Copyright, 1918, by the McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. H! M"rr.! #$!BH %$!

1&" r' #$()"C( ho+,an-, o/ mechanic, o/ 0ario+, kin-, are gomg to be nee-e- to in,pect, a-1+,t anrepair the large air /leet which i, now being prepare- in thi, co+ntry an- a, thi, i, a new in-+,try it ha, been -eeme- a-0i,able to compile ,+ch /act, regar-ing air-cra/t a, may h2lp to make the,e a0ailable in the ,horte,t time. (3cept /or a con,i-erable amo+nt o/ act+al per,onal ob,er0ation in both /actory an- /lying /iel-, no originality i, claime- /or thi, han-book4 in,tea-, it repre,ent, what i, belie0e- to be the be,t practice known at thi, time an- contain, many ,+gge,tion, which cannot /ail to be o/ 0al+e to any aircra/t mechanic. It i, in the hope o/ ai-ing work o/ thi, kin-, in helping to make o+r aircra/t more e//icient, that the work ha, been +n-ertaken. 5ew 6ork, he "+thor. March, 1918. 12 17 I5 $%89C I%5 he /ir,t re:+irement o/ an airplane mechanic i, reliability; there m+,t be no g+e,,work abo+t anything that goe, to make +p an airplane;e0er<rthing ,ho+l- be right be/ore a machine goe, into the air. 5o goo- pilot ,tart, a /light +ntil he ha, te,tehi, motor +p to ,pee- an- know, that it will gi0e him the nece,,ary power. B+t the -etail, o/ the plane, the wire rope an- it, connection,, the eye,, the ,plicing or other /a,tening,, the p+lley, o0er which the rope, r+n, the con-ition o/ the r+--er an- wing hinge, an- connection,, m+,t be taken care o/ by the mechanic,. he /ail+re to know that e0er<rthing i, right may not only mean the li/e o/ the-pilot b+t, in military matter,, the lo,, o/ 0al+able in/ormation an- the -eath o/ h+n-re-, o/ ttoop,. here are +,+ally two mechanic, a,,igne- to each machine, one /or the engine anpropellor, or power plant, the other /or the plane an- all it, connection,. he (ngli,h call the /ir,t the /itter an- the latter the rigger4 we ,+b,tit+te machini,t /or /itter anretain rigger or plane man /or the other. he machini,t or /itter ,ho+l- thoro+ghly +n-er,tan- internal comb+,tion motor con,tr+ction an- repair, an- o/ a, many type, o/ motor a, po,,ible. (ach ha, it, pec+liaritie, an- ,ho+l- be ,t+-ie- ,o a, to be,t know how to han-le it. hi, i, partic+larly tr+e o/ the rotary type ,+ch a, the Gnome an- $hone. =e ha0e comparati0ely /ew o/ the,e in thi, co+ntry b+t their pec+liaritie, ,ho+l- be known, a, well a, how to take them -own /or e3amination an- repair an- to rea,,emble them, /or thi, i, :+ite an intricate ta,k on ,ome o/ the motor, o/ thi, type. he part, m+,t go together in a certain ,e:+ence or they will not go at all, a, in a 'apane,e p+>>le. 7ll

C%5 (5 @ #age #re/ace 0 Intro-+ction 0ii @ection I. he General Con,tr+ction 1 II. heory o/ the #lane, A III. he #ropeller BC I7. =iring the #lane A8 7. "irplane @tan-ar-, o/ the @. ". ( AA 7I. =oo-, /or "irplane Con,tr+ction C8 7II. he "irplane (ngme 8D 7III. he C+rti,, (ngme 9C IE. Care an- %peration Hall-@cott "irplane (ngine, 11C E. @+gge,tion, a, to the @t+rte.0ant "irplane (ngine 1<8 EI. he homa,-Mor,e (ngine 1AD EII. Gnome "irplane (ngine 1AF EIII. he Hi,pano-@+i>a (ngine 198 EI7. he9.@. @tan-ar- "0iation (ngine orG HIiberty J(ngine . . B1A E7. Characteri,tic, o/ "merican "irplane (ngine, B18 E7I. 5ote, an- In,tr+ction, to Go0ernment In,pector, o/ "irplane, an- "irplane (ngine, BBD E7II. @peci/ication /or 9. @. ". Military raining K"-0ance-L "irplane, BFC E7III. 8etail, o/ raining #lane, BAA EIE. ",,emb9ng C+rti,, raining Machine, BC1 EE. General 8imen,ion, o/ raining Machine, B8C EEI. HowtheJ(ye,Jo/ the "rmy =ork B9B EEII. he Cana-ian raining Camp at Bor-en B9M EEIII. In,tr+ment, /or "irplane, <FA EEI7. he Iewi, Machine G+n <M< EE7. able, an- 8iagram, <AB EE7I. erm, 9,e- in "erona+tic, <C8

In-e3 <9M H( "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! @(C I%5 I . H( G(5($"I C%5@ $9C I%5 "ltho+gh the mo-ern airplane /ramework i, apparently a ,imple arrangement o/ wooan- wire, it will be /o+n- to contain many le,,on, in mechanical ,tr+ct+re, an- i, well worth con,i-erable ,t+-y. he combination o/ woo-en ,par, an- ,tr+t,, ,ec+re- again,t mor0ement by ,+itable /itting, an- hel- in their proper po,ition, by ,teel cable,, /orm, an intere,ting engineering ,tr+ct+re an- one which the airplane rigger or mechanic m+,t be /amiliar with i/ he i, to -o goo- work. he general con,tr+ction i, ,hown in )ig. 1 with the principal part, name-. he ,tr+t,, a, in all b+ilt-+p ,tr+ct+re,, ,er0e to hol- the /ramework apart an- in the proper po,ition. hey are alway, in compre,,ion an- m+,t be hel- /irmly b+t not ,o tight a, to ,pring the ,tr+t, o+t o/ line a, they can re,i,t 0ery little a/ter they are bent, b+t contin+e to ben- an- break +n-er a comparati0ely light loa-. =oo- i, 0ery ,trong in -irect compre,,ion b+t it, re,i,tance to ben-ing i, not great, partic+larly in the woogenerally +,e- /or ,tr+t,, which i, ,pr+ce. hi, ,ho+l- be ,traight-graine- an- /ree /rom -e/ect, o/ all kin-, a, the work o/ the ,tr+t i, 0ery important. @ome o/ the r+le, o/ in,pection call /or ,pr+ce which ha, at lea,t ,i3 ring,, marking the yearly growth, to the inch. " /ew in,i,t on eight ring, to the inch, b+t thi, i, almo,t impo,,ible to ,ec+re. he -i,tance between the ring, ,how, the growth o/ the tree -+ring "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%!

a ,ingle year an- a, a tree in goo- ,oil will grow m+ch /a,ter than a tree in poor ,oil, there will be /ewer ring, per inch e0en tho+gh the woo- be e:+ally ,o+n- an- ,trong. )ore,ter, ,ay that a rapi-ly growing tree i, more ,+b1ect to -i,ea,e an- thi, i, the ba,i, /or the -eman- /or /inely ,pace- ring,. B+t e3cellent ,par, ha0e been ma-e /rom ,pr+ce ha0ing only two ring, per inch, ,o that the e3act n+mber o/ rmg, per inch i, not an in/allible g+i-e in choo,ing ,+itable woo- /or ,par, an- ,tr+t,. he rhechanic who wo+l- be a rigger ha, m+ch to learn abo+t the 0ario+, part, o/ the /ramework an- wing,, /or the,e m+,t recei0e the mo,t ,cr+p+lo+, care in e0ery way. he center line o/ the bo-y or /+,elage m+,t be ,traight an- tr+e, the plane, at the rear which act a, a ,tabili>er or balancer /or the /ront o/ the machine m+,t be in correct alignment, the wing, or plane, m+,t be ,:+are with the /+,elage an- al,o at the correct angle, when the whole machine i, re,ting on a le0el /loor. In other wor-,, they m+,t be in their proper po,ition /rom e0ery point o/ 0iew, lengthwi,e, ,i-ewi,e an- /rontwi,e, a, a ,light 0ariation make, con,i-erable -i//erence in the han-ling o/ the machine an- a//ect, it, ,tability an- ,a/ety to a con,i-erable -egree. @ome o/ the,e alignment, can be checke+p with the eye by a traine- man b+t there are ,ome which ,ho+l- be care/+lly mea,+re-

i/ there i, any rea,on to belie0e that the machine ha, been ,+b1ect to +n-+e ,tre,,e, which may ha0e twi,te- it ,omewhat o+t o/ ,hape. he /+,elage i, a ,:+are-,ectione- /ramework, in mo,t ca,e,, with the member, ,eparate- by ,hort ,tr+t,, hel- in ,teel /itting,. 5o. 1M, an- tie- together by ,teel wire,. 5o. 1F", r+nning -iagonally /rom ,tr+t to ,tr+t. 5o. 1<, )ig. 1. he ten,ion o/ the,e wire, i, 0ery important not only a, to amo+nt b+t a, to imi-/ormity, an- thi, i, one o/ the /ine point, in the riggerH, part o/ the work. =ith the,e wire, too tight an +n-+e ,tre,, i, p+t on the ,tr+t an- al,o on the wire it,el/, re-+cing the /actor o/ ,a/ety in both ca,e,. =ith +ne:+al ten,ion, +ne:+al ,tre,,e, are impo,e- on 0ario+, part, o/ the /rame anacci-ent, are aN22 22222 occ+r /rom ,ome part gi0ing way. )or e0en i/ the ,tr+t -oe, not break b+t i, bent o+t o/ ,hape thi, throw, +n-+e ,tre,,e, on certain part,, ,horten, the -i,tance between the ,+r/ace it ,eparate, an- otherwi,e -i,t+rb, the general layo+t o/ the machine. "ll the,e thing, inter/ere with the e//iciency o/ the airplane an- e0ery -rop in e//iciency i, ,erio+, in the ca,e o/ a military machine, more ,o than in any other ca,e. )or e//iciency i, the one thing that enable, the pilot to -o hi, be,t work, an- may ea,ily mean the -i//erence between 0ictory an- -eath. he ,tr+t, m+,t be care/+lly watche- to ,ee that they are not -amage- in any way, a, i/ the o+t,i-e /iber, o/ the woo- become ,plintere- or br+i,e- it make, a ten-ency to benat thi, point an- may lea- to r+pt+re 1+,t a, a -e/ect in the woo- it,el/. he en-, o/ the ,tr+t, are al,o 0ery important, partic+larly where they /it into the ,ocket, an- al,o the ,ocket, them,el0e,. he,e ,ocket, ,ho+l- /it ,n+gly an- re:+ire p+,hing into place b+t ,ho+l- ne0er be -ri0en on with a hea0y hammer owing to in1+ry to the /iber, o/ the woo-. he ,tr+t ,ho+l- /it the ,ocket well on it, en- ,o a, to -i,trib+te the loa- e0enly an- a0oi- all ten-ency to ,plit /rom bearing on a ,ingle point. %ne goo- plan i, to paint the en- o/ the ,tr+t an- then note how it be-, it,el/ on the bottom o/ the ,ocket a/ter it i, p+t into place. H In the,e -ay, when it i, not po,,ible to get thoro+ghly ,ea,one- woo-,, it i, partic+larly nece,,ary to watch again,t -i,tortion -+e to +ne0en ,hrinking. hi, again ten-, to throw +n-+e ,tre,,e, on certain part, a, when the ,tr+t i, bent /rom +ne0en ten,ion on the ,tr+t wire,. By keeping the woo-work care/+lly 0arni,he- an- ne0er letting the bare woo- be e3po,e- to the atmo,phere, thi, warping can be re-+ce- to a minim+m. " goo- r+le in all woo-work, which incl+-e, ,tr+t, a, well a, the other part,, i, to bore a, /ew hole, a, po,,ible /or any p+rpo,e whate0er. (0ery hole weaken, the piece an- the /act that the hole i, /ille- make, no -i//erence a, to the ,trength o/ the piece a, many ,eem to think. hi, make, it e,,ential that the location o/ e0ery hole be 0eri/ie- be/ore it i, bore- ,o a, to a0oi+nnece,,ary -rilling an- con,e:+ent weakening o/ the piece. =here hole, are -rille-, the ,i>e ,ho+l- be care/+lly -etermine-, a, the bolt or ,crew ,ho+l- be a goo- /it an- not re:+ire -ri0ing in a, thi, ha, a ten-ency to ,plit the woo-. " light tapping i, not ob1ectionable b+t the /it ,ho+l- not be tighter than thi,. %n the other han-, the hole ,ho+l- not be large eno+gh to let the bolt mo0e in the woo-. (ither too tight or too loo,e may ,plit the woo-, the latter by working ,i-eway, an- enlarging the hole to the -anger point. " care/+l ,t+-y ,ho+l- be ma-e o/ the metho-, +,e- by the be,t b+il-er, in hol-ing the 0ario+, piece, o/ the /ramework together, both a, to the /itting, an- the way in which they /it the woo- an- how the wire, are connecte- to them. @heet-metal ,tamping, an-rop /orging, are being largely +,e- with goo- re,+lt, an- care ,ho+l- be taken to note

how they are -e,igne- to re,i,t the 0ario+, ,tre,,e, an- how they are +,e- to enable :+ick a,,embly an- rigi- con,tr+ction. @ome /+,elage /itting,, /or e3ample, m+,t be ,lippe- o0er the whole length o/ the longeron while other, can be p+t on at any point witho+t -i,t+rbing any other /itting, which may alrea-y be in place. @ome re:+ire the ear, which take the ,tr+t wire, to be bent to the proper angle while other, are ,o -e,igne- that the eye which recei0e, the wire, ,wi0el,, an- ,o a-1+,t, it,el/ to whate0er angle the wire may a,,+me +n-er ten,ion. =here bolt hea-, an- n+t, /it again,t woo-work large wa,her, m+,t be +,e- to pre0ent the metal, either n+t or wa,her, being p+lle- into the woo- an- -e,troying the /iber,. " large wa,her -i,trib+te, the ,tre,,e, o0er a large area an- pre0ent, thi, -e,tr+cti0e pre,,+re. @(C I%5 II H(%$6 %) H( #I"5(@ In or-er /or the rigger to be thoro+ghly e//icient he m+,t +n-er,tan- con,i-erable theory o/ the con,tr+ction o/ airplane wing, an- the e,,ential /eat+re, nece,,ary /or ,ati,/actory /light. he importance o/ care an- acc+racy in thi, connection can har-ly be o0er,tate-, /or the pilotH, li/e -epen-, on the con-ition o/ the machine it,el/, /or e0en ,ho+l- the engine /ail with him hi2 in the air he can +,+ally lan- ,a/ely with the plane, in goo- con-ition. he rigger m+,t know why a machine /lie, an- what make, it ,table. o in,+re thi, we ,hall take +p a /ew o/ the point, regar-ing mo-ern airplane,. " machine i, ,+pporte- in the air by -ri0ing it ,o that the air i, /orce- +n-er it, incline,+r/ace,. he,e /orce the air -own an- the reaction o/ the air ,+pport, the plane,. he inclination o/ the,e ,+r/ace, i, calle- the angle o/ inci-ence an- i, mea,+re- when the plane i, le0el or in it, normal /lying po,ition, which i, parallel with the ,ha/t o/ the engine. In the ,i-e 0iew o/ the ,+r/ace ,hown the angle o/ inci-ence i, that /ormebetween the hori>ontal or line o/ motion an- the chor-, or ,traight line /rom one ,i-e o/ the wing to the other. hi, chor- i, the e//ecti0e wi-th o/ the wing. " more correct -e/inition o/ the angle o/ inci-ence i, the angle /orme- between the -irection o/. motion an- the ne+tral li/t line, which ,tart, at the trailing e-ge o/ the plane an- r+n, along it, main li/ting ,+r/ace, neglecting the -ownwar- c+r0e o/ the /ront e-ge. he two metho-, are ,hown in )ig,. B an- <. )rom a practical 0iewpoint the /ormer i, ,+//icient an- enable, the rigger to mea,+re the angle more acc+rately than the other way. he angle o/ inci-ence 0arie, con,i-erably in -i//erent machine,N the C+rti,, triplane ,co+t ha, <<2 -egree,4 the twin-motore- military tractor only B -egree,4 the training machine ' 5 F B. B -egree,4 a hy-ro-airplane F -egree,4 an- the /lying boat A<2 -egree,. %n the other han-, the @tan-ar- "irplane Corporation +,e BO2 -egree, on the training machine, 12 -egree, on a training hy-ro, M -egree, on a twin-motore- mi9tary hy-ro an- only B -egree, on a military reconnai,,ance machine.

)IG. B P2DQ/o ; Q "HH"ngle- o/ Inci-ence BJ 8irection o/i2otion C-@ection o/ =ing :r #lane

)IG. < )ig,. B an- <.;Mea,+ring angle o/ inci-ence. H( II) %) H( =I5G@ he li/t, ,ec+re- by /orcing the plane, thro+gh the air, i, -+e both to the -irect reaction o/ the air again,t the lower plane, an- to the partial 0ac++m /orme- o0er the top o/ the wing, a, at ", behin- it, lea-ing e-ge a, ,hown in )ig. F. hi, i, /o+n- to be o0er hal/ the li/ting /orce, in /act i, +,+ally con,i-ere- a, abo+t three-/i/th, or AD per cent., -+e to the +pper ,+r/ace o/ the plane. hi, make, it e,,ential to keep the +pper ,+r/ace o/ the wing in goo- con-ition, e,pecially a, it i, more apt to ,trip o/l/ the top than the bottom. he re,i,tance o/ the machine, or -ri/t a, it ia o/ten calle-, i, ma-e +p o/ the re,i,tance o/ the li/ting ,+r/ace,, the paB,i0e re,i,tance o/ the ,tr+t,, propeller h+b, wire,, lan-ing gear, etc., an- the ,kin /riction pro-+ce- by the ro+ghne,, o/ ,+r/ace. he e//iciency o/ the machine it,el/, witho+t regar- to the engine which -ri0e, it, ia -+e to the relation between the li/t an-

the re,i,tance or -ri/t, thi, being known a, the li/t--ri/t ratio he le,, the re,i,tance the greater the e//iciene1 o/ the machine ,o that e0ery e//ort i, ma-e to -ecrea,e the re,i,tance by ,treamlining all part, which are e3po,e-. hi, ,tream-lining i, m alnng the piece pointe- not ,o m+ch where it enter, the air a, where the air lea0e, it, a, the pa,,ing air act, in the ,ame way o0er the /orm, aro+n- ,i

)ia. M.;How ai

top o/ the wing an- create, a partial 0ac++m which hol-, back the piece an- a--, to the re,i,tance. hi, i, -ecrea,e- by making the ,hape o/ the piece a, ,hown in )ig. M which ,how, the e//ect o/ both ro+n- an- ,tream-line- ,hape,. he ,pace " ,how, the -i//erence in 0ac++m create-. It i, /or thi, rea,on H(%$6 %) H( #I"5(@ 9 that the lan-ing wheel, are co0ere- an- e0en the e3po,e- wire, are now being ,treamline- on the highe,t-,pee- machine,. he camber o/ the wing, i, the c+r0e- ,+r/ace, at the top an- bottom, the top being con0e3 an- the bottom conca0e. hi, camber 0arie, greatly with the machine an- the rigger can only a,,+me that thi,, a, with the angle o/ inci-ence, i, rightly proportione-, an- keep it in the con-ition in which he /in-, it. hi, i, al,o tr+e o/ the ,tagger o/ the plane,, the riggerH, work being to ,ee that the proportion, o/ the -e,igner are maintaine-. he amo+nt o/ ,tagger i, ,ometime, gi0en in inche,, while other maker, ,tate it in -egree,. 8IH(8$"I "5GI( he -ihe-ral angle, or the angle which the wing, make with the hori>ontal, i, to ,ec+re an inherent ,tability or ,el/-righting

( 2-- -) )ig. A.;"ction o/ -ihe-ral winga. :+ality to the machine. "n e3aggerate- e3ample o/ thi, i, ,hown in )ig. A which ,how, the machine le0el at ", an- tipping at B. ", ,oon a, the plane ,tart, to tip the wing C, which goe, -own, imme-iately pre,ent, more ,+r/ace to the air while the other wing 8 -ecrea,e, it, ,+r/ace an- the machine at once ,tart, to right it,el/. he ,+pporting area o/ each i, repre,ente- by ( an- ). he mea,+ring o/ thi, -ihe-ral angle can be -one in two or more way,, the /ir,t or ,tring metho- being the more ,ati,/actory. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! " cor- or /ine wire i, ,tretche- o0er the top o/ the wing a, in )ig. C an- hel- in ,e0eral way,. " tripo- may be +,e- at one en- an- a weight at the other to keep it ta+t, or one en- may be tie- o0er the e-ge to a ,tr+t, or both en-, may be ,ec+re- in thi, way. hen, with the cor- bearing on top o/ the wing at each en-, mea,+re the -i,tance between the chor- an- the plane at -e/inite point,, taking e:+al point, each ,i-e o/ the center panel

o/ the machine. hi, ,ho+l- be -one at both the /ront an- back e-ge, o/ the plane or, more properly, o0er the two main ,par, o/ the wing. hi, i, -one 1+,t a, m+ch to mea,+re the angle on

a ik @i20.0"7.7.H.H.H.H.H.H.H.H.H-7.7.H.i1@


,R,R,R,R,R,G, &4&CG2wW/J2 m . 4 . 4 . 4 . 4 . 4 . 4 . X Y X Y N Y X Y N Y X H N Y X H X X XH Y X Y X R X Y N FN 4 i 4 4 4 44 N 4N i4 i N 4 4 N4P/i i . )iZ. C.;Mea,+ring -ihe-ral angle. inci-ence a, to check +p the two ,i-e, o/ the machine an- ,ee that the angle i, alike. By keeping note, o/ the,e mea,+rement, the rigger can ea,ily -etect any change which may occ+r. wo ,tring, ,ho+l- be +,e-, one o0er each ,par, an- -rawn 0ery tight. he point, mea,+re- ,ho+l- be 1+,t in,i-e the /o+r center ,ection ,tr+t,, in other wor-, a, /ar a, po,,ible /rom the center o/ the center ,ection. 8iagonal mea,+rement, are al,o taken, /rom ,imilar point, on each ,i-e o/ the machine. he,e mea,+rement, ,ho+l- be taken /rom /i3e- point,, ,+ch a, certain -i,tance, /rom the en-, o/ the ,par,. Many take the,e mea,+reH(%$6 %) H( #I"5(@ 11 ment, /rom the bottom ,ocket o/ one ,tr+t to the top ,ocket o/ another ,tr+t, b+t thi, i,

not goo- practice a, thi, ,el-om gi0e, acc+rate mea,+rement,. By mea,+ring the -i,tance between top an- bottom plane, it can rea-ily be ,een whether they are both ,et at the ,ame angle. I R R I. @ $9 @ K" @#I$I I(7(I@, [GMMMM\024M2i22MMMM2M\P^i2127M2 I R I, / 28ihe-ral Boar)iZ. 8.;9,e o/ -ihe-ral angle boar-. "nother metho- an- one which i, ea,ier to +,e altho+gh not +,+ally a, acc+rate i, by the +,e o/ the -ihe-ral boar- a, ,hown in )ig. 8. hi, i, ,imply a boar- c+t with the proper angle /or the -ihe-ral on one ,i-e. he,e boar-, ,ho+l- be te,te- be/ore

Boar-2 )ig. 9.;Mea,+ring angle o/ inci-ence. +,ing an- care m+,t be taken that the ,par i, not warpe- or J,etJ at the point, where they are +,e-. )or, a, the,e m+,t be +,e- on the ,par, between the ,tr+t,, ,light inacc+racie, o/ten creep in /rom thi, ,o+rce. he bay, or ,ection, between ,tr+t, n-+,t be care/+lly mea,+re- -iagonally a, a check to the +,e o/ "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! the boar-,. hi, ,ame type o/ boar- i, +,e- to mea,+re angle o/ inci-ence a, ,hown in )ig. 9, b+t the le0el goe, on the long, ,traight boar-. In all ca,e, be ,+re the le0el i, acc+rate. M("@9$I5G H( @ "GG($ he amo+nt o/ ,tagger i, mea,+re- by -ropping a pl+mb line /rom the lea-ing e-ge o/ the +pper plane an- mea,+ring back, a, ,hown in )ig. 1D. hi, can be mea,+re- either hori>ontally or along the

)ig. 1D.;Mea,+ring the ,tagger o/ plane,. line o/ the chor-. @ome maker, mea,+re one way an- ,ome another b+t the correct way ,ho+l- be ,hown on the -iagram which ,ho+l- accompany e0ery plane. hi, i, the only way in which a rigger can check +p hi, work a, he goe, along. he two mea,+rement, may be a, m+ch a, a :+arter o/ an inch -i//erence, an- while thi, may ,eem b+t a tri/le, it may be eno+gh to make the machine no,e-hea0y or tail-hea0y a, the ca,e may be. I/ any a-1+,tment, are /o+n- nece,,ary, an- they +,+ally are, they ,ho+l- be 0ery care/+lly ma-e, taking great care not to ,pring any o/ the important part, ,+ch a, the wing ,par,. It H(%$6 %) H( #I"5(@ 1< i, al,o well to r+n o0er all a-1+,tment, a/ter the la,t one i, ma-e to be ,+re that thi, ha, not thrown ,ome o/ the other, o+t o/ place. "/ter all other mea,+rement, ha0e been taken an- a-1+,tment, ma-e the o0erall mea,+rement, will tell whether the machine a, a whole i, in goo- ,hape or not. he,e are taken in a, )ig. 11. he point, " an- B are marke- on the main ,par, each the ,ame -i,tance /rom the b+tt or en- ne3t the /+,elage.

)io. II.;Mea,+ring tr+ene,, o/ whole machine. In a tractor machine the point C i, the center o/ the prope9er ,ha/t, in a p+,her, the center o/ the /ront en- o/ the machine. )rom " to C an- /rom B to C m+,t o/ co+r,e be the ,ame, the,e mea,+rement, being taken /rom both the top an- bottom wing o/ the machine, making two mea,+rement, on each ,i-e o/ the machine. In the ,ame way mark two point, 8 an- (. on the rear ,par, o/ each wing an- mea,+re back to a point ) in the center o/ the "ll!$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! /+,elage or r+--er po,t. Here again two mea,+rement, are nece,,ary on each ,i-e. @ho+l- the,e mea,+rement, not check +p a, they ,ho+l-, it i, po,,ibly beca+,e ,ome o/ the re,i,tance or -ri/t wire, are not

)iZ 1B ;Iocation o/ thn+t gra0ity an- li/t tightene- e0enly, or the /+,el2e may po,,ibly be o+t o/ tr+e. hi, ,ho+l-, howe0er, ha0e been te,te- be/ore the re,t o/ the mea,+rement, were taken. he /a+lt m+,t be /o+nan- correcte- be/ore the machine i, in con-ition to /ly.

How ait Btream a/)ecta the tail plane, " little ,t+-y o/ )ig. 1B will enable the rigger to keep in min- ,ome o/ the main point, o/ the machine. It will be ,een that the center o/ re,i,tance or -ri/t i, abo0e the center o/ thr+,t, or the center o/ the engine ,ha/t, an- parallel to it. he center o/ gra0ity i, a little /orwaro/ the center o/ li/t ,o that, with the power ,h+t o/i/, the machine will nat+rally a,,+me it, proper gli-ing angle, which ,ho+l- gi0e the ,ame ,pee- a, when /lying. ", the air come, thro+gh the main plane, it i, -e/lecte- -ownwar- a, ,hown in )ig. 1<. hi, a/i/ect, the angle o/ the tail plane, which may either be in line with thi, -ownwar,tream o/ air or at a le,,er angle than the main wing,. hi, ,tream o/ air a//ect, the /ore an- a/t ,tability o/ the machine. H( @ "BIII 6 %) "I$#I"5(@ he /ollowing note, on ,tability an- ,tre,,e, /rom the Man+al o/ the $oyal )lying Corp, gi0e many +,e/+l ,+gge,tion,. @tability By the ,tability o/ the airplane i, meant the ten-ency o/ the airplane to remain 9pon an e0en keel an- to keep it, co+r,e4 that i, to ,ay4 not to /ly one wing -own, tail -own, or no,e -own, or to try an- t+rn o/i/ it, co+r,e. 8irectional @tability. ;By -irectional ,tability i, meant the nat+ral ten-ency o/ the airplane to remain +pon it, co+r,e. I/ thi, -i- not e3i,t it wo+l- be contin+ally trying to t+rn to the right or to the le/t, an- the pilot wo+l- not be able to control it. )or the airplane to ha0e -irectional ,tability it i, nece,,ary /or it to ha0e, in e/i/ect, more keel ,+r/ace behin- it, t+rning a3i, than there i, in /ront o/ it. By keel ,+r/ace i, meant e0erything yo+ can ,ee when yo+ look at the airplane /rom the ,i-e o/ it;2the ,i-e, o/ the bo-y, +n-er carnage, wire,, ,tr+t,, etc. 8irectional ,tability i, ,ometime, known a, Jweather cockJ ,tability. 6o+ know what wo+l- happen i/, in the ca,e o/ the weathercock there wa, too m+ch keel ,+r/ace in /ront o/ it, t+rning a3i,, which i, the point +pon which it i, pi0ote-. It wo+lt+rn ro+n- the wrong way. hat i, 1+,t how it i, with an airplane. 8irectional ,tability will be ba-ly e/i/ecte- i/ there i, more -ri/t Ki.e., re,i,tanceL on one ,i-e o/ the airplane than there i, on the other ,i-e. hi, may be ca+,e- a, /ollow,N 1. he angle o/ inci-ence o/ the main plant, or the tail plane may be "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%!

wroag. I/ the angle o/ inci-ence on one ,i-e o/ the n+chine i, not what it ,ho+l- be, that will ca+,e a -i//erence in the -ri/t between the two ,i-e, o/ the airplane, with the re,+lt that it will t+rn o_ it, co+r,e. B. I/ the alignment o/ the /+ael2e, the /in in /ront o/ the r+--er, or with a machine ha0ing the /ront ele0ator an- o+trigger,, the,e m+,t be ab,ol+tely correct. )or, i/ they are t+rne- a little to the le/t or to the right, in,tea- o/ being in line with t!e center o/ the machine an- -ea- on in the -irection o/ /light, they will act a, an enormo+, r+--er anca+,e the machine to t+rn o// it, co+r,e. <. I/ the -ihe-ral angle i, wrong, that may ha0e a ba- e//ect It may re,+lt in the propeller not thr+,ting /rom the center o/ the re,i,tance, in which ca,e it will p+ll the machine a little ,i-eway, an- o+t o/ it, co+r,e.

)io. 1F.;"ir F. I/ the ,tr+t, an- ,tream-line wire, are not a-1+,te- to be -ea- on in the line o/ /light, then they will pro-+ce a--itional -ri/t on their ,i-e the airplane, with the re,+lt that it will t+rn o// it, co+r,e. M. here i, ,till one other rea,on why the airplane may be -irectionally ba-, an- that i, -i,torte- ,+r/ace,. he plane, are Jcambere-,J or c+r0e- to go thro+gh the air with the lea,t po,,ible re,i,tance. I/, perhap, owing to the lea-ing e-ge, ,par, or trailing e-ge getting bent, the c+r0at+re i, ,poile-, that will change the amo+nt o/ -ri/t on one ,i-e o/ the airplane which will then lia0e a ten-ency to t+rn o// it, co+r,e. @ee the ,tr+t, in !g. 1F.H Iateral @tability.;By lateral ,tability i, meant the ,i-eway, balance o/ the machine. he only po,,ible thing that can make the machine /ly one wing -own i, .that there i, more li/t on one ,i-e than on the other. hat may be -+e to the /ollowing rea,on,N 1. he angle o/ inci-ence may be wrong. I/ the angle o/ inci-ence I, too great, then it will pro-+ce more li/t than on the other ,i-e o/ the machine, an- i/ the angle o/ inci-ence i, too ,mall, then it will pro-+ce le,, li/t than on the other ,i-e, the re,+lt being that in either ca,e the machine will try to /ly one wing -own. B. 8i,torte- @+r/ace,. ;I/ the plane, are -i,torte-, then their camber or c+r0at+re i, ,poile- an- the li/t will not be the ,ame on both ,i-e, o/ the airplane, an- that, o/

co+r,e, will ca+,e it to /ly one wing -own. Iongit+-inal @tability.;Iongit+-inal ,tability mean, the /ore an- a/t balance. I/ that i, not per/ectly right then the machine will try to /ly no,e -own or tail -own. hi, may be -+e to the /ollowing rea,on,N 1. he @tagger May Be =rong, ; he top plane may ha0e -ri/te- back a little an- thi, will probably be -+e to ,ome o/ the wire, ha0ing elongate- their loop, or ha0ing p+llethe /itting, into the woo-. I/ the top plane i, not ,taggere- /orwar- to the correct -egree then that mean, that the whole o/ it, li/t i, mo0e- backwar-, an- it will then ha0e a ten-ency to li/t +p the tail o/ the machine too m+ch. In ,+ch a ca,e the machine wo+lbe ,ai- to be Jno,e-hea0y.HH " H-inch error in the ,tagger will make a 0ery con,i-erable -i//erence to the longit+-inal ,tability. B. Incorrect angle o/ inci-ence o/ the main plane, will ha0e a ba- e//ect. I/ the angle i, too great it will pro-+ce an e3ce,, o/ li/t, which will li/t +p the no,e o/ the machine anre,+lt in it trying to /ly tail -own. I/ the angle i, too ,mall there will be a -ecrea,e- li/t an- the machine will try to /ly no,e -own. <. =hen the machine i, longit+-inally o+t o/ balance the +,+al thing i, /or the rigger to r+,h to the tail plane, thinking that it, a-1+,tment relati0e to the /+,elage m+,t be wrong. hi, i,, in-ee-, ,ometime, the ca,e, b+t it i, the lea,t likely rea,on. It i, m+ch more likely to be one o/ the /ir,t two rea,on, gi0en, or the /ollowingN he /+,e9Ige may ha0e got warpe- +pwar-, or -ownwar-,, th+, gi0ing the tail plane an incorrect angle o/ inci-ence. I/ the tail plane ha, too m+ch angle o/ inci-ence it will make it li/t too m+ch an- the machine will be Jno,e-hea0y.HH I/ the tail plane ha, too little angle o/ inci-ence then it will not li/t eno+gh, an- the machine will be Jtail-hea0y.J F. I/ the abo0e three point, are all correct, then there i, a po,,ibility o/ the tail plane it,el/ ha0ing a,,+me- a wrong angle o/ inci-e2`Z.2Q0cl.22'2^,2 B ca,e it m+,t be correcte-. In ,+ch e0ent, i/ the machine i, no,e-hea0y, the tail plane ,ho+l- be gi0en a ,maller angle o/ inci-ence. I/ the machine i, tail-hea0y then the tail plane m+,t be gi0en a larger angle o/ inci-ence, h0i be care/+l not to gi0e the tail plane too great an angle o/ inci-ence, beca+,e the longit+-inal ,tability o/ the airplane entirely -epen-, on. the tail plane being ,et at a m+ch ,maller angle o/ inci-ence than the main plane, an- i/ yo+ c+t the -i//erence -own too m+ch the machine will become +ncontrollable longit+-inally. @ometime, the tail plane i, ,et on the machine at the ,ame angle o/ inci-ence a, the main plane, b+t it act+ally engage, the air at a le,,er angle owing to the air being -e/lecte- -ownwar-, by the main plane,. @tre,,e, an- @train, In or-er to rig a machine intelligently it i, nece,,ary to ha0e a correct i-ea o/ the work e0ery wire an- e0ery part o/ the airplane i, -oing. he work the part i, -oing i, known a, ,tre,,. I/, owing to +n-+e ,tre,,, the material become, -i,torte-, then ,+ch -i,tortion i, known a, ,train. Compre,,ion.; he ,imple ,tre,, o/ compre,,ion pro-+ce, a cr+,hing ,train. ", an

e3ample, the interplane an- /+,elage ,tr+t,. en,ion.; he ,imple ,tre,, o/ ten,ion re,+lt, in the ,train o/ elongation. ", an e3ample, all the wire,. Ben-ing.; he compo+n- ,tre,, o/ ben-ing i, compo,e- o/ both ten,ion ancompre,,ion, one ,i-e i, ,tretche-, the other compre,,e-. @hear.;@hear ,tre,, i, ,+ch that when the material break, +n-er it, one part ,li-e, o0er the other. ", an e3ample, the locking pin,. @ome o/ the bolt, are in a ,tate o/ ,hear ,tre,, al,o beca+,e, in ,ome ca,e,, there are l+g, +n-erneath the bolthea-, /rom which wire, are taken. %wing to the ten,ion o/ the wire the l+g i, e3erting a ,i-eway, p+ll on the bolt an- trying to break it in ,+ch a way a, to make one part o/ it ,li-e o0er the other. or,ion.; hi, i, a twi,ting ,tre,, compo,e- o/ compre,,ion, ten,ion, an- ,hear ,tre,,. he propeller ,ha/t an- crank,ha/t o/ the engine i, a goo- e3ample. 5at+re o/ =oo- im-er @tre,,.;=oo-, /or it, weight, take, the ,tre,, o/ compre,,ion the be,t o/ all. )or in,tance, a walking ,tick o/ abo+t hal/ a po+n- in weight, will, i/ kept per/ectly ,traight, probably ,tan- +p to a compre,,ion ,tre,, o/ a ton or more be/ore cr+,hing, wherea, i/ the ,ame ,tick i, p+t +n-er a ben-ing loa- it will probably collap,e to a ,tre,, o/ not more than abo+t MD po+n-,. hat i, a 0ery great -i//erence an- ,ince weight i, o/ the greate,t importance in an airplane, the woo-, m+,t, a, /ar a, po,,ible, be kept in a ,tate o/ -irect compre,,ion. hi, it will -o ,a/ely a, long a, the /ollowing con-ition, are care/+lly ob,er0e-. H(%$6 %) H( #I"5(@ 19 Con-9iona to he %b,er0e-, ;1. "ll the ,par, an- ,tr+t, m+,t be per/ectly ,traight. )ig. 1M ,how, a ,ection thro+gh an interplane ,tr+t. I/ it i, to be pre0ente- /rom ben-ing, the ,tre,, o/ compre,,ion m+,t be e:+ally -i,po,e- aro+n- the center o/ ,trength. I/ it i, not ,traight, there will be more compre,,ion on one ,i-e o/ the center o/ ,trength than on the other ,i-e. hat ` rcin`rer,e Center riir Iine o/ @trength

Iongit+-in al Center Iine o/ @trength )ig. 1M.;@ection o/ ,tr+t. i, a ,tep towar- getting compre,,ion on one ,i-e an- ten,ion on the other ,i-e, in which ca,e it will be /orce- to take a ben-ing ,tre,, /or which it i, not -e,igne-. (0en i/ it -oe, not break it will, in e//ect, become ,horter, an- th+, throw o+t o/ a-1+,tment all the wire, attache- to the top an- bottom o/ it, with the re,+lt that the

/light e//iciency o/ the airplane will be ,poile-,

"G @traight @tr+t B\ =ire, in correca "-1+,tment )ig. 1A. C- Bent @tr+t 8- =ire, o+t o/ "-1+,tment owng aD ,maller Gap -(//ect o/ bent ,tr+t,. be,i-e, an +n-+e an- -angero+, ,tre,, being thrown +pon other wire,, a, in )ig. 1A. =here ,par, are concerne- there i, an e3ception known a, Khe arch. )or in,tance, in the ca,e o/ the Ma+rice )arman, the ,par, o/ the center ,ection plane, which ha0e to take the weight o/ the nacelle, are arche- +pwar-. I/ thi, wa, not -one it i, po,,ible that ro+gh lan-ing, might re,+lt in the weight o/ the nacelle ca+,ing the ,par, to ben- -own a little. hat wo+lpro-+ce a -angero+, ben-ing ,tre,,, b+t a, long a, the woo- i, arche-, or, at any rate, kept /rom ben-ing -ownwar- it will remain in -irect compre,,ion an- no -anger can re,+lt. B. @tr+t, an- ,par, m+,t be ,ymmetricaI By that i, meant that the cro,,H,ectional -imen,ion, m+,t be correct, a, otherwi,e there will be b+lging place, on the o+t,i-e, with the re,+lt that the ,tre,, will not be e0enly -i,po,e- aro+n- the center o/ ,trength, an- a ben-ing ,tre,, will be pro-+ce-. <. @tr+t,, ,par,, etc., m+,t bo +n-amage-. $emember that, /rom what ha, been ,aiabo+t ben-ing ,tre,,e,, the o+t,i-e /iber, o/ the woo- are -oing by /ar the mo,t work. I/ the,e get br+i,e- or ,core-, then the ,tr+t or ,par ,+//er, in ,trength m+ch more than one might think at /ir,t ,ight, an- i/ it e0er get, a ten-ency to ben- it i, likely to go at that point. F. he woo- m+,t ha0e a goo- -ear grain with no cro,, grain2 knot, or ,hake,. @+ch blemi,he, mean that the woo- i, in ,ome place, weaker than in other place,, an-, i/ it ha, a ten-ency to ben-, then it will go at tho,e weak point,. M. he ,tmt,, ,par,, etc., m+,t be properly be--e- into their ,ocket, or /itting,. o begin with, they m+,t be a goo- p+,hing or gentle tapping /it. hey m+,t ne0er be -ri0en with a hea0y hammer. hen, again, they m+,t be- well -own, all o0er their cro,,-,ectional area4 otherwi,e the ,tre,, o/ compre,,ion will be taken on one part o/ the cro,,H,ectional area with the re,+lt that it will not be e0enly -i,po,e- aro+n- the center o/ ,trength, an- that will pro-+ce a ben-ing ,tre,,. he bottom o/ the ,tr+t or ,par ,ho+l- be co0ere- with ,ome ,ort o/ paint, be--e- into the ,ocket or /itting, an- then with-rawn to ,ee i/ the paint ha, ,t+ck all o0er the bottom o/ the /itting. A. he atmo,phere i, ,ometime, m+ch -amper than at other time, an- thi, ca+,e, the woo- to e3pan- an- contract appreciably. hi, wo+l- not matter b+t /or the /act that it

-oe, not e3pan- an- contract +ni/ormly, b+t become, +n,ymmetrical, i.e., -i,torte-. hi, ,ho+l- be minimi>e- by 0arni,hing the woo- well to keep the moi,t+re o+t o/ it. )+nction o/ Interplane @tr+t,. ; he,e ,tr+t, ha0e to keep the plane, apart, b+t thi, i, only part o/ their work. hey m+,t al,o keep the plane, in their correct attit+-e. hat i, only ,o when the ,par, o/ the bottom plane are parallel with tho,e o/ the top plane. he chor- o/ the top plane m+,t al,o be parwallel ith the chor- o/ the bottom plane. I/ that i, not ,o then one plane will not ha0e the ,ame angle o/ inci-ence a, the other one. It wo+l- only ,eem nece,,ary to c+t all ,tr+t, the ,ame length, b+t that i, not the ca,e. @ometime,, a, ill+,trate- in )ig. 1C, the rear ,par i, not a, thick a, the main ,par, an- it i, then nece,,ary to make +p /or that lack o/ thickH(%$6 %) H( #I"5(@ B1 ne,, by making the rear ,tr+t, corre,pon-ingly longer. I/ that i, not -one, then the top an- bottom chor-, will not be parallel, an- the top an- bottom plane, will ha0e -i//erent angle, o/ inci-ence. "l,o, the ,ocket, or /itting, or e0en the ,par, +pon which they are place- ,ometime, 0ary in thickne,,, an- thi, m+,t be o//,et by altering the length o/ the ,tr+t,. he proper way to procee- in or-er to make ,+re that e0erything i, right i, to mea,+re the -i,tance between the top an- bottom ,par, by the ,i-e o/ each ,tr+t an-, i/ that -i,tance, or J2apJ a, it i, calle-, i, not a, ,peci/ie- in the Jggiiig -iagram, make it correct by changing the length o/ the ,tr+t.

CH%$8 )ia. 1C.;Iength o/ ,tr+t,. =hen mea,+ring the gap between the top an- bottom ,par, alway, he care/+l to mea,+re /rom the center o/ the ,par, a, it may be ,et at an angle, an- the rear o/ the ,par may be con,i-erably lower than it, /ront. "-1+,tment, an- In,pection Control @+r/ace,.; he greate,t care m+,t be e3erci,e- in properly rigging the aileron, r+--er an- ele0ator, /or the pilot entirely -epen-, +pon them in managing the airplane. he aileron, an- ele0ator ,ho+l- be rigge- ,o that when the machine i, in /light they are in a /air line with the ,+r/ace in /ront an- to which they are hinge-, a, in Itig. 18. I/ the ,+r/ace to which they are hinge- i, not a li/ting ,+r/ace, then rig the controlling ,+r/ace to be in a /air tr+e line with the ,+r/ace in /ront.

I/ the controlling ,+r/ace i, hinge- to the back o/ a li/ting ,+r/ace2 then it i, nece,,ary /or it to be rigge- a little below what it wo+l- be i/ it "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! wa, in a /air tr+e line with the ,+r/ace in /ront. hi, i, beca+,e in ,+ch a ca,e it i, ,et at an angle o/ inci-ence. hi, angle will, when the machine i, /lying, pro-+ce li/t an- ca+,e it to li/t a little abo0e the point at which it ha, been rigge- on the gro+n-. It i, able to li/t owing to a certain amo+nt o/ ,lack in the control wire hol-ing it;an- yo+ canHt a-1+,t the control wire to ha0e no ,lack, beca+,e that wo+l- ca+,e it to bin- again,t the p+lley, an- make the operation o/ it too har- /or the pilot. It i,, there/ore, nece,,ary to rig it a little below what it wo+l- be i/ it wa, rigge- in a /air tr+e line with the ,+r/ace in /ront. $emember that thi, applie, only when it i, hinge- to a li/ting ,+r/ace. he greater the angle o/ inci-ence o/ the li/ting ,+r/ace in /ront, the more the controlling ,+r/ace will ha0e to be rigge- -own. ", a general r+le yo+ will be ,a/e in rigging it -own ,o that the trailing e-ge o/ the controlling ,+r/ace i, '2 to '2 inch below where it wo+l- be i/ it wa, in a /air tr+e line with the ,+r/ace /ront;or '2 inch -own /or e0ery 18 inche, o/ chor- o/ the controlling ,+r/ace.

