (1) are given from the same tables but use = 1

## qb : bearing capacity of bottom layer

Ca: Adhesion

q b = c 2 N c ( 2 ) + q 2 N q (2 ) + 0.5 2 BN (2 ) q = (D f + H ) 1

H: Thickness of top soil layer below bottom of foundation. Ks: Punching shear coefficient. B: Width of foundation.

## For rectangular foundations..

Special Cases
1. Top layer is strong sand and bottom layer is saturated soft clay (=0):

2. Top layer is stronger sand and bottom layer is weaker sand (C1,C2=0):

3. Top layer is stronger saturated clay and bottom layer is weaker saturated Clay (1,2=0 )

## Closely Spaced Foundations -Effect on Ultimate Bearing Capacity

Assumpt io ns fo r the fai lu r e sur face in g r anul a r soi l u nder tw o c lo s el y spaced rough cont in uous fo undat i on s

## Bearing Capacity of Foundations on Top of a Slope

qu = CN cq + 0.5BNq
To find N cq Find stability number N s = Find b/B and D f / B Go to figure A shown below: If B < H: use curves with N s = 0.00 If B > H: use curves with Ns To find Nq Find b/B and D f / B Go to figure B shown below .

H C