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DEFINITION OF SOIL

Soil is a mixture of irregularly shaped mineral particles of various sizes containing voids between particles. The particles are a byproduct of mechanical and chemical weathering of rock and described as gravels, sands, silts, and clays. Any manmade structure should, one way or another, rest and/or transmit its load to the underlying soil

oBearing capacity: is the ability of soil to safely carry the pressure placed on the soil from any engineered structure without undergoing a shear failure with accompanying large settlements. oTherefore, settlement analysis should generally be performed since most structures are sensitive to excessive settlement.

Types of Foundations

Shallow Foundations

Spread

Mat or Raft

Deep Foundations

Belled Pier

Friction Piles

Soil Bearing Capacity is Controlled by:

Bearing Capacity Analysis: Terzaghis Theory (1943), based on Prandtl theory (1920). General B.C. Equation. Settlement Analysis: Immediate Settlement. Consolidation Settlement.

oGeneral Shear Failure

This failure alerted engineers to the mechanism of how surface loads may exceeded the shear strength of the soils beneath the foundation.

The foundation is considered to be shallow if D f B However ,in recent studies ,the foundation is considered to be shallow if D / B 4 . Other wise it is considered to be f deep foundation. Foundation is considered to be strip if B/ L 0.00 The soil from the ground surface to the bottom of the foundation is replaced by a surcharge q = D f .

General Concept

Z o n e I, A c tiv e Z o n e s III , P a s s iv e

Z o n e s II , T ra n s itio n

General Concept

o

o o

Active zone, just below the foundation. Transition zone, between the active and passive zones. Passive zone, near the ground surface, just beside the foundation.

passive Transition

active

qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq

Nc, Nq, N are Terzaghi B/C Coefficients ,f()

(See table 3.1- P139)

oVariation of & for circular and rectangular plates on the surface of a sand.

' q u = 0 .867 cN c' + qN q + 0.4BN '

' Nc' , Nq , N' Factors for bearing capacity given from

Bearing Capacity of Clay, = 0 qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq + 0.50 B 2 N For Clay: Nc = 5.70, Nq = 1.0, N = 0.0 qult = 5.70 cu + 1 D qult net = 5.70 cu qall net = 1.90 cu

qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq + 0.50 B 2 N For Sand: Nc, Nq, N are determined from curve, and cu = 0, then: qult = 1 D Nq + 0.50 B 2 N

q all qult = F .S.

Gross allowable bearing capacity

q all net qult net = F .S.

Net allowable B/C 1 D is the overburden pressure

qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq + 0.5B 2 N Case (1): 1 D = D1 + sub D2, 2 = sub

qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq + 0.5B 2 N Case (2): 1 D = Df , 2 = sub+d/B (sub)

qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq + 0.5B 2 N Case (3): The water has no effect on bearing capacity

= Bulk unit weight sub = Submerged Unit weight sub = sat - water

Meyerhofs equation

qu = cN c Fcs Fcd Fci + qN q Fqs Fqd Fqi + 0.5BN Fs Fd Fi

Nc, Nq, N are Meyerhofs B/C Factors, f(!)

(See table 3.3- P144)

(See table 3.4 in the text book)

L P P

!"

' u '

B=B-2e , L=L , A=B*L To find shape factors: use B,L To find depth factors: use B, L ' ' Q = q A To find the gross ultimate load u u

oFor e<B/6:

P Mc q= A I A = B L M = Pe .I = 1 3 BL 12 c = B/ 2 q= P P e B/ 2 P P e P P 6e 6P e = = 2 = 1 1 3 B L B L 1 2 B L B L B L B BL BL 12 6

P 1 + B L P = 1 B L 6e B 6e B

q max = q min

oFor e = B/6:

q max = q min P 6e + 1 B L B = 0 .0

q max

4P = 3L( B 2e)

M x = P eL M y = P eB

oCase (I)

eL 1 eB 1 & L 6 B 6

1 B1 L1 2 3e B1 = B1.5 B B 3e L1 = L1.5 L L A' = L' = max( B1 , L1 ) A' B = ' L

'

oCase (II)

eL 1 eB 1 < &0 < < L 2 B 6

1 (L1 + L2 )B........ L' = max( L1 , L2 ) 2 ' A B' = ' L To find L 1 and L 2 look at figure . A' = y - axis : eL L x - axis : L1 L & 2 L L

eB : Through th e graph. B

oCase (III)

eL 1 eB 1 < &0 < < L 6 B 2

1 (B1 + B2 )L 2 A' ' B = L To find B1 and B 2 look at figure beside A' = eB B B B x - axis : 1 & 2 B B eL : Through the graph. L y - axis :

oCase (IV)

eL 1 eB 1 < & < L 6 B 6

A' = L2 B +

'

1 (B + B2 )(L L2 ) 2

A' B = L To find L 2 and B 2 look at figure beside eB B B L x - axis : 2 & 2 B L eL : Through the graph. L y - axis :

CHAPTER (4)

ULTIMATE BEARING CAPACITY OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS: SPECIAL CASES

Introduction

In practice the foundation may be based on layered soil profile, or in some times we have to replace adequate thickness of weak soil by stronger one. Calculating the ultimate bearing capacity for such case have some different as that will be shown below.

(a)Failure surface under a rough continuous foundation; (b) variation of D>B with soil friction angle

Failure surface under a rough, continuous foundation with a rigid, rough base located at a shallow depth

qu = qb +

D f K s tan 1 2c a H 1+ + 1H 2 1 H q1 H B B

Nc (1) N (1) N q (1) are given from the same tables but use = 1

Ca: Adhesion

q b = c 2 N c ( 2 ) + q 2 N q (2 ) + 0.5 2 BN (2 ) q = (D f + H ) 1

H: Thickness of top soil layer below bottom of foundation. Ks: Punching shear coefficient. B: Width of foundation.

Special Cases

1. Top layer is strong sand and bottom layer is saturated soft clay (=0):

2. Top layer is stronger sand and bottom layer is weaker sand (C1,C2=0):

3. Top layer is stronger saturated clay and bottom layer is weaker saturated Clay (1,2=0 )

Assumpt io ns fo r the fai lu r e sur face in g r anul a r soi l u nder tw o c lo s el y spaced rough cont in uous fo undat i on s

qu = CN cq + 0.5BNq

To find N cq Find stability number N s = Find b/B and D f / B Go to figure A shown below: If B < H: use curves with N s = 0.00 If B > H: use curves with Ns To find Nq Find b/B and D f / B Go to figure B shown below .

H C

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