II) I5G @9$)"C( "II($%5 %$ (I(7" %$ KIn )lighth "II($%5 %$ (I(7" %$ K", i/ ,ho+l- be $iggec/L

--5%5H9) I5G @9$)"C( "II($%5 %$ (I(7" %$ KIn )light an- a, $ig2L )ig. 18.; $igging aileron,. =hen a-1+,ting the controlling ,+r/ace, the pilotH, control le0er, m+,t be in their ne+tral po,ition. It i, not ,+//icient to la,h them in that po,ition. hey ,ho+l- be blockeinto po,ition with woo- packing. $emember that controlling ,+r/ace, m+,t ne0er be a-1+,te- with a 0iew to altering the ,tability o/ the machine. 5othing can be accompli,he- in that way. he only re,+lt will be that the control o/ the airplane will be ,poile-. 2 Control Cable,.; he a-1+,tment o/ the control cable, i, :+ite an art, an- +pon it will -epen- to a large -egree the :+ick an- ea,y control o/ the airplane by the pilot. he metho- i, a, /ollow,N III "/ter ha0ing rigge- the controlling ,+r/ace, remo0e the packing which ha, kept the control le0er, rigi-. hen, ,itting in the pilotH, ,eat, mo0e the control le0er, ,martly. en,ion +p the control cable, ,o that when the le0er, are ,martly mo0e- there i, no

perceptible ,natch or lag. Be care/+l not to ten,ion +p the cable, more than nece,,ary to take o+t the ,natch. I/ yo+ ten,ion them too m+ch the cable, will bin- ro+n- the p+lley, an- re,+lt in har- work /or the p9ot an- al,o in throwing -angero+, ,tre,,e, +pon the controlling ,+r/ace,, which are ,ometime, o/ rather /lim,y con,tr+ction. It will al,o ca+,e the cable, to /ray ro+n- the p+lley, :+icker than wo+l- otherwi,e be the ca,e. 5ow, a/ter ha0ing ten,ione- the cable, ,+//iciently to take o+t the ,natch or lag, place the le0er, in their ne+tral po,ition an- mo0e them backwar- an- /orwar- not more than <2 inch either ,i-e o/ the ne+tral po,ition. I/ the a-1+,tment i, correct yo+ ,ho+l- be able to ,ee the contro9ing ,+r/ace, mo0e. I/ they -o not mo0e then the cable, are too ,lack. )l<ring #o,ition.;Be/ore rigging the machine it i, nece,,ary to place it in what i, known a, it, J/lying po,ition.J In the ca,e o/ an airplane /itte- with a ,tationary engine thi, i, be,t ,ec+re- by packing +p the machine ,o that the engine /o+n-ation, are per/ectly hori>ontal both longit+-inally an- laterally. hi, i, -one by placing a ,traight e-ge an- a ,pirit le0el on the engine /o+n-ation,, anyo+ m+,t be 0ery care/+l in-ee- to ,ee that the b+bble i, e3actly in the center o/ the le0el. he ,9ghte,t error will be m+ch magni/ie- towar- the wing tip, an- tail. Great care ,ho+l- be taken to block the machine +p rigi-ly. In ca,e it get, acci-entally -i,t+rbe- -+ring the rigging o/ the machine, yo+ ,ho+l- con,tantly 0eri/y the /lying po,ition by r+nning the ,traight e-ge an- the ,pirit le0el o0er the engine /o+n-ation,. Care/09y te,t the ,traight e-ge /or tr+th be/ore +,ing it, /or, being +,+ally ma-e o/ woo-, it will not remain tr+e long. #lace it lightly in a 0ice, an- in ,+ch a po,ition that a ,pirit le0el on top ,how, the b+bble e3actly in the center. 5ow ,lowly mo0e the le0el along the ,traight e-ge. he b+bble ,ho+l- remain e3actly in the center. I/ it -oe, not, then the ,traight e-ge i, not tr+e, an- m+,t be correcte-. 5e0er omit -oing thi,. In the ca,e o/ airplane, /itte- with engine, o/ the rotary type the J/lying po,itionJ i, ,ome ,pecial po,ition lai- -own in yo+r rigging -iagram, an- great care ,ho+l- be taken to ,ec+re acc+racy. #ropeller,.;2 he la,t thing to go on to the machine i, +,+ally the propeller, by which time there i, +,+ally a r+,h to get the machine o+t. 6o+ m+,t, howe0er, be 0ery care/+l to ,ee that thi, i, /itte- on tr+e an- ,traight. hi, i, ea,ily 0eri/ie- by bringing the tip o/ one bla-e ro+n- to gra>e ,ome /i3e- ob1ect ,+ch a, a tre,tle. Mark the place where the tip o/ the bla-e to+che, it. 5ow bring the tip o/ the other bla-e ro+n- an- it ,ho+l- be within '2 inch o/ the mark. I/ it i, not ,o, then it i, probably -+e to ,ome o/ the propeller bolt, being p+lle- +p too tight. It may be -+e to the propeller it,el/ not being tr+e K,ee note, on propeller,L. )+,elage.; he metho-, o/ tr+ing /+,elage, are lai- -own in the rigging -iagram,. "/ter ha0ing a-1+,te- the /+,elage accor-ing to the ,peci/ie- -irection,, then arrange it on tre,tle, in ,+ch a way a, to make abo+t three-:+arter, o/ the /+,elage towar- the tail ,tick o+t +n,+pporte-. In thi, way yo+ will get a, near a, po,,ible to /lying con-ition, an-, when it i, in thi, po,ition, yo+ ,ho+l- r+n o0er the a-1+,tment, again. I/ thi, i, not -one the /+,elage may be o+t o/ tr+th b+t perhap, appear all right when ,+pporte- by tre,tle, at both en-, a,, in ,+ch ca,e,, it, weight may keep it tr+e a, long a, it i, re,ting +pon the tre,tle,. ail #lane.; he e3act angle o/ inci-ence o/ the tail plane i, gi0en in the rigging -iagram.

Be care/+l to ,ee, howe0er, that the ,par, are hori>ontal. I/ they are tapere- ,par, then ,ee that their center line, are hori>ontal. "/ter the tail plane ha, been rigge-, ,+pport the machine ,o that the tail i, +n,+pporte- a, e3plaine- abo0e. hen 0eri/y the a-1+,tment an- make ,+re that the tail-plane ,par, are hori>ontal when the machine i, in /lying po,ition. $+--er, "ileron,, (le0ator.; he,e controlling ,+r/ace, m+,t not be -i,torte- in any way. I/ they are hel- tr+e by bracing wire, then ,+ch wire, m+,t be care/+lly a-1+,te-. I/ they are -i,torte- an- there are no bracing wire, with which to tr+e them +p, then the matter ,ho+l- be reporte- a, it may be nece,,ary to replace ,ome o/ the internal /ramework. 9n-ercarriage.; he +n-ercarriage m+,t be care/+lly aligne- a, lai- -own in the rigging -iagram. 1. Be 0ery care/+l to ,ee that the +n-ercarriage ,tr+t, be- well -own into their ,ocket,. I/ thi, i, not -one then a/ter ha0ing a /ew ro+gh lan-ing,, they will be- -own /arther anthrow the +n-ercarriage o+t o/ alignment, with the re,+lt that the machine will not ta3i ,traight. B. =hen rigging the +n-ercarriage, the airplane m+,t be packe- +p in it, /lying po,ition an- ,+//iciently high ,o that the wheel, are o// the gro+n-. =hen in thi, po,ition the a3le m+,t be hori>ontal. <. Be 0ery care/+l to ,ee that the ,hock ab,orber, are o/ e:+al ten,ion, an- that the ,ame length o/ ela,tic an- the ,ame n+mber o/ t+rn, are +,e- in the ca,e o/ each ab,orber. Han-ling o/ "irplane,.;"n e3traor-inary amo+nt o/ -amage i, -one by the mi,han-ling o/ airplane, an- in packing them +p /rom the gro+n- in the wrong way. he gol-en r+le to ob,er0e i,N #ro-t1ce no Ben-ing @tre,,e, 1. $emember that nearly all the woo- o/ the airplane i, -e,igne- to take ,tre,, o/ -irect compre,,ion an- it cannot be ,a/ely bent. In packing an airplane +p /rom the gro+n- the packing m+,t be +,e- in ,+ch a way a, to come +n-erneath the interplane ,tr+t, an- the /+,elage ,tr+t,. @o/t packing ,ho+l- alway, be place- on the point, +pon which the airplane re,t,. B. =hen p+l9ng the machine along the gro+n- alway,, i/ po,,ible, p+ll /rom the +n-ercarriage. I/ nece,,ary to p+ll /rom el,ewhere then -o ,o by gra,ping the interplane ,tr+t, a, low -own a, po,,ible. <. ", regar-, han-ling part, o/ airplane,. 5e0er lay anything co0ere- with /abric on a concrete /loor, a, any ,9ght mo0ement will ca+,e the /abric to ,crape o0er the concrete with re,+ltant -amage. F. @tr+t,, ,par,, etc., ,ho+l- ne0er be le/t abo+t the /loor, a, in ,+ch a po,ition they are hkely to become -amage-, an- I ha0e alrea-y e3plaine- to yo+ how nece,,ary it i, to protect the o+t,i-e /iber, o/ the woo-. $emember al,o that woo- ea,ily become, -i,torte-. hi, partic+larly applie, to the interplane ,tr+t,. he be,t metho- i, to ,tanthem +p in a, near a 0ertical po,ition a, po,,ible. !eeping the "irplane in Goo- Con-ition Cleanline,,.; he /abric m+,t be kept clean an- /ree /rom oil, a, that will rot it.

o take o+t -irt or oily patche, try acetone. I/ that will not -o the 1ob try petrol, b+t +,e it ,paringly or otherwi,e it will take o// an +nnece,,ary amo+nt o/ -ope. I/ that will not remo0e it, then hot water an- ,oap will -o ,o, b+t, in that ca,e, be ,+re to +,e ,oap ha0ing no alka9 in it a, otherwi,e it will ba-ly a/lect the /abric. 9,e the water ,paringly, a, otherwi,e it may get in,i-e the plane, an- r+,t the internal bracing wire,, or ca+,e ,ome o/ the woo-en /ramework to ,well. he wheel, o/ the +n-ercarriage ha0e a way o/ throwing +p a great -eal o/ m+- on the lower plane. hi, ,ho+l- be taken o// at once. 8o not allow it to -ry an- -o not try to ,crape i/ o// when -ry. I/ -ry then it m+,t be moi,tene- /ir,t a, otherwi,e the /abric will be ,poile-. Controlling =ire,.;"/ter e0ery /light pa,, yo+r han- o0er the control wire, ancare/+lly e3amine them near p+lley,. I/ only one ,tran- i, broken the wire m+,t be change-. 8onHt /orget the aileron balance wire on the top plane. %nce a -ay try the ten,ion o/ the control wire, by ,martly mo0ing the control le0er, abo+t a, e3plaine- el,ewhere. =ire,.;@ee that all wire, are kept well grea,e- or oile-, an- that they are all in the ,ame ten,ion. =hen e3amining yo+r wire, be ,+re to ha0e the machine on le0el gro+n- a, otherwi,e it may get twi,te-, throwing ,ome wire, into +n-+e ten,ion an- ,lackening other,. he be,t way, i/ yo+ ha0e time, i, to pack the machine +p into it, J/lying po,ition.J I/ yo+ ,ee a ,lack wire -o not 1+mp to the concl+,ion that it m+,t be ten,ione-. #erhap, it, oppo,ition wire i, too tight, in which ca,e ,lacken it an- po,,ibly yo+ will /in- that will tighten the ,lack wire. Care/+lly e3amine all wire, an- their connection, near the propeller, an- be ,+re that they are ,nake- ro+n- with ,a/ety wire, ,o that the latter may keep them o+t o/ the way o/ the propeller i/ they come a-ri/t. 8i,tortion. ;Care/+lly e3amine all ,+r/ace,, incl+-ing the controlling ,+r/ace,, to ,ee whether any -i,tortion ha, occ+rre-. I/ -i,tortion can be correcte- by the a-1+,tment o/ wire well an- goo-, b+t i/ not then report the matter. "-1+,tment. ;7eri/y the angle o/ inci-ence, the -ihe-ral angle, the ,tagger, an- the o0erall mea,+rement, a, o/ten a, po,,ible. 9n-ercarriage. ;Con,tantly e3amine the alignment an- /itting, o/ the +n-ercarriage, an- the con-ition o/ tire,, ,hock ab,orber, an- the tail ,ki-. Control @+r/ace,. ;", o/ten a, po,,ible 0eri/y the rigging po,ition o/ the aileron, anele0ator. Iocking "rrangement,. ;Con,tantly in,pect the locking arrangement, o/ all t+mb+ckle,, bolt,, etc. %+t,i-e #o,ition. ; he airplane, when o+t,i-e it, ,he-, m+,t alway, ,tan- /acing the win-. I/ thi, i, not ,o, then the win- may catch the controlling ,+r/ace, an- mo0e them ,harply eno+gh to -amage them. I/ the airplane m+,t be mo0e- -+ring win-y weather then the control le0er, ,ho+l- be la,he- /a,t. In,pecting. ;2Ieam to become an e3pert in,pector. =hene0er yo+ ha0e the

opport+nity practi,e ,ighting one ,tr+t again,t another to ,ee that they are parallel. @tan-ing in /ront o/ the machine, which ,ho+l- be on le0el gro+n-, ,ight the center ,ection plane again,t the tail plane an- ,ee that the latter i, in line. @ight the lea-ing e-ge again,t the main ,par,, the rear ,par, an- the trailing e-ge,, taking into con,i-eration the Jwa,h-inJ or the Jwa,h-o+t.J 6o+ will be able to ,ee the ,ha-ow o/ the ,par, thro+gh the /abric. By practi,ing thi, ,ort o/ thing yo+ will, a/ter a time, become :+ite e3pert, an- will be able to -iagno,e by eye /a+lt, in e//iciency, ,tability, ancontrol. H( #$%#(II($ he propeller o/ the airplane i, 0ery ,imihar to the propeller o/ a 0e,,el in many way,. It m+,t ha0e ,+//icient thr+,t, or p+ll in the ca,e o/ a tractor, to o0ercome the re,i,tance o/ the machine at it, /lying ,pee-. he propeller it,el/ intro-+ce, ,ome re,i,tance -+e to the ,kin /riction a, it re0ol0e, in the air, the re,i,tance o/ the center o/ the propeller, e--ie, in the air ca+,e- by the whirling o/ the propeller an- ca0itation, or the ten-ency to pro-+ce a ca0ity or partial 0ac+i+n in which it re0ol0e,. hi, increa,e, with the propeller ,pee- an- -ecrea,e, the ,pee- o/ the machine. )or thi, rea,on propeller, are o/ten geare- -own /rom the engine ,o a, to ,ec+re high power /rom the motor with the -e,ire- ,lower ,pee- o/ the propeller. he pitch angle, or angle o/ inci-ence, o/ the propeller can be con,i-ere- in m+ch the ,ame way a, that o/ the plane,, a, the bla-e, are in reality ,mall plane, which re0ol0e in,tea- o/ being /orce- ,traight thro+gh the air a, with the wing, o/ the machine. he mechanical ,trength o/ the propeller bla-e, i, a ,erio+, con,i-eration which a//ect, the -e,ign 0ery materially. )or the propeller i, ,+b1ecte- to 0ery ,e0ere ,tre,,e, -+e to the ben-ing o/ the bla-e, /rom the h+b o+twar-, the centri/+gal /orce an- al,o the ,hock, -+e to the imp+l,e, o/ the engine, e0en tho+gh the,e ,eem to be practically contin+o+, in a m+lticy9n-er, high,pee- engine. he,e imp+l,e, ten- to loo,en the propeller in it, /lange, an- are cre-ite- with being the ca+,e o/ charre- h+b, which are ,ometime, /o+n- when the propeller i, taken o// it, ,ha/t. he,e 0ario+, problem, -eman- great care in both -e,ign an- man+/act+re, e,pecially with the woo-ei0 H2322poller which i, almo,t e3cl+,i0ely +,e- at pre,ent. he,e are b+ilt +p /rom layer, o/ care/+lly ,electe- woo-, gl+e- together with the +tmo,t care an- care/+lly ,hape- to template, which !agc the e3act conto+r at 0ario+, point, on the bla-e. #iopcllrrH o/ i9l kintl,, both /or water an- air ,er0ice, ha0e a certain amo+nt o/ ,lip or lo,t motion. " propeller with a pitch o/ 1D /oet, which mean, that wo+l- a-0ance the machine

)io, 1D,; ype, o/ propelli 1D /eet /or e0ery re0ol+tion i/ there were no ,lip, may a-0ance only Cyi /eet. hi, wo+lmean a ,lip o/ B1.2 /eet o/ BM per cent. ", the o+ter en- o/ the propeller tra0el, /a,ter than the point, nearer the center, the pitch angle change, 1+,t a, i, the ca,e with a threa- c+t on a bar o/ ,teel. hi, can be,t be notice- on a ,mall ,crew with a coar,e pitch where it will be notice- that the angle at the lL%ttom o/ the threa- i, m+ch ,harper than at the top. " n+mber o/ propeller, o/ -i//erent -e,ign, are ,hown in )ig. 19. %ne o/ the,e i, a 0ery ol- -e,ign while B ,how, a mo-ern propeller o/ the ,tan-artype. he center o/ the propeller i, 0ery ine/l/ecti0e an- i, largely -ea- re,i,tance. o a0oi- thi, a, m+ch a, po,,ible Galla-et mo+nt, hi, propeller on a large ann+lar h+b which re0ol0e, on a ball bearing aro+n- the /+,elage an- behin- the plane,. hi, c+t, o+t the center an- merge, it into the ,tream line o/ the /+,elage it,el/. hi, metho- i, ,ai- to be 0ery ,ati,/actory an- it al,o allow, the propeller to be geare- -own 0ery ea,ily. #$%#(II($ I@ M"8( B6 H"58 "mong the many airplane part, that remain to be ,tan-ar-i>e- i, the propeller. " gro+p o/ -i//erent ,tyle, i, ,hown in )ig. 19. Here, propeller " i, o/ 0ery ol- -e,ign, while B i, the type that i, being +,e- mo,t largely at the pre,ent time. he other -e,ign, ill+,trate -i/i/erent i-ea, that ha0e been trie- o+t -+ring the pa,t /ew year,. #ropeller, may be con,i-ere- ,omewhat akin to the wing o/ an airplane, ,o /ar a, the -e,ign o/ their ,+r/ace i, concerne-. ", we /in- the +pper ,i-e o/ the wing con0e3, ,o we al,o /in- the /ront ,i-e o/ the propeller c+r0e- in the ,ame way, while the back ,i-e i, hollowe- o+t ,omewhat in the manner o/ the im-er ,i-e o/ the airplane wing. =hen we a-- to thi, the con,tantly chaiiging ,hape /rom the pit to the h+b, we can ,ee that it become, a 1ob /or a ,kille- woo-worker when the propeller, are ma-e by han-, a, nearly all o/ them are at the pre,ent time. hi, ,how, two o/ the propeller, with protecting tip, on the en-, o/ the bla-e,. he,e tip, are o/ thin ,heet copper ri0ete- in place. Beginning with the act+al man+/act+re o/ the propeller, we come to the laying o+t o/ the -i//erent piece, on the black-waln+t boar- /rom which they are to be c+t, a, ,hown in

)ig. BD. Black waln+t i, +,e- 0ery largely /or thi, work, altho+gh in ,ome ca,e, it i, alternate- with layer, o/ ,pr+ce, each layer being /rom b to b inch thick. "/ter the 0ario+, piece, that are to be bw`X", +p to /orm the propeller ha0e been lai- o+t, they are c+t o+t on the ban--,aw, a, ,hown. %ne o/ the long piece, i, here ,hown being ,awe- into ,hape be/ore gl+ing an- b+il-ing +p. In ,ome place, the propeller bla-e, are ro+ghe- o+t on a ,ort o/ ro+ting machine, +,ing a /orm to g+i-e the ro+ting tool,, b+t in mo,t ca,e, they are ,till worke- o+t by han/rom the ro+gh b+ilt-+p propeller blank. Great care m+,t be taken in b+il-ing +p the layer, that /orm the propeller, a, it i, ab,ol+tely nece,,ary that there be a per/ect +nion at all point, o/ the ,+r/ace.

)io. BD.;Iaying o+t an- ,awing propeller laminatio8a. he part, to be gl+e- m+,t be thoro+ghly co0ere- with a thin layer an- then /irmly helih po,ition +ntil ab,ol+tely -ry. "/ter thi,, the propeller i, rea-y to be worke- o+t by whiche0er metho- may be employe- in the ,hop. In thi, ca,e, nearly all the work i, -one by ban-, )ig. B1 ,howing one en- o/ a propeller c+t almo,t to it, proper ,hape an- being te,te- by care/+lly ma-e templet,. ", can be ,een /rom the tool, on the workmanH, bench, the plane, an- -raw-kni0e, o/ 0ario+, ,hape, are the main tool, re:+ire-. In a--ition to the,e a ,teel ,traight-e-ge, a le0el an- H ril( #$%#(II($ <1 a ,+r/ace plate are nece,,ary in te,ting the 0ario+, part, o/ the propeller at /re:+ent inter0al,. ", ,liown, the propeller i, ,+pporte- on a central ,ha/t, or peg, abo+t which it can be t+rne- ,o a, to bring either en- in pa,ition /or mea,+ring. hi, i, an e3tremely intere,ting 1ob an- one re:+iring the +tmo,t patience, a, there can be 0ery little 0ariation allowe- /rom the ,tan-ar- ,hape, length or wi-th, an- the matter o/ balance i, o/ the +tmo,t importance.

)io. B1.; e,ting ,hapo o/ bla-e. )i+. BB.; c,9+k 1HH2HJ2J2 ot propeller. )ig. BB ,how,, in it, /inal balancing ,tage,, a propeller b+ilt o/ black waln+t an- ,pr+ce. hi, i, a ca,e o/ ,tatic balance, the propeller being 0ery care/+lly mo+nte- on kni/ee-ge, that act+ally can be le0ele- by ,pecial ,crew, at each en-. he propeller m+,t ,tay in any po,ition in which it i, place-. he /inal balancing i, ,ec+re- by applying a light coat o/ 0arni,h near the o+ter en-, in many ca,e, a mere to+ch o/ the 0arni,h br+,h ,er0ing to ,+pply all the e3tra weight that i, nece,,ary to p+t the propeller in per/ect ,tatic balance. hi, i, one o/ the point, that i, 0ery ,trictly watche-, a, an +nbalancepropeller can -ot_=i2i. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! -amage to the whole machine, a, well a, be a ,o+rce o/ -anger to the a0iator. "nother -e,ign /or ,ec+ring greater e//iciency o/ the propeller i, that o/ 8r. %lm,teaan- ,hown in )ig. B<. hi, re0er,e, the +,+al -e,ign o/ ha0ing the wi-e,t part o/ the bla-e near to o+ter en- an- make, the propeller wi-e,t at the h+b. he pitch angle at the h+b i, 0ery ,harp an- the bla-e taper, 0ery rapi-ly /rom the h+b to the o+ter en-, the ,hape re,embling a bir-H, wing in many way,. he,e propeller,, a, with all propeller, in /act, ha0e to be -e,igne- /or the partic+lar type o/ machine they are propel, the re,i,tance an- ,pee- being the prime /actor,. In ,ome ca,e, the,e propeller, are BF inche, thick at the h+b an- only F inche, wi-e at the tip, making them 0ery -i,tincti0e in e0ery way. e,t, ,how them to gi0e 0ery

#io. B<.;%lm,tea-lpropeller. goo- re,+lt, b+t they are ,o ra-ical that they ha0e not been wi-ely +,e- a, yet. Ha0ing the -e,ign o/ the propeller /or the gi0en type o/ machine the -ra/ting room

make, template, o/ the proper ,hape an- c+r0e an- ,hape o/ the bla-e at 0ario+, point, along it, length. he,e gaging or conto+r point, 0ary with -i//erent -e,ign, /rom < to A inche, apart, i2i inche, being a goo- a0erage. In thi, way the propeller maker i, enableto get the two bla-e, almo,t ab,ol+tely alike, which i, 0ery e,,ential /or be,t re,+lt, anin or-erH to ha0e the two bla-e, balance when the propeller i, /ini,he-. he 0ario+, boar-, or lamination, which go to make +p the propeller are c+t to ,hape on the ban- ,aw, each boiii$ c+t to pattern to +,e the minim+m amoimt o/ material, l2lack waln+t i, con,i-ere- one o/ the be,t woo-, /or thi, p+rpo,e b+t ,pr+ce, maple an- birch are al,o +,e-. Black waln+t an- ,pr+ce are o/ten +,e- in alternate layer,. he,e boar-, are then heate- to pre0ent the gl+e -rying too :+ickly, p+t together in the proper or-er an- clampe- in a hea0y pre,, +ntil thoro+ghly -ry. =hen the ro+gh propeller come, o+t it look, abo+t a, in )ig. BF an- i, then rea-y to be ro+ghe- o+t. hi, i, +,+ally -one by han- with -i//erent /orm, o/ -raw kni0e, b+t i, -one with a ro+ting machine in ,ome o/ the larger ,hop,. hi, lea0e, it in appro3i-

)iZ. BF.;#ropeller in the ro+!h. mately the correct ,hape an- it i, then /ini,he-, +,+ally by han-, to the template, alrea-y mentione-. (@ I5G H( @H"#( %) BI"8(@ In te,ting the 0ario+, point, the propeller i, lai- on an iron block ha0ing a central ,t+at right angle, to it an- which repre,ent, the propeller ,ha/t. hi, allow, the template, to be place- on the bla-e, aHt the -e,ire- inter0al,, the,e inter0al, being marke- on the iron plate it,el/. he angle o/ the /lat or nearly /lat ,m2ace can al,o be rea-ily mea,+re-. " ,+r/ace gage i, al,o +,e- 0ery care/+lly to te,t the height o/ 0ario+, portion, o/ the bla-e /rom the te,ting plate on which it re,t,. he pitch o/ a propeller can be mea,+reby re0er,ing thi, < "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! proce,,, i.e., mea,+ring the pitch angle at 0ario+, point, an- laying the,e o// on a chart. @+ch a chart ,ho+l- ,how a +ni/orm change o/ pitch /rom the h+b o+t. I/ it /ail, to -o thi,, it in-icate, that the propeller ha, not been care/+lly mea,i+-e- an- that it will not be e//icient. @ome allow '2 inch o+t o/ ,traight /or a propeller when it i, moimte- on a ,ha/t anre0ol0e- pa,t a gi0en point, b+t mo,t maker, an- +,er, e3pect them to be nearer ,traight than thi,. he bla-e length ,ho+l- be correct an- +ni/orm within 2e inch an,ome -o better than thi,, a, balancing i, a 0ery important /eat+re in propeller making. Hori>ontal way, are generally

D( )ig. BM.; e,ting +ni/ormity o/ weight. +,e- altho+gh ,ome mo+nt the propeller on a ,ha/t with a ,pecial ball bearing. hi, i, -one a/ter the en- i, coppere-, i/ it i, to be ,o protecte-. he /inal balancing i, -one by p+tting a little more 0arni,h on the light en- o/ the propeller, which in-icate, how care/+lly ,hape- they m+,t be. " metho- o/ te,ting the propeller /or +ni/ormity o/ weight along it, length i, ,hown in )ig. BM. Here one en- o/ the propeller i, hel- loo,ely in an opening an- the whole propeller ,+,pen-e- with a ,pring balance at -i//erent gi0en point, along it, length. he propeller i, then re0er,e- an- ,+,pen-e- in the ,ame way /rom corre,pon-ing point, on the other en-. I/ the weight, balance on both en-, o/ the propeller, the centri/+gal ,tre,,e, ,ho+l- be practically e:+al an- the propeller r+n ,ati,/actorily. H( #$%#(II($ <M It i, al,o :+ite important that the ,+r/ace area, o/ both en-, o/ the propeller ,ho+l- be e:+al. hi, can be ea,ily te,te- by mea,+ring the wi-th o/ the bla-e, at gi0en point, on each en- ,eeing how they compare. he 1oint, are /re:+ently te,te- by e ol0ing the propeller at /rom M to 1D per cent, higher ,pee- than that at which it will be r+n an- then e3amining the 1oint, care/+lly to be ,+re that none o/ them ha0e ,tarte-. he,e 1oint, ,ho+l- not ,how gl+e a, the woo-en layer, ,ho+l- be ,oli- t/2ether.

)io. BA.;" typical propc9ci mo+nting. he prop-ler ,+r/ace ,ho+l- be 0ery ,mooth partic+larly near the o+ter en- where the

,pee- i, the greate,t. =hen it i, con,i-ere- that the tip, ,ometime, ha0e a ,pee- o/ <D,DDD /eet per min+te, it can rea-ily be ,een how the ,+r/ace a//ect, the akin /riction. here are a great 0ariety o/ propeller h+b mo+nting,, one o/ which i, ,hown herewith in )ig. BA. hi, re:+ire, no e3planation, a, the metho-, o/ hol-ing the propeller, are clearly ,hown. It i, 0ery nece,,ary that the propeller be mo+nte- ,:+are an- ,traight on the ,ha/t an- that it i, ,ec+rely /a,tene-. Ilii, ,:+arene,, can be te,te- in a ,imilar manner to that alrea-y -e,cribe- /or the ,traightne,, o/ the bla-e,, by re0ol0ing it hal/ way anmea,+ring the po,ition o/ the lea-ing e-ge or ,ome other point on each bla-e. " propeller i, ,ometime, thrown o+t o/ ,:+arene,, by ha0ing the bolt, tightene- +p too m+ch on one ,i-e. hey ,ho+l- be tightene- +p gra-+ally, going aro+n- the h+b +ntil bolt, all ha0e an e0en ten,ion. #ropeller, ,ho+l- recei0e the be,t o/ care a, ,o m+ch -epen-, +pon them an- they are ,o ea,ily a//ecte- by o+t,i-e in/l+ence,. hey ,ho+l- be co0ere- /rom the ,+n i/ the machine i, to ,tan- long in the open. Bag, or co0er, are ma-e /rom hea0y cloth to ,lip o0er the bla-e, an- are tie- with -raw ,tring,. hey ,ho+l- ne0er be ,tore- in a -amp place nor yet in a 0ery -ry place, a, either con-ition a//ect, the gl+e which hol-, the layer, together. hey ,ho+l- ne0er be ,tore- o+t o/ -oor, on acco+nt o/ both ,+n anrain. he be,t metho- o/ ,toring i, to hang them in a 0ertical po,ition on a ,trong peg which goe, thro+gh the ,ha/t hole. It i, not a goo- plan to lean them +p again,t a wall or to hang in a hori>ontal po,ition. he ob1ect i, to a0oi- any ,tre,,e, which will ten- to get them o+t o/ ,hape in any way, a, +nle,, they are ,ymmetrical an- in goo- con-ition, they are not a, e//icient, they are apt to 0ibrate or GH/l+tterHH ba-ly, an- thi, ha, a bae//ect on the engine an- it, bearing,. )o+r-bla-e- propeller, are not largely +,e- an- then mo,tly in ca,e, where the pitch i, comparati0ely large. hey are +,+ally con,i-ere- a, being le,, e//icient than the twobla-e- propeller altho+gh in the ca,e o/ the Galla+-et propeller pre0io+,ly re/erre- to /o+r bla-e, are +,e- 0ery ,+cce,,/+lly. here i,, theoretically at lea,t, more inter/erence in the -i,t+rbance o/ the air, where /o+r bla-e, are +,e-. =hen one bla-e recei0e, air which ha, alrea-y been ,et in motion by the bla-e prece-ing it, there i, le,, reaction ancon,e:+ently le,, e//iciency. #ropeller, m+,t be watche- care/+lly to -etect ,plinter,, crack, an- other -e/ect, which might ca+,e tro+ble. Ba-2 lan-ing, +,+ally -amage a propeller a, the machine i, 0ery apt to no,e -own an- the propeller ,trike, the gro+n-. =hile thi, +,+ally break, o// one or both wing, thi, i, not alway, the ca,e an- a/ter a propeller ha, -+g into the gro+n- it ,ho+l- be 0ery care/+lly e3amine- /or -e/ect, o/ any kin-. #ropeller, o/ /lying boat, an- ,eaplane, are o/ten nicke- an- chippe- by the particle, o/ ,pray which ,trike the bla-e, a, they are ,tarting or lan-ing. he high ,pee- o/ the propeller make, the ,pray ,trike a m+ch har-er blow than might be imagine-. he ,ame i, tr+e when the machine i, /lown in a ,an-y co+ntry, the ,an- c+tting the bla-e, :+ite ,erio+,ly at time,. Copper protection ,trip,, a, ,hown in )ig. 19, are o/ten ri0ete- o0er the e-ge, o/ propeller, at the en-,, thi, ,er0ing to protect the o+ter en-, which are mo,t apt to be -amage-. he only ob1ection to the,e i, that they ,ometime, tear loo,e an- ha0e been

known to c+t g+y wire, an- e0en the /+,elage in the ca,e o/ a p+,her-type machine. In ,ome in,tance, protecting ,trip, o/ can0a, ha0e been +,e- /or thi, p+rpo,e, being gl+eon the bla-e, in the -e,ire- po,ition,. he,e protect the bla-e /airly well an- -o le,, -amage e0en i/ they loo,en an- /ly o//, which i, not apt to be the ca,e. @ "58"$8 H9B )%$ "I$#I"5( #$%#(II($@ %ne o/ the important :+e,tion, in connection with the b+il-ing o/ large n+mber, o/ airplane, relate, to the ,i>e, proportion an- metho-, o/ /a,tening o/ the propeller h+b. here are many kin-, o/ propeller-h+b /a,tening, in +,e, ,ome with the m+ltiple ,pline,, which are not only -i//ic+lt to make an- /it, b+t which al,o e//ect+ally pre0ent the lapping o/ the taper on the engine ,ha/t with the taper in the h+b. hey ha0e al,o been more or le,, +n,ati,/actory in many way,. he new ,tan-ar- h+b a-opte- by the a0iation ,ection o/ the 9nite- @tate, "rmy i, ,hown in the accompanying ill+,tration. hi, gi0e, both the ,hape an- the -imen,ion, o/ the 0ario+, part, o/ the h+b an- o/ the en- o/ the engine ,ha/t. he,e partic+lar, "I$C$") M(C9"//lC@ H"58B%%! .imni@"....

n9ngth,ll@9m I, r \F 7mmJ ^klH22 1 c7Fmd2'Q

I )io. BCe. )io. BCa.;"aiembly o/ h+b. ia. BCA.;(a,in,HgliB/t en-. )io. BCc.;H+b )ioB BCa to BCe.e8etail, at atan-ar- propeller h+b, 11D to 1CD bp. H( #$%#(91($ <9 ha0e been 0ery care/+lly worke- o+t a2 a re,+lt o/ e3perience both in thi, co+ntry anabroa-. he ill+,tration,, )ig,. BCa to BCt, ,how the h+b an- eha/t /or propeller, anengine, o/ /rom 11D to 1CD hor,epower. "a will be ,een, the -imen,ion, in mo,t ca,e, are gi0en in both (ngli,h an- metric mea,+rement,.

i2=NX2H JH,!,2i2H-H2-!/ ).& BC.. JIHrci. imt 1Miii fCMf 211 )m, BCiXH. )ia. BC-.;@`ana/i. )io. BC\.;@ha/t n+t. )io. )io. BC".;!ey. #ioo. BC- to BC".;8eta9a o/ ,tan-ar- prope9er h+b, 11D to 1CD hp. he ,ha/t i, gi0en a taper o/ one in ten, an- the h+b ie pre0ente- /rom t+rning by a ,traight key hel- in place by a /la/r-hea-e- ,tan-ar- ".@.M.(. machine ,crew. he h+b i, /orce- in place on the taper by the long n+t by mean, o/ a bar p+t thro+/1I "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%!

@ tt#n%#(9i$M9B ia. BC1. )io, BCi.;Iocki8( pin. )io. BC1. ;"gaembly o/ h+b. )ia. BC'4.;(ngin ,ha/t en-. )io. BC1.;H+b. )io/l. BC& to BC1.;#art, o/ ,tan-ar- p^ JJR l^+b. HB #$%#(II($ F1 the hole, at the en- o/ the n+t, an- the n+t i, then pre0ente- /rom t+rning by the pin, which -rop, into one o/ the /o+r ,lot, aro+n- the circ+m/erence o/ the n+t. he inner /lange i, integral with the ,pool or barrel o/ the h+b, b+t the o+ter /lange ha, a mo0ement o/ 1 inch, allowing /or h+b

B%I eJ rI"5%( )ig. BCbi, )ig, BCo. )ig. BCm.;)lange. )ia. BCo.;Bolt. #i%B. BCm an- BCo.;#arta o/ ,tan-ar- propeller h+b, 1CD to BMD hp. CD (B8 #%( Bolt, op @tan-ar- #ropeller H+b

0ariation, o/ /rom M to A inch in thickne,,. he o+ter /lange i, pre0ente- /rom t+rning by ten ,pline,4 an- a, /i0e o/ the,e ,pline,


Ih)ia. aw. R )ig. B8a.;@ha/t n+t. )ia. B8A.;5+t. )ia. B8e.; !ey. )i:. B8P/,; Iockin, )ioB. BBa to B8K'.;#arta ol ,9n-ar- prope9er h+b, 1CD to BAD hp. are -rille- to recei0e the locking pin, it gi0e, a large n+mber o/ po,ition, in which the n+t can be ,ec+rely locke- in place. hi, pin i, hel- in po,ition by a wire r+nning thro+gh it, hea- an- aro+n- the h+b, a groo0e being pro0i-e- /or thi, p+rpo,e. he en-, are twi,te- together in the +,+al way. he bolt, ha0e a taper hea- to in,+re a per/ect /it in the inner /lange, an- the n+t on the o+ter en- ha, a pro1ecting ,lee0e that goe, thro+gh the o+ter /lange, ,o that the threa- o/ the bolt -oe, not come in contact with the /lange at any point. It will be notice- that the engine ,ha/t i, hollow an- that the bolt i, -rille- /or nearly it, entire length. It will al,o be ,een that the key ha, a tappe- hole at the /ront en- thro+gh which a ,crew can be +,e- a, a 1ack in li/ting the key o+t o/ place, ,ho+l- it become 1amme- in any way. )ig,. 1D to 18 ,how the -etail, o/ the ,tan-ar- h+b /or engine, o/ /rom 1CD to BMD hor,epower. (@ @ %) #$%#(II($@ o te,t the pitch angle the propeller i, mo+nte- on a ,ha/t which i, moimte- at right angle, to a beam which i, ,traight

@(C I%5 %) BI"8(E I 7 2-Circ+m/erence Iint 9 EE -^l )ig. B9.;2Iaying o+t c+r0e o/ propeller,. an- tr+e. #ick o+t ,ome point on the propeller at any gi0en -i,tance /rom the center o/ the h+b an- /in- the angle the pro-peller make, with the beam at thi, point, by mean, o/ a protractor. Iay o+t thi, angle on a large ,heet o/ paper a, in )ig. B9, thi, being the chor- o/ the pitch angle. he ,traight or ba,e line m+,t repre,ent the circ+m/erence o/ the propeller at the /ace o/ the beam. I/ thi, point i, taken at B /eet /rom the center we ha0e a circle F /eet in -iameter or KF E <.1F1AL 1B.MAA8 /eet. Bring thi, -own to any ,cale which i, con0enient, ,ay B inche, to the /oot, an- lay o// the hori>ontal line BM.1<B inche,. hen the -i,tance /rom thi, point on the circ+m/erence line to the chor- line i, the pitch at thi, point. hi, ,ho+l- agree with the ,peci/iepitchG o/ the propeller, +nle,, the propeller bla-e i, -i,torte-, -+e to /a+lty man+/act+re

or the hole being in the wrong place. "n error o/ a hal/ -egree i, permi,,ible b+t more than thi, ,ho+l- be reporte-. hi, te,t ,ho+l- be ma-e at ,e0eral point, an- the re,+lt, care/+lly checke- +p. he length ,ho+l- al,o be te,te- by re0ol0ing pa,t a gi0en point4 a -i//erence o/ not o0er '/ e ii2ch i, permi,,ible. Balance i, al,o e,,ential an- i, te,te- by mo+nting on ball bearing, on a care/+lly le0ele- r+nway or balancing way. It ,ho+lremain in any po,ition.

)ig. <D.; e,ting c+r0e o/ bla-e. I/ it i, o+t o/ balance appreciably it m+,t be correcte- a, an +nbalance- propeller will -o a lot o/ -amage to an engine an- may wreck a plane. he te,t /or weight at -i//erent point, ha, alrea-y been gi0en, a, in )ig. BB. 8+ring thi, te,t the propeller m+,t be kept hori>ontal, care being taken to ha0e the -i//erent point, the ,ame -i,tance apart on each ,i-e o/ the h+b. he ,+r/ace area can be ea,ily calc+late- by mea,+ring the wi-th at ,e0eral gi0en point,4 the,e mea,+rement, ,ho+l- not 0ary o0er '2 inch at any point. he camber or c+r0e o/ the bla-e can al,o be te,te- :+ite ea,ily on the conca0e ,i-e by pa,,ing a ,traight-e-ge along the bla-e a, in )ig. <D an- noting the ,pace at -i//erent point,. %n the con0e3 ,i-e thi, re:+ire, a ,et o/ template, which can be rea-ily ma-e /rom the -rawing, o/ the propeller an- may be worth while i/ there are eno+gh o/ one kin- to be te,te- occa,ionally. he /ollowing ,+gge,tion, /or rigger, i, /rom the $oyal )lying Corp, man+al. 5% (@ %5 $IGGI5G )%$ "I$ M(CH"5IC@ ImpZitaiice o/ Goo- $igging. ;It i, impo,,ible to o3aggorato the importance o/ care an- acc+racy in rigging. he pilotH, li/e, the ,pee- an- climb o/ the airplane, it, control an- general e/l/iciency in /light, an- it, -+ration a, a +,e/+l machine ail -epen- +pon the rigger. Con,i-er that wh9e the engine may /ail the pilot may ,till gli-e ,a/ely to earth On- i/ the airplane /ail,, then all i, lo,t. he re,pon,ibility o/ the rigger i,, there/ore, 0ery great, an- he ,ho+l- ,tri0e to become a ,o+n- an- reliable e3pert on all matter, relating to hi, art;2/or an art it i,, an- one bo+n- to become increa,ingly important a, time pa,,e,. )light. ;)ir,t o/ all he m+,t ha0e a ,o+n- i-ea o/ /light an- ,tability. )light i, ,ec+re- by -ri0ing thro+gh the air a ,+r/ace or ,+r/ace, incline- to the -irection o/ motion. @+ch inclination i, calle- the Jangle o/ inci-ence. Ii/t. ;In thi, way the ,+r/ace,, that i, the li/ting plane,, ,ec+re a li/t /rom the air, an-, when the ,pee- thro+gh the air i, ,+//icient, the li/t will become greater than the weight o/ the airplane, which m+,t then ri,e into the air. Bear in min- that the -ri/t i, alway, trying to collap,e the plane, backwar-. h+, yo+ will ,ee that there are /o+r /orce, to con,i-er. he li/t which i, oppo,e- to the weight/ an- the thr+,t which i, oppo,e- to the -ri/t. he li/t i, +,e/+l;2the -ri/t i, the re0er,e o/ +,e/+l. he proportion o/ li/t to -ri/t i, known a, the li/t--ri/t ratio. hi, i, o/

paramo+nt importance /or +pon it -epen-, the e//iciency o/ the airplane. In rigging an airplane the greate,t care m+,t be taken to pre,er0e the 9/t--n/t ratio. "lway, keep that in min-. "ngle o/ Inci-ence. ; he angle o/ inci-ence i, the inclination o/ the li/ting ,+r/ace,. I/ the angle o/ inci-ence i, increa,e- o0er the angle ,peci/ie- in yo+r rigging in,tr+ction, then both the li/t an- the -ri/t are increa,e- al,o;2an- the -ri/t i, increa,e- in greater proportion than the li/t. I/, howe0er, the angle o/ inci-ence i, -ecrea,e-, then the li/t anthe -ri/t are -ecrea,e- an- the li/t -ecrea,e, in greater proportion than -oe, the -ri/t. 6o+ ,ee then that in each ca,e the e//iciency i, ,poile-, beca+,e "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! the proportion o/ li/t to -ri/t i, not ,o goo- a, wo+l- otherwi,e be the ca,e. Balance.;2 he whole weight o/ the airplane i, balance- +pon, or ,lightly /orwar- o/, the center o/ the li/t. I/ the weight i, too /ar /orwar- then the machine i, no,e-hea0y. I/ the weight i, too /ar behin- the center o/ the li/t then the airplane i, tail-hea0y. Get a goo- +n-er,tan-ing o/ the abo0e be/ore going any /+rther, "B%9 H( (5GI5(

"ltho+gh care o/ the engine i, primarily the machini,tH, or enginemanH, 1ob it i, well /or the rigger to know ,omething abo+t it a, it o/ten help, o+t in emergencie,, an- the,e are alway, ari,ing in +ne3pecte- :+arter,. ", a r+le, when the propeller i, /itte- to the crank,ha/t, it re0ol0e, in an anti-clockwi,e -irection when 0iewing it /rom the po,ition yo+ ,tan- in to ,wing it, or in /ront o/ the machine. =hen it i, /itte- to another ,ha/t Kwhich i, geare- to the crank,ha/tL a, in the ca,e o/ the $ena+lt an- $".). engine,, then, a, a r+le, it re0ol0e, in a clockwi,e -irection. )ollowing are ,ome e3ample,, an- yo+ will -o well to a-- new engine, to the li,t a, they come into +,eN @tationary engine, Gnome rotary engine, $otary engine, ype

5o. o/ cylin-er, $otation o/ propeller I

1BD hp Bear-more 1DD hp $.".).... 1DD hp C+rti,,.. . 8D hp $ena+lt... CD hp $ena+lt... 1DD hp Mono,o+pape 8D hp. ` Gnome MD hp Gnome 1DD hp Clerget.. . 8D hp. I Ie $hone, 88888 9 CC 99 "nti-clockwi,e Clockwi,e "nti-clockwi,e Clockwi,e Clockwi,e "nti-clockwi,e "nti-clockwi,e "nti-clockwi,e "nti-clockwi,e "nti-clockwi,e @tabtino the (ngine @o+n- )ooting.;2)ir,t o/ all make ,+re that the gro+n- 1+,t in /ront o/ the propeller a//or-, yo+ a goo- ,o+n- /ooting. @ho+l- yo+r /oot ,lip when ,wingiiig the propeller it may re,+lt in ,erio+, in1+ry /or yo+r,el/. 5ow place the block, in /ront o/ the wheel,, an- lay o+t their cor-, towar- the wing tip,. %ne air mechanic at each wing tip an- gra,ping the bottom o/ the o+ter ,tmt to ,tea-y the airplane when the engine i, r+nning. he,e air mechanic, wi9 p+ll the block,G away when the pilot, ,ignal /or ,+ch action. 5ot le,, than B air mechanic, at the tail en- o/ the /+,elage in or-er to keep it -oion when the engine i, r+nning. $otaiy (ngine,.;2In the ca,e o/ rotary engine, it i, o/ten nece,,ary, a/ter i+certaining that the ,witch i, o//, to -ope the cylin-er, with petrol. hi, i, -one by ,:+irting petrol thro+gh each e3ha+,t 0al0e. Great care ,ho+l- be e3erci,e- to make ,+re the ,:+irt can

i, clean. 5e0er lay it on the gro+n-. he top o/ the petrol tin i, a goo- an- con0enient place. @witch %//.;2Be/ore attempting to rotate the propeller alway, make ,+re that the ignition ,witch i, Jo//QH i.e., in it, -ownwar- po,ition. %therwi,e the engine anpropeller may ,tart +ne3pecte-ly with -i,a,tro+, re,+lt, to yo+r,el/. here ha, been more than one /atal acci-ent -+e to carele,,ne,, in o0erlooking thi, point. #etrol on an- "ir Clo,e-.;5ow a,certain that the petrol i, on an- the air clo,e-. he air i, not really :+ite clo,e-, b+t it i, partly c+t o// ,o that the mi3t+re may be rich in petrol in or-er to /acilitate the /ir,t /ew e3plo,ion,. $otate #ropeller.;5ow ,wing the propeller ro+n-. hi, will t+rn the engine, an- the e//ect o/ the -e,cen-ing pi,ton, will be to ,+ck the mi3t+re into the cylin-er,. Contact.;5ow ,ing o+t JcontactJ to the pilot. He will p+t the ignition JonJ replying to yo+ Jcontact.J @wing #ropeller.;5ow one goo- -ownwar- ,wing o/ the propeller bla-e an- ,tanclear. I/ the engine /ail, to ,tart a,k the pilot to ,witch o// an- go thro+gh the ,ame operation again. J8anger o/ Back/ire.J;2=hen ,winging the propeller he care/+l to ,tan- clear o/ it. here i, o/ten a po,,ibility o/ the engine Jback/iringJ an- ,+--enly t+rning the propeller the wrong way ro+n-. hi, i, +,+ally -+e to the ignition occ+rring early, i.e., be/ore the pi,ton arri0e, at the top o/ the cylin-er, an- i/ the engine i, re0ol0ing ,lowly the moment+m o/ the mo0ing part, Kcrank,ha/t, propeller, /lywheel, etc.L may not be ,+//icient to carry it ro+n- in the right -irection;2the re,+lt being that the pi,ton ne0er get, to the top o/ it, ,troke b+t -e,cen-, again -ri0ing the crank,ha/t back an- ro+n- in the wrong -irection. "ny engine /itter will ,how yo+ e3actly how thi, work, by mean, o/ t+rning ro+n- the crank,ha/t o/ a partly -i,mantle- engine. @ignal,.;1. he pilot, when rea-y to ,tart, will wa0e hi, han- /rom ,i-e to ,i-e. hi, i, the ,ignal /or the chock, +n-er the wheel, to be ,martly p+lle- away by mean, o/ the cor-, attache- to them. B. 5ow the pilot wa0e, hi, han- in a /ore an- a/t -irection. hi, i, the ,ignal /or e0eryone to ,tan- clear withottt a moment28 -elay, an- i, e,pecially meant /or the air mechanic, at the tail o/ the /+,elage. he or-er o/ ,tan-ing i, a, /ollow,N #ilot to $igger J(0erything all right[J $igger J"ll correct, ,ir.J K$emember that Jall correctJ co0er, a lot, an- that it i, the riggerH, -+ty to report anything not in per/ect con-ition.L #ilot to Machini,t J(0erything all right[J Machini,t J"ll correct, ,ir.J Machini,t J@witch o//[J #ilot J@witch o//.J

Machini,t JGa,oline on;air clo,e-[J #ilot J Ga,oline on;air clo,e-.J he machini,t, now rotate, the propeller. KIn the ca,e o/ a rotary engine it m+,t /ir,t be -ope- with ga,oline a, e3plaine- abo0e.L Machini,t JContact[J #ilot JContact.J he machini,t now ,wing, the propeller an,tan-, clear. #ilot =a0e, han- ,i-eway,. "ir Mechanic #+ll, block, away /rom wheel,. #ilot Iook, at @enior 5on-Commi,,ione- %//icer or Mechanic. @enior 5on-Commi,,ione- %//icer or Mechanic Iook, to ,ee i/ all i, clear /or a,cent an- no other airplane -e,cen-ing. I/ all clear he ,al+te,. #ilot =a0e, han- in a /ore an- a/t -irection. "ir Mechanic @tan- clear. he (ngine.;"ltho+gh yo+ are a rigger, an- not ,+ppo,e- to ha0e a clo,e knowle-ge o/ engine,, it i, highly -e,irable that yo+ ,ho+l- ha0e ,ome i-ea o/ the way in which they work, the rotation o/ propeller,, an- the preca+tion, an- ri-e, in re,pect o/ ,winging the propeller. )ir,tly, the engine. In each cylin-er i, a pi,ton which i, connecte- to the crank,ha/t K,ee e3ample, in yo+r ,:+a-ron engine ,liopL ,o ihiii, iih tlio piHioii tra0el, +p an- -own the cylin-er, the ,ha/t i, l+n-o to rota9i. ", the pi,ton tra0el, -own the cylin-er the inlot 0al0e opcMiH an- th/ pi,ton ,+ck, in a mi3t+re o/ petrol an- air, in m+ch the Haino wiiy +h a @ iinge ,+ck, in water. he petrol i, 0apori>e- an- mi3e- with the propter proportion o/ air in the carb+reter which i, connecte- with the iiiha iLortH o/ the cylin-er, by mean, o/ the inlet pipe. he pi,ton then ri,ing, an- the inlet 0al0e ha0ing cloHKi-, it KMLtni^roHH%H the mi3t+re, which i, m+ch more e3plo,i0e when compreHHKMl. he e3plo,ion take, place when the pi,ton i, at abo+t the top o/ tho ryliii--er, an- it i, ca+,e- by an electric ,park between the iLKLintH o/ the Hparking pl+g. he electric c+rrent i, generate- by the magneto which iH K9Lnnoote- to the ,parking pl+g by wire,. he /orce o/ the e3plo,ion -ri0e, the pi,ton -own an- ca+Hi2H the crank,ha/t to rotate. ", the pi,ton ri,e, again the e3ha+,t 0al0e open, an- the b+rnt giiHe, are /orce- o+t.

he working o/ the engine may then bo cli0i-K4- into /o+r ,troke, o/ the pi,ton, th+,N -,. . , .. - 1 if /i. /l. #i,ton -e,cen-,, ,+ckinir in mi3t+re. )+Bt re0ol+tion o/ crank,ha/t o i^- 3 cB. ri,ton ri,e,, compre,,mg mi3t+re. <. (3plo,ion take, place, /orcing the pi,ton to -e,cen-. F. #i,ton ri,e,, /on+Hng b+rnt ga,e, o+t o/ e3ha+,t 0al0e. @econ- re0ol+tion o/ crank,ha/t h+,, an e3plo,ion take, place /or e0ery two re0ol+tion, o/ the crank,ha/t. )rom thi, it can be ,een that an engine with two cylin-er, can ha0e them arrange- ,o that an e3plo,ion take, place /or e0ery re0ol+tion o/ the crank,ha/t, an-, in thi, way, more e0en r+nning o/ the engine i, ,eK4+re-. ", a matter o/ /act thi, i-ea i, carrie- ,till /+rther an- engine, are con,tr+cte- a, a r+le with /o+r cylin-er,, or e0en ,i3, eight, or twel0e cylin-er,, the re,+lt being a, /ollow,N 1 cylin-er 1 e3plo,ion to B re0ol+tion, o/ ,ha/t. B cylin-er, 1 e3plo,ion to 1 re0ol+tion o/ ,ha/t. F cylin-er, 1 e3plo,ion to '2 re0ol+tion o/ ,ha/t. 8 cylin-er, 1 e3plo,ion to 'i re0ol+tion o/ ,ha/t. 1B cylin-er, 1 e3plo,ion to b re0ol+tion o/ ,ha/t. @imilarly inlet, compre,,ion, e3ha+,t an- e3plo,ion take place e0ery two, one, one-hal/, one-/o+rth or one-,i3th re0ol+tion o/ the ,ha/t, accor-ing to the n+mber o/ cylin-er,. F 'rom %irt+rtkr ,

)io, <F. )HC- <M. )ia,. <1 to <M.;8iaaram, ot internal comb+,tion eo2 H( #$%#(II($ M1 he comprea,ion can be rea-ily /elt by t+rning the engine by mean, o/ the propeller, b+t care m+,t be taken to ,ee that the ignition i, o// or an +ne3pecte- e3plo,ion may take place. he -iagram,. )ig,. <1 to <M, are ,imply ma-e to ,how how the engine wori+ an- act+al e3ample, can be ,een in the ,:+a-ron work,hop,. he part, are name- in )ig. <1, to make thi, clear in e0ery re,pect. ", the pi,ton tra0el, -own the cylin-er, )ig. <B, the inlet 0al0e open, an- the pi,ton ,+ck, in a mi3t+re o/ ga,oline an- air. he ga,oline i, 0apori>e- an- mi3e- with the right proportion o/ air by the carb+reter thro+gh which it pa,,e,. =hen the pi,ton come, +p, )ig. <<, the inlet 0al0e i, clo,e- an- the charge i,

compre,,e-, making it m+ch more e3plo,i0e. In /act i/ it i, compre,,e- eno+gh it will e3plo-e o/ it,el/. =hen the pi,ton i, almo,t at the top o/ it, ,troke, )ig. <F, the magneto ,en-, an electric ,park thro+gh the ,park pl+g an- ignite, thi, e3plo,i0e

)ia. <A.;How to ,wing propeller. charge which -ri0e, the pi,ton -own an- rotate, the crank,ha/t. %n the ne3t ri,e o/ the pi,ton. )ig. <M, the e3ha+,t 0al0e open, an- the b+rnt ga,e, are /orce- o+t o/ the e3ha+,t. hi, may be -i0i-e- into the cycle, o/ the two re0ol+tion, nece,,ary to ,ec+re a power imp+l,e, a, /ollow,N )ir,t $e0ol+tion, ;8own,troke pi,ton -raw, in e3plo,i0e mi3t+re. 9p,troke, compre,,e, mi3t+re, rea-y /or /iring. @econ- $e0ol+tion. ;#i,ton /orce- -own by e3plo,ion. 9p,troke /orce, o+t b+rnt ga,e,. hi, gi0e, one e3plo,ion in each cylin-er /or each two re0ol+tion,, or /o+r power ,troke, per re0ol+tion /or an eight-cylin-er engine. he more cylin-er, the more e3plo,ion, or power imp+l,e, per re0ol+tion. Care ,ho+l- be taken in ,winging the propeller to alway, ,tan- clear o/ an +ne3pectee3plo,ion or ,tarting o/ the engine. he compre,,ion can be /elt a, it i, t+rne- by han-, b+t it i, ,a/er to ha0e the ignition ,witch o// +nle,, it i, -e,ire- to ,tart the engine. he ,hape o/ the propeller will rea-ily ,how which way the engine i, to be r+n a, the propeller alway, ,crew, into the air, no matter whether it i, a tractor or a p+,her. hen too, the trailing or back e-ge i, alway, the thin e-ge a, with a wing. Gra,p the thin or trailing e-ge o/ the propeller an- mo0e it ,lightly to /eel the compre,,ion. )ig. <A ,how, how to take hol- o/ the bla-e. #ropeller.;Be/ore ,winging the propeller Ki.e., rotating it to ,tart the engineL it i, nece,,ary to know in which -irection it ,ho+l- he t+rne-. 9nle,, the propeller ha, been /itte- to the engine incorrectly, it i, :+ite ea,y to ,ee in which way to t+rn it. 6o+ m+,t gra,p the trailing e-ge o/ the bla-e an- yo+ will know it /or the trailing e-ge beca+,e it i, alway, m+ch .thinner than the lea-ing e-ge. Mo0e the propeller ,lightly ,o that yo+ may J/eelJ the compre,,ion. he rotation o/ the propeller will now be in ,+ch a

-irection that the /latte,t ,i-e o/ the bla-e will engage the air an- pre,, again,t it th+,N #itch.; he pitch i, the -i,tance the propeller will ,crew thro+gh the air in one re0ol+tion, ,+ppo,ing the air to be ,oli-. ", a matter o/ /act the air i, not ,oli-, an- gi0e, back to the thr+,t o/ the propeller bla-e, ,o that the propeller -oe, not tra0el it, /+ll pitch. @+ch Jgi0e-backJ i, known a, ,lip. )or in,tanc2e, the pitch o/ the propeller may be perhap, 1D /eet, an- the propeller may ha0e a ,lip o/ B /eet. he propeller wo+l- then be ,ai- to ha0e BD per cent. ,lip. o te,t the pitch angle the propeller i, mo+nte- on a ,ha/t, the latter being mo+nte+pon an- at right angle, to a beam. he /ace o/ the beam m+,t be per/ectly ,traight antr+e. 5ow ,elect a ,pot ,ome -i,tance K,ay abo+t B /eetL /rom the center o/ the propeller an-, by mean, o/ a protractor, /in- the angle the chor- o/ the bla-e make, with the beam. hen lay o+t the angle on paper th+,N he line marke- chor- repre,ent, the chor- o/ the propeller. he line markecirc+m/erence repre,ent, the /ace o/ the beam. he angle the two line, make i, the angle yo+ ha0e /o+n- by mean, o/ the protractor. =e will ,+ppo,e, /or the ,ake o/ e3ample, that the point at which yo+ ha0e taken the angle i, B /eet /rom the center o/ the propeller. )in- the circ+m/erence at that point by -o+bling the B /eet Kwhich i, the ra-i+,L an- then m+ltiplying the re,+lt by <.1F1C, th+,N KB E BL E <.1F1C j 1B.MAA8 /eet, i.e., the circ+m/erence at that part o/ the propeller. Bring it -own in ,cale, an- mark it o// /rom the point " an- along the circ+m/erence line. 5ow -raw the line marke- pitch /rom B Kthe en- o/ the circ+m/erence mea,+rement o/ 1B.MAA8 /eetL an- at right angle, to the circ+m/erence line K,ee )ig. B9L. H( #$%#(II($ M< he -i,tance /rom the haee line to the chor- line i, the pitch o/ the propeller at that point K,ee )ig. <CL. It m+,t agree with the ,peci/ie- pitch o/ the propeller which ,ho+l- be marke- on the h+b. I/ it -oe, not -o ,o then the pitch angle i, wrong. hi, may be -+eN K1L to the propeller bla-e being -i,torte-4 KBL to /a+lty man+/act+re4 or K<L to the hole thro+gh the bo,, o/ the propeller being o+t o/ place.

6-%/%#8 `2EJH` E- #itch "ngle )ig. <C.;#itch anglo o/ propeller. 8egree o/ (rror "llowe-. ;6o+ may allow an error +p to hal/ a -egree more or le,, o/ the correct angle, b+t i/ it i, greater than that yo+ m+,t report the matter. he propeller ,ho+l- be te,te- a, e3plaine- abo0e at point, along the bla-e,, the /ir,t point abo+t B /eet /rom the center o/ the bo,, an- the other, abo+t a /oot apart.

Iength. ; he propeller ,ho+l- be care/+lly te,te- to make ,+re the bla-e, are o/ e:+al length. here ,ho+l- not be a -i/l/croncc o/ more than '/ A inch. MQCa// on 8aQQ-<earQr[i

2=ei2h/onBott-Hole )ig. <8.; e,ting balance o/ propeller. Balance. ; he pre0ailing metho- o/ te,ting /or balance i, a, /ollow,. Mo+nt it +pon a ,ha/t. he ,ha/t m+,t be on ball bearing,. #lace the propeller in a hori>ontal po,ition, an- it ,ho+l- remain in that po,ition. I/ a weight o/ a tri/le o0er an o+nce place- in a bolt hole on one ,i-e o/ the bo,, /ail, to -i,t+rb the balance, then the propeller i, +n/it /or +,e, a, in )ig. <8. he abo0e metho- -oe, not, howe0er, te,t /or the balance o/ centri/+gal /orce, which come, into play a, ,oon a, the propeller re0ol0e,. he te,t /or centri/+gal balance i, a, /ollow,N he propeller m+,t be kept hori>ontal, an- while in that po,ition, weighe- at any /i3epoint,, ,+ch a, ", Q[, C, Q^, (2 an- ), an- the weight, note-. 5ow re0er,e the propeller an- weight at each point again. 5ote the re,+lt,. he /ir,t ,erie, o/ weight, ,ho+l- corre,pon- to the ,econ- ,erie,, th+,N =eight " ,ho+l- e:+al weight ). =eight B ,ho+l- e:+al weight (. =eight C ,ho+le:+al weight 8. here i, no o//icial r+ling a, to the -egree o/ error allowe-, b+t i/ there i, any appreciable -i//erence the propeller i, +n/it /or +,e. he point, ", B an- C m+,t, o/ co+r,e, be e3actly the ,ame -i,tance /rom the center o/ the propeller a, the point, 8, ( an- ) K,ee )ig. BML. @+r/ace "rea.; he ,+r/ace area o/ the bla-e, ,ho+l- be e:+al. e,t with caliper,, a, in )ig. <9. here i, no o//icial r+ling a, to the -egree o/ error allowe-. !, howe0er, there i, an error o/ o0er '2 inch, the propeller i, really +n/it /or +,e. he point, ", B, C, 8, 2 an- ) m+,t, o/ co+r,e, be e3actly the ,ame -i,tance /rom the center o/ the propeller a, the point, G, H2 Q, ', ! an- I.

%) G2 G2 ! )ig. <9.;Mea,+ring propeller ,+r/ace. Camber, i.e. KC+r0at+reL.; he camber o/ the bla-e, ,ho+l-N K1L be e:+al4 KBL it ,ho+l-

-ecrea,e e0enly towar- the tip, o/ the bla-e,4 an- K<L it, greate,t -epth ,ho+l-, at any point o/ the bla-e, be at abo+t the ,ame proportion o/ the chor- /rom the lea-ing e-ge, a, at other point,. It i, -i//ic+lt to te,t the top camber witho+t a ,et o/ template,, b+t a /airly acc+rate i-ea o/ the conca0e camber +n-erneath the bla-e can be ,ec+re- by ,lowly pa,,ing a ,traighte-ge along the bla-e;2the ,traighte-ge Ka ,teel r+le will -oL being hel- at right angle, to the length o/ the bla-e an- to+ching both lea-ing an- trailing e-ge,, th+,N he conca0e c+r0at+re can now be ea,ily ,een, an-, a, yo+ pa,, the ,traight-e-ge along the bla-e, yo+ ,ho+l- look o+t /or any irreg+laritie, o/ the c+r0at+re which ,ho+lgra-+ally an- e0enly -ecrea,e towar- the tip o/ the bla-e. @traightne,,.; o te,t /or ,traightne,, mo+nt the propeller +pon a ,ha/t. 5ow bring the tip o/ one bla-e aro+n- to gra>e ,ome /i3e- ob1ect. Mark the point it gra>e,. 5ow bring the other tip ro+n- an- it ,ho+l- come within <2 inch o/ the mark. I/ it -oe, not -o ,o it i, -+eN K1L to the propeller being -i,torte-4 or KBL to the hole thro+gh the bo,, being o+t o/ place. In either ca,e it i, +n/it /or +,e. he 'oint,. ;2 he metho- /or te,ting the gl+e- 1oint, i, by re0ol0ing the propeller at M to 1D per cent, greater ,pee- than it will be calle- +pon to make in /light, an- then care/+lly e3amining the 1oint, to ,ee i/ 9iey ha0e opene-. It i, not likely, howe0er, that yo+ will ha0e the opport+nity o/ making thi, te,t. 6o+ ,ho+l-, howe0er, e3amine all the gl+e- 1oint, 0ery care/+lly, trying by han- to ,ee i/ they are :+ite ,o+n-. @+,pect a propeller in which the 1oint, appear to hol- any thickne,, o/ gl+e. @ometime, the 1oint, in the bo,, open a little, b+t thi, i, not -angero+, +nle,, they e3ten- to the bla-e, a, the bolt, will hol- them together. Con-ition o/ @+r/ace. ;2 he ,+r/ace ,ho+l- be per/ectly ,mooth, e,pecially towar- the tip, o/ the bla-e,. @ome propeller tip, ha0e a ,pee- o/ o0er <D,DDD /eet a min+te, anany ro+ghne,, will pro-+ce a ba- -ri/t or re,i,tance an- ,poil the e//iciency o/ the propeller. Mo+nting #ropeller.;Be care/+l to ,ee that the propeller i, mo+nte- :+ite ,traight on it, ,ha/t. Bring the tip o/ one bla-e ro+n- to gra>e ,ome /i3e- ob1ect. Mark the point it gra>e,. 5ow bring the tip o/ the other bla-e ro+n- to the mark, an- it ,ho+l- be within 2 inch o/ it. I/ it i, not within '2 inch o/ the mark it i, -+e to either the propeller being /a+lty in which ca,e it ,ho+l- not be +,e-, or it may be -+e to ,ome o/ the propeller bolt, being too ,lack or other, being p+lle- +p too tight. Care o/ #ropeller,.; he care o/ propeller, i, o/ the greate,t importance, a, they are 0ery likely to -i,tort an- lo,e their correct pitch angle an- ,traightne,,. 1. 8o not ,tore them in a 0ery -amp or a 0ery -ry place. B. 8o not ,tore them where the ,+n will ,hine +pon them. <. 5e0er lea0e them in a hori>ontal po,ition or leaning +p again,t a wall. F. hey ,ho+l- be himg on peg,, the latter at right angle, to the wall, an- the po,ition o/ the propeller ,ho+l- be 0ertical. I/ the point, I ha0e impre,,e- +pon yo+ in the,e note, are not atten-e- to yo+ may be ,+re o/ the /ollowing re,+lt,N 1. Iack o/ e//iciency, re,+lting in le,, airplane ,pee- an- climb than wo+l- otherwi,e be

the ca,e. B. #ropeller GH/l+tter,J i.e., 0ibration, which will ca+,e the propeller to -i,tort anpo,,ibly collap,e. <. " ba- ,tre,, +pon the engine ,ha/t an- it, bearing,. 5ote. ;2I/ engine 0ibration i, complaine- o/ it may be -+e to a /a+lty propeller, or to the propeller not being ,traight on it, ,ha/t. %$Z9( %$ 9$5I5G ())(C %) #$%#(II($ he t+rning o/ the propeller pro-+ce, a ten-ency to t+rn the whole airplane aro+n- in the oppo,ite -irection to that in "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! which the propeller i, r+nning. hi, ten-ency wa, 0ery marke- in ,ome o/ the ear9er machine,, e,pecially the ,mall monoplane,. hi, i, o0ercome in ,ome machine, by increa,ing the angle o/ inci-ence o/ the plane on the ,i-e which wo+l- ten- to tip -own an- in ,ome ca,e, to -ecrea,e the angle o/ inci-ence on the other ,i-e. By ,o -oing there i, more 9/t on one ,i-e o/ the machine than on the other which correct, the ten-ency to t+rn aro+n- the center line o/ thr+,t. 8i0i-ing thi, 0ariation between =a,h %o/ m,h In R R R . R . R . R . H . H R R . R . & . R RH.HRH.H

2RHNN44i-i =a,h %+t =a,h %+t

)ig. FD.;YY =a,h inJ an- Jwa,h o+tJ o/ wing,.

the two ,i-e, i, con,i-ere- more e//icient by ,ome, b+t in any ca,e the metho- a-optem+,t be known to the rigger ,o that he can look a/ter the machine accor-ingly. In other ca,e, the control, are ,et ,o that the pilot gi0e, the aileron, on one ,i-e a little more angle than on the other. =ith the ,tick control on ,ome machine, the ,tick i, ,et at a ,light angle ,o that when the pilot hol-, it central, the aileron, are -e/lecte- eno+gh to compen,ate /or the t+rning ten-ency. %n the training machine, thi, o//,et i, abo+t 2 inch at the +pper en- o/ the ,tick. wo term, which are +,e- in thi, connection are Jwa,h inJ an- Jwa,h o+tQH =hen the angle o/ inci-ence increa,e, /rom the center to the en- o/ the plane it i, calle- Jwa,h inJ an- when it -ecrea,e, /rom the center to the en-, it i, calle- Jwa,h o+t.J hi, i, ma-e clear in ", '@ an- C, )ig. FD. In the la,t /ig+re both ,i-e, are Jwa,h o+tJ with regar- to the normal angle o/ inci-ence, b+t the right-han- en- i, Jwa,h inJ with regar- to. the le/t en-, that i, there i, more increa,e at the en- o/ the right wing than at the en- o/ the le/t. @(C I%5 I7 =I$I5G H( #I"5( he wiring o/ an airplane i, not le,, important than the care o/ the woo-work an- the connection,. In /act it i, -i/l@ic+lt to ,ay which part o/ the whole machine i, the mo,t important. ", with the woo-work it i, a-0i,able to ,t+-y the metho-, +,e- in wiring an/itting,, thi, being a real mechanical problem /rom e0ery point o/ 0iew. he t+mb+ckle i, almo,t +ni0er,ally +,e- ,o that the ten,ion on any wire may be a-1+,te- to ,+it the machine or any changing con-ition,. he,e nee- 9ttle e3planation being ,imply ,pecially -e,igne- an- ma-e, right an- le/t-han- ,crew-eye, with a connecting n+t in the center in the ,hape o/ a long barrel. he,e are o/ ,teel an- the threa-, ,ho+l- be a goo- /it in the barrel. hey ,ho+l- not be 0ery tight nor yet ,o loo,e a, to make a poor /it an- po,,ibly ,trip )ig. F1.;=iring t+mb+ckle to pre0ent +n,crewi14ig. the threa- +n-er ten,ion. +rnb+ckle, are all locke- in po,ition by a ,o/t locking wire K+,+ally copper or bra,,L ,o that the barrel cannot im,crew, e0en a portion o/ a t+rn. hi, can rea-ily be -one by noting which way the barrel m+,t t+rn to loo,en an- then twi,t the wire thro+gh the hole in ,+ch a way that it i, hel- again,t t+rning in thi, -irection. )ig. F1 ,how, how thi, can be -one. he rigger m+,t learn to -i,ting+i,h between the -i//erent kin-, o/ wire /or -i//erent p+rpo,e, 2- between the gra-e, =I$I5G H( #I"5( M9 which are goo- an- tho,e which are +n,+itable /or +,e in 0ario+, place,. He ,ho+llearn the -i//erent kin-, an- ,i>e, o/ loop, an- their /a,tening,, the right an- wrong way, o/ making loop, an- the rea,on, /or both. @tan-ar- loop, ha0e recently been a-opte- by the @ociety o/ "+tomoti0e (ngineer, are ,hown later together with the table which accompanie, them. It will be note- that the /err+le i, now ma-e o/ coil wire in,tea- o/ ,heet metal a, wa, the practice only a ,hort time ago. he,e /err+le, are wo+n- +p o0er ,+itable man-rel, in long ,trip, an- c+t o// to ,+it, ten coil, being the length a-0i,e- in mo,t ca,e,. he,e are niore ,ati,/actory in e0ery way a, the ,heet-

metal /err+le wa, :+ite apt to ,plit an- relea,e the wire o/ the loop. here

"Bc )ig. FB.;Goo- an- ba- wire loop,. i, ,ome -i//erence o/ opinion a, the a-0i,ability o/ ,ol-ering the,e /err+le, b+t the ten-ency i, to lea0e them witho+t ,ol-er. hi, i, on acco+nt o/ the nece,,ity o/ +,ing ,ome kin- o/ an aci- or ,ol-ering pa,te an- the -anger o/ corro,ion /rom thi, ,o+rce. he 1oint, are all co0ere- with ,ome waterproo/ing compo+n- to pre0ent moi,t+re gathering in,i-e the /err+le. he,e loop, are nece,,ary whene0er a wire i, connecte- to a /itting or to a t+rnb+ckle an- thi, mean, that a large n+mber are +,e- in e0ery machine. )or thi, rea,on it i, a-0i,able to become e3pert in loop making a, ,oon a, po,,ible, a, thi, will ,a0e m+ch time when it come, to /itting +p a machine or to repairing -amage,. %ne o/ the /ir,t re:+irement, o/ a loope- connection i, that it ,hall not ,lip an- ,o change the length o/ the wire connecting two point, a, thi, materially a//ect, the ten,ion an- may throw one or more part, coi8ipletely o+t o/ balance. he be,t loop,, accor-ing to (ngli,h practice, ha0e well--e/ine- ,ho+l-er, a, ,hown at il, in )ig. FB which e//ect+ally pre0ent the /err+le /rom ,lipping +p an- allowing the wire to lengthen. hi, al,o mean, that the loop ,ho+l- be a, ,mall a, po,,ible to go into the

-e,ire- /itting to a0oi- it, /lattening or elongating +n-er ,tre,, an- ,o changing it, length. Bearing thi, important /eat+re in min- it i, ea,y to ,ee why the loop ,hown at B i, not goo-. he loop i, altogether too large an- will /latten a, ,oon a, it i, tightene- a, at C. hen too, there i, no ,ho+l-er an- the /ree ,i-e will p+ll thro+gh the /err+le, ,hortening the loop 0ery materially an- al,o ,tre,,ing the wire by thi, ,hort ben-ing aro+n- the e-ge, o/ the /itting thro+gh which it pa,,e,. +rnb+ckle, an- all /itting, which are conceale- by the /+,elage an- plane, ,ho+l- be well protecte- again,t r+,t by ,pecial 0arni,h an- are +,+ally wrappe- with tape. It i, al,o important to know the :+alitie, o/ wire, which m+,t not be too har- or too ,o/t. " practical te,t i, a, /ollow,N ake three piece, o/ wire o/ the ,ame gage an- abo+t a /oot long, ,electing one which i, too ,o/t, one too har- an- the thir- o/ the right :+ality. Clamp in a 0i,e near a win-ow, poli,hing the wire, ,o a, to ,how light re/lection, more clearly. Ben- the wire o0er ,harply an- a, /ar a, po,,ible. he ,o/t wire will /latten o+t ,omewhat a, can be tol- by noting that the ban- o/ light on the wire ha, broa-ene- o+t at the ben-. he har- wire will probably ,how ,light crack, or a ro+ghne,, o/ the ,+r/ace which i, the beginning o/ crack, to be -e0elope- later. he right wire will ,how a ,lightly broa-er ban- o/ light b+t will not ,how the ,lighte,t ro+ghne,, o/ ,+r/ace. $epeating thi, e3periment a /ew time, will ,how yo+ the goo- an- ba- wire an- will pro0e help/+l in many way,. Here again the Man+al o/ the $oyal )lying Corp, will pro0e o/ 0al+e. 5o wire ,ho+l- be +,e- which i, -amage- in any way. hat i, to ,ay, it m+,t be +nhinke-1 r+,9e,,, an- +n,core-. he wire m+,t be kept in goo- con-ition. =here the o+t,i-e wire, are concerne- they ,ho+l- be kept well grea,e- or oile-, e,pecially where bent o0er at the en-,. In the ca,e o/ internal bracing wire, which cannot be reache- /or the p+rpo,e o/ re-grea,ing them, they can be pre0ente- /rom li,ting by painting. Be 0ery care/+l to ,ee that the wire i, per/ectly clean an- -ry be/ore painting. " grea,y /ingermark i, ,+//icient to ,top the paint /rom ,ticking to the wire. In ,+ch a ca,e there will be a little ,pace between the paint an- the wire. "ir can enter there an- ca+,e the wire to r+,t +n-er the paint. en,ion o/ =ire,. ; he ten,ion to which yo+ a-1+,t the wire, i, o/ the greate,t importance. "ll the wire, on the airplane ,ho+l- be o/ the ,ame tennan, otherwi,e the airplane will :+ickly become -i,torte- an- /ly ba-ly. ", a r+le the wire, are ten,ionetoo m+ch. he ten,ion ,ho+l- be a+//iH -enp to keep ike /ramework rigi-. "nything more than that ,poil, the /actor o/ ,a/ety, throw, 0ario+, part, o/ the /ramework into +n-+e compre,,ion, p+ll, the /itting, into the woo-, an- will, in the en-, -i,tort the whole /ramework o/ the airplane. %nly e3perience can tell what ten,ion to employ an- a,,i,t in making all the wire, o/ the ,ame ten,ion. Iearn the con,tr+ction o/ the 0ario+, type, o/ airplane,, the work the 0ario+, part, -o, an- c+lti0ate a to+ch /or ten,ioning wire, by con,tantly han-ling them. =ire, with no %ppo,ition =ire,. ;In ,ome /ew ca,e, there are wire, ha0ing no oppo,ition wire, or wire, p+lling in the oppo,ite -irection. In ,+ch ca,e, be e3tremely care/+l not to tighten ,+ch wire, beyon- taking +p the ,lack. hey m+,t be a little ,lack, a, otherwi,e they will -i,tort the top ,par, -ownwar-. hat will ,poil the camber Kc+r0at+reL o/ the plane an- re,+lt in changing both the li/t an-ri/t at that part o/ the plane. @+ch a con-ition will ca+,e the machine to lo,e it, -irectional ,tability an- al,o to /ly one wing -own. hi, matter o/ ten,ion i, o/ the

+tmo,t importance. =ire Ioop,. ;=ire i, o/ten bent at the en- in the /orm o/ a loop. he,e loop,, e0en when ma-e per/ectly, ha0e a ten-ency to elongate, th+, ,poiling the a-1+,tment o/ the wire,. Great care ,ho+l- be taken to minimi>e thi, a, m+ch a, po,,ible. he r+le, to be ob,er0e- are a, /ollow,N 1. he ,i>e o/ the loop ,ho+l- be a, ,mall a, po,,ible within rea,on. By that I mean that it ,ho+l- not be ,o ,mall a, to create the po,,ibility o/ the wire breaking. B. he ,hape o/ the loop m+,t be ,ymmetrical. <. he loop ,hoiil- ha0e goo- ,hoiil-er, in or-er to pre0ent the /err+le /rom ,lipping +p. "t the ,ame time the ,ho+l-er, ,ho+l- ha0e no ang+lar point,. F. =hen the loop i, /ini,he- it ,ho+l- be +n-amage-, an- it ,ho+l- not be, a, i, o/ten the ca,e, ba-ly ,core-. @tran-e- =ire Cable,. ;5o ,plice ,ho+l- be co0ere- with twine or other wrapping +ntil it ha, been in,pecte- an- pa,,e- by whoe0er i, in charge o/ the work. =hen a ,tranbecome, broken the whole cable ,ho+l- be imme-iately replace- with a new cable. Control cable, wear o+t where they r+n aro+n- p+lley, an- any ,ign o/ /raying ,ho+l- be atten-e- to at once. he cable, ,ho+l- be in,pecte- a/ter e0ery /light, partic+larly where they r+n aro+n- the p+lley, an- nothing b+t goo- cable e0er +,e- on the machine. he @ociety o/ "+tomoti0e (ngineer, ha0e gi0en m+ch care/+l attention to thi, ,+b1ect o/ wire,, cable, an- /itting, an- ha0e a-opte- a, ,tan-ar-,, the ,i>e, an- proportion, which ,eem to ha0e worke- o+t well in practice. he,e /ollow in the ne3t ,ection. @ $(@@(@ I5 =I5G =I$I5G he or-inary ,et o/ biplane wing, i, tr+,,e- together by wire, in it, three -imen,ion,, making it into a p+re bo3 gir-er, b+t owing to the pec+liar /+nction, o/ an airplaneH, wing, the -i//erent wire, employe- ,er0e wi-ely -i//erent p+rpo,e,. It i, +n-er,too- that it i, the /+nction o/ the wing, to li/t the airplane a, a whole. Mo,t o/ the weight i, concentrate- in the bo-y, an- there/ore the problem really i, how to tran,mit the li/t e3erte- by the wing, to thi, portion o/ the airplane. It will be ,een /rom )ig. F< at ", that when the machine i, progre,,ing thro+gh the air, the li/t e3erte- on the wing, will en-ea0or to /orce them +pwar-, while the weight in the nacelle ten-, to /orce them -ownwar- at the center. he net re,+lt i, that the wing, try to /ol- +p /rom the tip, inwar-. he bracing wire, pre0ent thi,, howe0er. he +pwarp+ll o/ the =I$I5G H( #I"5( A< +pper ,par, p+t, the li/t wire " in ten,ion. he li/t on the lower ,par, p+t, the interplane ,tr+t, into compre,,ion, the top ,par, being in compre,,ion an- the lower ,par, in ten,ion. hi, being the ca,e, there ,ho+l- be no loa- on the oppo,ing -iagonal wire, B, when the machine i, in the air. hey come into play a, the machine a9ght, an- lo,e, it, li/t, an-

are there/ore known a, lan-ing wire,. =ith the machine re,ting on the gro+n- the whole po,ition i, re0er,e-, the lan-ing wire, B being in ten,ion an- the /lying wire, " ,lack. he top ,par, are then in ten,ion an- the bottom ,par, in compre,,ion. he interplane ,tr+t, remain in compre,,ion all the time.

)ig. F<.;@tre,,e, in wiring. "n airplane wing i, not merely ,+b1ecte- to the reaction o/ li/t, b+t al,o to the reaction o/ -ri/t or re,i,tance. hat i, to ,ay, the pre,,+re o/ the air on the machine a, it tra0el, thro+gh the air react, in a hori>ontal ,en,e an- trie, to /ol- the wing, backwar- a, well a, +pwar-. Here the hori>ontal bracing come, into play a, in )ig. F< at B. he wire, C Kknown a, -ri/t wire,L pre0ent the rear ,par /rom ben-ing backwar-, an- the compre,,ion ,tr+t, hol- the /ront ,par at the correct -i,tance. he oppo,ing -iagonal wire, 8 Kknown a, anti--ri/t wire,L take the ,train when the machine i, ,+b1ecte- to a ,+--en lo,, o/ /orwar- way, a, /or e3ample when lan-ing on ro+gh gro+n-. he ,par, are al,o ,+b1ecte- to a ben-ing moment between pair o/ ,+pport,, which i, at it, ma3im+m at the center point lLctwocn the ,+pport, an- r+n, progre,,i0ely to >ero at the act+al point, o/ ,+pport. Many airplane, are al,o /itte- with e3ternal -ri/t wire, r+nning to ,ome point at the /ront o/ the machine, an- e3ternal anti--ri/t wire, nmning to the rear. II1D tliir- -imen,ional bracing ,er0e, to hol- the +pper an- lowor plane, parallel to one another an- in correct relation to tho n`,t o/ the machine K,ee )ig. F< at CL, he change o/ ot&ntor o/ prt0,,+re on the wing c+r0e mo-i/ie, the relati0e loa-n plaoo- on oach member o/ a pair o/ the,e wire,, which are known i3h incitlonro wire,. It. Hho`Ll- ho oloarly +n-er,too- that the ,tre,,e, impo,e- on tho -il oHMit. wii0, -o,cribc- a, merely tho,e o/ normal /light. 9n-or pootiliiir K+riMnn,tanoe,, both in the air an- on the gro+n-, tho Hpar,, HK.r`it., an- wire, may be calle- +pon to re,i,t ,tre,,e, o/ a n+ioh mow ooinplicato- nat+re, ,o that a-e:+ate ,trength n0+Ht 1LD gi0on to each moniber. @(C I%5 7 "I$#I"5( @ "58"$8@ %) H( @.".(.

In all the ,tan-ar-, propo,e- by the @ociety o/ "+tomoti0e (ngineer, it ha, been the -e,ire to make a, /ew change, /rom e3i,ting practice a, po,,ible an- to a0oi,peci/ication, which wo+l- in any way -elay pro-+ction. hi, i, ,hown in their han-ling o/ the matter o/ loop,, t+rnb+ckle,, ,hackle, an- ,hackle pin,. In the ca,e o/ t+rnb+ckle,, /or e3ample, they ha0e not attempte- to ,peci/y the e3act -iameter o/ the ,hank, the pitch o/ the threa- or the e3act -imen,ion, o/ the barrel. he t+rnb+ckle ,ho+l- be a ,tan-ar- length between the eye, an- to be ,+//iciently ,tan-ar-i>e- ,o that the pro-+ct o/ one maker can be ,+b,tit+te- /or that o/ another in ca,e o/ nece,,ity. he ,ame thing app9e, to the /itting, to which the,e t+rnb+ckle, are attacke-, whether thi, i, a wire or a clip. he ,ame i, tr+e o/ ,hackle, an- c9p en-, an- /or the ,ame rea,on,. In the ca,e o/ ro- en- or ,hackle pin, they ha0e been ma-e a, nearly like the pre,ent ,tan-ar-, a, ,eeme- wi,e. he hea-, ha0e been le/t thinner a, thi, i, /o+n- to be e:+ally e/i/ecti0e. he hole i, ma-e a, large a, i, ,a/e on acco+nt o/ it, being ea,ier to -rill. he en- o/ the pin i, ro+n-e-, the HH 8J meaning Jtooling -imen,ionHH an- i, not inten-e- a, a gaging point a, i, the /illet +n-er the hea-. he e3act ,i>e, o/ the,e i, not important. he bolt -imen,ion, are the re,+lt o/ te,t, at the C+rti,, plant. he,e te,t, incl+-e- both +ntreate- an- heat-treate- bolt,, the material being <<2 per cent, nickel ,teel in each ca,e. e,t, ,howe- that the imtreate- bolt ,ho+l- be 1D per cent. thicker than the heattreate- bolt b+t to allow /or -i//erence, M AM in heat treatment they recommen- that the hea-, o/ heat treate- bolt, be 2 8 pl+, <2B inch, the a--ition to co0er 0ery ,mall bolt,. In the ,ame way the n+t, are ma-e thicker than i, nece,,ary in or-inary practice to allow /or the wear in the threa- /it on acco+nt o/ the /re:+ent p+tting on an- taking o/i/ to which they are ,+b1ecte- in making a-1+,tment, an- replacement,. he,e ,ho+l- be a goo- /it witho+t being tight, /rom D.DDB to D.DDBM inch being con,i-ere- a /air tolerance between the threa- on the bolt an- the threa- in the n+t. he ,tan-ar-, ,+gge,te- are a, /ollow,N )a,tening Har- =ire,. ; he pre,ent Briti,h ,tan-ar- /or /a,tening har- wire, i, ,hown in )ig. FF, the thimble being o/ wire wo+n- in an o0al a, ,hown. he wire i, ,9ppethro+gh thi, thimble, the en- bent an- the en- threa-e- back thro+gh the thimble anbent o0er again,t the thimble. he whole thing i, then ,ol-ere- with a non-r+,ting pa,te. he table gi0e, the -imen,ion, recommen-e-. Gal0ani>e- 5on-lGIe3ible Cable (n-,. ;)ig. FM ,how, the metho- recommen-e- anthe table gi0e, -imen,ion, to be /ollowe-. he total length o/ the ,plice i, ,hown by I, the two ,pace, -i0i-ing it into three appro3imately e:+al part,. he ,i>e, o/ the win-ing wire, are ,hown in the ill+,tration. @plice, /or )le3ible Cable (n-,. ; he length o/ the ,plice /rom the pointe- en- o/ the opening in the thimble i, repre,ente- by HH,plice pl+, or min+, OF inch.HH he en- o/ the ,plice i, wrappe- or J,er0e-J with ,hellace- harne,, threa-. 8imen,ion " repre,ent, the -i,tance /rom the en- o/ the opening o/ the thimble to the en- o/ the J,er0ing.J he table with )ig. FA gi0e, /+ll -imen,ion,. himble, )or =ire (n-,. ; he propo,e- ,i>e, are ,hown in )ig FC together with the table o/ ,i>e, o/ 0ario+, portion, o/ the thimble. +mb+ckle,. ; hi, gi0e, the main -imen,i9n, /or long an- ,hort t+rnb+ckle, together with their general appearance K)ig. F8L. "I$#I"5( @ "58"$8@ %) H( @. ". (.

AC Clip (n-,. ; he general proportion, an- -imen,ion, /or clip en-, are ,hown in )ig. F9. he -imen,ion ", which i, the wi-th o/ the arm, -epen-, on the material to which the c9p i, wel-e-. @hackle,. ; he ,hackle ,hown in )ig. MD i, /orme- /rom a ,teel /orging an- the main -imen,ion, are gi0en on page CB.

"j8iamo/ 2 =ire G

9-;1D Coil, ^' )ig. FF.;)a,tening, /or har- wire. Ioop, C. 8, $, @i3. o/ wire " Iarge loop D.1B8 @mall loop D.1B8 D.1DB D.D81 X!A 2F He bF D.DAF y>B bF, 2H

)err+le, (. D.11F

D.DMC Gage, "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! mn- mth D.DBDFJ 2 inne- =ire i@itt himble 4_^2ce22 2-222 22 -^kH k- ^p ! Q tnnec/ =ire

k- I o/c/erect aro+n- himble )ig. FA.;5on-/le3ible cable en-,. 5ote. ;@ol-er witho+t -rawing temper o/ wire. Ioop portion ,er0e- with D.DBDF-inch ,o/t-,teel tinne- wire be/ore thimble i, in,erte-. @ol-ere- +n-er @er0ino, /+ll Iength o/ @plice an- aro+n- himble. !;" -^1P; @er0ing RR^` y


.....' k @plice t2H H2@tan-ar- himble )ig. FA.;)le3ible cable en-,. @hellacke- Harne,, hrea5o B.2-@ol-er /+ll length o/ ,plice witho+t -rawing temper o/ wire. "I$#I"5( @ "58"$8@ %) H( @. ". (. A9 $o- (n- #in,. ; he general appearance o/ the ro- en- pin, 118 well a, the -imen,ion, ,+gge,te- areH,hown in )ig. M1. Bolt, an- 5+t,. ;)ig. MB ,how, a type o/ bolt recommen-e- /or general airplane work b+t not /or engine work. he,e ha0e ball hea-, an- the table gi0e, general -imen,ion,. he,e are o/ <O2 per cent, nickel ,teel. )ig. M< gi0e, ,imilar -imen,ion, /or a plain heabolt while )ig MF ,how, both plain an- ca,tle n+t, with a ball on the +n-er ,i-e. )ig MM ,how, a plain bottom ca,tle n+t an- gi0e, it, -imen,ion,.

)ig. FC.; himble /or wire en-,. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! Barrel

(6( (58 mm 6%!( (58

)ig. F8.; +rnb+ckle,. 5o. 1B< FMA C 8 9 1D 11 1B 1< 1F 1M @trength in po+n-, (ye en-,, inche, 6oke en-,, inche, Z MDD 1,DDD 1,MDD B,DDD B,MDD <,DDD <,MDD F,DDD F,MDD M,DDD A,DDD C,DDD 8,DDD 9,DDD 1D,DDD 2<B 2B 19, 1b AF F la AF AF 1[ IB F B <2 4F 2AF B2 BM, B M, HAF 2F 2F QbF QQ bbb Me He yi

Me Me Me Me H =e =e =ie ype o/ t+rnb+ckle @hort Iong F inche, 1 to 1M incl. 8 inche, MM =ith two eye en-,, threa- one le/t-han- an- the other right-han-. =ith one eye en- anone yoke en-, threa- eye en- le/t-han-. "I$#I"5( @ "58"$8@ %) H( @. ". (. C1 E II " E

2 9 )iZ. F9.;Clip en-,. Clip en-,

"I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! r

)ig+re /hom "_B ;M2Q2c/cQ.o/ I- / )ig. MD.;@hackle,.


"I$#I"5( @ "58"$8@ %) H( @. ". (, C< B Y^2M2 It --2ro -I -Dt;G )ig. A1.;$o- en- pin. Y )+t+re ,i>e,. %2 " I 22 2k

1aDDFC 2-D.D1A HMQh Ieng//i +,able hrea- - a@ hr-H,. HH(3treme Iength hr-. )ig. MB.;!ecommen-e- bolt. "9 threa-, 9. @. ). i[ - 2, l" j ^ Mel i[ j M. l" j ^ Ml @i>e;" hrea-, per inch... Iimit,; " Hea- -iameter.; B Hea- height.; M.. 5o. 8G <B D.1AD D.1AF Me 5o. 1D Y <B D.18A D.19D M 2MF 5o. 1B Y <B D.B1B D.B1A H &MF MG B8 D.BFA Me BF D.<D8 D.BMD D.<1B Me 1MF MM M BF D.<C1 D.<CM Me Me

Me BD D.F<< D.F<C &Me &MF MG BD D.F9A D.MDD M MeG 18 18 Y )+t+re ,i>e,. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%!

22HH" ii-iii rP- -^P 5o/to(!Ceect y/l+no " II 9b^I 2Min Iength o/+,+al hrii. JJ%%ie CH& C7M lrn[2. H(3treme Iength o/ hre/. )iZ. M<.;#lain hea- bolt. kD I YmYZDFC f.2 GR -D.D1A 2 !2n 2jo2o "ll threa-, 9. @. ). M B2<B 2Y2Y tooling -imen,ion,. @i3e; " , hrea-, per inch.. Iimit,; " ,

Hea- -iameter; B Hea- height; M.. , 5o. 8 <B D.1AD D.1AF H, YHF. 5o. 1D <B D.18A D.19D HH 5o. 1B <B D.B1B D.B1A bF, B8 D.BFA D.BMD He 2< bA BF D.<D8 H BF D.<C1 D.<1B1D.<CM M, bA ^i< He BD D.F<< D.F<C ^F BD D.F9A D.MDD bB <2D.2

<MPire Q1 , nr 5

)ig. MF.;Ball ,eat n+t,. "I$#I"5( @ "58"$8@ %) H( @. ". (. CM QQJK %L t^k 6 -^` , tPj1MD.. R2.

I RG "12 g K@hort 8QamL )ig. MM.;#lain ca,tle n+t. "ll threa-, 9. @. ). D j "l,o -epth o/ ,lot. .8. j tooling -imen,ion. Magneto Ba,e. ;In or-er to /acilitate the interchange o/ magneto, o/ -i//erent make, the -imen,ion, ,hown in )ig. MA are recommen-e- /or all magneto ba,e,. H KFMMm.L X KAFMmL "ppro3.lA1Ch-,` per inch. 1.MDMm. K#itch. 2DM9FJ Ki%Mm.L 1-. RFll2 , 2B-8owel #in Hole, ,

lD@eHH--;^9;-Q.9A-HH;^i KM<MmL H KMDMmL H )ig. MA.;Magneto ba,e. ` K F- appecl Hole, H Eie9@@/9 hrH. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! #:^e-line Marking,.;It i, propo,e- to mark /+el pipe line, with re- ban-,, l+brication pipe line, with white ban-, an- air line, with bl+e ban-, /or ea,ily tracing all connection,. he,e ban-, are recommen-e- to be <2 inch wi-e an- not o0er BF inche, apart. (ngine @+pport,.; he /ollowing -imen,ion, Kin inche,L are recommen-e- /or ,tan-arengine ,+pport,N 8i,tance between timber, =i-th o/ be- timber, 8i,tance between center, o/ bolt, "I I 98( C%5 $%I K(le0ator,L

B"I"5CI5G C%5 $%I K"ileron,L Ie/t,i-e o/ $ight ,i-e o/ Machine -own Machine ch+m o

o $+--er @i-e 7iew $IGH "58 I() C%5 $%I K$+--erL o $+--er o(le0ator b"iQer0n r-;7 -2-2 o$+--er o(le0ator o"ileron


7iew /rom #ilot, @eat

C/` o $+--er #lan 7iew )ig. MC.;@tan-ar- ,tick control. @park-pl+g 8imen,ion,. ; he /ollowing -imen,ion, /or ,parkpl+g, are recommen-e-N hrea-N 18 mil9meter, 1<2-millimeter pitch. )orm o/ threa-N international ,tan-ar- K,ame a, 9. @. ,tan-ar- only with one-hal/ a, m+ch tr+ncation at root o/ threa-L. Ga,ket ,ho+l-er to en- o/ ,hellN b inch. "I$#I"5( @ "58"$8@ %) H( @, ", (, CC @tick Control. ; he ill+,tration in )ig MC ,how, the ,tick type o/ control in o+tline. 5o proportion, are gi0en b+t the general i-ea i, clearly ,hown. hi, i, +,e- mo,tly on the ,mall, /a,t airplane,. !#I/e@@ I( =I5@

!MI(@@ ItlGM =IHA m$( % "II($%5,

H,rwt $!H =I$(@ % H (I(7" %$. "II($%5

)ig. M8.;J8ep.J control. =heel or Col+mn Control. ; hi, i, ,hown in )ig. M8 an- i, ,ometime, known a, the J8epJ K8eper-+,,inL o/ col+mn control. hi, i, more ,+itable /or large, hea0y machine, with large aileron ,+r/ace, to be mo0e-. @(C I%5 7I =%%8@ )%$ "I$#I"5( C%5@ $9C I%5 he ma1ority o/ the woo- +,e- in airplane con,tr+ction i, ,pr+ce an- in or-er to ,ec+re ,+itable an- +ni/orm material, ,peci/ication, ha0e been -rawn +p a, a g+i-e in accepting material o//ere-. he ,peci/ication, which ha0e been propo,e- by the ,pr+ce men an- which recei0e- the in/ormal appro0al o/ the Go0ernmentH, repre,entati0e, pre,ent are a, /ollow,N hickne,,.; wo to A inche,, incl+,i0e. "t lea,t AD per cent, to be < inche, an- F inche, thick. 5ot more than FD per cent. B inche,, M inche,, an- A inche, thick. =i-th. ;"ll to be F inche, an- wi-er4 not o0er 1D per cent, im-er M inche, wi-e. Iength.;)i/ty per cent, to be 18 /eet an- longer. )i/ty per cent, to be F /eet an- longer. Mea,+rement.;=i-th an- thickne,, /ractional. Iength, in m+ltiple, o/ 1 /oot. Grain.;2"ll l+mber < inche, an- thicker ,hall be not le,, than CD per cent, 0ertical grain o/ an angle o/ FM to 9D -egree, on each carloa-. "ll l+mber B inche, thick ,hall be not le,, than <D per cent, 0ertical grain o/ an angle o/ FM to 9D -egree, on each carloa-. Gra-e,.; he gra-e, agree- to are a, /ollow,N G$"8(@ "G$((8 9#%5 he MD per cent, o/ all l+mber 18 /eet an- longer ,hall be clear /o+r ,i-e,, ,traight graine-, not le,, than ,i3 ann+lar growth ring, /or each i inch, ,o+n- an- well man+/act+re-, /ree /rom ,hake,, ,piral an- c+rly grain. hi, gra-e will a-mit o/ bright ,ap, wane, pinworm hole,, ,light 0ariation, in ,awing, or other -e/ect, that will not impair it, +,e /or wing beam,. he MD per cent, o/ all Imnber F /eet an- longer ,hall yiel- clear c+tting,, ,traight graine-, not le,, than ,i3 ann+lar growth ring, per each 1 inch, ,o+n- an- well man+/act+re-, /ree /rom ,hake, ,piral, an- c+rly grain4 ,ome may contain knot,, pitch pocket,, wane, pinworm hole,, ,9ght 0ariation, in ,awing, an- other -e/ect, that will not impair it, +,e /or the p+rpo,e inten-e-, pro0i-ing, howe0er, that each piece m+,t pro-+ce, /or b+yer, clear ,traight grain, c+tting, /rom F-/oot to 1C-/oot length,, which ,hall not incl+-e o0er M per cent, o/ ,+ch c+tting, F /eet to C /eet, incl+,i0e. he re:+irement regar-ing the n+mber o/ ring, per inch i, the one mo,t 9kely to ca+,e tro+ble a, the nmnber o/ ring, -epen-, on whether the tree grew in goo- ,oil or poor to ,ome e3tent an- there i, plenty o/ per/ectly goo- ,pr+ce with /rom two to /oi+G ring, per inch. hi, partic+lar re:+irement will -o+btle,, ha0e to be mo-i/ie- accor-ing to the 1+-gment o/ the in,pector in or-er to obtain ,+//icient Jmaterial. @(C I%5 7II H( "I$#I"5( (5GI5( P

=hile there i, no intention to go into the -e,ign o/ engine, to any great e3tent, it i, well to ha0e a general i-ea a, to how the problem -i//er, /rom that o/ the a+tomobile engine. he two main -i//erence, are that the engine m+,t be capable o/ rimning at it, ma3imimi power /or long perio-, an- that the weight ,hall be a, light a, po,,ible, thi, 0arying /rom le,, than B to M poim-, per hor,epower. ", the a0erage a+tomobile engine +,+ally rim, at /rom 1M to BM per cent, o/ it, ma3im+m power, the -i//erence can ea,ily be imagine-. " thir- a--e- -i//ic+lty i, the lo,, o/ power -+e to high altit+-e,, which will be con,i-ere- later an- ,ome -e/inite -ata gi0en in regar- to thi, point. Ignition an- ,park-pl+g tro+ble, are al,o more /re:+ent on the airplane engine owing to thi, con,tant -eman- /or high power, an- the,e point, may well be care/+lly ,t+-ie-. here i, a con,tant ten-ency towar- higher engine ,pee-, ,o a, to increa,e the hor,epower per po+n- o/ weight, thi, nece,,itating the gearing -own o/ the propeller, which -oe, not, howe0er, ,eem to be con,i-ere- a, any ,pecial ob1ection. "ccor-ing to pre,ent practice /rom 1BMD to 1FDD ,eem, to be the be,t ,pee- /or the propeller, anmany engine, are -e,igne- /or that ,pee- ,o a, to -ri0e -irect. " n+mber, howe0er, are now being r+n at a, high a, B1DD an- there are pre-iction, /rom )rench a0iation engineer, that BMDD will probably be attaine- in the near /+t+re. hi, high ,peein0ol0e, care/+l con,i-eration o/ metal, to be +,e- an- ,+ch -etail, a, 0al0e opening, an- mani/ol- area,. he increa,e- ,pee- may re-+ce the weight per hor,epower e0en lower. "t the pre,ent time many engine, are ma-e with cylin-er, o/ ,teel either /rom t+bing or /rom /orging, an- bore- /rom the ,oli- a, in the ca,e o/ the Gnome. @ome +,e al+min+m cylin-er, an- line them with a ,teel ,lee0e, al,o bore- /rom a ,oli- /orging. Ca,t iron, howe0er, make, ,+ch a /ine bearing metal /or cylin-er,, e,pecially at high ,pee-,, that ,ome engineer, look /or it, ret+rn to /a0or in the new engine,, probably in the ,hape o/ liner, /or al+min+m cylin-er ca,ting,. he :+e,tion o/ pi,ton material i, al,o +n-er -i,p+te, al+min+m being 0ery largely +,e- b+t ca,t iron o/ high gra-e ,till hol-ing it, own e0en in ,ome o/ the lighte,t engine,. '+,t a, a ba,i, /or ,t+-y an- compari,on, it i, nece,,ary to remember that in the airplane engine, e0en at it, pre,ent ,low ,pee- o/ 1FDD, a cy9n-er appro3imately M by C inche, m+,t -eli0er abo+t <D hor,epower. he e3perience, o/ the Briti,h an- )rench /lier,, a, 0oice- by =ing Comman-er I. =. @e--on, o/ the Briti,h )lying Corp,, an- Captain Iagrange o/ the )rench "ir @er0ice, are 0ery iiitere,ting an- o/ great 0al+e. he great air problem ,eem, to be to get an o0erwhelming n+mber o/ /a,t, ,ingle-,eater, /ighting machine, ,o a, to clear the air o/ enemy /ighter,. hi, not only enable, yo+ to take yo+r o/wn ob,er0ation, in ,a/ety, b+t to keep enemy ob,er0er, away /rom yo+r line,, to pre0ent bomber, /rom attacking, an- at the ,ame time to allow yoi+G bombing machine, to attack at will. hi,, howe0er, i, not con,i-ere- to be an e//icient mo-e o/ /ighting, +nle,, yo+ can ,en- h+ge ,:+a-ron, o/ bombing machine, that can completely wipe o+t a /orti/ication or -e,troy ba,e, or troop, ma,,e- /or attack. he pre,ent practice in the /a,t /ighting machine i, to ha0e 1 hor,epower /or e0ery 1D or 1B po+n-, weight o/ machine, with the ten-ency to increa,e the power ,o a, to gi0e a hor,epower /or 8 poim-, o/ machine. hi, mean, /rom 1<D to 1MD hor,epower /or a ,mall /ighting machine. he )rench engine te,t, /or a motor o/ new -e,ign con,i,t o/ a MD-ho+r rim, -i0i-e- o0er M -ay,. here i, a M-hoi+H rim in the morning an- a ,imilar r+n in the a/ternoon. he /ir,t hal/-ho+r A

o/ each r+n i, at /+ll loa- an- the remam-er at 9D per cent, loa-, a, thi, i, all a motor -e90er, at ADDD /eet altit+-e, the power -ecrea,ing a, the machine a,cen-,. 5ew motor, o/ accepte- -e,ign are r+n /or < ho+r,, p+lle- -own an- e3amine-, rea,,emblean- r+n BD min+te,. hey are then rea-y /or ,er0ice. ())(C %) "I I 98(@ he -i//erence in temperat+re at -i//erent altit+-e, i, a problem pec+9ar to the airplane motor. he low temperat+re o/ a high altit+-e cool, the motor e3ce,,i0ely at time,, anthi, i, partic+larly ba- when -i0ing /rom abo0e to catch an enemy beneath. ", the motor i, ,h+t o// to -i0e, the water cool, ,till more, in ,pite o/ the -ecrea,ing altit+-e4 anwhen yo+ throw on power again at the new /ighting le0el, yo+ ha0e a comparati0ely colmotor that i, not li0ely an- will not -e0elop the power yo+ wo+l- 9ke at that partic+lar moment. @ome o/ the problem, in0ol0e- in the -e0elopment o/ engine, o/ thi, type are ,+mme+p by #ro/. Charle, (. I+cke a, /ollow,N he #roblem o/ "irplane-engine 8e,ign he problem o/ the airplane engine appeal, ,trongly to e0ery engineer beca+,e it i, a problem o/ the lighte,t power plant. he lighte,t weight o/ engine proper per hor,epower i, to be ,ec+re- /ir,t by obtaining ma3im+m mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re at ma3im+m ,pee-N in other wor-,, the pro-+ct o/ the mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re an- the ,pee- m+,t be a ma3im+m. "t the ,ame time the weight o/ metal per cylin-er, or per c+bic inch o/ cylin-er -i,placement per working ,troke m+,t be a minim+m;an- with both o/ the,e /actor, the engine m+,t be reliable in operation. @o /ar, thi, reliability /actor ha, been weake,t, tho+gh lightne,, ha, been ,ec+re- in engine, goo- /or ,hort perio-, o/ r+nning. 5ot only m+,t the metal weight o/ engine per hor,epower be a minim+m, b+t in a--ition the /+el weight to be carrie- m+,t al,o be a minim+m beca+,e, a, can rea-ily be ,een, the /+el weight nece,,ary /or /light, o/ any length pre-ominate, o0er the engine weight. )or e3ampieN taking '2 po+n- o/ /+el an- oil per ho+r per hor,epower a, a /air 0al+e, it i, rea-ily ,een how :+ickly that will catch +p on engine weight when the latter i, F or M po+n-, per hor,epower. In +n-ertaking an analy,i, o/ the airplane-engine problem /rom the recor-,, the only concl+,ion that can be -rawn i, along the line o/ type. 8ata are almo,t entirely lacking. %n the :+e,tion o/ general engine type,, attention might be calle- to a /ew point,N he air-coole- motor ha, entirely /aile- in compari,on with the water-coolemotor;2the rea,on, are per/ectly ,o+n- an- ,ec+re. he two-cycle engine ha, gi0en way to the /o+r-cycle type. )i3e- cylin-er, ha0e pre0aile- o0er rotating cylin-er,. %-- cylin-er arrangement, o/ :+eer, /reaky /orm, ha0e all been relegate- to the ,crap heap in /a0or o/ a /ew mo-ern arrangement,. he ,tan-ar- cylin-er arrangement, o/ to-ay, which are the ,+r0i0or, o/ what may be calle- the in0enti0e perio-, or at lea,t the /ir,t in0enti0e perio-, are the ,i3 an- eight cylin-er, in line an- the eight, twel0e an- ,i3teen 7,. It really appear, there/ore that the one 0al+able re,+lt o/ all o+r e3perience ha, been the ,election o/ a /ew typical arrangement, which we are now compelle- to ,t+-y, a, min+tely a, circ+m,tance, permit, /or the p+rpo,e o/ ,tan-ar-i>ing an- mechanically

per/ecting the,e partic+lar type, a, ,tan-ar- machine, whichJ will r+n a, reliably a, o+r ,tationary engine, an- which can be man+/act+re- a, economically. aking +p each o/ the /actor, o/ airplane-engine -e,ign that ,eem important, in a, ,peci/ic a way a, ,eem, proper, the /ir,t one I wi,h to con,i-er i, the 0al+e o/ e//iciency an- the relation o/ e//iciency to minim+m weight. #lotting ho+r, o/ r+nning a, ab,ci,,ae again,t weight o/ engine, with /+el an- oil, a, or-inate,, /or the air-coole- an- the water-coole- type, o/ motor, re,pecti0ely, ,o that the intercept on the 0ertical a3i, repre,ent, the weight o/ engine metal alone, an- the or-inate, away /rom the a3i, repre,ent the weight o/ metal pl+, /+el an- oil, one /in-, that the two c+r0e, cro,, at ,ome perio- o/ r+nning beyon- which, there/ore, the watercoole- hea0ier engine, beca+,e o/ it, lower /+el con,+mption, become, lighter in compari,on. =eight o/ "ir an- =ater-coole- (ngine, he metal weight o/ the water-coole- motor i, abo+t one an- one-hal/ time, that o/ the air-coole- motor, an- the ,lope o/ the combine-weight line o/ the latter compare- with that o/ the /ormer i, a, two i, to one;2that i, to ,ayN the con,+mption o/ the air-coole- motor i, appro3imately twice that o/ the watercoole- motor. he,e /act, are re,pon,ible /or the cro,,ing o/ the line,. %/ the con-ition, /or e//iciency which bear +pon thi, :+e,tion o/ /+el weight, an- which ha0e le- to the ,election o/ the water-coole- motor a, a type, the /ir,t i, the compre,,ion. he higher the compre,,ion the higher the e//iciency, an- there i, no limit +ntil preignition occ+r,. @tatement, will be /o+n- in te3tbook, to the e//ect that there i, a limit, b+t they are the re,+lt, o/ mi,take, in interpretation, an- are erroneo+,. he amo+nt o/ compre,,ion po,,ible i, limite-, howe0er, by the metal temperat+re an- by the temperat+re o/ the mi3t+re a, a-mitte-. 5at+rally the warmer the mi3t+re -+ring ,+ction, the ,ooner it reache, ignition temperat+re by compre,,ion. here/ore, ,+ction heating i, a limit. "gain, the interior metal temperat+re, i/ it i, high Ka, it i, alway,L, may ca+,e tro+ble by contact with the mi3t+re -+ring compre,,ion, an- ,ome portion o/ the mi3t+re may be bro+ght to it, ignition temperat+re by hot-wall contact long be/ore the main ma,, i, bro+ght to thi, ignition temperat+re by compre,,ion alone. It re:+ire, only one ,+ch hot ,pot to wreck a well-lai- plan. he ne3t /actor in e//iciency i, the mi3t+re :+ality, an- in thi, there are the /ollowing controlling element,N /ir,t, mi3t+re proportion,. "ny e3ce,, /+el mean, -irect wa,te, b+t it al,o mean, carboni>ation an- /o+ling. (3ce,, air :+ickly make, the mi3t+re practically non-b+rnable. here/ore, mi3t+re proportion, m+,t be acc+rately controlle-;more acc+rately than i, po,,ible with any e3i,ting carb+reter. Carb+reter, are not yet ,ati,/actory, an- a, ,oon a, ,ati,/actory carb+reter, are ,ec+re- /rom the ,tan-point o/ proportionality o/ the mi3t+re, we may e3pect to ,ee a /+rther re-+ction in /i el con,+mption an- more reliable operation. 8ryne,, o/ mi3t+re i, a matter o/ coor-inate importance with mi3t+re proportion,. =hen mi3t+re, are wet, that i, not completely 0apori>e-, the air an- /+el cannot be +ni/ormly -i,trib+te- to the 0ario+, cylin-er, by the mani/ol- ,y,tem. %ne cylin-er will get a -i//erent charge /rom another, a, can be ea,ily pro0e- by pre,,+re gage,. here are rarely two cylin-er, alike a, to ma3im+m pre,,+re, on a m+lticylin-er engine +,ing wet mi3t+re,. 8rying o/ the mi3t+re will c+re that /a+lt, an- al,o c+re the carboni>ation that come, /rom the 0apori>ation o/ the

li:+i- in the pre,ence o/ the b+rning ga, when it ha, been a-mitte- to the cylin-er in a li:+i- ,tate. he thir- /actor o/ the mi3t+re :+e,tion i, homogeneity. Howe0er acc+rately the mi3t+re may be a-1+,te- a, to /+el an- air ratio, howe0er care/+lly the mi3t+re may be -i,trib+te-, cylin-er to cylin-er, the /act remain, that, in or-er to pro-+ce economical re,+lt,, the charge in any one cylin-er m+,t beH +ni/orm in e0ery c+bic inch o/ it. It i, not ,+//icient that the right amo+nt o/ air be in the cylin-er e0en i/ the /+el i, 0apori>ewhen the latter i, a9 in one corner. )ollowing mi3t+re :+ality, the ne3t /actor in e//iciency i, rate o/ /lame propagation with re/erence to pi,ton ,pee-. It can be ,hown that the e3plo,ion line o/ the in-icator car/ollowing compre,,ion mi,t be maintaine- 0ertical /or ma3im+m e//iciency. 5ow, the rate o/ propagation i, the one /actor that ten-, to hol- it 0ertical. I/ the propagation rate i, high eno+gh /or a gi0en pi,ton ,pee-, ,o that the e3plo,ion line i, 0ertical, the e//iciency will be high. B+t ,ho+l- the pi,ton ,pee- e3cee- a certain 0al+e, then the e3plo,ion line will begin to lean towar- the e3pan,ion line, +ntil by an- by it become, hori>ontal an- merge, into the e3pan,ion line, with a con,e:+ent large lo,, o/ work area an- low e//iciency or high /+el con,+mption. here/ore, there i, /or e0ery gi0en mi3t+re a limiting pi,ton ,pee- that cannot be e3cee-e- witho+t -e,troying e//iciency, an- we are now approaching that ,pee- in airplane engine,. #re,,+re an- @peehe ne3t relate- /actor, are mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re, an- ,pee-. he,e are the prime /actor /or the o+tp+t o/ a cylin-er. I/ the mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re were con,tant, then hor,epower with re/erence to ,peewo+l- /ollow a ,traight line. he mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re i, not con,tant a, the ,pee0arie,, howe0er. here/ore, plotting hor,epower again,t ,pee- gi0e, a c+r0e ha0ing the general /orm o/ conca0e -ownwar- an- con,i,ting o/ ,e0eral ,eparate portion,, each worthy o/ ,t+-y. here i, +,+ally a ,traight portion o0er a gi0en ,pee- range, -+ring which the mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re i, con,tant. )or lower ,pee-, the mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re i, lower, an- /or higher ,pee-, the mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re i, again lower. )rom the point where, with increa,ing ,pee-, the ,traight line become, a conca0e-ownwar- c+r0e, the mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re i, -ecrea,ing a, ,pee- increa,e,, +ntil at the point where the tangent to the c+r0e become, hori>ontal, the rate o/ inwea,e o/ ,pee- i, e3actly e:+al to the rate o/ -ecrea,e o/ mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re. "t a little higher ,pee- mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re -ecrea,e, /a,ter than ,pee- increa,e,, an/inally the c+r0e -rop, -own towar- >ero power. @o m+ch /or the /act,. "n analytical engineer cannot be content with tho,e /act,, howe0er, b+t /in-, it nece,,ary i/ he i, to apply a c+re to go behin- the /act, to a,certain the rea,on,. he /ir,t ,tep in -oing that i, to -etermine the 0ol+metric e//iciency o/ the engine by mea,+ring the air an- /+el, an- comparing the total 0ol+me o/ mi3t+re taken in, with the pi,ton -i,placement. I/ the 0ol+metric e//iciency be plotte- again,t the ,pee-, m+ch light i, thrown on the ,it+ation. In the /ir,t place, the 0ol+metric e//iciency /all, o// in the region o/ 0ery low ,pee-, where the mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re i, low4 it i, con,tant o0er the region o/ con,tant mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re, where the hor,epower ,pee- line i, ,traight, an- then at ,ome high ,pee- it again -ecrea,e,. It i, clear, there/ore, that c+r0at+re o/ the hor,epower-,pee- line i, -+e to a corre,pon-ing 0ariation o/ 0ol+metric e//iciency. It may be /o+n-, howe0er, that at ,ome high ,pee- the hor,epower-,pee- line /all, be/ore the 0ol+metric e//iciency. hi, call, attention to the /act that the /alling o// o/ mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re at high ,pee-, may not be -+e

primarily to 0ol+metric e//iciency b+t to other ca+,e,, an- recognition o/ thi, ,tart, a ,earch /or tho,e ca+,e,. he /ir,t o/ the,e ca+,e, i, too ,low a comb+,tion, or too high a pi,ton ,pee-. hat i, to be correcte- by a--ing an a--itional ignition ,o+rce, or by mo0ing the ,park pl+g /rom a ,i-e wall to a center point. Igniting at more than one point or at a more central point will c+re thi, -e/ect, an- again ca+,e the -ropping point, o/ both hor,epower-,pee- an0ol+metric e//iciency-,pee- c+r0e, to lie on the ,ame ,pee- line. "gain, it will be /o+n- that a change in the 0al0e ,etting change, thi, mean-e//ecti0epre,,+re c+r0e at both en-,, b+t e0ery change in the 0al0e ,etting al,o change, the mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re, an- the 0ol+metric e//iciency i, it,el/ the -irect mea,+re o/ whether or not one ha, the be,t 0al0e ,etting. 5ow, it i, c+rio+, that mo,t people ha0e playe- with cam, an- a-1+,te- them back an/orwar- by g+e,,e,, an- ha0e ne0er bothere- abo+t the air meter, which i, the only po,iti0e mean, o/ arri0ing at be,t cam /orm, an- 0al0e timing /or ,+,taine- mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re at high ,pee-,. Many more analy,e, along the abo0e line, co+l- be gi0en, b+t eno+gh ha, been ,ai- to call attention to thi, mo,t important mean, o/ ,t+-ying the problem o/ ma3im+m power at high ,pee-, not only re0ealing what i, the matter b+t pointing o+t clearly the -irection in which to correct the /a+lt. @o m+ch /or e//iciency an- mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re, or e//iciency an- hor,epower per c+bic /oot o/ cylin-er. ho,e two /actor, bear -irectly on the /+el weight to be carriean- the o+tp+t per c+bic /oot o/ cylin-er. =hat will be the weight o/ that c+bic /oot o/ cylin-er[ hi, ha, to be 1+-ge- both by :+alitati0e an- :+antitati0e analy,i,. It i, impo,,ible to gi0e any :+antitati0e analy,i, witho+t long mathematical treatment, ,o I will +n-ertake only the :+alitati0e analy,i,. he /ir,t point in :+alitati0ely analy>ing +nit metal weight o/ the m+lticylin-er engine i, to recogni>e that the engine can be -i0i-e- laterally by plane, into ,ection, o/ one cylin-er each. he en- ,ection, are the ,ame a, each other, b+t are -i//erent /rom the interme-iate ,ection,. here/ore, to ,t+-y :+alitati0ely the relati0e weight, o/ two typical con,tr+ction,, the min- m+,t be concentrate- +pon the,e ,ection,, each one o/ which incl+-e, a cylin-er, a piece o/ /rame, a piece o/ ,ha/t an- the other part, that go with the ,ection. #o,ition op Cylin-er, )rom thi, point o/ 0iew, con,i-er m+ltiplication o/ cylin-er, in line 0,. ra-ially or circ+m/erentially. It will appear that the weight o/ the cylin-er, pi,ton an- connecting ro-, i, 1+,t the ,ame no matter how the cylin-er, are arrange-, b+t the /rame weight an,ha/t weight are re-+ce- by any m+ltiplication. It i, clear al,o that, other thing, being e:+al, the lighter arrangement i, circ+m/erential rather than longit+-inal m+ltiplication. 5ow, going back to the hi,tory o/ the ,it+ation, we /in- e0ery concei0able combination ha, been trie-, b+t the,e ha0e /inally cry,talli>e- to not more than two kin-,, gi0ing the 7-type engine an- the engine with cylin-er, in line. Con,i-ering the e//ect o/ cylin-er -iameter +pon +nit metal weight, it will appear that /rom the +nit weight ,tan-point the cylin-er -iameter ,ho+l- be a, large a, po,,ible, beca+,e the wall thickne,, o/ a cylin-er i, alway, greater than nece,,ary /or the ,tre,, /or other ,tr+ct+ral

rea,on,. " //eH222 cylin-er o/ ,teel will not be ,tre,,e- o0er, ,ay, 1D,DDD po+n-, per ,:+are inch. he cylin-er co+l- be ma-e m+ch thinner than thi, an- ,till ha0e a gooworking ,tre,, i/ there were not other ,tr+ct+ral ob1ection, to it. hi, being the ca,e, the larger the cylin-er /or a c+bic /oot o/ -i,placement the le,, the +nit metal weight in the wall, an- the only limit to large -iameter i, goo- r+nning. Con,i-ering the ,troke, a, thi, i, increa,e- the metal in the cylin-er pile, +p en-wi,e, or a3ially, too /a,t with re/erence to 0ol+me, an- there/ore /or minim+m +nit metal weight, the ,horter the ,troke the better. In proportion, we are +,ing, normally, ,horter ,troke, in aerona+tical motor, than in a+tomobile engine, /or that rea,on. "gain, a, a//ecting the metal weight, we ha0e the connecting ro- length. Clearly, the ,horter the connecting ro- the ,horter the /rame, an- there/ore the more metal ,a0e-. he only ob1ection to the ,horter connecting ro- i, an e3ce,,i0e ang+larity, which intro-+ce, ,tre,,e, re:+iring metal thickening in other place,. he n+mber o/ cylin-er, ,ho+l- be a, large a, po,,ible +p to the point where the weight o/ the connecting part, ha, to be increa,e-. " two-cylin-er engine ha, le,, than twice the weight per c+bic /oot o/ -i,placement than a ,ingle-cylin-er, /or the rea,on that the n+mber o/ en- ,+pport, /or the ,ha/t, etc., i, not increa,e-. @imilarly a three-cylin-er ha, le,, than three time,, a /o+r-cylin-er le,, than /o+r time,, an- ,o on4 an- the weight per c+bic /oot o/ -i,placement get, le,, an- le,, +ntil a certain n+mber o/ cylin-er,;,omewhere abo+t ,i3;2i, reache- where the ,ha/t -iameter an- the weight o/ the /rame m+,t be increa,e- ,o a, to retain the nece,,ary ,ti//ne,,, where+pon the ,a0ing in weight by m+ltiplication i, ne+trali>e-. hi, appear, to be abo+t the limit o/ ,a0ing by line m+ltiplication. he metal weight per c+bic /oot o/ cylin-er -i,placement ha, to be taken +p along the line, in-icate-, e3ten-ing the ,t+-y to the /orm 0,, weight o/ each in-i0i-+al member. It will appear, a, one e3amine, the /orm, o/ the,e in-i0i-+al member,, that one /orm i, clearly ,+,ceptible o/ le,, weight than another;e0en with the ,ame working ,tre,,e, or with e:+al /actor, o/ ,a/ety. he /ir,t o/ the,e ,t+-ie, ,ho+l- be +n-ertaken with re/erence to cylin-er,. he /ir,t cylin-er, b+ilt were ma-e o/ ca,t iron, with hea-, cylin-er an- 1acket ca,t in one piece, an- the 0al0e, being arrange- in a ,i-e pocket;2the or-inary - or I-heacon,tr+ction. It i, clear that the weight o/ the 0a'0e pocket i, -etrimental. he /ir,t ,tep in any cylin-er-weight re-+ction, then, i, to take that pocket away, retaining the ca,t cylin-er Kon the a,,+mption that we -o not know how to make any other kin-L an- p+tting the 0al0e in the hea-. hi, re,+lt, in the 0al0e-in-hea- con,tr+ction, which i, now practically +ni0er,al, b+t which, ,trange to ,ay, it took A or C year, to reali>e. " ,imilar in,tance o/ ,low reali>ation o/ /act, e3i,t, with re/erence to the ca,t-iron 1acket wall, which ha, no other /+nction than to hol- water. Ca,t iron /or that p+rpo,e, e,pecially in an airplane engine, i, wa,te/+l.o/ material, ,o the ne3t ,tep i, to get ri- o/ the ca,t iron. =hen one ,top, to think how it i, to be -one, a ,tr+ct+ral -i//ic+lty become, apparent, an- there/ore one m+,t not too rea-ily con-emn the hol-ing on to the ca,t-iron 1acket. he -i//ic+lty i, o/ co+r,e the nece,,ity o/ pro0i-ing opening, /or the intake or o+tlet /rom each 0al0e, an igniter pl+g hole an- at lea,t two pipe connection, /or the 1acket, an- in an aerona+tical engine +n-er hea0y ,tre,, there i, ,ome -ri0ing gear which re:+ire, /a,tening,. hi, nat+rally ten-, towar- the +,e o/ a ca,ting.

@+ppo,e ,+ch a ca,ting i, +,e-, with inlet an- one e3ha+,t 0al0e each with a port lea-ing o+t, an- ,+ch 0al0e ,eating in .the hea- which t+rn, -own to /orm the cylin-er4 then the ca,ting may be le- aro+n- the top, /orming the enclo,+re o/ the hea- 1acket an- 1oining the ,e0eral o+tlet, an- coming -own o+t,i-e the cylin-er. he cylin-er-hea- 1acket ca,ting en-, in the /orm o/ a ,kirt at abo+t the le0el o/ the 0al0e -eck, an- to thi, en- a t+be 1acket can be a--e- by any one o/ ,e0eral po,,ible /a,tening,. hat i, the ne3t ,tepN ca,t iron /or the cylin-er,, hea- an- hea- 1acket in a one-piece ca,ting, b+t with ,heet metal /or the 1acket o0er the cylin-rical barrel. It i, a logical ,tep, b+t it took ,e0eral year, to reach it 1+,t the ,ame.

Y $e-+cing the =eight #rocee-ing along the ,ame line o/ weight re-+ction, the ne3t ,tep i, to c+t away thi, ca,t iron 1oining the en-, o/ the port, an- /orming the wall o/ the hea- 1acket, an- ,+b,tit+te ,heet metal wel-e- to the port, by the o3ygen wel-ing ,y,tem. =here0er there are connection, to be ma-e /or attachment o/ gear,, there m+,t be ,ome a--itional ,+pport, wel-e- or bra>e- on. he ca,t-iron cylin-er i, ,tiZ there, an- with ca,t-iron port,. here i, a /+n-amental ob1ection to a ca,t-iron cylin-er /or aerona+tical work, an- it i, a per/ectly 0ali- one. Ca,t-iron cylin-er, -o not ha0e to be 0ery thick to be amply ,trong, ,o /ar a, the ga,-pre,,+re ,tre,,e, are concerne-, b+t the /act remain, that ,o long a, they are ca,t iron, no one know, whether they are goo- ca,t iron in,i-e or not, an- the ca,t iron c+t -own to 2 inch in thickne,, inc+r, taking ,ome chance,. Hence attention i, t+rne- towar- ,teel. 8rawn ,teel or /orge- ,teel i, a reliable material an- a logical ,election, ,o -e,igner, ha0e ,o+ght mean, o/ +,ing it4 b+t when one ,top, to think how to +,e a -rawn-,teel t+be /or a cylin-er, an- get the nece,,ary attachment, on it, one ,oon recogni>e, that the matter i, not ,o ea,y a, it look,. hat i, the rea,on the a-option o/ the ,teel cylin-er wa, ,o long -elaye-. here are now ,e0eral ,cheme, -e0elope- /or ,teel cylin-er,. he /ir,t o/ the,e i, a ,teel cylin-er o/ a -rawn t+be /orme- witho+t a hea-, ,crewe- into a ,eparate hea- carrying the port, an- the hea- 1acket ca,t in one piece. hi, i, rather a ,ati,/actory way o/ attaching a hea-, b+t it in0ol0e, more than one -i//ic+lty. =hen ,+ch a ,crewe- hea- i, ,et +p again,t the ,ho+l-er, it i, not at all clear 1+,t where it i, going to ,top4 an- to ,ec+re the proper po,ition one m+,t either ,crape the /ace, or F,him them;neither o/ which i, a nice 1ob. " /+rther ob1ection i, the con,i-erable weight o/ the ca,t iron in a rather complicate- ca,ting, an- al,o the inner wall o/ that ca,t iron i, a ,tre,, wa9, the ,tre,, o/ which m+,t pa,, thro+gh the threa- to the cylin-er. here i, no ob1ection to +,ing a ca,ting i/ it i, not ,tre,,e-, b+t a ca,ting +n-er ,tre,, i, not ,ati,/actory an- i, to be retaine- only in the ab,ence o/ ,omething better. Complete elimination o/ ca,ting, ha, been trie- by +,ing all ,teel an- ,heet metal wel-e- together, b+t thi, -i- not pro0e ,ati,/actory /or a 0ery intere,ting rea,on. " /lat ,heet-metal hea- on which the 0al0e, are ,eate- will not remain /lat, an- a ro+n- 0al0e ,eat will not ,tay ro+n-. @+ch ,heet metal ten-, to warp o+t o/ ,hape, an- with it the 0al0e, will not ,tay tight. Howe0er, the material -oe, not break, which i, ,omething worthy o/ tho+ght. o eliminate the wel- between the ,teel cylin-er an- hea-, another con,tr+ction wa, -e0elope-. In thi,, a ,eamle,, -rawn-,teel ,hell with hea- 1+,t like a cartri-ge i, +,e-, an- two hole, are arrange- in the hea- to ,eat the 0al0e,. It i, e0i-ent that thi, i, a ,tr+ct+re which i, ,o+nagain,t all kin-, o/ ,tre,,e,. It ,till ha, ,ome o/ the -i//ic+ltie, o/ warping the ,eat,, ca+,ing leakage o/ the 0al0e,4 an- when a 0al0e leak, the amo+nt o/ heat -e0elope- i, tremen-o+,. %nce a 0al0e ,tart, to leak, it i, only a :+e,tion o/ a ,hort time be/ore it will be completely -e,troye-. he partic+lar con,tr+ction o/ cylin-er 1+,t -e,cribe- i, rather -i//ic+lt to attach to it, 1acket port,. It i, intere,ting to note one ca,e at lea,t in which a ,ati,/actory attachment ha, been worke- o+t, an- that i, the Hi,pano-@+i>a engine, now +,e- on the (+ropean war /ront, an- now al,o being b+ilt in thi, co+ntry. In thi, partic+lar engine the entire o+t,i-e o/ the cylin-er i, threa-e-, an- the cylin-er, are ,crewe- into an al+min+m

ca,ting which i, -o+ble-walle- 1+,t like the ca,t-iron block ca,ting o/ an a+tomobile engine. he threa- per/orm, the -o+ble p+rpo,e o/ hol-ing the cylin-er in place anbringing it, hea- +p again,t the al+min+m ca,t hea- which carrie, the port,, an- al,o acting2la, a thermal bri-ge between the metal o/ the cylin-er an- the metal o/ the al+min+m ca,ting which carrie, the 1acket water. =itho+t the latter there wo+l- be poor thermal contact an- o0erheating o/ the cylin-er. =hile thi, con,tr+ction i, not entirely ,ati,/actory, it i, ne0erthele,, 0ery intere,ting an- ,+gge,ti0e. It imme-iately call, attention to the /act that a water 1acket may be ma-e o/ an al+min+m ca,ting an- the port, /orme- 1+,t a, ea,ily a, in iron, the ,teel interior carrying the ,tre,, -+e to the interior ga, pre,,+re,. It i,, howe0er, :+ite /ea,ible to get ri- o/ the -o+ble al+min+m wall -own along the cylin-er barrel into which thi, ,teel cylin-er i, place- an- which carrie, the port, abo0e, by lea0ing o+t it, interior wall an- retaining the o+t,i-e, or e0en by ,topping the wall 1+,t below the hea- a, a ,kirt to take a ,hort thin t+be which may it,el/ be o/ al+min+m, en-ing at the bottom in a ca,t ,t+//ing-bo3 ring to act a, a 1oint again,t the ,teel cylin-er. hat, ,o /ar a, I know, repre,ent, the la,t wor- in thi, -irection, the ,teel cylin-er hea- being bolte- +p to the al+min+m hea--port ca,ting at the 0al0e ,eat ba,e,, an- not 1+,t pre,,e- +p again,t it by a remote threa-. he "ll-,teel Cylin-er )inally, there i, to be note- the one-piece ,teel-/orging con,tr+ction /or cylin-er, cylin-er hea-, port, an- ignition hole,, ,+rro+n-e- by a ,heet-metal wel-e- 1acket, a 0ery ,ati,/actory tho+gh e31Len,i0e con,tr+ction. he,e hea-, are them,el0e, a ,+b1ect o/ con,i-erable ,t+-y. =e ha0e /ir,t a plain heain which the 0al0e in,i-e -iameter i, hal/ the cylin-er le,, the wi-th o/ ,eat, an- hal/ the bri-ge between the 0al0e,. Both 0al0e, ha0e ,tem, pointing +pwar- an- parallel. he plain cylin-er, then, which can be ma-e o/ a plain ,eamle,,--rawn ,teel cartri-ge, anwhich i, ,o -e,irable ,tr+ct+rally, limit, 0al0e -iameter, an- thi, i, a /actor again,t it. 7al0e -iameter i, a ,trong in/l+ence in 0ol+metric e//iciency an- weight o/ charge, controlling, a, it -oe,, /low-re,i,tance con-ition,. 5at+rally, -e,igner, m+,t get the 0ol+metric e//iciency a, high a, po,,ible by keeping /low re,i,tance a, low a, po,,ible. here/ore, the ten-ency i, to go towar- larger 0al0e, than i, po,,ible with the pre0io+, arrangement. %ne 0ariation in /orm /or thi, p+rpo,e i, the /lat b+lge- hea- where the 0al0e -iameter i, larger than be/ore by the amo+nt o/ the b+lge. he /lat b+lge- hea- i, a 0ery -e,irable thing /or larger 0ol+metric e//iciency an- higher mean e//ecti0e pre,,+re, b+t o//er, ,ome -i//ic+lty in man+/act+re when one i, making a one-piece ,eamle,, -rawn-,teel 1ob, b+t not a ,erio+, -i//ic+lty. "nother ,+gge,tion /or getting the ,ame re,+lt i, to b+lge thi, hea- +pwar- in the /orm o/ two /lat, an- p+t the 0al0e, on the two incline,. It i, per/ectly clear that a 0ery large increa,e in -iameter can be ,ec+re- in thi, way. he 0al0e ,tem, in thi, ca,e are not parallel b+t -i0erge at any angle an- the limit i, reache- when the angle i, 18D -egree,, in which ca,e they are hori>ontal. he :+e,tion o/ block arrangement o/ cylin-er, an- their 1acket, 0,. ,eparate +nit,, -e,er0e, ,ome attention. In ,ome ca,e, each cylin-er with it, 1acket an- hea- i, entirely ,eparate. In other ca,e, the 1acket, are ca,t or wel-e- in a block /orm, aro+n- more than one cylin-er; ,ometime, two an- ,ometime, /o+r, an- in ,ome ca,e, ,i3. It i, clear that the more cylin-er, incl+-e- in the 1acket block, the le,, will be the weight o/ the 1acket, beca+,e the length o/ the tangent to two 1acket circle, i, le,, than a hal/ circ+m/erence.

B+t there are ob1ection, to the block, an- in ,ome ca,e, it may not pay to +,e it. In a ca,e in point, a ca,t-al+min+m block 1acket wa, ,et -own o0er /o+r ,teel cylin-er, which were bolte- to the /rame by their +,+al /lange, an- ,t+-,. he,e cylin-er, ga0e tro+ble on the o+ter /lange,, the en- ,t+-, breaking o// or p+lling o+t. he tro+ble wa, ca+,e- by the crank-ca,e r+nning hot, e3pan-ing4 an- the al+min+m-block cylin-er ca,ting r+nning cool, beca+,e it wa, water-1ackete-, not e3pan-ing. he cylin-er, being bent inwar- tore the ,t+- en-, right o+t. "nother pointN the ,teel cylin-er i, nat+rally /le3ible, an- it belong,; in /act the entire motor belong,;to that cla,, o/ ,tr+ct+re, which ,ho+l- properly be terme- /le3ible, e3actly ,imilar to bri-ge ,tr+ct+re,. he,e /le3ible motor, wea0e 1+,t a, the engine o/ a ,team,hip wea0e,. o attempt to hol- one again,t ,pringing i, to attempt what i, practically impo,,ible. he cylin-er, o/ airplane engine, ,ho+l- all be per/ectly /ree to go a, they will, an- not be hel- on the top in any way. "ll the block arrangement, o/ cylin-er, o/ the ,ort 1+,t -e,cribe-, are there/ore ob1ectionable. @teel cylin-er, ha0e a nat+ral ,pring an- gi0e to them, an- i/ let alone they will ,er0e well, b+t attempting to ,ec+re them may re,+lt in ,erio+, -i,tortion,, or in highly locali>e- e3ce,, ,tre,,e,. #rocee-ing in the ,ame :+alitati0ely analytical ,tyle, the complete paper take, +p ,+cce,,i0ely the problem, o/ the pi,ton, 0al0e,, 0al0e gear,, /rame, etc., in-icating how a gra-+al reali>ation o/ con-ition, ha, le- to mo-i/ication, o/ -e,ign, an- pointing o+t /actor, not e0en yet con,i-ere- an- making ,+gge,tion, /or meeting them. )or in,tance, in connection with the 0al0e, the a+thor make, a thermal ,t+-y o/ the problem which, he ,ay,, ha, not been +n-ertaken by anyone in the ,hop,. He -oe, the ,ame /or the pi,ton, an- the crankca,e he analy>e, /rom it, con,i-eration a, a ,tre,, member. he paper ,+m, +p with the pointe- ,tatement that the aerona+tical engine i, emerging /rom the ,tage o/ in0ention to the ,tage o/ -e,ign4 a, a light, high-ten,ione- ,teel ,tr+ct+re, con,i,ting o/ ,eamle,, t+bing an- /orge- or wel-e- ,teel part,, po,,ibly /orme- in -rop-/orge -ie,. "-- to that ,teel ,tre,, ,tr+ct+re certain member,, ,+ch a, the pi,ton, e3ha+,t 0al0e an- g+i-e, -e,igne- primarily /or heat-/low con-ition, an- not /or ,tre,,e,. "-- to that again certain clo,ing member,, ,+ch a, the port, /or the intake an- e3ha+,t, which can be 0ery properly ca,t in al+min+m4 an- the oil crankca,e clo,+re, which can be ma-e o/ any -e,ire- material,. ())(C %) "I I 98( %5 H( H%$@(#%=($ %) " G"@%II5( (5GI5( here are two ,o+rce, o/ power lo,, in a motor operating at high altit+-e,. %ne i, the -irect lo,, in hor,epower -+e to the lower :+antity o/ /+el in a gi0en 0ol+me an- the ,econ- i, an in-irect lo,, -+e to the -rop in compre,,ion. he hor,epower lo,, -+e to the ,econ- ca+,e will not be con,i-ere-. #i j compre,,ion at ,ea le0el. #t j compre,,ion at -e,ire- le0el. "i j atmo,pheric pre,,+re at ,ea le0el.

"i j atmo,pheric pre,,+re at -e,ire- le0el. Hi j hor,epower at ,ea le0el. Hi ; hor,epower at -e,ire- le0el. #1 Hi o maintain the ,ea-le0el compre,,ion at 0ario+, altit+-e, abo0e ,ea le0el the compre,,ion ratio m+,t be increa,e- by a /actor which 0arie, with the altit+-e. p2j"iKi-y ) j /actor. 7 ; total cylin-er 0ol+me, incl+-ing compre,,ion ,pace. #l ; "i$2 7i ; compre,,ion ,pace. #i j "t K) $LJ2 ) n Y .Y "i$22"ii)$L2 ff j Qg j compre,,ion ratio. a [n ` 1 -"i it K)$L&j"B "I j atmo,pheric pre,,+re at ,ea le0el. n n ff n2l"i "B j atmo,pheric pre,,+re at -e,ire- le0el. `"1 #l j compre,,ion pre,,+re at ,ea le0el. p ; 21-2i n j logarithmic e3ponent. `"1 "/ter the compre,,ion ratio ha, been increa,e- accor-ing to -iagram F, )ig M8", itwill be nece,,ary to increa,e the -i,placement o/ the engine i/ it i, -e,ire- to maintain the ,ea-le0el hor,epower at 0ario+, altit+-e,. 8i j -i,placement at ,ea le0el. 8B ; 8i f 8i f 2 8B j -i,placement nece,,ary to maintain J2 H2 power at -e,ire- le0el. "i j atmo,pheric pre,,+re at ,ea le0el. "i j atmo,pheric pre,,+re at -e,ire- le0el. 8B ; 8i f per cent, o/ 8i which m+,t be 8i a--e- to it,el/ to gi0e 8. 8i e "1 ())(C %) "I I 98( %5 (5GI5(@ %ne o/ the point, in which airplane engine, -i//er /rom tho,e +,e- in any other ,er0ice i, the e//ect o/ altit+-e +pon the per/ormance o/ the engine. hi, a/)ect, the compre,,ion o/ the engine, ,n- with it the power which can be -eli0ere-, an- it al,o a//ect, the cooling water in the ra-iator, a, the boiling point o/ water

Ri,@(iMi@ I [ 1D It 1G

)io. M8a.;(//ect o/ altit+-e oN -rop, gra-+ally a, the altit+-e increa,e,. he two -iagram, 1 an- B, )ig. M@a, ,how how the boiling point -rop, an- al,o the way in which the atmo,pheric pre,,+re gra-+ally -ecrea,e,. he e//ect o/ altit+-e on the hor,epower o/ the engine i, ,hown in the three table, which /ollow. 8iagram < ,how, the -ecrea,e o/ hor,epower +p to 1M,DDD /eet, at which point it i, ,een to be a tri/le o0er MA per cent, o/ the hor,epower -e0elope- at ,ea le0el. 8iagram F ,how, how the compre,,ion ratio m+,t be increa,e- with the altit+-e in or-er to maintain the ,ame hor,epower a, at ,ea le0el. hi, i, gi0en /or three -i//erent /actor,, or -i//erent 0al+e, /or n. h+, /or an ele0ation o/ 1M,DDD /eet the /actor m+,t be increa,e1.A time,. B+t e0en i/ we increa,e the compre,,ion it will al,o be nece,,ary to increa,e the -i,placement or cylin-er capacity i/ we -e,ire to maintain the ,ame hor,epower a, at ,ea le0el. he amo+nt o/ thi, -i,placement increa,e- i, ,hown in -iagram M, all o/ the,e table, being a+thori>e- by the @. ". (. @(C I%5 7III H( C9$ I@@ (5GI5( here are ,o many C+rti,, engine, in +,e, both in training machine, an- in other ,er0ice that the /ollowing ,+gge,tion,, a+thori>e- by the C+rti,, "eroplane _ Motor Corporation are likely to be /o+n- 0ery +,e/+l. =hile the,e re/er e,pecially to their wellknown %E or 9D-hor,epower engine, they will apply in many ca,e, to the larger engine, b+ilt by thi, company. he,e ha0e F by M-inch cylin-er,, normally r+n at 1FDD r.p.m. an- weigh <9D po+n-, complete. %ther /eat+re, areN

@peci/ication o/ C+rti,, Motor )+el con,+mption, normal per hor,epower-ho+r AD po+n-, %il con,+mption, normal per ho+r B.CD po+n-, Capacity o/ oil re,er0oir 9BM c+bic inche, In,tallation -imen,ion,N %0erall, length N MA'i inche, %0erall, wi-th <A inche, %0erall, -epth <Mb inche, =i-th at be- Kin,i-e ,+pport,L 11'2 inche, Height /rom be- 1C'2 inche, 8epth /rom be- 1B12A inche, "t carb+reter Y. 18 inche, Be- bolt, Kcenter to centerL 1Bb inche, @etting 9p @t+-y care/+lly the -imen,ion, ,hown in the in,tallation -iagram. he bearer, or be-, ,ho+l- be B inche, wi-e by < inche, -eep, pre/erably o/ laminatehar-woo-, an- place- 11b inche, apart. hey m+,t be well brace-. he ,i3 arm, o/ the ba,e o/ the motor are -rille- /or 'k-inch bolt,, an- none b+t thi, ,i>e ,ho+l- be +,e-. 1. "nchoring the (ngine. ;#+t the bolt, in /rom the bottom, with a large wa,her +n-er the hea- o/ each ,o the hea- cannot c+t into the woo-. %n e0ery bolt +,e a ca,tellaten+t an- a cotter pin, or an or-inary n+t an- a lock-wa,her, ,o the bolt will not work loo,e. "lway, ,et motor in place an- /a,ten be/ore attaching any a+3i9ary apparat+,, ,+ch a, carb+reter, etc. B. In,pecting the Ignition-,witch =ire,. ; he wire, lea-ing /rom the ignition ,witch m+,t be properly connecte-;one en- to the motor bo-y /or gro+n-, an- the other ento the po,t on the breaker bo3 o/ the magneto K,ee the wiring -iagram in thi, bookL. <. )illing the $a-iator. ;Be ,+re that the water /rom the ra-iator /ill, the cylin-er 1acket,. #ocket, o/ air may remain in the cylin-er 1acket, e0en tho+gh the ra-iator may appear /+ll. +rn the engine o0er a /ew time, by han- a/ter /illing the ra-iator, an- then a-- more water i/ the ra-iator will take it. he air pocket,, i/ allowe- to remain, may ca+,e o0erheating an- -e0elop ,erio+, tro+ble when the engine i, r+nning. F. )illing the %il $e,er0oir. ;%il i, a-mitte- into the crank ca,e thro+gh the breather t+be at the rear. It i, well to ,train all oil p+t into the crank ca,e. In /illing the oil re,er0oir be ,+re to t+rn the han-le on the oil ,ight-gage till it i, at right angle, with the gage. he oil ,ight-gage i, on the ,i-e o/ the lower hal/ o/ the crank ca,e. #+t in abo+t < gallon, o/ the be,t obtainable oil, Mobile " recommen-e-. It i, important to remember that the 0ery be,t oil i, none too goo-.

A. %iling (3po,e- Mo0ing #art,. ;%il all rocker-arm bearing, be/ore each /light. " little oil ,ho+l- be applie- where the p+,h-ro-, pa,, thro+gh the ,tirr+p ,trap,. A. )illing the Ga,oline ank,. ;Be certain that all connection, in the ga,oline ,y,tem are tight. C. +rning %n the Ga,oline. ;%pen the cock lea-ing /rom the ga,oline tank to the carb+reter. 8. Charging the Cylin-er,. ;=ith the ignition ,witch %)), prime the engine by ,:+irting a little ga,oline in each e3ha+,t port an- then t+rn the propeller backwar- two re0ol+tion,. 5e0er open the e3ha+,t 0al0e by operating the rocker-arm by han-, a, the p+,h-ro- i, liable to come o+t o/ it, ,ocket in the cam /ollower an- ben- the rocker-arm when the engine t+rn, o0er. 9. @tarting the (ngine by Han-. ;"lway, retar- the ,park part way, to pre0ent back/iring, by p+lling /orwar- the wire attache- to the breaker bo3. )ail+re to ,o retarthe ,park in ,tarting may re,+lt in ,erio+, in1+ry to the operator. +rn on the ignition ,witch with throttle partly H( C9$ I@@ (5GI5( 99 open4 gi0e a :+ick, ,trong p+ll -own an- o+twar- on the ,tarting crank or propeller. ", ,oon a, the motor i, ,tarte- a-0ance the ,park by relea,ing the retar- wire. 1D. %il Circ+lation. ;2Iet the engine r+n at low ,pee- /or a /ew min+te, in or-er to e,tabli,h oil circ+lation in all bearing,. =ith all part, /+nctioning properly, the throttle may be opene- gra-+ally /or warming +p be/ore /light. 7al0e @etting an- iming ; Magneto iming =hen the motor lea0e, the /actory it, 0al0e, are properly ,et an- time-. @carcely any tro+ble i, e3perience- with the 0al0e, o/ the C+rti,, engine. 9n-er normal con-ition, they are practically /ree /rom warping an- pitting. "n occa,ional grin-ing i, nece,,ary to bring them to a per/ect ,eat an- to

8I@ $IB9 %$ BI%C!

)ig. M9.;8i,trib+tor block. clean o// any collection o/ carbon. he inlet 0al0e, are o/ high-gra-e nickel ,teel4 the e3ha+,t 0al0e, are o/ t+ng,ten ,teel. 1. 7al0e @etting. ;"/ter grin-ing an- cleaning ,et the inlet 0al0e, at D.D1D clearance anthe e3ha+,t 0al0e, at D.D1D clearance. hi, ,etting ,ho+l- be -one on each cylin-er 1+,t a/ter inlet 0al0e ha, clo,e-. l/GtOie2 ,DY ,tem i, in-ente- -+e to any ca+,e, remo0e the 0al0e an- grin- the ,tem en- to a /lat ,+r/ace. B. 7al0e iming.;"/ter ,etting the clearance t+rn the engine in the -irection o/ rotation till the pi,ton o/ 5o. 1 cylin-er i, 2e +2ch pa,t top center. hen t+rn the cam,ha/t in it, -irection o/ rotation till the e3ha+,t 0al0e on 5o. 1 cylin-er ha, 1+,t clo,e-. #+t on the cam,ha/t gear, being ,+re that the keyway o/ the gear line, +p with the key in the cam,ha/t. h+, ,et an- time-, the inlet 0al0e, will open 1B -egree, pa,t top center an- clo,e FD -egree, pa,t bottom center4 the e3ha+,t 0al0e, will open FM -egree, be/ore bottom center an- clo,e on top center. <. Magneto iming.; +rn the engine in the -irection o/ rotation till the intake 0al0e o/ 5o. 1 cylin-er ha, clo,e-4 thei4i t+rn the engine in the ,ame -irection till the pi,ton o/ 5o. 1 cylin-er i, on top -ea- center4 then t+rn the motor backwar- till the pi,ton o/ 5o. 1 cylin-er i, '2 inch /rom top center. +rn the armat+re o/ the magneto in the -irection o/ it, rotation Kit i, the ,ame a, that o/ the crailk,ha/tL till the -i,trib+tor br+,h i, on 5o. 1 ,egment with the breaker point, 1+,t rea-y to open. #+t on the magneto gear, +,ing the ,ame preca+tion a, gi0en /or engaging the cam,ha/t gear. hi, ,hg+l- bting the /iringtime o/ all cylin-er, to <D -egree, be/ore top center. he -i,trib+ter -iagram i, ,hown in )ig. M9. he ,park a-0ance le0er ,ho+l- be in po,ition o/ /+ll a-0ance -+ring thi, whole operation. he gap between the breaker point, ,ho+l- be D.D18 inch an- that o/ the ,park-pl+g point, D.DB< inch. Ignition he magneto +,e- on the C+rti,, engine i, o/ the high-ten,ion type. he /iring or-er an- cylin-er arrangement i, a, ,hown on the wiring -iagram. Ignition tro+ble, are +,+ally trace- to /a+lty ,park pl+g,. " common ca+,e o/ ,park-pl+g /ail+re ha, in the inten,ity o/ the ,park it,el/, it e0ent+ally b+rning away the electro-e, an- thereby wi-ening the gap, which at low ,pee- ca+,e, mi,,ing. o te,t a ,park pl+g connect it +p with it, terminal an- lay it +pon a cylin-er o/ the motor /or gro+nconnection.

+rn the engine o0er bri,kly, +n-er which con-ition, the ,park pl+g ,ho+l- gi0e a goo,park. "ll ga,oline connection, ,ho+l- be c+t o// be/ore thi, te,t. ro+ble with the magneto it,el/ i, ,ometime, -+e to -irt an- o0er-l+brication. I/ the magneto i, ,+,pecte- o/ being at /a+lt +n,crew one o/ the ,park 1Ll+g,, connect it +p with it, terminal, an- lay it +pon a cylin-er o/ Yth/-ntotor /or gro+n- connection. Crank the engine 0igoro+,ly. I/ no YR ,park i, ,een it will be the wi,er co+r,e to +n,crew ,e0eral pl+g,, an- ,+b1ect them to the ,ame te,t be/ore con-emning the magneto or the wiring. @ho+l- no ,park appear a, the ,e0eral pl+g, are te,te-, -etach the ,witch wire /rom the magneto terminal on the interr+pter ho+,ing-co0er an- te,t the pl+g, again. " ,park +n-er the,e con-ition, will in-icate a ,hort-circ+it in either the ,witch or the ,witch cable. I/ there i, no ,park the interr+pter ,ho+l- be in,pecte-;care being taken to ,ee that the platin+m point, are clean an- ,mooth, an- that the interr+pter le0er mo0e, /reely on it, pi0ot. I/ the ,park ,till /ail, remo0e the al+min+m bonnet /rom the ,ha/t-en- o/ the magneto, th+, e3po,ing the ,a/ety ,park gap. +rn the engine o0er rapi-ly. I/ a ,park i, ,een in the ,a/ety ,park gap the /a+lt will be /o+n- not in the magneto b+t in the -i,trib+tor, in the ,park-pl+g cable,, or in the ,park pl+g, them,el0e,. I/ no ,park i, 0i,ible in the ,a/ety ,park gap the tro+ble i, internal4 the magneto m+,t be ret+rne- to the man+/act+rer /or repair,. 9n-er no con-ition, ,ho+l- the magneto be taken apart beyon- the remo0al o/ the interr+pter, the -i,trib+tor plate, an- the bonnet /rom the ,ha/t en-. 5othing goocan be accompli,he- by remo0ing the en- plate, o/ the magneto, an- permanent in1+ry i, almo,t ,+re to re,+lt. he in,i-e o/ the comm+tator ,ho+l- be kept clean an- l+bricate- with high-gra-e cylin-er oil;2not in too large :+antitie,, howe0er. Graphite ,ho+l- ne0er be +,e- on the comm+tator. Ii/t o+t the -i,trib+tor plate occa,ionally, witho+t -i,arranging the wiring, an- remo0e any acc+m+lation o/ oil, -irt, or moi,t+re. I9B$IC" I%! he proper l+brication o/ any mechani,m i, o/ ,o 0ital importance, an- any neglect i, ,o ,+re to ca+,e e3pen,i0e repair, that the mechanician ,ho+l- make it hi, +n/ailing habit to look a/ter it -aily. he C+rti,, l+brication ,y,tem i, ea,ily +n-er,too- an- re:+ire, little time /or proper attention. he ,y,tem i, /orce /ee- an- ,pray. he lower hal/ o/ the crank ca,e i, +,e- a, the oil re,er0oir an- carrie, a ,ight-gage that in-icate, at all time, the :+antity o/ oil it contain,. he ca,e i, ,o -e,igne- that it, center i, alway, it, lowe,t point an- i, con,e:+ently the point at which the oil alway, gather,. hi, i, a highly important /eat+re o/ C+rti,, con,tr+ction, a, at no practical /lying angle can the cylin-er, become /loo-e- with oil. In,i-e the crank ca,e are two ba//le plate, ,loping /rom the en-, towar- the center an- lea0ing at the bottom a b-inch opening their /+ll wi-th. " ,imple gear p+mp /orce, the oil /rom the low point o/ the crank-ca,e ,+mp, thro+gh the hollow cam,ha/t to all the cam,ha/t bearing,4 thence thro+gh connecting t+be, to the crank,ha/t bearing,. )rom the,e bearing,

the oil pa,,e, thro+gh the hole, -rille- in the crank,ha/t into the hollow crank,ha/t anhollow crank,ha/t throw, to the connecting-ro- bearing,. he oil i, thrown o// the crankpin bearing, in a ,pray, on to the pi,ton-pin bo,,e,, thence thro+gh hole, in bo,,e, to pi,ton-pin bearing,. Groo0e, in the pi,ton, carry the oil +p on to the cylin-er wall. he magneto gear an- cam,ha/t gear are l+bricate- by ,pray /rom a hole in the retaining ,crew o/ the cam,ha/t gear. he thr+,t bearing i, l+bricate- by ,pray /rom a hole in the rear o/ the crank,ha/t. he oil pre,,+re i, reg+late- by a reg+lating 0al0e in the line, which act, a, a bypa,, allowing the ,+rpl+, oil to /low into the oil ,+mp. "ll bearing pin, /or the rocker-arm, an- /or the /orke- en-, o/ the p+,h-ro-, are hollow, b+t pl+gge- at both en-,. Min+te hole, are -rille- in alignment with the e3ternal hole,. ", oil i, /orce- into the,e e3ternal hole, the hollow ,pace, in,i-e the pin, act a, re,er0oir,, an- will oil e0enly all bearing, o/ the rocker-arm mechani,m /or ,e0eral ho+r, a/ter being /ille-. %0erha+ling an- In,pection (0ery engine ,ho+l- ha0e a complete in,pection at the en- o/ e0ery MD r+nning ho+r,. o -o thi, properly, the engine m+,t be -i,mantle-. =hen new, the engine ,ho+l- not be r+n /or more than M ho+r,, witho+t thoro+ghly -raining o// all oil, an- care/+lly cleaning the ,trainer. hi, proce-+re ,ho+l- be repeate- at the en- o/ the ,econ- M-ho+r perio- o/ operation, an- then at the en- o/ the ne3t 1D-ho+r perio-. "ny /ir,t-cla,, engine mechanic can -o thi, work, noting the,e /ew point, care/+llyN he crank,ha/t an- crankpin bearing, are ma-e two to three-tho+,an-th, o/ an inch larger than the 1o+rnal. he bearing, ,ho+l- ne0er be tighter than thi, an- a tri/le more clearance will -o no -amage. @craping the bearing, ,ho+l- be +n-ertaken only when ab,ol+tely nece,,ary a, when relining or when one i, c+t or b+rne- /rom -irt or in,+//icient l+brication. Clean carbon /rom pi,ton, an- cylin-er, an- /ree any ring, that may be ,t+ck in the groo0e. Iap all 0al0e, that leak, being care/+l to lea0e no ri-ge, on either 0al0e or ,eat. Clean an- oil care/+lly all part, when rea,,embling. Carb+retion I/ a-1+,tment o/ carb+reter i, /o+n- nece,,ary it ,ho+l- be attempte- only by one thoro+ghly competent, an- ,trictly accor-ing to the in,tr+ction pamphlet i,,+e- by the maker o/ the carb+reter. I/ the in,tr+ction pamphlet ,ho+l- be lo,t a new copy can be ha- /or the a,king. It will be well to gi0e the name an- mo-el o/ the carb+reter in making in:+iry. he ro+ble Chart hi, chart ha, been prepare- to o+tline in a ,imple manner the 0ario+, tro+ble, that inter/ere with the e//icient action o/ aerona+tical motor,. he 0ario+, -e/ect, that may -e0elop are tab+late- in a manner that make, /or rea-y re/erence, an- oppo,ite the part a//ecte- the 0ario+, con-ition, are /o+n- +n-er a hea-ing that -enote, the main tro+ble to which the other, are contrib+ting ca+,e,.

he 0ario+, ,ymptom, -enoting the in-i0i-+al tro+ble, o+tline- are gi0en to /acihtate their recognition in a po,iti0e manner. Brie/ note i, al,o ma-e o/ the reme-ie, /or the re,toration o/ the -e/ecti0e part or con-ition. It i, apparent that a chart o/ thi, kin- i, inten-e- merely a, a g+i-e, an- it i, a compilation o/ practically all the known tro+ble, that may materiali>e in ga,-engine operation. = iile mo,t o/ the -e/ect, o+tline- are common eno+gh to warrant ,+,picion, all will ne0er e3i,t in an engine at the ,ame time4 an- it will be nece,,ary to make a ,y,tematic ,earch /or ,+ch o/ tho,e a, -o e3i,t, an- by the proce,, o/ elimination locate the o//en-ing part. o +,e the chart a-0antageo+,ly it i, nece,,ary to know an- recogni>e ea,ily one main tro+ble. )or e3ample, i/ the motor i, ,kipping, look /or po,,ible tro+ble, +n-er the hea-ing H2 @kipping.HH I/ the motor /ail, to -e0elop power, the t"^+ble will +n-o+bte-ly be /o+n- +n-er GGIo8t #ower an- CHHerheating.J It i, a,,+me- in all ca,e, that the tro+ble e3i,t, in the power plant or it, component,, an- not in the a+3iliary member, o/ the ignition. In many in,tance,, howe0er, the ,eat o/ tro+ble will be trace- to the,e latter member,. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! @kipping ob Ibbeg+lab %peration H( C9$ I@@ (5GI5( 1DM @kipping ob Ibbeo+lab %pebation. ; KContin+e-L 1M Inlet 0al0e 1A Inlet-0al0e ,eat 1C Inlet-0al0e ,tem g+i-e 18 Carb+reter 19 Ga, mani/olpipe BD #i,ton B1 #i,ton ring, Clo,e, late %pen, early Blowback in carb+reter ime properly =arpe- or pitte- 4 Blowback in car-

8oe, not ,eat properly b+reter Carbon grain +n-er ,eat k Iow compre,,ion 9,e re,eat reamer Clean od/ an- grin- to ,eat =orn #oor mi>tt+re Iow compre,,ion B+,h or replace with new g+i-e =eak mi3t+re Ieak at 1oint, 8e/ecti0e ga,ket Crack or blowhole =all, ,coreH Blowback in carb+reter #oor mi3t+re #oor mi3t+re #oor mi3t+re #oor ,+ction an- H leak o/ ga, "-1+,t carb+reter /or richer mi3t+re @top all leak, $eplace with new @ol-er blowhole @mooth +p Ioe, o/ ,pring Ioo,e in groo0e, =orn or broken @lot, in line #oor ,+ction an- #een ring, or replace leak o/ ga, with new #oor compre,,ion Ioo,en ring, on pi,ton BB Cylin-er wall @core- by wriatpin @core- by lack o/ oil #oor ,+ction an- leak o/ ga, #oor compre,,ion Iap in cylin-er %r new cylin-er B< 7al0e-,pring collar key Broken $elea,e ,pring 5o 0al0e action $eplace with new key "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! H( C9$ I@@ (5GI5( 1DC

Io,t #ower an- %0erheating. ; qContin+e-L "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! 5oi,y %peration H( C9$ I@@ (5GI5( 1D9 5oi,y %peration. ; qContin+e-L #art at /a+lt ro+ble (//ect $eme-y MM Iower hal/ Crank-ca,e bolt, I Ioo,e @trippe- threa-, MA =ater 1acket Co0ere- with ,cale Clogge- with -irt MC iming gear, M8 Cam,ha/t bearing Ioo,e =orn or broken teeth Me,he- too -eeply Ioo,e or worn M9 =ante- or pitteInlet-0al0e ,eat 8irty AD Inlet-0al0e ,pring A1 Inlet 0al0e AB 7al0e-,tem g+i-e =eak or broken Clo,e, late %pen, early =orn or loo,e

A< Cam-/ollower Ioo,e g+i-e AF 7al0e-,tem clearance AM #+,h-ro- retention ,tirr+p, AA Crank-ca,e ga,ket, oo m+ch oo little 5+t, loo,e I2ak AC 5o oil Cylin-er or pi,ton #oor oil !nock an- rattle !nock ca+,e- by o0erheating ighten 5ew bolt, 8i,,ol0e /cale an- /l+,h o+t water ,pace with water +n-er pre,,+re Metallic knock I $attle H Grin-ing I N @light knock )a,ten to ,ha/t $eplace with new gear $eplace with new 9,e re,eat reamer $attle #oor compre,,ion I Clean o// an- grin- to Blowback I I ,eat I Blowback in carb+reter Blowback in carb+reter

X $attle or click I $attle or click $eplace with new ime properly $eplace with new g+i-e $eplace with new g+i-eH Click Blowback in carb+reter @et inlet gap D.D1D @et e>h. gap D.D1D $attle Blowbaek in car- ighten n+t, b+reter on leak ighten bolt, $eplace with new Grin-ing an- ,harp $epair oil ,y,tem no "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! 5oi,y %peration. ; qContin+e-L 1. 8onHt B. 8onHt <. 8onHt F. 8onHt M. 8onHt A. 8onHt C. 8onHt 8. 8onHt m2y re,+lt. 9. 8onHt 1D. 8onHt 11. 8onHt 1B. 8onHt 1<. 8onHt treat it with

1F. 8onHt to i-le /or a Important 8ontH, /orget that GG " ,titch in time ,a0e, nine.J /orget to in,pect the motor thoro+ghly be/ore ,tarting. try to ,tart witho+t oil, water, or ga,oline4 all three are 0ital. /orget to ,ee that the ra-iator i, /+ll o/ water. get -irt or water into the oil. get -irt or water into the ga,oline. /orget to oil all e3po,e- working part,. try to ,tart witho+t retar-ing the magneto4 a ,erio+, acci-ent try to ,tart witho+t t+rning on the ,witch. ,tart the motor with throttle wi-e open. r+n the motor i-le too long4 it i, not only wa,te/+l b+t harm/+l. /orget to watch the l+brication4 it i, mo,t e,,ential. /orget that the propeller i, the b+,ine,, en- o/ the motor4 pro/o+n- re,pect;e,pecially when it i, in motion. c+t o// the ignition ,+--enly when the motor i, hot4 allow it H( C9$ I@@ (5GI5( 111 in,+rea the /orce- rirc+latioa o/ the water till the iryl1ncler wall, ha0$ coolecon,i-erably an- al,o allow, the 0al0e, to cool, pre0entini4 po/&il^le warpin!-1M. 8onHt /ail to ,t+-y the tro+ble chart, in thi, book be/ore yo+ mole,t a, thing abo+t the motor, i/ yo+ ha0e tro+ble.

)io. AD.;@ection o/ C+rtiw eniine. 1A. 8onHt -e0elop that -e,tr+cti0e -i,ea,e known a, tinkeriti,4 the motor i, working all right, let it alone.

)io. ZB.;(n- 0iew o/ C+rti,a e+gl 1C. 8onHt /orget a -aily inapection o/ all bolt, an- n+ta. !eep them well tightene-. 18. 8onHt /ail to ,top yo+r motor in,tantly itpoa -etecting a knock, a grin-, or other noi,e /oreign to per/ect operation. HIt may mean the -i//erence between ,a0ing or r+ining the motor. 19. 8onHt /ail to ,t+-y the,e in,tr+ction, thoro+ghly. " ,ectional 0iew o/ the C+rti,, engine i, ,hown in )ig. AD an- the cy9n-er ba,e with all the ,t+-, in po,ition i, ,hown in

)io. A<.;)itting p9ton pin. )ig. A1, he ,hort ,t+-, ,imply pro1ect thro+gh the cylin-er /lange while the long ,t+-, go thro+gh a cro,,-tie at the top o/ the cylin-er. "n en- 0iew i, ,hown in )ig. AB. he pi,ton pin bear, in the al+min+m pi,ton it,el/ an- a, tb.\. R11B "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%!

)lo. AB,;(n- 0iew ol C+rti,a e+gi /i3t+re on which the large en- i, hel- a, ,hown. hen a ro- i, p+t thro+gh the pi,ton-pin hole an- any ,light correction ma-e. he ro- i, then ,w+ng o0er ,o the ro- comeB into con-

)iZ. AA.;C+ ti,a teBting tact with the /o+r "me, -ial gage, an- ,how, when the ro- i, ,traight a, in )ig. AM, @tan-ar- ro-, +,e- /or te,ting are ,hown in both ca,e,. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! pieton e3pan-, more than the pin, it i, nece,,ary to make the pin a tight /it when the part, are col-. In or-er to ,ec+re +ni/ormity in thi, the /it i, Jweighe-J a, ,hown in )ig, A<. Here the pi,ton i, hel- in ,+itable 1aw, to pre0ent marring or ,pringing an- the /it te,te- by +e-i2 a ,pring balance a, ,hown. hi,,

)io. AF.;@traighteaing connecting ro-,. when hooke- into the +pper en- o/ the ro-, m+,t mo0e the pin with a p+ll o/ 1B po+n-,. =hen connecting ro-, are bent or twi,te- o+t o/ line they can be ,traightene- a, ,hown in )ig. AF. hi, i, a ,+b,tantial /i3t+re on which the large en- i, hel- a, ,hown. hen a ro- i, p+t thro+gh the pi,ton-pin hole an- any ,light correction ma-e. he ro- i, then ,w+ng o0er ,o the ro- come, into con-

)io. AA.;C+iti,a te,ting ,tao-. tact with the /o+r "me, -ial gage, an- ,how, when the ro- i, ,traight a, in )ig. AM. @tan-ar- ro-, +,e- /or te,ting are ,hown in both ca,e,. "/ter the engine i, a,,emble- it i, te,te- on the ,tan- ,hown in )ig. AA, which can ,how both tor:+e an- thr+,t. he engine ,et, in a cra-le mo+nte- on ball bearing, an- /ree to t+rn or mo0e /orwar- a limite- amo+nt. he t+rning e//ort or tor:+e, i, mea,+re- by the plat/orm ,cale an- the thr+,t by the ,pring balance ,hown in )ig. AA. @(C I%5 IE C"$( "58 %#($" I%5 H"II-@C% (5GI5(@ he Hall-@cott engine i, a ,i3-cylin-er 0ertical type an- i, being largely +,e- in training machine,. ho,e in charge o/ the engine ,ho+l- ob,er0e the /ollowing ,+gge,tion,. o In,+re Ma3im+m @er0ice.; he /ollowing in,tr+ction, ,ho+l- be carrie- o+t a/ter e0ery long /light. ! +,e- /or ,chooling p+rpo,e,, -aily care ,ho+l- be taken, a, /ollow,N =hile engine i, ,till warm remo0e all ,park pl+g,. Clean each pl+g with ga,oline an- a ,ti// br+,h, an- ,pace each pl+g with proper D.D1Minch gage. "I$#I"5(

$emo0e lower crank-ca,e ,+mp pl+g, an- -rain oil into a clean mea,+re, co0er ,ame anallow to ,tan- +ntil morning. Clean o+t lower crank ca,e thoro+ghly with ga,oline or kero,ene. @:+irt g+n /+ll o/ kero,ene into each cylin-er thro+gh ,park-pl+g opening. $emo0e /ront portion magneto -i,trib+tor co0er an- wipe o+t -i,trib+tor block with ,o/t cloth, moi,tene- in alcohol i/ nece,,ary. In replacing -i,trib+tor block be ,+re to wipe o// all e3ce,, oil on magneto, an- co0er, be/ore replacing. Co0er engine /or night with can0a, or hea0y cloth. o #repare (ngine /or @er0ice.; +rn engine o0er a /ew time, an- note that all working part, are per/ectly /ree. $eplace lower oil ,+mp. #o+r o// top o/ oil le/t to ,tan- o0er night, into a clean mea,+re, making ,+re that the hea0ier portion o/ oil an- carbon -epo,it i, le/t in /ir,t mea,+re. "-- to the ,econmea,+re eno+gh new oil to make B'2 to < gallon,. #o+r oil into ,+mp thro+gh breather pipe lea-. $eplace ,park pl+g, an- connect lea- wire,. he engine i, now rea-y to ,tart. $+n ,lowly with engine throttle- /or at lea,t 1D min+te, while the plane i, on the gro+n-, be/ore ,tarting on /light, ,o that the l+bricating oil will ha0e a chance to work +p on the cylin-er, an- pi,ton,. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! @tan-ar- "-1+,tment, @park pl+g, ,ho+l- ha0e D.D1M-mch clearance between pointe acro,, which the Bpark 1+iope. Magneto Breaker #ointB.;Gap between breaker point, in 8i3ie Magneto, when /+ll open ,ho+l- be D.DBD. 9,e gage /+rni,he- with each magneto ,crew--ri0er. It might be po,,ible to obtain better re,+lt, i/ the breaker gap i, clo,e- to D.D18. =e recommentrying the gap with a D.DBD a-1+,tment4 i/ the motor mi,aea at high ,pee-, rea-1+,t to D.D18, which po,,ibly will gi0e better re,+lt,. %il #re,B+re.;%il pre,,+re will 0ary accor-ing to weather con-ition, an- gra0ity o/ oil +,e-. In normal weather with engine properly warme- +p, the pre,,+re will regi,ter +pon the oil gage /rom C to 1D po+n-, when engine i, t+rning /rom 1BCM to 1<DD r.p.m.

)ia. AC.;7al0e clearance,. "ir #re,,+re.;"ir-pre,a+re gage ,ho+l- not regi,ter +n-er < po+n-,. 7al0e Clearance,.;Inlet an- e3ha+,t 0al0e, ,ho+l- be ,et with a /+ll D.DBD-iiich clearance when engine i, col- K,ee )ig. ACL. hi, ,ho+l- be checke- by a Hall-@cott timing -i,c. Gear Clearance,.;=ith the e3ception o/ the lower pinion ,ha/t gear me,hing with the crank,ha/t, which ha, a D.D1D-inch clearance, all other gear, ha0e ,, D.DBD-inch clearance. Bearing Clearance,.;Crank,ha/t bearing, ,ho+l- ha0e a D.DD1-inch clearance. Connecting ro-, ,ho+l- be ,et +p ,n+g, allowing eno+gh clearance, howe0er, ,o that the ro- may be ,li- laterally on the crank,ka/t bearing witho+t bin-ing. I+brication @y,tem.; he proper l+brication o/ all airplane engine, i, o/ 0ital importance. %il, be,t a-apte- /or Hall-@cott engine, ha0e the /ollowing propertie,N " /la,h te,t o/ not le,, than FDDr).4 0i,co,ity o/ not le,, than CM to 8M taken at B1Br). with @aybolt, 9ni0er,al 7i,co,imeter. he maker, ,+gge,tN leroline hea0y--+ty oil1 man+/act+re- by the @tan-ar- %il Co. o/ Cali/ornia, or Gargoyle mobile B oil2 man+/act+re- by the 7ac++m %il Co. Both /+l/ill the abo0e ,peci/ication,. %ne or the other o/ the,e oil, can be obtaine- all o0er the worl-. Monogram e3tra hea0y i, al,o recommen-e-. 8o not e3periment with other oil, witho+t /ir,t obtaining the appro0al o1 the maker,. (ngine %iling @y,tem.;Crank,ha/t, connecting ro-, an- all other part, within the crank ca,e an- cylin-er, are l+bricate- -irectly or in-irectly by a /orce-/ee- oiling ,y,tem. he cylin-er wall, an- wri,tpin, are l+bricate- by oil ,pray thrown /rom the lower en- o/ cpnnecting-ro- bearing,. )ig. A8 ,how, engine partially in ,ection. hi, ,y,tem i, +,e- only +pon "-M engine,. 9pon "-Ca an- "-Ma engine, a ,mall t+be ,+pplie, oil /rom connecting-ro- bearing -irectly +pon wri,tpin. (ngine %iling Circ+lation.; he oil i, -rawn /rom the ,trainer locate- at the lowe,t portion o/ the lower crank ca,e, /orce- aro+n- the main intake mani/ol- oil 1acket. )rom here it i, circ+late- to the main -i,trib+ting pipe locate- along the lower le/t-han- ,i-e o/ +pper crank ca,e. he oil i, then /orce- -irectly to the lower ,i-e o/ crank,ha/t thro+gh hole, -rille- in each main bearing cap. Ieakage /rom the,e main bearing, i,

ca+ght in ,c+pper, place- +pon the cheek, o/ the crank,ha/t, /+rni,hing oil +n-er pre,,+re to the connecting-ro- bearing,. "-Ca an- "-Ma engine, ha0e ,mall t+be, lea-ing /rom the,e bearing, which con0ey, the oil +n-er pre,,+re to the wri,tpin,. Bypa,,.;" bypa,, locate- at the /ront en- o/ the -i,trib+ting oil pipe can be reg+late- to le,,en or rai,e the pre,,+re. By ,crewing the 0al0e in, the pre,,+re will rai,e an- more oil will be /orce- to the bearing,. By +n,crewing, pre,,+re i, re-+ce- an- le,, oil i, /e-. "-Ca an- "-Ma engine, ha0e oil relie/ 0al0e, locate- 1+,t o// o/ the main oil p+mp in the lower crank ca,e. hi, reg+late, the pre,,+re at all time, ,o that in col- weather there will be no -anger o/ b+r,ting oil pipe, -+e to e3ce,,i0e pre,,+re. I/ it i, /o+n- that the oil pre,,+re i, not maintaine- at a high eno+gh le0el in,pect thi, 0al0e. " ,tronger ,pring will not allow the oil to bypa,, ,o /reely an- con,e:+ently the pre,,+re will be rai,e-, a weaker ,pring will bypa,, more oil an- re-+ce the oil pre,,+re materially. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%!

"+3iliary %il 8i,trib+tor K9,e- +pon a "-A (ngine, %nlyL.;In-epen-ent o/ the abo0ementione- ,y,tem, a ,mall, -irectly -ri0en rotary oiler /ee-, oil to the ba,e o/ each in-i0i-+al cylin-er. he ,+pply o/ oil i, /+rni,he- by the main oil p+mp locate- in the lower crank ca,e. " ,mall ,ight-/ee- reg+lator i, /+rni,he- to control the ,+pply o/ oil /rom thi, oiler.

"+3iliary %il 8i,trib+tor @ight-/ee- $eg+lator K)3imi,he- with "-A (ngine, %nlyL.; hi, in,tr+ment ,ho+l- be place- higher than the a+3iliary oil -i,trib+ter it,el/ to enable the oil to -rain by gra0ity /ee- to the oiler. I/ there i, no a0ailable place with the nece,,ary height in the /ront ,eat o/ plane, connect it -irectly to the intake I /itting on the oiler in an +pright po,ition. It ,ho+l- be reg+late- with /+ll open throttle to maintain an oil le0el, appro3imately hal/ way in the gla,,. %il 8a,h #re,,+re Gage.;"n oil pre,,+re gage i, pro0i-e-. hi, ,ho+l- be r+n to the pilotH, in,tr+ment boar-. he gage regi,ter, the oil pre,,+re +pon the bearing,, al,o -etermining it, circ+lation. @trict watch ,ho+l- be maintaine- o/ thi, in,tr+ment by pilot, an- i/ /or any rea,on it, han- ,ho+l- -rop to D the motor ,ho+l- be imme-iately ,toppe- an- the tro+ble /o+n- be/ore re,tarting engine. Care ,ho+l- be taken that the oil -oe, not work +p into the gage a, it will pre0ent the correct gage regi,tering o/ oil pre,,+re. %il @+mp #l+g.; he oil ,+mp pl+g i, locate- at the lowe,t point o/ the lower crank ca,e. hi, i, a combination -irt, water an- ,e-iment trap. It i, ea,ily remo0e- by +n,crewing. %iling Cam,ha/t Ho+,ing.;%il i, /+rni,he- mechanically to the cam,ha/t ho+,ing +n-er pre,,+re thro+gh a ,mall t+be lea-ing /rom the main -i,trib+ting pipe at the propeller en- o/ engine -irectly into the en- o/ cam,ha/t ho+,ing. he oppo,ite en- o/ thi, ho+,ing i, amply relie0e- to allow the oil to rapi-ly /low -own +pon cam,ha/t, magneto, pinion ,ha/t, an- crank,ha/t gear,, a/ter which it ret+rn, to lower crank ca,e. "n o+t,i-e o0er/low pipe i, al,o pro0i-e- to carry away the ,+rpl+, oil. 8raining %il /rom Crank Ca,e.; he oil ,trainer i, place- at the lowe,t point o/ the lower crank ca,e. hi, ,trainer ,ho+l- be remo0e- a/ter e0eryH M to 8 ho+r, r+nning o/ the engine an- cleane- thoro+ghly with ga,oline. It i, al,o a-0i,able to ,:+irt -i,tillate +p into the ca,e thro+gh the opening where the ,trainer ha, been remo0e-. "llow thi, -i,tillate to -rain o+t thoro+ghly be/ore replacing the pl+g with ,trainer attache-. Be ,+re ga,ket i, in place on pl+g be/ore replacing. #o+r new oil in thro+gh either o/ the two breather pipe, on e3ha+,t ,i-e o/ motor. Be ,+re to replace ,trainer ,creen, i/ remo0e-. In,+//icient I+brication.;I/, thro+gh o0er,ight, the engine -oe, not recei0e ,+//icient l+brication an- begin, to heat or po+n-, it ,ho+l- be ,toppe- imme-iately. "/ter allowing engine to cool po+r at lea,t < gallon, o/ oil into oil ,+mp. )ill ra-iator with water a/ter engine ha, coole-. @ho+l- there be apparent -amage, the engine ,ho+l- be thoro+ghly in,pecte- imme-iately witho+t /+rther r+nning. I/ no ob0io+, -amage ha, been -one, the engine ,ho+l- be gi0en a care/+l e3amination at the earlie,t opport+nity to ,ee that the r+nning witho+t oil ha, not b+rne- the bearing, or ca+,e- other tro+ble. @pecial "+3iliary %il ank. ;@pecial a+3i9ary oil tank, can be ,+pplie- /or long /light,. hi, tank, i/ +,e- +pon "-M, "-C or "-Ca engine,, ,ho+l- be place- ,9ghtly higher than the lowe,t point o/ the engine oil ,+mp, th+, allowing new oil i/ re:+ire- to /low /rom thi, tank into the mam ,+mp, ,o that the oil will /low by gra0ity thro+gh the lea- pipe to main oil ,+mp on engine. he crank-ca,e oil ,+mp ha, a capacity ,+//icient /or /rom < to A ho+r, /light, -epen-ing entirely +pon weather con-ition,, kin- o/ oil +,e- an- r.p.m. o/ engine. )or ,pecial military p+rpo,e, a+3iHary tank, can be /+rni,he- /or /light, o/ any -+ration. he "-Ma engine i, /itte- with a -o+ble oil p+mp. %ne i, /or the main oil ,+pply, the ,econ- ha, a lea- to the ,i-e o/ the lower crank ca,e. By lea-ing a t+be /rom

thi, to an a+3iliary oil tank, /itte- with a ,h+to// cock, the p+mp will ,+ck oil into the main ,+mp when -e,ire- by the operator. Ga,oline @y,tem.;In /illing the tank,, po+r the ga,oline thro+gh a chamoi, ,kin to /ree it /rom water an- imp+ritie,. (ach ga,oline tank ,ho+l- be e:+ippe- with a -irt anwater trap. It i, imperati0e to in,tall the water trap /+rni,he- with each e:+ipment in the ga,oline line. he ga,oline pipe /rom tank to carb+reter ,ho+l- be in,talle- at the rear o/ the tank ,o ga,oline will alway, be ,+pp9e- when climbing. Ga,oline.;Ga,oline gi0ing the be,t re,+lt, with o+r e:+ipment, i, a, /ollow,N Gra0ity M8r to ABrBA. ". Initial boiling point;$ichmon- metho-; 1DBr). @+lph+r D.D1F. Calorimetric bomb te,t BD,A1D B.t.+. per po+n-. #re,,+re Ga,oline )ee-.;I/ the ga,oline tank i, place- in the /+,elage below the le0el o/ the carb+retor, a han- p+mp m+,t be +,e- to maintain air pre,,+re in ga, tank to /orce the ga,oline to the carb+reter. "/ter ,tarting the engine the ,mall a+3iliary air p+mp +pon the engine will maintain ,+//icient pre,,+re. "+3iliary "ir #+mp. ;"-Ca an- "-Ma engine, are /+rni,he- with a new type a+3iliary air p+mp. hi, ,ho+l- be /re:+ently oile- an- care taken ,o no grit or ,an- will enter which might lo-ge between the 0al0e an- it, ,eat, which wo+l- make it /ail to operate properly. "ir $elie/ 7al0e. ;%ne o/ the,e are /+rni,he- with each engine. It ,ho+l- be ,creweinto the ga, tank an- properly reg+late- to maintain the H"II-@C% 1B< pre,,+re re:+ire-. hi, i, -one by ,crewing the ratchet on top either +p or -own. I/ two tank, are +,e- in a plane one ,ho+l- be in,talle- in each tank. "ir #+mp Iine,.;"ll air p+mp line, ,ho+l- be care/+lly gone o0er :+ite /re:+ently to a,certain they are tight. Check 0al0e, ha0e to be place- in the,e line,. Gra0ity-/ee- Ga,oline @+pply. ; In ,ome ca,e, the ga,oline tank i, place- abo0e the engine, allowing it to -rain by gra0ity to the carb+reter. =hen +,ing thi, ,y,tem there ,ho+l- be a -rop o/ not le,, than B /eet /rom the lowe,t portion o/ the ga,oline tank to the +pper part o/ the carb+reter /loat chamber. (0en thi, height might not be ,+//icient to maintain the proper 0ol+me o/ ga,oline to the carb+retor at high ,pee-,. =e recommen- air pre,,+re +pon all2ank, to in,+re the proper ,+pply o/ ga,oline. =hen +,ing gra0ity /ee- witho+t air pre,,+re be ,+re to 0ent the tank to allow circ+lation o/ air. I/ gra0ity tank i, +,e- an- the engine r+n, ,ati,/actorily at low ,pee-, b+t c+t, o+t at high ,pee-, the tro+ble i, +n-o+bte-ly -+e to in,+//icient height o/ the tank abo0e the carb+reter. he tank ,ho+l- be rai,e- or air pre,,+re ,y,tem +,e-. Intake Mani/ol-. ;Care ,ho+l- be taken to ,ee that the /lange, o/ the intake mani/olare tightly -rawn +p again,t the ga,ket an- cylin-er intake port,. I/ there i, an air leak at any o/ the,e connection, it will a//ect the mi3t+re in the re,pecti0e cylin-er, a, well a, make it e3cee-ingly har- to ,tart. Carb+reter. ;Care ,ho+l- be taken to a,certain that all no>>le, are tight on the carb+reter. %n the "-M an- "-Ma engine, the top o/ 1et, m+,t be le0el with top o/ well to "I$#I"5( (5GI5(@

allow e:+al -i,trib+tion o/ /+el to each ,et o/ cylin-er,. he,e can be ea,ily a-1+,te- by wa,her on lower portion o/ 1et. he ,tan-ar- e:+ipment o/ the carb+reter i, a, /ollow,, +,ing commercial ga,o9ne o/ 28r to ABrBA. gra0ity an- +n-er mo-erate weather con-ition,N I/ high-te,t ga,oline i, +,e-, namely, CDs or CBr, or e3tremely hot weather i, enco+ntere-, it may be a-0i,able to change the ,i>e o/ the 1et, to 5o. 1<M +pon the "-M an- proportionately +pon the other type,. In e3tremely col- weather better re,+lt, can be obtaine- by changing 1et, to 5o. 1FM. wo 1et, an- two compen,ator, are +,e- in each carb+reter on "-M an- "-Ma type,. hi, 8+ple3 Mo-el %. 8. lenith carb+reter +,e- +pon the ,i3-cylin-er engine, con,i,t, o/ a ,ingle /loat chamber, an- a ,ingle air intake, 1oine- to two ,eparate an- -i,tinct ,pray no>>le,, 0ent+ri an- i-ling a-1+,tment,. It i, to be note- that a, the carb+reter barrel, are arrange- ,i-e by ,i-e, both 0al0e, are mo+nte- on the ,ame ,ha/t, an- work in +ni,on thro+gh a ,ingle operating le0er. It i, not nece,,ary to alter their po,ition. In or-er to make the engine i-le well, it i, e,,ential that the ignition, e,pecially the ,park pl+g,, ,ho+l- be in goo- con-ition. he ga,ket, between carb+reter an- mani/ol-, anbetween mani/ol- an- cylin-er, ,ho+l- be ab,ol+tely air-tight. he a-1+,tment /or low ,pee- on the carb+reter i, ma-e by t+rning in or o+t the two kn+rle- ,crew,, place- one on each ,i-e o/ the /loat chamber. "/ter ,tarting the engine an- allowing it to become thoro+ghly warme-, one ,i-e o/ the carb+reter ,ho+l- be a-1+,te- ,o that the three cylin-er, it e//ect, /ire properly at low ,pee-. he other ,i-e ,ho+l- be a-1+,te- in the ,ame manner +ntil all ,i3 cylin-er, /ire per/ectly at low ,pee-. ", the a-1+,tment i, change- on the kn+rle- ,crew a -i//erence in the i-ling o/ the engine ,ho+l- be notice-. I/ the engine begin, to r+n e0enly or ,pee-, +p it ,how, that the mi3t+re become, right in it, proportion. Be ,+re the b+tter/ly throttle i, clo,e- a, /ar a, po,,ible by ,crewing o+t the ,top ,crew which reg+late, the clo,e- po,ition /or i-ling. Care ,ho+l- be taken to ha0e the b+tter/ly hel- /irmly again,t thi, ,top ,crew at all time, while i-ling engine. I/ three cylin-er, ,eem to r+n irreg+larly a/ter changing the po,ition o/ the b+tter/ly, ,till another a-1+,tment may ha0e to be ma-e with the kn+rle- ,crew. 9n,crewing thi, make, the mi3t+re leaner. @crewing in clo,e, o// ,ome o/ the air ,+pply to the i-ling 1et, making it richer. "/ter one ,i-e ha, been ma-e to i-le ,ati,/actorily repeat the ,ame proce-+re with the oppo,ite three cylin-er,. In other wor-,, each ,i-e ,ho+l- be i-lein-epen-ently to abo+t the ,ame ,pee-. $emember that the main 1et an- compen,ating 1et ha0e no appreciable e//ect on the i-ling o/ the engine. he i-ling mi3t+re i, -rawn -irectly thro+gh the opening -etermine- by the kn+rle- ,crew an- enter, the carb+reter barrel thro+gh the ,mall hole at the e-ge o/ each b+tter/ly. hi, i, calle- the priming hole an- i, only e//ecti0e -+ring i-ling. Beyon- that point the ,+ction i, tran,/erre- to the main 1et ancompen,ator, which control, the power o/ the engine beyon- the i-ling po,ition o/ the throttle. =ater in the Ga,oline.;" 0ery /ew -rop, o/ water lo-ge- in the bottom o/ the +nion, will ,+//ice to pro-+ce tran,ient -i//ic+ltie, in carb+retion. ",,+ming the amo+nt o/ water to be 0ery ,mall, the tro+ble may be reme-ieby taking o+t the two he3agon n+t, +n-er the 1et, an- emptying the carb+reter. Ignition @y,tem.; he ignition ,y,tem +pon /o+r-cylin-er engine, i, ,+pplie- by two

2H8i3ieHH mo-el FA magneto,. he "-A i, ,+pplie- by two 228i3ieGH A8 magneto,. he,e are /+lly -e,cribe- in a booklet i,,+e- by the @plit-or/ (lectrical Co. It i, mo,t important that a/ter e0ery long /light, the -i,trib+tor block be -etache- an- wipe- o// with a ,o/t cloth. he carbon br+,h lea0e, a -epo,it where it r+n, between the contact point,, which o/ten enable, the ,park to 1+mp acro,,, ca+,ing the motor to mi,, /ire, r+n ro+ghly, or premat+re /ire. I/ thi, -epo,it cannot be remo0e- with a -ry cloth, it i, a-0i,able to moi,ten the cloth with ga,oline. hi, will clean the ,+r/ace, lea0ing it ,mooth, which i, e,,ential. It i, highly a-0i,able to remo0e all twel0e o/ the ,park pl+g, at I/ea,t once a week an,pace them properly. he gap between the point, when +,ing GG8i3ieJ magneto, ,ho+lbe D.D1M inch K/i/teen one-tho+,an-th,L. It i, not nece,,ary to a-0ance the 2G8i3ieJ magneto, to ,tart the engine4 they ,ho+l- be retar-e-. wo G2 8i3ieJ ,witche, are /+rni,he- with each engine. Both o/ the,e ,ho+l- be in,tallein the pilotH, ,eat, one controlling the right-han- an- the other the le/t-han- magneto. By ,horting either one or the other it can be :+ickly -etermine- i/ both magneto,, with their re,pecti0e ,park pl+g,, are working correctly. @park #l+g,.;Care ,ho+l- be taken not to +,e ,park pl+g, ha0ing ,pecial e3ten,ion, or long protr+-ing point,. #l+g, gi0ing be,t re,+lt, are e3tremely ,mall with ,hort point,. emperat+re Gage.;2" temperat+re gage ,ho+l- be in,talle- in the water pipe, coming -irectly /rom the cylin-er neare,t the propeller. hi, in,tn+nent in,talle- in the ra-iator cap ha, not alway, gi0en ,ati,/actory re,+lt,. hi, i, e,pecially noticeable when the water in the ra-iator become, low, not allowing it to to+ch the b+lb on the moto-meter. )or or-inary r+nning, it ,ho+l- not in-icate o0er 1MDr). In climbing te,t,, howe0er, a temperat+re o/ 1ADr). can be maintaine- witho+t any ill e//ect, +pon the engine. In ca,e the engine become, o0erheate-, the in-icator will regi,ter abo0e 18Dr)., in which ca,e it ,ho+l- be ,toppe- imme-iately. %0erheating i, mo,t generally ca+,e- by retar-e- ,park, e3ce,,i0e carbon in the cylin-er,, in,+//icient l+brication, improperly time- 0al0e,, lack o/ water, clogging o/ water ,y,tem in any way which wo+l- ob,tr+ct the /ree circ+lation o/ the water. %0erheating will ca+,e the engine to knock, with po,,ible -amaging re,+lt,. @+ction pipe, ,ho+l- be ma-e o+t o/ thin t+bing, an- r+n within ! or '2 inch o/ each other, ,o that when a ho,e i, place- o0er the two, it will not he "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! Hall-@cott "irplane (ngine @tati,tic @heet H"II-@C% 1BC Hall-@cott "irplane (ngine @tati,tic @heet ; q/'or9in+e-L po,,ible to ,+ck together. hi, i, o/ten the ca,e when a long r+bber ho,e i, +,e-, which ca+,e, o0erheating. $a-iator, ,ho+l- be /l+,he- o+t an- cleane- thoro+ghly :+ite o/ten. " -irty ra-iator may ca+,e o0erheating. "I$#I"5( (5GI5(@

=ater Circi,lation.;=hen /illing the ra-iator it i, 0ery important to remo0e the pl+g on top o/ the water p+mp +ntil water appear,. hi, i, to a0oi- air pocket, being /orme- in the circ+lating ,y,tem, which might not only heat +p the engine, b+t ca+,e con,i-erable -amage. "ll water-p+mp ho,e, an- connection, ,ho+l- be tightly tape- an- ,hellace- a/ter the engine i, properly in,talle- in the plane. he greate,t care ,ho+l- be taken when making engine in,tallation not to +,e ,maller in,i-e -iameter ho,e connection than water-p+mp ,+ction en- ca,ting. %ne inch an- a :+arter in,i-e -iameter ,ho+l- be +,e- on "-C an- "-M motor,, while nothing le,, than 12 inche, in,i-e -iameter ho,e or t+bing on all "-Ca an- "-Ma engine,. It i, /+rther important to ha0e light ,p+n t+bmg, 0oi- o/ any ,harp t+rn,, lea-, /rom p+mp to ra-iator an- cylin-er water o+tlet to ra-iator. In other wor-,, the water circ+lation thro+gh the engine m+,t be a, little re,tricte- a, po,,ible. Be ,+re no light ho,e i, +,e-, that will o/ten ,+ck together when engine i, ,tarte-. 8raining the =ater @y,tem.; o thoro+ghly -rain the water /rom the entire ,y,tem, open the -rain cock at the lowe,t ,i-e o/ the water p+mp. #reparation to @tart (ngine.;2"lway, repleni,h ga,oline tank, thro+gh a ,trainer which i, clean. hi, ,trainer m+,t catch all water an- other imp+ritie, in the ga,oline. #o+r at lea,t < gallon, o/ /re,h oil into the lower crank ca,e. %il all rocker-arm, thro+gh oiler, +pon rocker-arm ho+,ing cap,. Be ,+re ra-iator, are /ille- within 1 inch o/ the top. "/ter all the part, are oile-, an- the tank, /ille-, the /ollowing m+,t be looke- a/ter be/ore ,tartingN @ee i/ crank,ha/t /lange i, tight on ,ha/t. @ee i/ propeller bolt, are tight an- e0enly -rawn +p. @ee i/ propeller bolt, are wire-. @ee i/ propeller i, tr+e- +p to within <2 inc2h. (0ery F -ay, the magneto, ,ho+l- be oile- i/ the engine i, in -aily +,e. (0ery month all cylin-er hol---own n+t, ,ho+l- be gone o0er to a,ccrtai+ they are tight. KBe ,+re to re-cotter n+t,.L @ee i/ magneto, are bolte- on tight an- wire-. @ee i/ magneto cable, are in goo- con-ition. @ee i/ rocker-arm tappet, ha0e a D.DBD-inch clearance /rom 0al0e ,tem when 0al0e i, ,eate-. @ee i/ tappet clamp ,crew, are tight an- cottere-. @ee i/ all ga,oline, oil, water pipe, an- connection, are in per/ect con-ition. "ir on ga, line ,ho+l- be te,te- /or leak,. #+mp at lea,t < po+n-, air pre,,+re into ga,oline tank.

"/ter making ,+re that abo0e r+le, ha0e been ob,er0e-, te,t compre,,ion o/ cylin-er, by t+rning propeller. J 8o 5ot )orget to @hort Both Magneto,.J;Be ,+re all compre,,ion relea,e an- priming cock, -o not leak compre,,ion. I/ they -o, replace ,ame with a new one imme-iately, a, thi, might ca+,e premat+re /iring. %pen priming cock, an- ,:+irt ,ome ga,oline into each. Clo,e cock,. %pen compre,,ion relea,e cock,. %pen throttle ,lightly. , I/ +,ing Berling magneto, they ,ho+l- be three-:+arter, a-0ance-. I/ all the /oregoing -irection, ha0e been care/+lly /ollowe-, the engine i, rea-y /or ,tartin1g. , Y In cranking engine either by ,tarting crank, or propeller, it i, e,,ential to throw it o0er compre,,ion :+ickly. Imme-iately +pon ,tarting, clo,e compre,,ion relea,e cock,. =hen engine i, r+nning, a-0ance magneto,. "/ter it ha, warme- +p, J,hortJ one magneto an- then the other, to be ,+re both magneto, an- ,park pl+g, are /iring properly. I/ there i, a mi,,, the /o+le- pl+g m+,t be locate- an- cleane-. 8o 5ot "ccelerate (ngine 9ntil It Ha, Been =arme- +p horo+ghly.; he oil gage pro0i-e- i, an e3cee-ingly -ehcate in,tr+ment which can ea,ily be broken by e3ce,,i0e pre,,+re ca+,e- by rapi- acceleration o/ a col- engine. Care ,ho+l- be taken to ,ee that oil -oe, not get +p in,i-e o/ gage which will ,top it +p, +,+ally making the han- -rop to >ero. In col- weather we recommen- co0ering +p the ra-iator +ntil the temperat+re o/ the water reache, 8Dr to 1DDG2). o @top (ngine.;Be/ore ,topping engine, let it r+n ,lowly /or a min+te or two, then ,hort magneto,. =e recommen-, a/ter a long r+n, while the engine i, ,till hot, to ,:+irt kero,ene thro+gh the priming cock, into the cylin-er,, al,o into the e3ha+,t-0al0e g+i-e,. )i0e or 1D min+te, a/ter thi, i, -one, the engine ,ho+l- be re,tarte- an- r+n < or F min+te, be/ore ,topping. hi, will in,+re an ea,y ,tart ne3t morning. It will al,o loo,en +p the carbon -epo,it +pon the pi,ton, an- e3ha+,t-0al0e ,tem,. Irreg+laritie, in @tarting (ngine.;)ail+re to ,tart the engine might be ca+,e- by the throttle being open too wi-e. In col- weather the carb+reter ,ho+l- be prime- well4 anin warm weather, ,ho+l- be prime- ,9ghtly. "/ter the engine ha, once ,tarte-, it ,ho+lnot be prime- too m+ch be/ore re,tarting. - hA +,e o/ high-te,t ga,oline /or priming help, ,tarting greatly b+t ,ho+l- be +,e- with ca+tion2 taking care not to o0erprime, allowing ga, to iin -ownitito crank ca,e, which might ca+,e con,i-erable -amage. . '/ iepeate- iattempt, to ,tart engine a, abo0e -irecte- -o not ,+//.Pi.22H22222a2 9 "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%!

a-0i,able to ii+pect ihe ,park pl+g,. )i0e o+t o/ ten ca,e, o/ ignition tro+ble i, -+e to -irty or incorrectly Bpace- ,park pl+g,. he correct ,pacing i, D.D1M inch. "ll ,ho+l- be e3actly +ni/orm. Be ,+re point, are clean. 8ip tooth br+,h in ga,oline an- br+,h point,. (3amine the wire lea-, to be ,+re they are each in their proper place K,ee )ig. A9L. I/, a/ter a teat, it i, /o+n- that there i, no c+rrent -eli0ere- at the ,park pl+g,, the ma1pieto ,ho+l- be looke- into accor-ing to the in,tr+ction book i,,+e- by the magneto man+/act+rer,, an- i/ not ea,ily reme-ie-, they ,ho+l- be ,ent to the /actory repre,entati0e /or repair,. I/ the ignition ,y,tem i, /o+n- to be ,ati,/actory, the tro+ble m+,t then be in the /+el ,+pply, or the /+el it,el/. he carb+reter /loat may be /+ll o/ ga,oline, allowing the /loat chamber to /loo-, which will al,o happen i/ the nee-le 0al0e -oe, not work /ree, or ,ome ob,tr+ction get, in between ,eat an-

0al0e. he ,+pply pipe might be clogge- partially or altogether. I/ /orce /ee- i, +,e-, the air pre,,+re ha, to be te,te-, a, there m2ht be an air leak, or the air-pre,,+re gage might regi,ter a certain amo+nt o/ air which i, not in the tank. here i, a po,,ibility that the 1eta in the carb+reter are ,toppe- +p. I/ thi, i, the ca,e, -o not attempt to clean the 1et, with any ,harp in,tr+ment. I/ thi, i, -one, it might change the opening in the 1eta, th+, ,poiling the a-1+,tment. 'et, an- no>>le, ,ho+l- be blown o+t with air or ,team. "n open intake or e3ha+,t 0al0e, which might ha0e become ,l+ggi,h or ,t+ck /rom carbon, might ca+,e tro+ble. Be ,+re to reme-y thi, at once by +,ing a little coal oil or kero,ene on ,ame, working the 0al0e by han- +ntil it become, /ree. =e recommen+,ing graphite on 0al0e ,tem, mi3e- with oil to g+ar- again,t ,ticking or +n-+e wear. 8ecrea,e in (ngine (//iciency.;"/ter the engine ha, been +,e- contin+o+,ly in har,er0ice /or a certain length o/ time, it may -ecrea,e in it, r.p.m. here are -i//erent ca+,e, /or thi,. In the magneto ho+,ing -i,trib+tor, the carbon br+,h r+nning between the -i,trib+ting point, will lea0e a -epo,it. hi, /ine -+,t will partially ,horten the magneto, ca+,ing the motor to pre-/ire or r+n ro+ghly. he -i,trib+tor block ,ho+l- be remo0e- an- wipe- o+t a, pre0io+,ly ,+gge,te-. Carbon in the cylin-er, an- on top o/ the pi,ton, will al,o -ecrea,e the r.p.m., a, well a, ca+,e pre-ignition, hammering, an- lo,, o/ compre,,ion. I/ motor oil, are +,e- a, recommen-e-, thi, tro+ble will be -elaye- /or the longe,t po,,ible time. 5at+ral wearing o/ ,+r/ace, m+,t be taken into con,i-eration, an- /or thi, rea,on o+r company recommen-, the -i,a,,embling, in,pection, an- cleaning o/ engine within a

rea,onable length o/ time. 8i,a,,embling.; hi, ,ho+l- only be +n-ertaken by a /airly competent an- care/+l mechanic who ha, thoro+ghly ac:+ainte- him,el/ with thi, type engine. " table or bench ,ho+l- be pro0i-e- to recei0e the part, /or in,pection that are taken /rom the motor, cleane- thoro+ghly in -i,tillate, an- -rie-. It i, recommen-e- to +,e Hall-@cott -i,a,,embling ,tan-,, ,pecial tool, an- ,him boar-,, which will make the work more thoro+gh, rapi- an- e//icient. he engine ,ho+l- be -i,a,,emble- a, /ollow,N $emo0e lower crank ca,e, t+rn crank,ha/t aro+n- +ntil pi,ton in 5o. 1 cylin-er i, on top -ea- center, on e3ha+,t ,troke Kthat i,, ,hortly be/ore the e3ha+,t 0al0e clo,e, an- intake 0al0e open,L. hi, will bring all mark, re/erre- to in line K,ee )ig,. CD an- C1L. Iea0ing crank,ha/t in thi, po,ition, take o// cam,ha/t ho+,ing co0er an- make ,+re that mark on cam,ha/t gear, an- line in bottom o/ cam,ha/t gear ho+,ing, are in line. I/ thi, i, the ca,e, the cam,ha/t ho+,ing can be remo0e- a, /ollow,N 8i,connect o0er/low oil pipe lea-ing /rom cam,ha/t ho+,ing to magneto gear ho+,ing bo3. $emo0e the /o+r '2inch n+t, hol-ing ,t+//ing bo3 to lower portion o/ cam,ha/t ho+,ing, ,li-ing thi, -own the lower ,ha/t ,lightly. $emo0e the twenty-/o+r '2e-inch n+t, /rom cam,ha/t ho+,ing hol---own ,t+-,. he cam,ha/t ho+,ing with cam,ha/t, etc., i, rea-y to be remo0e-. hi, ,ho+l- be li/te- +pwar-, being care/+l not to cramp ,ame +pon the cylin-er cam,ha/t ho+,ing hol---own ,t+-,. he wire mani/ol-, Knote they are right an- le/tL with oil an- water pipe,, ,ho+l- be remo0e-. By remo0ing n+t, an- wa,her,, the cylin-er, can ea,ily be remo0e-. "ll engine, abo0e 18< ha0e been marke- accor-ing to abo0e in,tr+ction,. I/ it i, only re:+ire- to grin- the 0al0e,, remo0e carbon an- in,pect pi,ton ring,. It i, pre/erable by /ar to t+rn the engine +p,i-e -own, remo0e the lower crank ca,e, -etach each connecting-ro- bearing /rom it, ro- a/ter which the pi,ton, an- ro-, can be remo0e- /rom their cylin-er,. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! MiQiaa Chart Qt+ttCrent@Qia// i, laHpoi/- neQ2itrnhm (iia+,tmti,t'iii- .

)io. C1.;8iagram /or timio, engii hi, allow, /ree acce,, to 0al0e,, cylin-er,, pi,ton,, ring,, etc. I/ it i, nece,,ary to remo0e the cam,ha/t ho+,ing an- the timing i, wi,he- to be maintaine-, procee- in the /ollowing mannerN . @et the crank,ha/t a, -e,cribe- abo0e. hi, will bring two center p+nch mark, on 0ertical ,ha/t /lange, into 0iew4 -i,connect the,e two /lange,, an- remo0e cam,ha/t ho+,ing. Grin- 7al0e,.; he 0al0e, are o/ t+ng,ten ,teel an- will not warp or /it e3cept, in +n+,+al ca,e,. he 0al0e ,eat,, howe0er, may collect a carbon -epo,it which will pre0ent the 0al0e /rom ,eating properly. =hen thi, occ+r,, the 0al0e, ,ho+l- be remo0e- an- the ,eat, gro+n-, +,ing a mi3t+re o/ oil an- pow-ere- gla,,, or ,ome prepare- 0al0e grin-ing pa,te. o grin- the 0al0e ,eat,, place a bar, ha0ing two hole, ibhro+gh ,ame, -own o0er the two cam,ha/t ho+,ing hol---own ,t+-, oppo,ite the 0al0e to be remo0e-. $eplace the two n+t,. $emo0e the cotter pin in 0al0e ,tem +n-er the 0al0e-,pring c+p. 9,ing a ,pecial Hall-@cott 0al0e tool which can be ,lippe- +n-er the bar, it will be ea,y to /orce the 0al0e c+p an- ,pring -own ,o the ,mall key can be rea-ily remo0e-. hi, will allow

the remo0al o/ both 0al0e ,pring an- c+p. ake o+t the 0al0e an- clean it thoro+ghly, al,o noting whether or not the ,tem i, clean, or otherwi,e in goo- con-ition. $eplace the 0al0e an- grin- by rotating it back an- /orth with a ,crew-ri0er, the grin-ing pa,te being between the 0al0e an- the ,eat. Care ,ho+l- be taken to rai,e the 0al0e /rom it, ,eat /re:+ently while grin-ing. hi, pre0ent, grin-ing a groo0e in the ,eat. It i, e,,ential a/ter the 0al0e, are gro+n- to clean the entire cylin-er with ga,oline, wiping ,ame with a ,o/t clean rag, making ,+re all the grin-ing pa,te ha, been remo0e-. he ,i-e o/ the cylin-er wall, ,ho+l- be oile- with clean oil be/ore cylin-er, are ,lippeo0er pi,ton, into place. Cleaning #i,ton,.;=hen ,lipping o// the cylin-er,, care ,ho+l- be taken to ,tea-y the pi,ton, ,o they will not /all o0er a/ter cylin-er i, remo0e-, which wo+l- re,+lt either in cracking the lower e-ge o/ the pi,ton, which i, e3tremely thin, or -i,tort it, ,hape. It i, a-0i,able to ben- an iron ban- to in,ert in,i-e each pi,ton imme-iately a/ter remo0ing cylin-er. he,e ban-, can be p+rcha,e- at a nominal co,t. o remo0e the pi,ton ring, three or /o+r ,trip, o/ '2 B-inch ,pring ,teel ,ho+l- be +,e-. he,e ,ho+l- be ,lippe- aro+n- the ring +ntil it i, entirely /ree o/ the groo0e, a/ter which it can be ,li- o// :+ite rea-ily. (ach ring ha, to be replace- in it, original groo0e K,ee mark, on in,i-e ,+r/ace o/ ringL a, they are all -i//erently ,pace- to allow /or the -i//erent heat e3pan,ion,. Clean ,lot, by ,craping, taking care not to ,cratch the metal. 9,e cloth, moi,tene- with ga,oline, to clean the ,+r/ace, a/ter carbon i, remo0e-. H I/ there are any bright ,pot, on the o+t,i-e wall, o/ the piato3t, ``. 2PZr\\2 2,0 +n-+e amo+nt o/ /riction i, taking place at that point. " 0ery /ine /ile can be +,e- to to+ch +p the,e ,pot,. In rea,,embling the ring, in their re,pecti0e groo0e,, they ,ho+l- be /ree to mo0e aro+n- each groo0e witho+t bin-ing at any place. %il the pi,ton,, ring,, an- groo0e, be/ore a,,embling in cylin-er,. $emo0ing =ri,tpin,.;=e -o not a-0i,e the -i,a,,embling o/ the pi,ton /roHm the connecting ro- +nle,, ab,ol+tely nece,,ary. =hen thi, operation i, nece,,ary, remo0e the ,et ,crew hol-ing wri,tpin in po,ition. 9,e a ,mall piece o/ har-woo-, -ri0ing the wri,tpin by light tapping o/ a hammer on oppo,ite en- /rom the ,et ,crew. hi, pin ,hoi-- be replace- /rom the ,ame en-, namely, ,i-e o/ pi,ton ha0ing ,et-,crew hole in pi,ton-pin bo,,. I/ it i, nece,,ary to /it new b+,hing, in connecting ro-, the wri,tpin ,ho+l- be p+,heinto place by han- witho+t e3ce,,i0e bin-ing at any point.

)ig. CB.;$ea,,embling engine. " check +pon whether or not the wri,tpin an- pi,ton \/re in line i, to mo0e the connecting ro-, by han-, ,i-eway, +pon the crank,ha/t a/ter the pi,ton an- cylin-er ha0e been a,,emble-. here ,ho+l- be no bin-ing i/ the ,+r/ace, are oile- an- the a,,embly i, properly ma-e. "-Ca an- "-Ma engine, are e:+ippe- with al+min+m pi,ton,. It i, nece,,ary to heat the pi,ton with a torch which will allow ea,y remo0al an- replacement o/ wri,tpin. $ea,,embling (ngine.; It i, mo,t e,,ential that all part, are thoro+ghly cleane- with ga,oline an- wipe- -ry with a ,o/t, clean rag be/ore being replace- +pon the engine. Bring mark 5o. 1, on crank,ha/t /lange K,ee )ig. CBL, +,ing a ,:+are, -ea- tr+e in line with mark on crank-ca,e bo-y. 5o. B, which i, ,tampe- . C. Ktop centerL, o/ crankpin in 5o. 1 an- A cylin-er,. "/ter thi,, crank,ha/t ,ho+l- not be mo0e- +ntil the entire engine i, a,,emble-. he 0ertical ,ha/t ,ho+l- ne3t be a,,emble-. It being e3cee-ingly H"II-@C% 1<M -i//ic+lt to ,ee the mark on the lowe,t ,et o/ gear,, a mark 5o. < i, pro0i-e- on both 0ertical-,ha/t /lange,. he,e m+,t be ,et in e3act -ea- center po,ition a, ,hown in )ig. C<. #o,ition o/ 5[I Cylin-er Cam, when 5[ I #i,ton i, on op 8eo- Center "I$#I"5( (5GI5(@

)ig. C<.;",,embling 0ertical ,ha/t. Y Cam @ha/t )lange

i,n <9 ,'N2 PrE2 . \ I@i-e, o/ #in /lattene-

"-1+,ting @crew #in "/ter ,crewing #in in/o /lange $i0et o0er thi, (nc to ,ec+re #in in #o,ition "-1+,ting @crewH _ #in in #o,ition :k-0iJ JbJ hrea- "-1+,ting @creti

Cam @ha/t )ig. CF.;2Iining +p cam,ha/t gear. - he cam,ha/t with ho+,ing can now be ,lippe- into place. 5otice mark 5o. F on cam,ha/t gear, which ,ho+l- line +p with mark in the bottom o/ cam,ha/t gear ho+,ing K,ee )ig. CFL. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%!

Hiil I o1

Care ,ho+l- be taken at thi, ,tage to look at the cam, /or 5o. 1 cylin-er, to -etermine that they are in the po,ition ill+,trate- in )ig. C<. I/ thi, i, not correctly place-, ,ome mi,take ha, been ma-e an- ha, to be /o+n- be/ore going /+rther. "/ter e0erything check, +p ,ati,/actorily, the magneto, ,ho+l- be in,talle-. ake magneto marke- at the ba,e, an- gear with letter JIJ Kmeaning le/t-han-L, remo0e -i,trib+tor, t+rn magneto ,ha/t +ntil hole with re- ring line, +p with re- mark on magneto bo-y, which can be ,een a, hole pa,,e, mark. In,ert magneto H2IHH le/t-han,i-e an- magneto HH$J on right-han- ,i-e. "/ter gear, are in me,h, be certain the hole, in gear, are -irectly in line with re- mark, on magneto bo-y. Care ,ho+l- be taken to a,certain both magneto, ,ynchroni>e, br, in other wor-,, break per/ectly at the ,ame time. )itting 5ew Cylin-er,.;2It i, 0ery important that e3treme care be taken in replacement o/ cylin-er, +pon engine,, with new cylin-er,. In /itting a new cylin-er, the hol---own ,t+- n+t, ,ho+l- be loo,ene- +pon all cylin-er, on the engine an- the new cylin-er /itte- in it, place witho+t bin-ing. It may be nece,,ary to /ile o+t the hol---own ,t+- bo,,e, a tri/le in or-er that a new cylin-er will line +p all aro+n- an- make a per/ect /it with the crank ca,e. In ca,e the hol---own ,t+- bo,, -oe, not line +p hori>ontally with the a-1oining cylin-er hol---own ,t+- bo,,, it ,hoi-- be bro+ght -own to po,ition with a /acing c+tter. he hol---own ,t+- n+t, m+,t be tightene- e0enly all aro+n- an- cannot be p+lle-

-own with too m+ch pre,,+re or it will re,+lt in breaking the bo,, away /rom the '2-inch cylin-er wall. )ig. BA ,howe- the thr+,t bearing an- propeller /itting an- )ig. CM the mo+nting o/ the engine in a tractor /+,elage. @(C I%5 E @9GG(@ I%5@ "@ % H( @ 9$ (7"H "I$#I"5( (5GI5( 8o not change engine a-1+,tment, a, the engine, are in per/ect r+nning con-ition when lea0ing the /actory an- all a-1+,tment, are correct.

o/ @t+tte0ant engine. In e0ent o/ any -i//ic+lty ari,ing in connection with the operation o/ the engine, be ,+re to in0e,tigate all po,,ible ,o+rce, o/ tro+ble be/ore attempting to re,et the magneto,, 0nl0eg, carb+re@ 7$ (7"5 "I$#I"5( (5GI5(

ter, etc. "/ter the tro+ble ha, been locate- be ,+re that yo+ +n-er,tan- thoro+ghly how to correct it be/ore procee-mg. @t+-y )ig,. CA an- CC to become /amiliar with the con,tr+ction o/ thi, type o/ engine. 9npacking the (ngine "ll engine,, when rea-y /or ,hipment, are care/+lly packe- in ,troiig waterproo/ ca,e, o/ ,pecial -e,ign, enabling the engine, to be remo0e- with little -i//ic+lty. )ir,t, ;Be/ore attempting to remo0e engine, ,ee that the ca,e re,t, /irmly on the ,ki-,. @econ-, ;$emo0e the large co0er on the top o/ the ca,e. hi, i, hel- in place with ,crew,. hir-, ;2$emo0e the co0ering /rom the engine, which i, hel- in place with ,tring.

)o+rth, ;$emo0e /o+r bolt, hol-ing engine be- member, to cro,, timber, at each en-. )i/th, ; he engine i, now rea-y to li/t o+t o/ the bo3. hi, ,ho+l- be -one 0ery care/+lly an- pre/erably by mean, o/ a chain hoi,t or block an- tackle. @i3th, ; he engine-be- member, may ne3t be remo0e- i/ not -e,ire- /or con0enience in /+rther han-ling the engine. he ,i3 bolt, +,e- to attach the engine to the,e member, are -e,igne- /or hol-ing the engine to it, be- in the plane, are o/ alloy ,teel an- ,ho+lbe ,a0e-. @e0enth, ;@pare part, are /re:+ently ,hippe- with the engine,, being packe- in woo-en bo3e, which are hel- in place in the ca,e o/ ,crew,, which are in,erte- /rom the o+t,i-e. %b0io+,ly the,e part, ,ho+l- be remo0ebe/ore attempting to take engine o+t o/ the ca,e. P In,talling the (ngine he ,+cce,,/+l operation o/ an airplane engine -epen-, to a large -egree +pon it, proper in,tallation in the airplane /+,elage, an- a, a re,+lt o/ e3perience we +rge that the /ollowing point, be ob,er0e- clo,ely. $a-iator )or be,t e//iciency, the 0ertical height o/ the ra-iator, ,ho+l- be kept -own an- /ace area obtaine- by increa,ing the wi-th. he top hea-er ,ho+lbe proportione- ,o a, to -i,trib+te the water properly, to pre0ent it, piling +p or ,+rging. "t BDDD r.p.m. engine ,pee- the p+mp circ+late, 8D gallon, -/ water per min+te. H. he ,y,tem i, ,impli/ie- i/ ra-iator, are mo+nte- abo0e the le0el o/ the engineG be-. Y "ll ra-iator cZ+nection,, water pipe,, elbow,, +nion,, etc., ,ho+l- be o/ large ,i>e, anin no ca,e o/ le,, -iameter than the water connection, /or the engine. Connection /rom engine to ra-iator ,ho+l- be the ,horte,t po,,ible an- with the lea,t nimiber o/ ben-,. H 8o not /ill the ra-iator ,o that it will o0er/low. It i, m+ch better to ha0e a part o/ the hea-er ,pace empty4 otherwi,e when the engine i, ,tarte- +p a gr2at -eal o/ the water may be lo,t thro+gh the o0er/low pipe. Ga,oline an- %il ank, .&-YQY he ga,oline tank,, which may be o/ any ,hape or ,i>e -e,irable, ,ho+l- be locate-N ,/o that the bottomi o/ the gra0ity tank will alway, be at lea,t 8 Heche, abo0e the le0el o/ the carb+reter. .H he oil tank may likewi,e be o/ any ,i>e, ,hape or capacity. Howe0er, it m+,t be locate,o that it, highe,t point will alway, be below the le0el o/ the\+mp& o/ the engine at any angle which the airplane may a,,+me in normal 2r0ice. @tarting the (ngine r )ir,t ,ee that the engine i, ,ec+rely /a,tene- -own on the engine be- o/ the airplane.

hen care/+lly e3amine the oil, ga,oline an- water-pipe coh-n2tion, an- ,ee that all are properly ma-e ari- tight. Y @ee that the ga,oline tank i, /ille- with ga,oline o/ at lea,t A<rB2. an- theH l+bricating oil tank, an- ,+mp with J"J Mobiloil or e:+i0alent. )ill the re,er0oir, in thA 0al0e rocker pin, on the top o/ the cylin-er, with the ,ame oil a, +,e- in the ,+mp. he c+p en-, into which the tappet ro- /it, ,ho+l- be /ille- with /lake- graphite an- grea,e mi3e-. "l,o /ill tachometer 1oint grea,e c+p with a goo- non-/l+i- grea,e an- /ill the ra-iator with p+re /iltere- water. I/ the engine ha, beien ,tan-ing /or ,ome time witho+t r+nning, it i, well to ,:+irt a little oil into the cylin-er,. "ll ,park pl+g, ,ho+l- be care/+lly e3amine- to ,ee that there are no broken poiHcelaiii,. he porcelain, are 0ery ea,ily cracke- when +npacking the engine or -+ring the proce,, o/ in,talling ,ame. )+rthermore, a/ter the engine ha, been r+n /or a ,hort time, oil will ten- to -epo,it on the porcelain, an- in many in,tance, ca+,e, the ,park to ,hortcirc+it. !eep the ,patk pl+g, clean. @tan-ar- onginc, are reg+larly /+rni,he- right-han- rotation +nle,, otherwi,e or-ere-. he rotation o/ the engine i, -etermine- when /acing the wat\r-p+nip en- ;that i,, i/ the crank,ha/t rotate, clockwi,e the engine i, right-han-4 i/ co+nter-clockwi,e, le/than-. %n a right-han- engine the propeller t+rn, clockwi,e when /acing the propeller. hi, i, tr+e only when the prope8er ,ha/t i, operate- thro+gh a re-+ction gear. %n a right-han-, -irect--ri0e engine the propeller t+rn, anti-clockwi,e a, 0iewe- /rom the prop-ler en- o/ the engine. o ,tart the engine the ,witch ,ho+l- be place- in the od) po,ition marke- HH@top.HH he ,park ,ho+l- be /+lly retar-e- by p+lling +p the magneto lo0er, again,t the ten,ion o/ the ,pring. he throttle ,ho+l- be opene- a little way only, beca+,e in thi, manner a ,trong ,+ction i, in-+ce- in the priming hole at the e-ge o/ the b+tter/ly which rai,e, the ga,oline an- e//ecti0ely prime, the cylin-er,. he throttle ,ho+l- not be more than H inch /rom the ,top. "ll o/ the cylin-er, ,ho+l- now be prime- by ,:+irting in a /ew -rop, - ga,oline. 8o not +,e too m+ch ga,oline a, it will -e,troy the /ilm o/ l+bricating oil on the cylin-er wall,. hi, wo+l- re,+lt in the pi,ton, ,ei,ing. 8o not +n-er any circ+m,tance, prime the engine with ether or other chemical,. @ee that the ga,oline i, t+rne- on at the tank an- then procee- to t+rn the engine o0er +ntil the propeller or ,tarting han-le i, in a con0enient cranking po,ition. 5ow t+rn the ,witch to the po,ition marke- G G$+nJ an- gi0e the propeller a :+ick t+rn -ownwar- or the ,tarting han-le a :+ick t+rn in the -irection o/ rotation. I/ the engine /ail, to ,tart, t+rn the ,witch to po,ition marke- G H@top J an- then t+rn the engine o0er +ntil the propeller or ,tarting han-le i, again in a con0enient cranking po,ition. I/ it -oe, not ,tart a/ter two or three attempt, it ,ho+l- be prime- again. It may ,tart an- r+n /or a /ew e3plo,ion, an- then back/ire an- ,top. hi, i, more likely to happen in colweather an- can +,+ally be pre0ente- by placing a piece o/ paper or ,ome ,imilar ob1ect o0er the carb+reter air inlet /or a /ew ,econ-, `mtil the engine commence, to get the proper mi3t+re. #er,i,tent cranking i, +,+ally o/ no a0ail. I/ the engine -oe, not ,tart rea-ily, bring the ,witch to the po,ition J@topJ an- look /or the rea,on an- correct the tro+ble in,tea- o/ trying to make the engine ,tart by contin+al cranking.

It i, mo,t likely that the cylin-er, are not getting ga, an- nee- /+rther priming a, the carb+reter i, large /or the ,i>e o/ the cylin-er, in or-er to obtain ma3im+m power at high ,pee-, an- at cranking ,pee-, it i, ,ometime, -i//ic+lt to get ,+//icient ,+ction to ,tart the engine. In cranking the engine +,e care on acco+nt o/ the liability o/ a back kick. @tarting (ngine with Chri,ten,en "ir @tarter )ir,t. ;@ee that there i, at lea,t 1CM po+n-, o/ air in the air tank. @econ-. ; +rn on the main ga,o9ne ,+pply an- ,ee that the ,h+to// cock o/ the ga,oline pipe lea-ing /rom the main ga,oline line to the ,tarter carb+reter i, t+rne- on K,ee )ig. 81L. It i, nece,,ary to +,e the ga,oline mi3t+re only when /ir,t ,tarting the engine an- in e3tremely col- weather. =hen the engine i, warm the ga,oline ,+pply to the ,tarter carb+reter can be ,h+t o// an- the engine ,tarte- on air alone. hir-. ;2 +m the ignition ,witch han-le to the po,ition marke- J$+n.J )o+rth. ; +rn the han-le o/ the ,elector or control 0al0e to the po,ition marke- J@.J hen pre,, the central b+tton on the control 0al0e, thereby allowing compre,,e- air to /low /rom the ,tarter tank to the carb+reter mechani,m o/ the air ,tarter an- /inally to the -i,trib+tor mechani,m. he m.i3t+re o/ air an- ga,oline pa,,e, thro+gh the check 0al0e into the cylin-er,. he compre,,e- ga,oline mi3t+re e3plo-e, a, in the reg+lar han--cranking operation o/ the engine. "/ter the engine ,tart,, t+rn ,witch on the control 0al0e to the J5e+tral po,itionJ markeJ5.J o keep compre,,e- air in re,er0oir in-e/initely, clo,e ,top 0al0e to J5.J Han-le i, -etachable to pre0ent tampering with the apparat+, by +na+thori>e- per,on,. o ,tart compre,,or, mo0e han-le to po,ition J#J an- pre,, b+tton. o ,top compre,,or, mo0e han-le :+ickly to po,ition J5.J o in/late tire,, ,tart compre,,or, then mo0e han-le ,lowly to J5J an- attach tire ho,e to no>>le. #re,, b+tton an- air will /low /rom the tank into the tire, +ntil b+tton i, relea,e-. $+nning the (ngine Imme-iately a/ter the engine ,tart,, the throttle ,ho+l- be opene- abo+t one-hal/ anthe ,park a-0ance- abo+t one-:+arter, allowing the engine to operate at hal/ ,pee- /or a /ew moment, +ntil it become, warm. Make ,+re that the water i, circ+lating thro+gh the pipe, between engine an- ra-iator,, either by noting the temperat+re a, in-icate- by the thermometer or by placing the han- on one o/ the pipe,. he ,park ,ho+l- be /+lly a-0ance- be/ore /+rther opening the throttle. %il pre,,+re ,ho+l- be regi,tere- by the pre,,+re gage imme-iately the engine ,tart,. I/ no pre,,+re i, in-icate-, the engine ,ho+l- be ,toppe- imme-iately K,ee I+bricationL. %il may not commence to pa,, thro+gh the oil ,ight-gla,, +ntil the engine ha, been r+nning a /ew min+te, or ,o, b+t thi, i, nothing to be alarme- abo+t, ,ince the engine can be operate- ,a/ely /or a /ew min+te, witho+t

the oil-,+pply p+mp working. @topping the (ngine Clo,e the throttle an- retar- the ,park abo+t hal/way, allowing the engine to i-le /or a /ew moment,. hen t+rn the ,witch to po,ition marke- J@top.J I/ the engine contin+e, to r+n, -+e to it, being hot, /ir,t clo,e the throttle an- then :+ickly open it. hi, will ca+,e a 0ery lean mi3t+re to be -rawn into the cylin-er, an- will ten- to ca+,e the engine to ,top. 8o not allow engine to contin+e to r+n a/ter magneto, are ,hortcirc+ite-. he ga,oline ,ho+l- be ,h+t o// i/ nece,,ary. I+brication I+brication i, o/ the complete /orce- circ+lating ,y,tem, the oil being ,+pplie- to the principal bearing, +n-er pre,,+re by a rotary p+mp o/ the gear type which i, locate+n-er the crank,ha/t bearing on the timing-gear en- an- operate- by a gear /rom the crank,ha/t. he oil ,+mp /orm, a re,er0oir /rom which the oil p+mp -raw, it, ,+pply thro+gh the oil ,+ction pipe, )ig. C8. %il i, -eli0ere- thro+gh a 0ertical pa,,age integral with the en- o/ the ba1,e to the oil -+ct which connect, the three crank,ha/t bearing,. )rom the timing-gear en- o/ thi, -+ct the oil pa,,e, thro+gh oil hole, -rille- in the eno/ the ba,e +p to the i-ler gear an- cam,ha/t bearing an- i, -i,trib+te- thro+gh the hollow cam,ha/t to each o/ the main cam,ha/t bearing,. It al,o pa,,e, aro+n- a groo0e in the cam,ha/t bearing an- i, -eli0ere- to the water p+mp ,ha/t bearing -irectly abo0e, at which point the oil-pre,,+re gage i, locate-. )rom .the crank,ha/t bearing the oil enter, the hollow crank,ha/t an- pa,,e, thro+gh a hole in the crankarm to the big en-, o/ the connecting ro-, o/ cylin-er,. )rom the center an- propeller en- o/ the oil -+ct the oil pa,,e, -own thro+gh -rillehole, in the ba,e to the crank,ha/t bearing, where it enter, the hollow ,ha/t. In the ca,e o/ the center bearing the oil pa,,e, thro+gh hole, in the two a-1oining crankarm, anl+bricate, the big en-, o/ the connecting ro-, o/ cylin-er,, while the oil /rom the remaining ro-, i, re2-cei0e- /rom the propeller-en- crank,ha/t bearing. he cylin-er wall,2 pi,ton, an- wri,tpin b+,hing, are l+bricate- by the oil which i, thrown o// /rom the crank,ha/t a/ter pa,,ing thro+gh the bearing,, an- thi, oil ,+b,e:+ently ret+rn, to the oil ,+mp thro+gh the /ilter ,creen an- i, recirc+late- by the p+mp. @ 9$ (7"5 "I$#I"5( (5GI5( 1FM lie oil ,+pply p+mp i, locate- on the o+t,i-e o/ the engine on the timing-gear ca,e co0er +n-erneath the water p+mp. hi, i, o/ the pl+nger ,pring ret+rn type operate- by a cam on the en- o/ the cam,ha/t. It ha, one o+tlet ball 0al0e an- the inlet i, thro+gh a port +nco0ere- by the pl+nger. hi, p+mp take, oil /rom the a+3iliary oil tank an-eli0er, it into the

)ia. C8.;%iling ,y,tem. ,oilo a+mp at a /a,ter rate than it i, +,e- by the engine. he e Bo0, /rom the aomp to the oil tank. " ,ight gla,, i, pro0i-e- in the line bom the oil tank to the oil-,+pply p+mp to in-icate that thi, i, working pwperly. he ob1ect o/ thi, arrangement ia to ,+pply a con,tant amo+nt o/ cool oil to tiie re,er0oir in the ,+mp /rom which the oil-pre,,+re p+mp -raw,.it, ,+pply an- to maintain a con,tant amo+nt in the ,+mp /or the pre,,+re p+mp to circ+late. he pre,,+re at which the pre,,+re p+mp i, -eli0ering the oil to the bearing, i, recor-eon a gage which in-icate, that the oiling ,y,tem i, working. hi, gage ,ho+l- be con,tantly in 0iew o/ the operator an- may be either attache- to the ba,e in /ront o/ the water p+mp or pipe- /rom here to a point on the in,tr+ment boar-. he pre,,+re recor-e- on thi, gage will 0ary con,i-erably an- cannot be controlle- per/ectly, b+t ,ho+l- be hel- within the ma3im+m capacity o/ the gage an- a minim+m o/ 1D po+n-,. ! +pon ,tarting or at any time while the motor i, r+nning the pre,,+re ,ho+l- /all to >ero the motor m+,t be ,toppe- imme-iately. he ma3im+m pre,,+re i, controlle- by a relie/ 0al0e which i, pro0i-e- /or the p+rpo,e o/ pre0enting an e3ce,, pre,,+re in the ,y,tem when the oil i, col- an- will not pa1,, thro+gh the bearing, /reely. hi, 0al0e ,ho+l- be a-1+,te- to pre0ent the pre,,+re /rom e3cee-ing the ma3im+m capacity o/ the gage. he relie/-0al0e g+i-e i, +n,crewe- /rom

the ba,e to lower the pre,,+re an- ,crewe- into the ba,e to increa1,e the pre,,+re. It i, a-1+,te- at the /actory an- ,ho+l- not nee- /+rther attention +nle,, the gra-e o/ oil i, change- or the engine i, +,e- in 0ery col- weather. I/ a 0ery hea0y oil i, +,e- in colweather it may be /o+n- that the relie/ 0al0e will not ha0e a ,+//icient capacity to holthe pre,,+re within thA limit o/ the gage. I/ a light oil i, +,e- in warm weather the pre,,+re may not reach the ma3im+m e0en +pon ,tarting the engine. =hen the oil become, warm a/ter the engine ha, operate- a ,hort time the pre,,+re in the ,y,tem will -rop con,i-erably, -+e to the /act that all the oil -eli0ere- by the p+mp will pa,, thro+gh the bearing, with le,, pre,,+re on acco+nt o/ it, lower 0i,co,ity when hot. hi, normal r+nning pre,,+re i, not a//ecte- by the a-1+,tment o/ the relie/ 0al0e a, the relie/ 0al0e i, in the nat+re o/ a ,a/ety 0al0e an- when the pre,,+re -rop, below the point at which the relie/ 0al0e i, ,et, it i, an in-ication that all the oil i, pa,,ing thro+gh the bearing,. he normal pre,,+re when the engine i, operating at /+ll ,pee- ,ho+l- not be le,, than 1D po+n-,, an- i/ it /all, below thi, the engine ,ho+l- be ,toppe-. I/ it -rop, ,+--enly /rom a normal pre,,+re o/ <D to FD po+n-, to le,, than 1D po+n-, it i, probably -+e to e3ha+,ting o/ the oil ,+pply or ,ome ,erio+, leak which ha, -e0elopein the ,y,tem or the relie/ 0al0e may ha0e become +n,crewe-. he ga,ket between the oil pre,,+re p+mp an- the bearing cap i, a point where leakage may occ+r, -+e to the -eterioration or breakage o/ the ga,ket. I/ the pre,,+re gra-+ally /all, o0er a con,i-erable perio- o/ time it i, prob-,b'y -+e to worn bearing, allowing the oil to pa,, thro+gh them more /reely. )re,h oil will impro0e thi, con-ition an- /re,h oil o/ a hea0ier gra-e will impro0e it con,i-erably. I/ no oil pre,,+re i, ,hown +pon ,tarting the engine it i, an in-ication that the oilpre,,+re p+mp i, not working. hi, may be ca+,e- by an air leak in the oil ,+ction pipe lea-ing /rom the ,+mp to the p+mp or to the p+mp becoming worn to ,+ch an e3tent that it will not li/t the oil /rom the ,+mp. he con-ition o/ the bearing, ha, a marke- e//ect +pon the oil pre,,+re. I/ the bearing, are tight the normal pre,,+re will be high, while i/ the bearing, are loo,e the normal pre,,+re will be low. " combination o/ loo,e bearing, an- thin oil will allow the pre,,+re to -rop to a low point when the engine become, hot. 9n-er the,e circ+m,tance,, the cylin-er, will recei0e e3ce,, oil, altho+gh the pre,,+re in the ,y,tem will be low beca+,e more o9 i, pa,,ing thro+gh the bearing, an- being thrown o// by the crank,ha/t. I/, howe0er, the crank,ha/t bearing, are a-1+,te- too tight, e,pecially the connecting-robig en-,, the oil p+mp will maintain a high pre,,+re in the ,y,tem, b+t the cylin-er, will recei0e in,+//icient l+brication. In /act the con,i,tency o/ the oil an- the con-ition o/ the bearing, ha0e to be ,+ch that the cylin-er, will recei0e proper l+brication. " ,ight-gla,, in-icate, whether the oil-,+pply p+mp i, working properly. %il may not begin to pa,, thro+gh thi, gla,, imme-iately a/ter ,tarting the engine, a, it take, abo+t a min+te /or the pipe to /ill. I/, howe0er, the oil -oe, not commence to pa,, thro+gh the gla,, within a /ew min+te, a/ter ,tarting, the ca+,e ,ho+l- be in0e,tigate-. I/ the oil cea,e, to pa,, thro+gh the ,ight-gla,, while r+nning, the amo+nt o/ oil in the ,+mp i, ,+//icient to allow the engine to be r+n ,a/ely /or 1 ho+r, altho+gh it i, not -e,irable to operate the engine +n-er the,e con-ition, +nle,, ab,ol+tely nece,,ary. he mo,t likely ca+,e, /or /ail+re o/ the oil-,+pply p+mp are a, /ollow,N

1. 5o oil in the a+3iliary oil tank. B. "ir leak in pipe /rom oil tank to ,ight-gage. hi, can be -etermine- by care/+l e3amination, an- i/ the pipe i, not cracke- the +nion connection may be loo,e or the gla,, in the oil gage not air-tight. <. he o+tlet 0al0e may leak. hi, can be in,pecte- by remo0ing the ,mall pl+g on the top o/ the p+mp. I/ the ca+,e o/ the leak i, not apparent it will be nece,,ary to remo0e the p+mp /rom the gear ca,e in or-er to let the 0al0e -rop o+t o/ it, chamber. @ome /oreign particle in the oil may pre0ent it /rom ,eating or the 0al0e may nee- to be re,eate-, which i, rea-ily accompli,he- with a p+nch an- a /ew blow, o/ a 0ery light hammer. F. he pl+nger may ,tick, -+e to ,tan-ing /or ,ome time an- the oil becoming congeale-. It i, operate- in one -irection by a ,pring. he p+mp ,ho+l- be remo0e-, an- i/ the pl+nger -oe, not operate /reely it ,ho+l- be cleane- an- l+bricate- with /re,h oil. " high-gra-e ga,-engine cylin-er oil ,+ch a, JMobiloil ",J will be /o+npre/erable in or-inary weather. Both the oil ,+mp an- the oil tank ,ho+l- be -raine/re:+ently an- re/ille- with /re,h oil. It i, not nece,,ary to -o thi, e0ery time that the tank i, /ille-, b+t it i, well to -o it a/ter e0ery M ho+r,H operation o/ the motor. I/ ga,oline i, +,e- to clean o+t the ,+mp an- the tank the motor m+,t not be operate- +ntil it ha, been all -raine- o+t an- /re,h oil p+t in. Carb+reter he carb+reter i, locate- on the timing-gear en- o/ the engine beneath the le0el o/ the engine ba,e an- connecte- to the cylin-er, by mean, o/ water-1ackete- al+min+m intake mani/ol-,. It i, o/ the -+ple3 type, ha0ing one /loat chamber an- two barrel,, each ,+pplying one gro+p o/ /o+r cylin-er,. It operate, +pon the lenith principle aneach barrel contain, /o+r 0ariable, which are +,e- in ,etting the in,tr+ment to properly proportion the mi3t+re. he,e are the choke, the 1et, the compen,ator, an- the priming t+be. he choke reg+late, the /low o/ air aro+n- the 1et. he 1et reg+late, the mi3t+re principally at high ,pee-. he compen,ator reg+late, the mi3t+re principally at me-i+m ,pee-. he priming t+be reg+late, the mi3t+re at 0ery ,low ,pee-, an- a,,i,t, in ,tarting. %nly one e3ternal a-1+,tment i, pro0i-e-, the ,low-,pee- ,crew, which a//ect, the priming t+be. hi, control, the air inlet to the priming t+be an- ,crewing it in gi0e, a richer mi3t+re /or ,tarting an- i-ling, an- +n,crewing it gi0e, a rarer mi3t+re. he ,i>e o/ the priming t+be, there/ore, -oe, not ha0e to be e3act a, it, -eli0ery can be reg+late-. he choke i, o/ a ,i>e -etermine- by +, at the /actory an- nee- ne0er be change- or remo0e- /rom the carb+reter. he 1et an- compen,ator are o/ a ,i>e -etermine- at the /actory an- ,ho+l- not re:+ire alteration e3cept +n-er e3traor-inary circ+m,tance,. he mo,t likely carb+reter tro+ble will be that the 1et, become clogge- with ,ome /oreign matter. he ga,oline al,o ha, a ten-ency to /orm a -epo,it in the -rille- pa,,age, thro+gh the almnin+m bo-y an- the,e will want to be cleane- o+t /rom time to time by remo0ing the ,crew,. I/, howe0er, the 1et, an- all pa,,age, in the carb+reter are clean an- the mi3t+re -oe, not ,eem to be correcte-, which may be the ca,e -+e to climate or /+el, the a-1+,tment, can be altere- a, /ollow,N I/ the mi3t+re appear, to be too rich at ,low ,pee-,, which i, -etecte- by black ,moke in the e3ha+,t, +ne0en r+nning an- loa-ing which pre0ent, the engine ,pee-ing +p :+ickly when the throttle i, opene-, thi, can be correcte- by +n,crewing the ,low-,pee- ,crew.

I/ the mi3t+re i, too rare at ,low ,pee-,, which will be -etecte- by the engine ,topping when throttle- -own low or r+nning +ne0enly an- 0ibrating at low throttle, thi, can be correcte- by ,crewing in the ,low-,pee- ,crew. I/ the mi3t+re i, too rich at a point between clo,e- throttle an- hal/ throttle, ,hown by black ,moke an- +ne0en r+nning, thi, can be correcte- by re-+cing the ,i>e o/ the compen,ator which will al,o make the mi3t+re ,lightly rarer at /+ll throttle. I/ the mi3t+re i, too rare at any point /rom clo,e- throttle to hal/ throttle, ,hown by popping or back/iring in the carb+reter when opene- +p :+ickly, e,pecially in colweather or when the engine i, /ir,t ,tarte- be/ore recei0ing hot air, thi, can be correcteby increa,ing the ,i>e o/ the compen,ator w9ch will al,o ,lightly enrichen the mi3t+re at /+ll throttle. I/ the mi3t+re i, too rich /rom hal/ to /+ll throttle, ,hown by black ,moke, the 1et ,ho+lbe -ecrea,e-, an- i/ too rare, increa,e-. he ,i>e, o/ the no>>le, are marke- in millimeter,, an- in the e0ent o/ not ha0ing e3tra 1et,G on han- they can be re-rille-. he mo,t likely tro+ble will be that the mi3t+re i, too rare +pon ,tarting +p on a col-ay, an- popping or back/iring will occ+r at hal/ throttle. hi, will not contin+e a/ter the motor ha, been r+n a /ew min+te, an- the inlet pipe, become warm. o /acilitate ,tarting an- r+nning the motor in col- weather /or the /ir,t /ew min+te, a piece o/ paper or ,heet metal, or e0en oneH, han-, can be hel- o0er the air inlet to partially clo,e thi, opening an- increa,e the 0accmn on the 1et,. I/ the /loat chamber o0er/low, when the ga,oline i, t+rne- on, remo0e the ,crew top o0er the nee-le 0al0e an- pre,, -own the nee-le-0al0e ,tem an- twi,t at the ,ame time to impro0e the 0al0e ,eat. I/ thi, -oe, not pre0ent the tro+ble an- the carb+reter contin+ally o0er/low, when the engine i, not r+nning it will ha0e to be remo0e- an- the 0al0e ,tem gro+n- into it, ,eat. It i, po,,ible that the /loat may -e0elop a leak which will pre0ent it /rom ri,ing in the /loat chamber an- clo,ing the nee-le 0al0e. he carb+reter i, a-1+,te- at the /actory to operate +,ing motor ga,oline, A<rB2 te,t. (ther/ picric aci- or other chemical, ,ho+l- ne0er +n-er any circ+m,tance, he +,e-, either in the carb+reter or /or priming the engine. Ignition wo high-ten,ion @plit-or/ magneto,, type 8i3ie Mo-el 81, are place- /ace to /ace between the two gro+p, o/ cylin-er,. hey are operate- by the ,ha/t thro+gh an interme-iate gear /rom the cam,ha/t an- t+rne- at crank,ha/t ,pee-. he two magneto, t+rn in oppo,ite -irection,, their -irection o/ rotation being taken when 0iewe- /rom the -ri0ing en-, thi, being marke- by an arrow. he one t+rning clockwi,e i, locate- on the propeller en- o/ the engine an- the one t+rning anti-clockwi,e i, locate- on the timinggear en- o/ tlie engine. Care o/ the J8i3ie 81J he bearing, o/ the magneto are pro0i-e- with oil c+p,, an- a /ew -rop, o/ oil a/ter e0ery 1D ho+r,H operation are ,+//icient. he breaker le0er ,ho+l- be l+bricate- with a -rop o/ light oil to be applie- with a toothpick. he proper -i,tance between the platin+m point, when ,eparate- ,ho+l- not e3ceeD.DBD or '2o inch. " gage o/ the proper ,i>e i, attache- to the ,crew--ri0er /+rni,hewith the 8i3ie. he platin+m contact, ,ho+l- be kept clean an- properly a-1+,te-. @ho+l- the contact, become pitte-, a /ine /ile ,ho+l- be +,e- to ,mooth them in or-er to

permit them to come into per/ect contact. he -i,trib+tor block ,ho+l- be remo0e- occa,ionally an- in,pecte- /or an acc+m+lation o/ carbon -+,t. he in,i-e o/ the -i,trib+tor block ,ho+l- be cleane- with a cloth moi,tene- with ga,oline an- then wipe- -ry with a clean cloth. 8+,t -i,trib+tor in talc or ,oap,tone. =hen replacing the block care m+,t be e3erci,e- in p+,hing the carbon br+,he, into the ,ocket. he magneto ,ho+l- not be te,te- +nle,, it i, completely a,,emble-, that i,, with the breaker bo3, -i,trib+ter co0er an- wire, in po,ition. =hene0er the wire, lea-ing /rom magneto to ,park pl+g, are taken o//, ob,er0e that they are correctly replace-. 8o not p+ll o+t the carbon br+,he, in the -i,trib+tor beca+,e yo+ think there i, not eno+gh ten,ion on the ,mall ,pring,. In or-er to obtain the mo,t e//icient re,+lt, with the 8i3ie magneto, the normal ,etting o/ the ,park pl+g 1oint, ,ho+l- not e3cee- D.DBM inch an- it i, a-0i,able to ha0e the gap 1+,t right be/ore a ,park pl+g i, in,erte- into the cylin-er. )a+lty ignition may be -+e to 0ario+, ca+,e,, an- a care/+l in,pection ,ho+l- be ma-e to a,certain whether the ,park pl+g, or magneto re:+ire, attention. It may be pointe- o+t that in general when only one cylin-er mi,,e, the /a+lt i, almo,t in0ariably in the ,park pl+g. he more common -e/ect, o/ ,park pl+g, are a, /ollow,N 1. @hort-circ+it at the ,park gap i, -+e to ,mall metallic bea-, which are melte- by the heat o/ the inten,e ,park an- /orm a con-+cting connection between the electro-e,. hi, -e/ect i, ea,ily a,certaine- an- may be reme-ie- by remo0ing the metallic bea-. B. Cracke- or broken porcelain in,+lation abo+t center electro-e. Broken porcelain, m+,t be replace-. <. oo wi-e a gap between the electro-e,. he normal wi-th o/ a gap i, D.DBM inch. F. )o+ling o/ the pl+g. I/ /o+ling ,ho+l- occ+r the part, e3po,e- to the b+rning ga,e, may be cleane- rea-ily by remo0ing the pl+g, /rom the cylin-er an- cleaning with ga,oline. he ,park-pl+g cable, m+,t be te,te- an- ,pecial attention ,ho+l- be pai- to a,certaining that the in,+lation i, not in1+re- in any way. he metal terminal, o/ the cable, m+,t not come into contact with any metal part, o/ the magneto, e3cept the proper bin-ing n+t,. I/ cable, an- pl+g, are in goo- con-ition an- yet the ignition work, irreg+larly, the -e/ect may be in the magneto. " ,imple te,t /or the magneto i, to -i,connect all wire, an- remo0e the magneto /rom the engine. ake a piece o/ in,+late- wire abo+t A inche, long an- /a,ten one en- to the gro+n-ing terminal. 5e3t remo0e the eight th+mb n+t, /rom the -i,trib+tor. 5ow holthe other en- o/ the wire pre0io+,ly mentione- abo+t 2 inch /rom each o/ the terminal2 on the -i,trib+tor con,ec+ti0ely, an- while rotating the magneto ,ha/t rapi-ly by han-, note i/ any ,park, can be ,een between the wire an- the terminal,. I/ ,park, are ,een, it i, an in-ication that the magneto i, probably in proper con-ition. I/ no ,park, are ob,er0e-, the interr+pter ho+,ing co0er ,ho+l- be taken o// by mo0ing the terminal n+t. 5ow look at the platin+m point, an- ,ee whether they are in contact when the ,teel cam i, not acting on the magneto interr+pter le0er4 al,o whether they

,eparate the correct -i,tance o/ D.DBD or '2o inch when the interr+pter le0er i, re,ting on one o/ the point, o/ the ,teel cam. %therwi,e the -i,tance m+,t be a-1+,te- by mean, o/ platin+m ,crew. he platin+m contact, m+,t be e3amine- an- any oil an- -irt remo0e-4 in ca,e the contact, are +ne0en Kb+t only thenL they m+,t be ,moothe- with a /ine /lat /ile. I/ a/ter contin+e- +,e the platin+m contact, are completely worn -own the two platin+m ,crew, m+,t be renewe-. 1O ignition /ail, ,+--enly, there may be a ,hort-circ+it in the cable connecte- to the gro+n-ing terminal which ,er0e, /or ,witching o// the ignition. hi, may be a,certaineby -i,connecting the cable /rom the terminal. It i, al,o a-0i,able to e3amine the -i,trib+tor carbon br+,he, which may be -one by remo0ing -i,trib+tor co0er. It i, to be note- e,pecially that the magneto interr+pter le0er mo0e, /reely. I/ the e3amination ,o /ar ha, not le- to the -i,co0ery o/ the -e/ect an- it i, ab,ol+tely impo,,ible to ,tart the engine, the ,etting o/ the magneto ,ho+l- be 0eri/ie- an- i/ /o+nto be correct, the magneto ,ho+l- be ret+rne- to the @plit-or/ (lectrical Co., 5ewark, 5. '., or it, neare,t o//icial repre,entati0e. I/ it be nece,,ary to remo0e the magneto, /rom the engine an- no other part i, -i,t+rbe-, they can rea-ily be replace- i/ certain preca+tion, are ob,er0e-. +rn engine to /iring point 5o. 1 cylin-er. $emo0e the -i,trib+tor blook an- note po,ition o/ the carbon br+,he, o/ the -i,trib+tor rotor. he ,crew, hol-ing the magneto in place can then be remo0e- an- the magneto "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! li/te- /rom the engine. he eo2e m+,t aot be t+rne- +ntil the magnetoa are replace-, b+t the magnetoa can be t+rne- i/ they are replace- with the carbon br+,he, o/ the -i,trib+tor rotor in the ,ame location. I/ it i, nece,,ary to remo0e the magneto -ri0e ,ha/t an- gear ho+,ing /rom the ba,e, thi, cannot be replace- with the ,ame ,etting, a, the gear, cannot be marke- ancon,e:+ently it i, nece,,ary to retime the magneto,. =hen the,e are in the mo,t a-0ance- poeition, with the timing le0er, -own again,t the atop on each in,tr+ment, the ,park, ,ho+l- occ+r in the cy9n-er,

)io. CD.;=iring -iagram /or le/t han- magZeto. B8 -egree, be/ore the pi,ton reache, the top center on the /iring ,troke. hi, po,ition o/ the pi,ton may be ,ec+re- by in,erting a wire thro+gh the priming c+p an- locating the pi,ton bea- 2 inch /rom the top center. he pi\-ton o/ 5o. 1 cylin-er ,ho+l- be place- in thi, po,ition an- the magneto, ,ho+l- be /+lly a-0ance- by p+,hing the timing le0er -own again,t .th/t ,top. he bolt, ,ho+l- be remo0e- /rom the a-1+,table co+plii2 an@ 9B (6"5 "I$#I"5( (5GI5( 1M< the magneto co+pling. He magneto" ,ho+l- then be t+rne- +ntil the contact-breaker break, an- the carbon br+,h on the -i,trib+tor rotor i, in contact with 5o. 1 on the -i,trib+tor ca,e. he bolt, ,ho+l- then be p+t thro+gh the corre,pon-ing hole, in the co+pling, which come the neare,t to thi, a-1+,tment, keeping on the a-0ance- ,i-e rather than the retar-e-. hi, lea0e, both magneto, a-1+,te- to /ire 5o. 1 cytla-er. 5ote that the cylin-er, on both the right an- le/t ai-e, /ire in the or-er I, <, F, B, a, 0iewe/rom the timing-gear en-. By re/erring to the wiring -iagram,, I2g,. C9an-

=iring /or right han- magneto. 8D, it will be ,een that the cyhn-er, arc n+mbere- accor-ing to the or-er in which they /ire. he letter, J$J an- JIJ on the magneto -i,trib+tor co0er, re/er to the rotation o/ the magneto, only an- not to the cylin-er,. hat i,, in a r2ht-han- engine the co+nterclockwi,e, or le/t-han-, magneto i, locate- on the timing-gear en- o/ the engine, an- the clockwi,e or right-han- magneto on the prope9er en- o/ the engine. la a le/t-hanengine the rotation, are ob0io+,ly re0er,e-. "ll wire, r+nning /rom the propeller-en- magneto ,ho+l- be connecte- to the ,park pl+g, on the o+t,i-e o/ the cylin-er hea-, an- all wire, r+nning /rom the other magneto ,ho+l- be connecte- to the pl+g, on the in,i-e o/ the cylin-er hea-,. It may be /o+n- that the two a-1+,table co+pling, will not allow the two magneto, to be ,et with e3actly the ,ame a-0ance. he minim+m a-1+,tment obtainable with the,e co+pling, i, F.< -egree,, ,o that one magneto may be a, m+ch a, one-hal/ o/ thi, aheaor back o/ the other when they are both /+lly a-0ance-. hi, can be correcte- by a-1+,ting the yoke en- t+rn-b+ckle, which connect the two timing le0er, with the ro- ,o that the contact-breaker, o/ the two in,tr+ment, will break the ,ame. Cooling he water circ+lation thro+gh the cylin-er, an- ra-iator, i, accompli,he- by a centri/+gal p+mp which i, locate- abo0e the cam,ha/t an- -ri0en /rom the cam,ha/t gear. he p+mp ,ha/t an- it, gear are carrie- in a bearing in the ba,e which i, ,+ppliewith oil +n-er pre,,+re. he thr+,t o/ the water-p+mp impeller i, taken by a bron>e pain the rear gear-ca,e co0er. here i, no bearing in the water-p+mp bo-y, only a ,t+//ing bo3 to pre0ent leakage. he ,t+//ing bo3 may be tightene- in the /ollowing manner. )ir,t, in,ert a ,panner wrench or ,crew--ri0er in the ,lot on the ,t+//ing-bo3 n+t anthen t+rn n+t away /rom the ,pring lock. o in,ert new packing the co0er o/ the p+mp m+,t /ir,t be remo0e-. hen the n+t i, +n,crewe- /rom the water-p+mp ,ha/t, an- the impeller ,lippe- o/i/. he p+mp ca,ing ,ho+l- then be remo0e- an- new packing

in,erte-. he cooling water i, taken /rom the two ra-iator o+tlet, into the p+mp thro+gh a /orkeinlet in the p+mp co0er an- -i,charge- /rom the p+mp thro+gh water pipe into the cylin-er water pipe,. "/ter pa,,ing thro+gh the cylin-er, it ret+rn, to the top o/ the ra-iator. It i, po,,ible /or air lock, to be /orme- in the cooling ,y,tem a/ter it ha, been -raine-. he +pper hal/ o/ the water p+mp may trap air ,o that the p+mp will not circ+late the water +pon ,tarting the motor. o a0oi- thi,, open 0ent in the water p+mp an- allow the air to be /orce- o+t o/ the +pper hal/ o/ the p+mp +ntil the water /ill, it, place. " -rain pl+g i, pro0i-e- on the water-p+mp pipe to -rain the engine, an- thi, remo0e, all that i, nece,,ary to pre0ent -amage /rom /ree>ing, e3cept that in the 1ackete- inlet pipe,. he inlet pipe, are each -raine- by remo0ing ,eparate pl+g,. Clean water ,ho+lbe +,e-, an- it i, a-0i,able to ha0e a ,trainer in the /+nnel which i, +,e- /or /illing the ,y,tem. he engine ,ho+l- not be operate- per,i,tently when the water boil,, a, the p+mp will ceaae to circ+late owing to ,team pocket, which collect in the cylin-er,, an- the cylin-era will become o0erheate- rapi-ly, while there may be water in the la-iator,. Chri,ten,bn "ir @tarter be Chri,ten,en ,el/-,tarter, while +,ing compre,,e- air primarily, i, not a compre,,e-air ,tarter in the ,en,e that it employ, the reg+lar compre,-+on an- /+el on which the engine i, reg+larly operate-. he ,y,tem compri,e, an apparat+, whereby the compre,,ion ,troke i, po,iti0ely ana+tomatically /+rni,he- be/ore the engine it,el/ i, in motion.

)ia. 81.;CiiriHteni Hii, apparat+, compri,e, an apparat+, whereby the compre,,ion ,troke i, po,iti0ely an- a+tomatically /+rni,he- be/ore the engine it,el/ i, in motion. hi, apparat+, compri,e, the /ollowing e,,ential part, K,ee )ig. @ILN 1, @el/-,tarter +nit compri,ing air compre,,or, a+tomatic carb+reter, cl+tch /or engaging

an- -i,engaging the compre,,or /rom the engine, B% that the compre,,or i, ne0er in operation e3cept when compre,,ing air /or re,toring the pre,,+re in the tank or tor in/lating tire,. B. "n a+tomatic -i,trib+tor by which air i, -eli0ere- to the cylin-er, in rotati0e /irii2 po,ition o/ the pi,ton,. <. "n air tank /or compre,,e- air. F. @elector or control 0al0e an- air-pre,,+re gage. M. Check 0al0e, which are arrange- on cylin-er,. he l+brication o/ the ,tarter i, completely an- entirely a+tomatic, a '2-inch pipe being connecte- /rom the pre,,+re ,y,tem o/ the engine to the oil /itting at the back o/ the ,tarter. %il i, con,tantly /e- to the working part, o/ the ,tarter, a le0el maintaine- in the compre,,or crank ca,e an- the e3ce,, oil i, -raine- back into the engine crank ca,e. he carb+reter o/ the ,el/-,tarter i, connecte- by mean, o/ '2-inch bra,, t+bing to a ,pecial tee an- ,top-cock. hi, tee i, connecte- to the main ga,oline line. he carb+reter i, pro0i-e- with an a+tomatic /loat which ,h+t, o// the ga,oline a, ,oon a, it ha, reachea proper le0el. iming the "ir 8i,trib+tor )ir,t, t+rn the engine +ntil the pi,ton o/ cylin-er 5o. 1 i, at top -ea- center. $emo0e the -i,trib+tor co0er an- take o+t the pi,ton -irectly +n-er it. hi, will e3po,e a -o+bleno,e cam which ,li-e, +p an- -own on a ,:+are cam ,t+-. hi, cam ,t+- i, ,crewe- into the -i,trib+tor ,ha/t an- locke- +p in po,ition by a lockn+t, both right-han- threa-e-. here are two row, o/ 0al0e ,tem, e3po,e- in the center o/ the -i,trib+tor bo-y4 one abo0e the other. +rn the ,t+- to ,+ch a po,ition that when the cam i, p+,he- -own, the top cam no,e, /or /orwar- rotation o/ engine, will 1+,t r+b on the 0al0e ,tem rea-y to open the 0al0e. =hen the cam ,t+- i, ,et in the proper po,ition it ,ho+l- be locke- there by t+rning -own the lockn+t goo- an- tight. hen again p+t in the cam, p+,h the ,ame -own annote that the po,ition i, ,till correct. I/ locking -own the n+t ha, change- it, po,ition it m+,t be loo,ene- again an- re,et. 6o+ can al,o tell whether the 0al0e i, open or clo,eby p+tting on a pipe connection to the -i,trib+tor an- blowing into it. +rn the engine in the correct -irection o/ rotation +ntil the e3ha+,t 0al0e on 5o. 1 cylin-er i, 1+,t commencing to open4 again p+,h -own the cam in contact with the 0al0e an- note i/ 0al0e i, ,till open. In thi, po,ition the -i,trib+tor 0al0e ,ho+l- be clo,e- ,o a, not to allow the air to blow thro+gh the e3ha+,t 0al0e into the atmo,phere, which wo+l- be wa,te/+l an- ca+,e +nnece,,ary lo,, o/ air. he cam no,e i, ,o con,tr+cte- that i/ ,et to properly open it will al,o clo,e at the proper time. "ll the other cylin-er, being connecte- to the -i,trib+tor in their /iring or-er, ancorre,pon-ing to the /iring or-er o/ the engine, are o/ co+r,e correctly time-, it being only nece,,ary to time 5o. 1 cylin-er ,o a, to get the correct opening,. he ea,ie,t way to a-1+,t the cam ,t+- i, by +,e o/ ,ocket wrenche,, one to /it the 2e-inch he3agonal lockn+t an- the other to /it the ,:+are cam ,t+-. #ipe to the -i//erent cylin-er, in the or-er o/ /iring a, in-icate- by the -iagram. he tank may now be charge- /rom an o+t,i-e ,o+rce by partly with-rawing the han-le

o/ the ,elector 0al0e /rom the ,tem an- t+rning the ,ame aro+n- ,o that the heel o/ the han-le will /it in the ,lot pro0i-e- /or it in the /lange. hi, gi0e, a -irect line /rom the tank to the tire in/lator no>>le. By co+pling the ho,e to the no>>le the tank can be charge- to any -e,ire- pre,,+re. I/ thi, o+t,i-e mean, i, not at han-, then mo0e the ,elector 0al0e han-le to the p+mping po,ition, then while the engine i, r+nning t+rn the tee han-le on the ,tarter +nit abo+t 9D -egree, in clockwi,e -irection or a, /ar a, it will go. Hol- the ,ame in thi, po,ition /or a min+te or two +ntil the pre,,+re o/ the compre,,or will hol- it there by it,el/, an- allow the engine to r+n imtil the gage regi,ter, a pre,,+re o/ abo+t 1DD po+n-,. +rn the han-le back to the ne+tral po,ition, where+pon yo+ will hear a ,+i// o/ e,caping air an- the cl+tch will imme-iately -i,engage. @top the engine an- li,ten /or air leak,. I/ e0erything i, tight yo+ may ,tart the engine again. hi, time a, yo+ ha0e air in the tank t+rn the control 0al0e to the p+mp po,ition an- pre,, the central b+tton ,harply, all the way -own. hi, throw, the cl+tch in a+tomatically. hen p+mp to a pre,,+re o/ ,ay 1MD to 1CM po+n-, an- again ,top the engine. 6o+ are now rea-y to ,tart by mean, o/ the ,tarter. "0oi- +,ing too high pre,,+re in ,tarting operation a, it may collap,e the /loat in the carb+reter. hi, -oe, not nece,,arily p+t the ,tarter o+t o/ commi,,ion, a, the ga,oline ,+pply can be ,h+t o// when the carb+reter i, /+ll, rea-y /or the ne3t ,tart. It can be +,ein thi, way +ntil a new /loat i, proc+re-. I/ the pre,,+re in the re,er0oir r+n, -own o0ernight any appreciable amoimt it will ,how that there i, a leak ,omewhere between the tank, air gago an- ,elector 0al0e, no other line, being +n-er pre,,+re e3cepting -+ring ,tarting perio-. " leaky pilot 0al0e might be the ca+,e. hi, 0al0e i, the center o/ the ,elector 0al0e an- hel- in place by a he3agonal n+t -irectly at o+ter en- o/ ba,e. By remo0ing the n+t yo+ can -raw o+t the pilot 0al0e an- p+t on a new ga,ket. Care ,ho+l- be taken that the pilot-0al0e -i,c i, p+t in correctly an- ,ho+l- not pro1ect beyon- the ring more than a goo- <2F inch. =hile the machine i, not in operation, yo+ can -etect a leaky pilot 0al0e by placing the ,elector 0al0e han-le at the ne+tral point, lea0ing it there /or a ,hort perio- an- then ,+--enly t+rning it o0er to one ,i-e or the other. I/ yo+ hear a ,ni// o/ e,caping air, yo+ may be ,+re that the pilot 0al0e nee-, repairing. It ,ometime, happen, that a leaky pilot 0al0e ca+,e, the carb+reter to o0er/low or e0en /orce ga,oline back +p into the -i,trib+tor an- o+t the 0ent hole pro0i-e- in the -i,trib+tor ba,e. In repacking the pilot 0al0e yo+ will rea-ily o0ercome thi, tro+ble. Be ,+re that all 1oint, are tight, the ga,oline /ee- to the carb+reter i, open an- that the timing i, e3actly a, e3plaine-. " '2B-inch a-0ance or retar- o/ the cam make, a great -i//erence. 7al0e, he water ,ho+l- be thoro+ghly -raine- o+t o/ the engine be/ore attempting to remo0e the hea-,. 5e3t, -i,connect the water-pipe ho,e connection, between cylin-er, an- remo0e the ,park-pl+g cable, /rom the ,park pl+g,. he inlet mani/ol-, ,ho+l- be -i,connecte- at the point where they are bolte- on to the water-1ackete- ,ection o/ mani/ol-, a/ter which they can ea,ily be re mo0e- /rom the cylin-er,. he cylin-er hea- can be ea,ily taken o// by remo0ing the ,i3 long hol-ing--own bolt,. %nce the cylin-er hea- ha, been remo0e-, it i, a ,imple matter to get at the 0al0e, /or

grin-ing an- cleaning p+rpo,e,. In a--ition, the carbon on the pi,ton hea-, can 0ery ea,ily be cleane- o// by t+rning the engine o0er ,lowly an- bringing each pi,ton to the top center. In remo0ing the cylin-er hea- +,e care not to in1+re or -e,troy the mol-e- copper ga,ket which i, place- between the cylin-er, an- cylin-er hea-. In replacing the ga,ket it i, a-0i,able to coat both ,i-e, with a mi3t+re o/ graphite anlin,ee- oil, or with c+p grea,e. 7al0e "-1+,tment he clearance between the 0al0e ,tem an- rocker le0er i, a-1+,table an- ,ho+l- be D.D1D inch when engine i, hot. =hen engine i, col- clearance ,ho+l- be ,et to D.DBD inch. hi, clearance i, ea,ily a-1+,table by mean, o/ the ,crew in en- o/ rocker. " lockn+t i, pro0i-e- on the a-1+,ting ,crew ,o that once the proper ,etting i, obtaine- it can be /a,tene- ,ec+rely. =hen per/ectly a-1+,te- the 0al0e timing ,ho+l- be a, /ollow,N 7al0e iming Inlet 0al0e open, 1M -egree, be/ore top center. Inlet 0al0e clo,e, FM -egree, a/ter lower center. (3ha+,t 0al0e open, FA -egree, be/ore lower center. (3ha+,t 0al0e clo,e, 1D -egree, a/ter top center. Bearing, he bearing, ,ho+l- be care/+lly ,crape-, in or-er to obtain a goo- ,+r/ace all o0er ,o that a ,ti// bearing i, obtaine- when the cap, are bolte- -own har- on the ,him,. he cap, ,ho+l- be remo0e- an- ,him, o/ !ooo inch thickne,, ,ho+l- be in,erte- in each ,i-e in or-er to gi0e the proper r+nning /it /or the bearing,. he abo0e in,tr+ction, ,ho+l- be care/+lly ob,er0e- in or-er that the bearing, may not be too tight an- to pre0ent wiping o/ the babbitt lining. "ll ,oli- bearing, are gi0en a goo- r+nning /it ,+itable /or the ,pee- an- type o/ l+brication. =here0er a ,oli- b+,hing i, replace- it ,ho+l- be reame- to ,+ch a ,i>e that there will be Hooo to bDDD-inch r+nning /it. Maintaining Compre,,ion "/ter the engine ha, been r+n /or 1D or 1A ho+r, it i, well to check +p the compre,,ion an- ,ee that it i, e:+al in all o/ the cylin-er,. hi, may be -one by t+rning the engine o0er ,lowly by the ,tarting crank or propeller an- comparing the re,i,tance in each o/ the eight cylin-er,. he compre,,ion can be te,te- more acc+rately by remo0ing a pl+g an- in,erting a pre,,+re gage in each cylin-er ,+cce,,i0ely an- noting the pre,,+re recor-e- in each cylin-er. " gage rea-ing to 1DD po+n-, ,ho+l- be +,e- /or thi, p+rpo,e. Io,, o/ compre,,ion i, generally -+e either to 0al0e, not ,eating per/ectly or in,+//icient clearance between the 0al0e ,tem, an- rocker,. Ieaking ,park pl+g, or pi,ton ring, are other ca+,e, le,, o/ten /o+n-. @(C I%5 EI H( H%M"@-M%$@( (5GI5(

In general appearance the homa, engine re,emblea the Bt+rte0ant a, can be ,een in )ig. 8B, where it i, ,hown mo+nte-

t in a homa, plane. hi, ,how, the engine mo+nting, an- al,o I the coil o/ cooling pipe, /or the l+bricating oil. hi, i, al,o ,hown in the -etail o/ the oil ,y,tem in )ig. 8<. H( H%M"@-M%$@( (5%I5(

"I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! li,. I

H( H%M"@-M%$@( (5GI5( 1A< he,e engine, r+n at BDDD to B1DD r.p.m. an- accor-ing to ,i>e, the 1<M-hor8epower at BDDD r.p.m., the larger I@%-hor,epower at B1DD r.p.m. he ignition ,y,tem i, ,hown in -iagram in )ig. 8F. hi, will be o/ con,i-erable 0al+e when o0erha+ling the engine or op Center Q59 my/"2 /'9M9@ 7"I7/

I5I( 7"I7( ao,(, bottom Center )i+. @o. ; iming -ia!rain. (EH"9@ 7"I7( a%@(@ in tracing ignition tro+ble,. he timing -iagram i, ,hown in )ig. 8M. hi, engine i, al,o e:+ippe- with the Chri,tian,en ,tarter. @(C I%5 EII G5%M( "I$#I"5( (5GI5( he Gnome type o/ engine, )ig. 8A, i, a highly intere,ting mechani,m, con,i,ting o/ nine ra-ial cylin-er, hel- in a central

crank ca,e, in which the crank,ha/t i, ,tationary an- the cylin-er, re0oi0e, carrying the propeller with them. he o-- n+mber o/ %5%M( "I$#I"5( (5GI5( 1AM 2lin-era make, it po,,ible to ,ec+re a +ni/orm perio- o/ e3plo,ion4 /or when it i, remembere- that each alternate cylin-er /ire, a, it re0ol0e,, it will be ,een how thi, a//ect, the ,e:+ence. =hile the Gnome i, ,imple in principle the -e,ign i, intricate, e0en tho+gh re/ine- thro+gh year, o/ patient ,t+-y an- e3periment. It cannot /ail to elicit a-miration, b+t it al,o pre,ent, problem, in man+/act+re which re:+ire the be,t me-

)a. 8C.;@ection o/ Gnome motor. chanical brain, /or their ,ol+tion. he operation o/ the motor will be con,i-ere- a/ter the con,tr+ction o/ ,ome o/ the many part,. he cylin-er, are machine- /rom A-inch ,oli- ,teel bar,, which are ,awe- into blank, 11 inche, in length an- weighing abo+t 9C po+n-,. he ,ectional 0iew, )ig. 8C, ,how, how they are con,tr+cte-. Y he mi3t+re o/ ga, an- air i, /orce- into the crank ca,e 9iro9gh "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! the 1et in,i-e the crank at ), an- enter, the cylin-er when the pi,ton i, at it, lowe,t po,ition, thro+gh the hal/-ro+n- opening, in the g+i-ing /lange an- the ,mall hole, ahown at " an- B. he ret+rning pi,ton co0er, the port, an- the ga, i, compre,,e- an/ire- in the +,+al way. he e3ha+,t i, thro+gh a large

,ingle 0al0e in the cylin-er hea-, which gi0e, ri,e to the name Jmono,+pape,J or ,ingle0al0e motor. he l+bricating oil come, in at C, thro+gh the ,tationary crank,ha/t, goe, thro+gh the ,tationary crankpin at 8, an- /loo-, the bearing, at (. @ome o/ thi, oil al,o goe, to the crankpin, an- i, thrown by centri/+gal /orce thro+gh the t+be, on the ro-,, thro+gh the pi,ton-pin bearing,, an- in thi, way oil, the pi,ton pin, a, well a, the cylin-er,. he latter al,o recei0e all oil that happen, to /ly o+t o/ any o/ the hole, in the crank ca,e. =ith the motor r+nning at 1BDD r.p.m. the oil /ee-, o+t 0ery rapi-ly byH centri/+gal /orce, an- it ha, been /o+n-, in /act, that the oil t+be, are imnece,,ary on the connecting ro-,4 /or i/ the t+be, are omitte-, the oil /low, o+t o/ the crankpin hole an- make, a beeline /or the hole in the pi,ton-pin en-, 1+,t a, tho+gh it were being con-+cte- along the ro- by the t+be ,hown. he other en- o/ the motor i, ill+,trate- in )ig. 88, the co0er being remo0e- ,o a, to ,how the cam, an- the gear, that -ri0e the oil an- /+el p+mp,. here are nine oil hole, in the crankpin which /ee- the oil to nine cam,, one being ,hown at ", )ig. 88. he hole i, at the ba,e o/ the incline in each ca,e. he,e G cam,, inci-entally, are ma-e o/ a ,teel o/ BAF,DDD po+n-, ten,ile ,trength. he cam roller B pick, thi, oil +p an- carrie, it o0er the cam ,+r/ace, ,ome o/ it reaching the ,mall oil hole, on each ,i-e o/ the,e roller, an- oiling the bearing, o/ the roller, them,el0e,. he ,+rpl+, oil /rom here /ee-, +p thro+gh the 0al0e-ro- g+i-e,, which, it will be remembere-, are r+nning 1BDD r.p.m. )rom here it /ee-, thro+gh the ball 1oint l^, thro+gh the hollow 0al0e ro- ( an- oil, the pin at ). here i, al,o ,+//icient oil at thi, point to ,trike a groo0e on the +n-er ,i-e o/ the 0al0e le0er an- /ee- along to the

le0er bearing K[, ,o that e0ery bearing i, well oile- /rom the central ,+pply. hi,, howe0er, re:+ire, a large amo+nt o/ oil, a characteri,tic o/ the rotary type o/ motor. %7($H"9II5G H( G5%M( "I$#I"5( (5GI5( he Gnome airplane engine, now being b+ilt /or the 9nite- @tate, "0iation Corp, make it important that their con,tr+ction an- maintenance be +n-er,too- by the ,kille- men who m+,t "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! look a/ter them. I- or-er to ,how 1+,t how the,e engine, are o0erha+le-, ,ome o/ the more e,,ential operation, are ill+,trate-, repro-+cing the metho-, /rom the practice recommen-e- by the )rench b+il-er, an- +,er,.

)io. 89.;(ngine he engine m+,t be taken /rom the /rame an- place- on a te,t ,tan-. o -o thi,, the o+ter n+t that hol-, the centrali>ing plate, m+,t be remo0e- an- the crank,ha/t /orceo+t o/ the conical bore o/ the main bearer plate by +,ing an e3tractor ma-e /or thi, p+rpo,e. he e3tractor i, 0ery ,imilar to what i, known a, a Jwheel1ackHH in a+tomobile repair work. he motor i, /a,tene- on the repair ,tan- in the ,ame way that it i, hel- in the plane a, ,hown in )ig. 89. Mo+nte- in thi, way, the engine can be rotate- an- i, acce,,ible /or -i,mantling or timing. he bra,, wire, are -i,connecte- /rom the ,park pl+g, an- colle- +p loo,ely at the -i,trib+tor terminal, a, in )ig. 1DD. he ,park pl+g, are taken o+t an-, a/ter the point,

are thoro+ghly cleane-, are p+t into a bo3 to a0oi- -amage. 5e3t, one o/ the tappet-roc+p en-, i, -etache- /rom it, ball en-. hi, can ea,ily be -one by ,electing a cylin-er where the 0al0e i, clo,e- an- rocking the le0er to open the 0al0e with one han- while the c+p en- i, li/te- away with the other. he 0al0e ca,e i, +n,crewe- with the proper wrench by t+rning to the le/t. It -oe, not matter with which cylin-er one ,tart,, b+t a/terwar- the 0al0e, /rom e0ery alternate cylin-er are place- in their proper or-er on the bench or in a bo3. It i, be,t to ha0e a bo3 with nine compartment,, or nine ,eparate bo3e,, all ni+nbere- /or thi, work. In ,ome ca,e, the c+p en-, o/ the tappet ro-, are /itte- with ,pecial clip, that m+,t be remo0e- be/ore the c+p en-, can be -etache-. he ,pecial central, or +mbrella n+t hol-ing the ball race in the /ront co0er i, +n,crewe-, an- then all the n+t, in the /ront co0er o/ the gear ca,e are remo0e-. hi, co0er m+,t then be replace- with a ,pecial e3tractor, ,hown in )ig. 9D, which i, hel- in place by three n+t,. he e3tractor ,crew ,ho+l- bear on the en- o/ the crank,ha/t annot on the t+b+lar liner in,i-e the ,ha/t. hi, will remo0e the /ront co0er with the ball race, an- the crank,ha/t gear can be prie- o/i/ with a pair o/ pinch bar, by +,ing one on each ,i-e. he cam,ha/t can be remo0e- by gi0ing it a twi,ting motion, t+rning it ,o that the cam, clear the tappet roller,. It i, not +,+ally nece,,ary to -i,mantle the cam, /rom their ,lee0e /or cleaning p+rpo,e,. he e3tractor, ,hown in )ig. 9D, i, not remo0e- /rom the "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! /ront co0er, b+t the /ront co0er an- the e3tractor are replace- +pon the 0al0e-gear ca,e, an- the /rontco0er /lange i, /a,tene- with ,ome o/ the bolt, to the 0al0e-gear ca,e. hen the he3agon n+t i, remo0e- /rom the ,t+-, that hol- the 0al0e-gear ca,e to

=ith-rawing 0al0e-12ar ci

the crank ca,e. Care m+,t be taken in +,ing thi, e3tractor not to p+t on ,+//icient pre,,+re to ben- the crank,ha/t. $emo0ing @hort C bank, ha/t he ne3t operation i, to remo0e the ,hort en- o/ the crank,ha/t, which ha, a long taper /it an- i, /a,tene- with a he3agon G5%M( "I$#I"5( (5GI5( 1C1 n+t. hi, n+t ha, a locking ,crew that m+,t be remo0e- be/ore it c_n be taken o//. hen the ,pecial p+ller, ,hown in )ig. 91, grip, +n-er the e-ge, o/ the crank web while the o+ter arm, pre,, 2cain,t the mother ro- ,o that only the ,mall part o/ the crank

8rawing o// the ,hort en- n/ the cra+k,ha/ i, remo0e-. I/ the crank -oe, not ,tart rea-ily with the pre,,+re alone, a gentle tap on the hea- o/ the ,crew at the ,ame time pre,,+re i, being applie- will +,+ally bring it o// witho+t -i//ic+lty. " ,pecial c9p on the back ,i-e o/ the ,hort-en- crankpin p+ll, the ball race away with the ,hort en-. "I$C9") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! 5e3t, the bra,, ,crew, in the con+ectmg-ro- wri,tpin, are remo0e- with a broa-pointe- ,crew--ri0er. hen, with the ,pecial ,crew1ack ,hown in )ig. 9B, the corre,pon-i8g wri,tpin i, remo0e-. he ,crew o/ the -og goe, into the threa- in the

)io. 9B.;=ith-rawing wri,tpinB anwri,tpin, an- by t+rning the he3agon n+t the pin i, ea,ily p+lle- o+t thro+gh both the ,mall connecting ro- an- the mother ro-. Care m+,t be taken in -oing thi, to a0oi-amage to any o/ the part,. It i, better to remo0e pin, 5o,. M an- A /ir,t. Be/ore taking the wriatpin entirely o+t o/ the mother ro-, the connecting ro- ,ho+l- be hel- with one han- ,o that the pi,ton -oea not -rop to the bottom o/ it, cylin-er, aa ,hown in )ig, 9<. he wri,tpin i, remo0e- /rom the e3tracting 1ack, an- the bra,, ,crew i, p+t back in place, a, it ia the ,crew that carrie, the n+mber

HHG ` w )io 9< ;2n,tp n with-rawn an- piatoa lowere-. an- i-enti/ie, the pin It i, partic+larly important that 5o. 1 wri,tpin go m it, proper place a, it ha, an e3tra longit+-inal oil groo0e. he pi,ton an- connecting ro- can then be remo0e- /rom the cylin-er., hi, i, -one by care/+lly lowering the pi,ton, t+rning the connecting ro-, a, ,hown in )ig. 9F, an- li/ting the pi,ton /rom it, cylin-er. Great care m+,t be taken in all operation, to a0oi-

)ia 9F -;#i,ton an- cooaecting ro- being remo0e-. -amage o/ all kin-i "ll part, o/ the pi,ton are e3tremely -elicate, an- no br+i,ing or marring o/ any kin- can be permitte-. $emo0ing Crank Ca,e an- Mother $oBe/ore the complete crank ca,e can be remo0e-, the n+t, m+,t be taken o/t the ,t+-a that hol- the crank ca,e to the thr+,t G5%M( "I$#I"5( (5GI5( 1CM co0er /lange at the back. @pring waeher, will be /o+n- +n-er each n+t an- ,ho+l- be care- /or when remo0ing. wo n+t, are generally le/t at oppo,ite point, +ntil all the re,t are remo0e-. hen, two men hol- the cylin-er, while the,e n+t, are remo0e-, an- then hol- the cy9n-er, an- crank ca,e while the mother ro- i, being taken o+t.

)ia. 9M.;Mother ro- being with-rawn. he mother ro- ha, to be remo0e- at the ,ame time the crank ca,e i, taken /rom the thr+,t plate, a, it, pi,ton cannot be with-rawn /rom the cylin-er +ntil it i, clear o/ the crank,ha/t. In or-er to -o thi,, the p+ller ,hown in )ig. 9M i, +,e-. he 1ack,crew m+,t be operate- 0ery care/+lly an- only a, /a,t a, "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! the men mo0e the cylin-er an- crank ca,e away /rom the thr+,t plate, /or it m+,t be remembere- that the crank,ha/t remain, with the thr+,t plate, b+t that the cylin-er,, crank ca,e an- mother ro- ha0e to be remo0e- at the ,ame time to a0oi- any ,train on the wri,tpin. he ball race may come away with the mother ro-, or it may remain on the crank,ha/t. In the latter ca,e it

Y$emo0ing ball race /rom ,hort-en- crankaha/t. can be remo0e- by /t ,pecial p+ller ma-e /or thi, p+rpo,e an- ,hown in )ig. 9A. =hen the mother ro- ha, been remo0e- /rom the crank,ha/t, it i, al,o t+rne- at right angle, in the cylin-er an- remo0e- in the ,ame way a, the pi,ton pre0io+,ly re/erre- to. =hen the crank ca,e i, remo0e-, it i, lai- on it, ,i-e in a ,pecial ,tanha0ing a rece,, to clear the ,t+-, an- a ,ho+l-er that keep, it /rom ,lipping o//. (0ery po,,ible preca+tion m+,t be taken again,t acci-ental -amage to the cylin-er,. It i, not at all nece,,ary to remo0e the cylin-er, /rom the crank ca,e /or thoro+gh cleaning, an- in /act thi, ,ho+l- ne0er be -one e3cept when it i, nece,,ary to replace a -amage- cylin-er. In or-er to -i,mantle the thr+,t co0er, it i, +,+ally p+t back in place on the crank ca,e, a, thi, he, on it, proper ,tan-. hi, i, merely /or con0enience. he -i,trib+tion ca,e, which i, ,hown being remo0e- in )ig. 9D, carrie, a ball bearing an- the re-+cing gear, /or the oil an- /+el p+mp,. hi, ball bearing i, remo0e- by gently tapping with a ro+n- ,+r/ace p+nch, tapping entirely on the o+ter ca,e. By tapping /ir,t on one ,i-e an- then the other, it re:+ire, b+t 0ery little pre,,+re to remo0e the ball race. he +pper or obt+rator pi,ton ring i, ea,ily remo0e- by the /inger,, by taking holo/ one en- only an- li/ting it 1+,t clear o/ the groo0e. hen by t+rning it away /rom the gap, it will relea,e it,el/. It ,ho+l- then be remo0e- by catching hol- o/ the two en-, angently ,pringing o+twar- +ntil it can be li/te- clear o/ it, groo0e. he ca,t-iron pi,ton ring can be remo0e- in the ,ame way. Great care i, nece,,ary to a0oi- -i,torting the,e ring,, a, they are both 0ery light, thi, being partic+larly tr+e o/ the +pper or obt+rator ring. Han-ling the #i,ton =ith the three ring, remo0e-, the pi,ton i, place- hea- -own on the bench, the cotter pin remo0e- /rom the hea- o/ the taper ,crew that lock, the wri,tpin, an- the ,crew

remo0e- by mean, o/ a ,ocket wrench. he pi,ton pin i, -ri0en o+t by a ,pecial p+nch that i, place- again,t the en- o/ the pin at the ,plit en- where the locking ,crew enter,. It can then be ea,ily -ri0en o+t the other en-. he weight o/ the pi,ton i, +,+ally eno+gh to with,tan- the light tap, nece,,ary /or thi, operation. I/ not, the le/t han- may be re,te- in the po,ition ,hown in )ig. 9C. Here, the th+mb 1B an- /ore/inger hol- the p+nch, the little /inger hol-, the connecting ro- away /rom the ekirt o/ the pi,ton, an- the weight o/ the han- hol-, the pi,ton on the bench. It i, nece,,ary to be 0ery care/+l in keeping the connecting ro- away /rom the pi,ton, a, the ,kirt i, e3tremely thin an- ea,ily cracke-.

"/ter the pi,ton, pin, ring, an- connecting ro-, are completely apart, they are wa,he- in kero,ene. he color an- marking, o/ the pi,ton an- ring, are care/+lly e3amine-. he pi,ton pin ,ho+l- be ,mooth an- not ,how ,ign, o/ wear. I/ there i, any in-ication that the pi,ton ha, ,ei>e-, or i/ it i, ,core- in any way, it ,ho+l- be care/+lly ,moothe- -own. he pi,ton ,ho+l- al,o be checke- with a micrometer to ,ee whether it i, ro+n- or o0al. I/ it i, o0er D.DD1 inch o+t o/ ro+n-, it ,ho+l- be replace-. Mark, o/ b+rnt oil can be remo0e- with 0ery /ine abra,i0e cloth. I/ there i, an acc+m+lation o/ carboni>e- oil or black 1elly in,i-e the crown, it ,ho+l- be thoro+ghly cleane- be/ore rea,,embling. he obt+rator ring ,ho+l- ,how a bright e-ge all aro+n- an- not bear at the /oot e3cept at the )iZ. 98.;Cleani8g ao- wa,hing mother ro-. e3treme en-. I/ thi, i, not the ca,e, a new ring m+,t be p+t in. he ca,t-iron ring ,ho+lbe bright all aro+n-. "ll carbon an- b+rnt oil ,ho+l- be care/+lly ,crape- /rom the in,i-e o/ the pi,ton anal,o the pi,ton hea-.

"/ter all -i,coloration ha, been remo0e- by mean, o/ /ine abra,i0e cloth, the pi,ton ,ho+l- be place- in a bath o/ ga,oline an- cleane- with a br+,h. he pi,ton-pin hole, ,ho+l- be thoro+ghly ,yringe- o+t thro+gh the,e pin hole, an- aro+n- the ring groo0e. In the ,ame way the ,mall oil hole, lea-ing /rom the in,i-e o/ the pi,ton to the wi-e pi,ton-ring groo0e ,ho+l- be cleanewith a wire an- ,yringe. "ll the connecting ro-, ,ho+l- al,o be cleane- in kero,ene, wipe- care/+lly an- any -i,coloration /rom b+rnt oil remo0e- by /ine abra,i0e cloth. I/ one o/ the ball race, ha, remaine- in the mother ro-, it can be remo0e- by gentle tapping with a hammer anp+nch /rom the other ,i-e. "/ter the ro- i, thoro+ghly cleane-, the oil pipe i, wa,he- o+t with a ,yringe /ille- with ga,oline, a, in )ig. 98. hi, ill+,tration ,how, a ,mall connecting ro- ,+pporting one en- o/ the main ro- with a leather wa,her to make a 1oint at the bottom o/ the pi,ton-pin hole, an- al,o a wa,her aro+n- the no>>le o/ the ,yringe. hi, metho- i, +,e- /or cleaning all the oil pipe, an- ,imilar pa,,age,, which it -oe, 0ery thoro+ghly. @ho+l- new pi,ton ring, be nece,,ary, they ,ho+l- be checke- 0ery care/+lly to ,ec+re proper clearance. I/ they are too wi-e, they can be worke- -own with a /ine /ile4 b+t it i, /o+n- pre/erable to grin- them on a pi,ton ring or ,imilar machine. he ca,t-iron pi,ton ring, ,ho+l- ha0e a clearance o/ D.DDB inch ,i-ewi,e in the groo0e. he packing ring, /or the obt+rator ,ho+l- al,o be re-+ce- +ntil the ,ame clearance i, obtaine-. e,ting Connecting $o-, "/ter the connecting ro-, are cleane-, they ,ho+l- be te,te- by placing a pin thro+gh each en- an- mo+nting on a 7-block, a, in )ig. 99. hen a ,+r/ace gage i, +,e- on each en- o/ the pin, which ,how, the alignment o/ the two en-, o/ the ro-. he cylin-er ,hown i, ,imply +,e--to ,+pport the ro-. he amo+nt o/ clearance between the ring, an- the groo0e ,ho+l- be te,te- with a /eeler in the reg+lar way. " ,traight-e-ge ,ho+lal,o be lai- along the ,i-e o/ the pi,ton to ,ee that the ca,tiron ring -oe, not pro1ect at any point. @ho+l- it be /o+n- to pro1ect, the in,i-e o/ the ring can be ea,e- o+t with a hal/-ro+n- /ile. In a,,embling the pi,ton pin,, it ,ho+l- be remembere- that the ,plit en- belong, in the bo,, that ha, the locking ,crew. hi, mean, that the other en- o/ the pin ,ho+l- be p+,he- throi2 thi, bo,, /ir,t. "t the ,ame time it ,ho+l- be ob,er0e- that the oil pipe on the connecting ro- i, on the oppo,ite ,i-e to the locking ,crew an- that the gap in the pi,ton ,kirt i, at the

)iZ. 99.;Checking alienment o/ connecting-to- b+,he,. right-han- ,i-e when the locking ,crew i, ne3t to the operator. It i, al,o nece,,ary to ,ee that the large en- o/ the taper hole o/ the pi,ton pin i, +p an- that it come, in line with the cappe- hole /or the locking ,crew. I/ the pin i, not entering in e3actly it, proper po,ition, the en- can be clampe- lightly in a 0i,e that i, protecte- by copper or lea- 1aw, an- t+rne- ,lightly +ntil the hole, come in line, a/ter which it can be p+,he- into place an- -ri0en home with a ,pecial p+nch anhammer. he locking ,crew ,ho+l- now be ,crewe- tight into place an- the cotter pin p+t thro+gh the hea- o/ the ,crew ,o that it come, again,t the in,i-e o/ the pi,ton ,kirt ,o a, to pre0ent +n,crewing. Care ,ho+l- be taken that no ,mall particle, o/ metal -+,t or b+rr, remain in the pin ,lot. hey ,ho+lbe picke- o+t, a magneti>e- ,criber being e3tremely +,e/+l in thi, connection. he pi,ton ring, are p+t in po,ition by re0er,ing the proce,, o/ taking them o+t, care being taken not to ,pring the ring any more than i, ab,ol+tely nece,,ary. hen the large ball bearing i, p+t into po,ition on the main,ha/t, the ,ha/t a,,emble- in the thr+,t co0er by gently tapping the ball race into po,ition, an- the thr+,t race can be pre,,ehome by a ,pecial -raw ,lee0e ma-e /or thi, p+rpo,e. he ,pecial wrenche, that are nee-e- in almo,t e0ery in,tance are +,+ally ,+pplie- with the engine,. CI("5I5G C6II58($@ he wall, o/ the compre,,ion ,pace o/ the cylin-er, ,ho+l- be thoro+ghly cleane- be/ore the pi,ton, are again a,,emble-. hi, can be -one with a ,pecially ,hape- ,craper, anthe o+t,i-e o/ the cylin-er, are al,o cleane- an- poli,he- to remo0e any mark, o/ heating which may appear. he cylin-er, are then thoro+ghly wa,he- with ga,oline, partic+lar attention being pai- to the hole, that /orm the inlet port /or the cylin-er ga,e,. (ach hole i, ,eparately ,praye- with the ga,o9ne ,yringe, ,o a, to be ,+re that e0ery pa,,age i, thoro+ghly cleane-. Be/ore pi,ton, an- connecting ro-, are replace- in their cy9n-er,, they are thoro+ghly wa,he- in a ga,oline bath, an- the ,yringe i, +,e/or cleaning o+t all corner, o/ the pi,ton an- pin,. In replacing the pi,ton, the obt+rator gap ,ho+l- be bro+ght to the ,ame ,i-e o/ the pi,ton a, the connecting-ro- oil pipe an- place- <D -egree, on the oppo,ite ,i-e o/ the pi,ton pin to the clearance c+t in the ,kirt o/ the pi,ton. he gap in the ca,t-iron ring

,ho+l- be oppo,ite thi,, an- the gap in the ring that goe, beneath the obt+rator ring ,ho+l- be 9D -egree, to it on the ,i-e oppo,ite the pi,ton clearance. G5%M( "I$#I"5( (5GI5( 18< he mother ro- with it, pi,ton i, /ir,t in,erte- in cylin-er 5o. 1 by re0er,ing the proce,, -e,cribe- in remo0ing it. It i, nece,,ary to watch the obt+rator gap 0ery clo,ely ,o a, to enter it into the cylin-er po,iti0ely, b+t ea,ily4 an- the pi,ton ,ho+l- then be worke- +p an- -own ,lowly an- t+rne- at the ,ame time

)io. 1DD.;"BH%mbling crank,ha/t to bring it to the correct po,ition. Be/ore thi, i, -one, ,ome cr+-e o9 ,ho+l- be p+t in the cyhn-er to a0oi- any ,emblance o/ ,ticking. he clearance c+t in the pi,ton m+,t be in it, correct po,ition on the trailing ,i-e o/ the cylin-er. @tarting with 5o. B connecting ro- an- pi,ton, the engine i, a,,emble- in m+ch the ,ame way that it wa, taken apart. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! Be/ore the ,mall crankpin, are p+t in, they ,ho+l- be thoro+ghly cleane- with gaaolme an- thi, ,ho+l- be /orce- thro+gh the oil pa,,age, to make ,+re that they are per/ectly clear. " ,pecial tool i, +,e- /or hol-ing the connecting ro- in Ime with the ,mall crankpm, an- it i, c+,tomary to p+t in pm, 5o,. M an- A

)io. 1D1.;#i,ton an- ro-, in place. /ir,t, a, the,e take the weight o/ the mother ro- an- hol- it ,tea-y. he pin, can then be ea,ily entere- in their proper po,ition, an- tappe- home with a light hammer anp+nch, care being taken that the ,mall l+g which pre0ent, the pin, /rom t+rning i, inline with it, rece,,. "/ter each pin i, a,,emble-, the roG5%M( "I$#I"5( (5GI5( 18M ,ho+l- be mo0e- abo+t to make ,+re that the pi,ton, ,o /ar a,,emble- are /ree in all po,ition,. here ,ho+l- be a little ,i-e play at each en- o/ the ,mall connecting ro-. hen the thr+,t co0er, which ha, been completely a,,emble-, i, p+t into place, a, in )ig. 1DD, threa-ing the crankpin thro+gh

)io. 1DB.;#+lling 0,l0e-gear the mother ro-, a, ,hown. he mother-ro- ball race ,ho+l- be worke- in ea,ily. he thr+,t co0er can then be ,lippe- o0er the ,t+-,, an- ,ome o/ the n+t, p+t into place. he,e n+t, ,ho+l- not be ,crewe- home, howe0er, b+t only ,+//iciently to hol- tha co0er to the crank ca,e while the whole thmg i, being mo+nte- on the engine ,tan-, a, ,hown in )ig. 89. )ig. 1D1 ,how, the pi,ton, all in place. "ltho+gh the ball race in the mother ro- i, not all the way home, it can ea,ily be p+lleinto place with a ,lee0e an- n+t. )rom here on, the work o/ a,,embling i, ,imply the re0er,e o/ that pre0io+,ly -e,cribe- in the earlier operation, o/ taking the motor apart an- only re:+ire, goo- 1+-gment on the part o/ a /ir,t-cla,, mechanic. 5o other ,ho+ltackle a 1ob o/ thi, kin-. "/ter the ,hort en- o/ the connecting ro- i, in place, the 0al0e-gear ca,e i, p+t back an/orce- home by +,ing a ,lee0e, n+t an- ,pecial wrench, a, in )ig. 1DB. he operating n+t i, ,crewe- into the ,lee0e +ntil the threa- -i,appear,, an- i, then ,lippe- loo,ely o0er the ,ha/t, a0oi-ing the tappet, by rotating ,lightly. he internal threa- on the operating n+t will engage with the threa- on the crank,ha/t, which ,ho+l- now be ,crewe- +p a, /ar a, po,,ible with the wrench ,hown. iming the 7al0e, he ,lee0e i, rotate- by han- +ntil the /lange bear, again,t the ball-race ho+,ing. hen, with the wrench on the ,lee0e, the ,lee0e an- engine are re0ol0e- together. hi, /orce, the ball race onto the ,ho+l-er o/ the crank,ha/t. @ho+l- it appear to be too tight a /it, it can be helpe- home with a /ew blow, /rom a rawhi-e hammer on the /ront /iange. o with-raw the ,lee0e, the operating n+t i, ,lacke- o// /rom it, threa- on the crank,ha/t. It

,ho+l- be notice- that 5o. < cylin-er an- 0al0e are not operate- by 5o. < tappet an- 5o. < cam. he accompanying table gi0e, the correct relation an- ,how, that 5o. < cylin-er an- 0al0e are operate- by 5o. 1 tappet an- 5o. 1 cam, al,o that 5o. B cam operate, 5o. B tappet. hi, +n,ymmetrical n+mbering ha, come /rom a rearrangement o/ the cam, in a change o/ -e,ign o/ the engine an- the retention o/ the original n+mber,. 59MBBB8 ot Co$$(,#%58i5% #abtb %) Gnome (noinb Cylin-er i 7al0e c 5ob 1 B < i M A C 8 9 appet ro- ' appet I112 g g ' Z B C < 8 F 7al0e-gear caw L Cam 5o 9M1ABC<8F )ig. 1D< ,how, that 5o. < 0al0e ha, been p+t into 5o. < cylin-er an- it, tappet roconnecte-. Be/ore the tappet ro- i, p+t

on, a te,t i, ma-e with a ,yringe to ,ee that there i, a /ree pa,,age /or oil /rom the c+p en- to the /ork en- o/ the ro-. he engine i, t+rne- ,o that 5o. < cylin-er i, at 8M -egree, /rom the 0ertical, a, ,hown. In thi, po,ition the cam that operate, 5o. < tappet ,ho+l- be t+rne- clockwi,e in the -irection o/ the pointing /inger +ntil the ri,e on the cam, when it i, opening the 0al0e, i, imme-iately below the 5o. < tappet roller. he angle at which thi, cylin-er i, ,tan-ing can be checke- by +,ing a timing protractor hel- again,t the tappet ro-, a, in )ig. 1DF. Be/ore the /ront co0er i, a,,emble-, the cam,ha/t ,ho+l- be t+rne- in a clockwi,e -irection +ntil the ri,e o/ the cam ha, taken away all en- play o/ the tappet ro-. " ,yringe/+l o/ ca,tor oil ,ho+l- be in1ecte- into the ca,e a/ter the /ront co0er i, p+t on. he /ront co0er can be ,lippe- into po,ition by noticing that the marking, on the o+t,i-e, or ,atellite, gear, corre,pon- with the marking, on the crank,ha/t gear,. wo peg,, one on each ,i-e o/ the /ront co0er, are +,e/+l to lea- it into po,ition.

@ome o/ the bolt, are now p+t loo,ely into the /ront co0er an-, be/ore they are tightene+p, the ball race i, tappe- into po,ition on the crank,ha/t. hen the central n+t i, ,crewe- +p har-, an- the /ront co0er bolt i, tightene- e0enly all the way aro+n-. hi, lea0e, only the 0al0e,, tappet, an- ,park pl+g, to be a,,emble-, the 0al0e cage, being ,crewe- into the cylin-er hea-, by mean, o/ a ,pecial bo3 wrench. Be/ore p+tting the ,park pl+g, in place, the timing ,ho+l- be checke- o0er, to be ,+re that the 0al0e, are opening at 8M -egree, pa,t the top 0ertical center an- clo,ing at 1BD -egree, pa,t the ,ame center on the ne3t re0ol+tion. "ll the pl+g, are a,,emble- with their 1oint wa,her,, an- the wire /rom the -i,trib+tor, i, attache- to their re,pecti0e pl+g,. he wire, ,ho+l- be ,ec+rely /a,tene-, b+t not too tightly, a, there ,ho+l- be no ten,ion in them a/ter they are /i3e-. In han-ling the engine /rom the erecting ,tan- to the plane, the main bearing plate ,ho+l- /ir,t o/ all be p+t +pon the bearing. It ,ho+l- be complete with oil p+mp an- air compre,,or, b+t not magneto or carbon br+,h-hol-er. he centrali>ing plate, ,ho+l- al,o be a,,emble-. he engine ,ho+l- now be li/te- into po,ition, pa,,ing the long-en- crank,ha/t thro+gh the main bearer plate,, an- the n+t, threa-e- on an- pa,,e- thro+gh the centrali>ing plate,, when the large n+t, ,ho+l- be p+t in place. he magneto ,ho+l- ne3t be p+t in place. he 5o. 1 cylin-er i, ,et 18 -egree, in a-0ance o/ the top 0ertical center. hi, can be -one by 9<ing the protractor ,hown in )ig. 1DF. he magneto ,ho+l- be ,et ,o that the contact breaker point, are 1+,t ,eparating.

)ig. 1KM. ; e,ting cylin-er angle /or timingIn the,e po,ition, the magneto gear i, bro+ght into me,h with the gear on the engine,

an- the magneto i, /a,tene- +p with it, three ,crew,. he magneto ,crew, are lockewith wire threa-e- thro+gh their hea-,. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! C6CI( %) %#($" I%5 he Gnome engine work, on the /o+r-,troke cycle, with a /i3e- ignition, thi, being ,et to take place /rom 1M to BD -egree, be/ore the top -ea- center, or 18 -egree, on an a0erage, a, ,hown in the -iagram, )ig. 1DM. =hen the cylin-er ha, t+rne- thro+gh 8M -egree, /rom the top center, the e3ha+,t 0al0e begin, to open, an- the pro-+ct, o/

)ig. 1DM.; iming -iagram o/ Gnome engine. comb+,tion commence to /low to the atmo,pliere. he e3ha+,t ,troke contin+e, +ntil the pi,ton ret+rn, to the top -ea- center. =ith the 0al0e ,till remaining open, the pi,ton -e,cen-, on the in-+ction ,troke, -rawing air into the cylin-er thro+gh the 0al0e. "t AM -egree, be/ore the bottom center i, reache- the 0al0e clo,e,. he pi,ton contin+e, to -e,cen- an- create, a partial 0ac++m in the cylin-er +ntil it i, BD -egree, /rom the bottom center. "t thi, point the pi,ton +nco0er, the port, which ha0e been -rille- in the cylin-er wall an- make, connection between the cylin-er an- the crank ca,e, -rawing a 0ery rich ga,oline mi3t+re into the cylin-er. hi, rich mi3t+re i, -il+te- by the air alrea-y in the cylin-er, the re,+lting mi3t+re being a goo- comb+,tible ga,. he port, in the cy9n-er remain +nco0ere- +ntil the pi,ton reache, a point BD -egree, pa,t the lower center on the ret+rn ,troke,.

=hen the port, clo,e the pi,ton a,cen-, on the compre,,ion ,troke an- when 18 to BD -egree, /rom the top center the ignition occ+r,, a/ter which the cycle o/ operation i, repeate-. he,e are a0erage /ig+re, an- may 0ary ,lightly with in-i0i-+al engine,. (ach engine i, ,+pplie- with a ,pecial ,et o/ timing /ig+re, which ,ho+l- be a-here- to. IMI5G %) H( (5GI5( he e3ha+,t 0al0e in the hea- open, at 8M -egree, pa,t the top center an- clo,e, at AM -egree, be/ore the bottom -ea- center. In or-er to time the engine it ,ho+l- be mo+nteon ,+pport, in the /rame, with the /ront no,e e3ten,ion remo0e-, together with the /ront co0er with it, ball race an- the two pair, o/ re-+cing or ,atellite gear,. +rn the engine in the -irection o/ rotation, which i, to the le/t, or anti-clockwi,e, an- a-1+,t the 0al0ero- c+p en-, +ntil there i, a clearance o/ D.M millimeter between the e3ha+,t 0al0e le0er, roller an- the e3ha+,t 0al0e o/ each cylin-er when the 0al0e i, ,h+t. hen t+rn the engine in the -irection o/ rotation +ntil cylin-er n+mber i, 8M -egree, pa,t the top -eacenter, or nearly hori>ontal. +rn the cam,ha/t in the oppo,ite -irection, or clockwi,e, +ntil the cam /or cylin-er 5o. 1 i, abo+t to commence to li/t the 0al0e. =ith the cam,ha/t in thi, po,ition, take the /ront co0er /itte- with the ,ate9ite pinion, an- t+rn the ,atel9te wheel, ,o that the two teeth marke- with the letter D are pointing towar- each other. hat i,, they will be -iametrically oppo,ite each other when ,een thro+gh the ball bearing opening /rom the /ront. )it the /ront co0er on the 0al0e-gear ca,e ,o that the gear, me,h an- the bolt hole, are in line. I/ two ,teel ro-, are p+,he- in -iametrically oppo,ite bolt hole, they will a,,i,t in the correct regi,tering o/ bolt hole, an- gear,. he gear, ,ho+l- me,h witho+t the lea,t e//ort. =hen a,,emble- t+rn the engine imtil the marke- teeth appear -iametrically oppo,ite each other, a, be/ore, to 0eri/y the ,etting, a,, i/ the ,ate9ite, are not both me,hing with ,imilar teeth, breakage i, ,+re to occ+r. ", ,oon a, the /ront co0er i, p+,he- into place p+t on the n+t, an- /it the ball race in po,ition. +rn the engine ro+n- to ,ee that it i, :+ite /ree an- 0eri/y the opening o/ the 0al0e, at 8M -egree, pa,t the top -ea- center.. Contin+e to rotate the engine an- 0eri/y the clo,ing o/ the 0al0e, at AM -egree, be/ore bottom -ea- center. "-1+,t the tappet clearance, again i/ nece,,ary ,o that the timing /or all 0al0e, ,hall be a, near the ,ame a, po,,ible. he tappet clearance ,ho+l- be abo+t D.M millimeter when the engine i, col-, thi, being increa,e- ,omewhat when the engine i, hot. 2 IG5I I%5 =ith the a0erage engine ignition take, place 18 -egree, be/ore the cy9n-er reache, the top center. hi, can be te,te- by t+rning the armat+re o/ the magneto in the -irection o/ rotation +ntil the point, o/ the contact-breaker are 1+,t ,eparating. =hen in thi, po,ition place the gear wheel o/ the magneto in me,h with the gear on the engine an- /i3 the magneto to the main bearer plate. Care m+,t be taken to ,ee that the carbon br+,h ha, 1+,t come into contact with the bra,, ,egment o/ the -i,trib+tor when the engine an- magneto are in the relati0e po,ition abo0e mentione-. I9B$IC" I5G @6@ (M

he oil pipe, o/ the,e engine, ha0e two e:+al -eli0erie, an- they can, there/ore, be connecte- to either o/ the oil +nion, on the crank,ha/t. %il i, +,+ally /e- by gra0ity /rom the tank to the p+mp, b+t in ,ome ca,e, an oil-pre,,+re /ee- i, +,e-. he bell gla,, o/ the ,ight /ee- i, hal/ /ille- with air an- the ,troke o/ the p+mp pl+nger i, .in-icate- by a p+l,ation. he n+mber o/ the,e p+l,ation, i, in con,tant ratio to the n+mber o/ rotation, o/ the engine, there being 9 p+l,ation, /or each 1DD re0ol+tion, o/ the engine. h+,, at 1DDD r.p.m. o/ the engine there ,ho+l- be 9D p+l,ation,, with 99 p+l,ation, at 11DD r.p.m., 1D8 p+l,ation, at 1BDD r.p.m. $955I5G H( (5GI5( #riming the cylin-er, thro+gh the e3ha+,t 0al0e, /or ,tarting i, +n,ati,/actory an- the engine can be,t be ,tarte- in the /ollowing mannerN +rn the engine ro+n- +ntil a cylin-er i, at the bottom with the 0al0e open. =ith the ,witch o/i/, t+rn on ga,oline +ntil it begin, to r+n o+t /rom the open 0al0e, then t+rn o//. =ith the ,witch o/i/, t+rn the engine o0er twice. hen throw on the ,witch an- begin opening the ga,oline reg+lating 0al0e, at the ,ame time ,winging the propeller, which ,ho+l- ,tart the engine witho+t -i/iic+lty. %n engine, where the ga,oline ia /e- +n-er pre,,+re an- there i, no hanp+mp or a+3i9ary ,tarting ,+pply pipe, /itte-, prime the cylin-er, thro+gh the 0al0e,, a, i, +,+al /or or-inary (ngine,. "/ter priming, ,witch on ,park an- ,tart +p by ,winging the propeller. =hen the a+3iliary ,tarting pipe, are /itte- prime the engine, by one or two ,troke, o/ the han- p+mp, ,witch on an- ,tart +p, reg+lating the ga,o9ne by mean, o/ the +,+al 0al0e. %n engine, where the ga,oline i, /e- by pre,,+re /rom an air p+mp, clo,e the reg+lating 0al0e, pimip +p pre,,+re in the tank by mean, o/ the han- p+mp an- ,ee that the reg+lating 0al0e 1< i, correctly a-1+,te-. hi, a-1+,tment ,ho+l- maintain a pre,,+re o/ F po+n-, per ,:+are inch when the engine i, r+nning. +rn on ga,o9ne to prime engine, throw on ,witch an- ,wing the prope9er to ,tart, reg+lating the ga,o9ne ,+pply by a-1+,ting the 0al0e in the +,+al way. It ,ometime, happen, that when priming the engine accor-ing to in,tr+ction,, the cylin-er, may become too /+ll o/ ga,oline. hi, can be -etecte- by the ga,oline leaking /rom the 0al0e. @ho+l- thi, occ+r it i, a-0i,able to t+rn the engine backwar- once or twice in or-er to clear the 0al0e o/ any ,+per/l+o+, ga,o9ne. 9nle,, thi, preca+tion i, taken it ,ometime, happen, that, in the e0ent o/ a back/ire thro+gh the 0al0e, when ,tarting, the ,+per/l+o+, ga,oline o+t,i-e the cylin-er, might ignite an- ca+,e -amage to the airplane. H"58II5G H( (5GI5( I5 )IIGH he engine ,ho+l- be /itte- with a propeller to gi0e /rom 1BDD to 1BMD r.p.m. with the throttle wi-e open in hori>ontal /light. (ach engine ,ho+l- be te,te- in /light to -etermine the -i1B/erence between the ,pee- in the air an- the ,pee- on the gro+n-. hi, -i//erence may 0ary /rom MD to BDD r.p.m. an- in ,ome ca,e, to e0en <DD r.p.m. In any ca,e the ,pee- o/ the engine ,ho+l- not e3cee- 1BMD r.p.m. CIIMBI5G "58 9$5I5G

%n a 0ery ,teep climb o/ ,hort -+ration, or a 0ery ,hort t+rn, the engine will be temporarily o0erloa-e-, ca+,ing a ,light -ecrea,e in the n+mber o/ re0ol+tion, per min+te. =hen the ga,oline i, /e- by an a+tomatic air p+mp the mi3t+re will 0ary ,lightly with the r.p.m., b+t there i, no occa,ion to rea-1+,t the mi3t+re, a, the engine will reco0er it,el/ a, ,oon a, it regain, normal /light. In the ca,e o/ a normal climb o/ long -+ration it i, a-0i,able to rea-1+,t the mi3t+re by the reg+lating 0al0e, ,o that the engine i, con,tantly -e0eloping it, ma3im+m ,pee-. hi, rea-1+,tment i, +,+ally a ,light clo,ing o/ the reg+lating 0al0e. 8(@C(5 @ 8e,cent, are ma-e by three metho-,N )ir,t, by ,witching the engine o// an- on, a, i, +,+ally -one in the -e,cent, o/ ,hort -+ration, or near the gro+n-4 ,econ-, by throttling the engine by clo,ing the ga,oline reg+lating 0al0e4 thir-, by ,topping the engine, in which ca,e the ga,oline ,+pply ,ho+l- be ,h+t oiB/ by the reg+lating 0al0e, b+t the ,witch ,ho+l- be le/t on to pre0ent, a, /ar a, po,,ible the /o+ling o/ the ,park pl+g, with l+bricating oil. $(G9I" I5G G"@%II5( )%$ $"#I8 )IIGH ", the reg+lating 0al0e i, opene- +p the ,pee- o/ the engine will increa,e to a certain point, a/ter which it will not re,pon- to the increa,e- /+el ,+pply, an- /inally, where the engine ,pee- will -ecrea,e, -+e to an e3ce,, o/ /+el. he be,t reg+lation /or rapi- /light i, that which gi0e, a ma3im+m n+mber o/ re0ol+tion, on the in-icator, with the minim+m opening o/ the reg+lator 0al0e. @o that a/ter the 0al0e ha, been ,lowly opene- +ntil the engine /ail, to re,pon- /+rther it i, then wholly clo,e- -own +ntil the engine ,pee- ,how, ,ign, o/ -ropping. hi, po,ition o/ the reg+lating 0al0e han-le /or ma3im+m power ,ho+l- be clearly marke- ,o that it can be ea,ily an- :+ickly /o+n-. I%5G-8I@ "5C( )IIGH @ he po,ition o/ the reg+lating 0al0e /or ma3im+m engine power i, not the be,t when economy o/ /+el i, important con,i-eration. )or a long--i,tance /light, or when it i, nece,,ary to remain in the air /or a long perio-, the engine ,ho+l- be r+n at it, mo,t economical ,pee- an- loa-. hi, po,ition will be in-icate- when the propeller in hori>ontal /light ha, attaine- abo+t 8M per cent, o/ the ma3im+m re0ol+tion, be/ore mentione-. I/, /or e3ample, the ma3im+m re0ol+tion, on a certain machine /or rapi- /light ha, been /o+n- to be 1BBD r.p.m., then the mo,t economical ,pee- will be 8M per cent, o/ thi,, or 1D<C r.p.m. "-1+,t the reg+lating 0al0e in hori>ontal /light +ntil thi, ,pee- o/ 1D<C r.p.m. i, attainean- mark the po,ition o/ the 0al0e han-le ,o that /or prolonge- /light, thi, po,ition can bZ :+ickly /o+n-. "tmo,pheric con-ition, may e//ect the,e reg+lating po,ition, to ,ome e3tent, b+t only 0ery ,lightly. @ %$"G( %) H( G5%M( (5GI5( =hen an engine ha, to be ,tore- it i, recommen-e- that the /ollowing point, be care/+lly note-N 1. $emo0e any acc+m+lation o/ oil in the cylin-er,. B. 8etach ball en-, /rom c+p en-, by relea,ing circlip, or relea,e the /o+rth en- pin

/rom the le0er, an- let all 0al0e, clo,e. ie -own the 0al0e cage with cloth or oily paper to pre0ent -+,t getting into the cylin-er,. F. ie -own all connection, to oil p+mp an- air compre,,or, with cloth or oily paper in the ,ame manner. M. Co0er the rear en- o/ crank,ha/t with -+,t cap. A. Co0er the three +nion, /or oil an- /+el with -+,t cap,. C. Clo,e pointe- en- o/ no,e with pl+g pro0i-e- /or that p+rpo,e. 8. $emo0e ignition pl+g, an- clo,e +p the pl+g hole, with ol- ,park pl+g, or piece, o/ har-woo-. I/ the engine i, to be ,hippe-, the o+t,i-e ,ho+l- be liberally coate- with 0a,eline or ,imilar ,+b,tance to pre0ent r+,t. he 0al0e or tappet ro- a/ter relea,e, ,ho+l- be tie- +p ,ec+rely at the loo,e en-. @tring i, pre/erable /or thi, p+rpo,e. =hen packing the engine in a ca,e it ,ho+l- be mo+nte- on a woo-e- t+b at the bottom an- ,ec+rely ,taye- by cro,, timber, to. pre0ent the ,hghte,t mo0ement ,i-eway,. @lot, ha0e been recently c+t in the main bearer plate to allow the -rawbar, o/ the engine e3tractor to pa,, thro+gh. In ca,e thi, ha, not been -one on the engine yo+ are han-ling it i, a-0i,able to -o ,o a, it greatly /acilitate, in remo0ing o/ engine /rom the plane. @(C I%5 EIII H( ra@#"5%-@9Il" (5GI5( hi, type o/ engine ha, pro0e- 0ery ,+cce,,/+l in act+al work on the we,tern /ront an- i, now being b+ilt in thi, co+ntry both /or the )rench an- "merican armie,. ", can be ,een in )ig. 1DA, it i, a 7-type engine b+t ha, ,e0eral pec+liaritie, o/ -e,ign which

I%C.;-Hi,pano-@+i>aengine. make it -i//erent /rom any other. he cylin-er, arc ,teel ,lee0e, ma-e /rom pierce/orging, ,imilar to higli e3plo,i0e an- ,hrapnel ,hell,. he,e are ,oli- at the +pper enan- the 0al0e ,cat, are /orme- -irectly in the bottom o/ the cylin-er it,el/. he o+t,i-e o/ the cylin-er i, threa-e- an- ,crew, into the al+min+m ca,ting which look, like a cylin-er block b+t i, in reality only the water 1acket, /or all /o+r cylin-er, o/ the

block. he lower en- o/ the cylin-er pro1ect, an- ha, a /lange by which the cylin-er block i, /a,tene- to the engine ba,e by mean, o/ ,t+-,. here i, an o0erhea- cam,ha/t with liberal ,i>e- cam, which act -irectly on the top o/ a-1+,table cap, o0er the 0al0e ,tem,. In,tr+ction, /or ,etting +p an- han-ling the engine /ollow. he @imple3, Mo-el GG"QH Hi,pano-@+i>a aerona+tic engine i, o/ the eight-cylin-er J7H type, water-coole-, appro3imately Fb E M<2 inch bore an- ,troke, an- -e0elop, 1MD hor,epower at 1FMD r.p.m. at ,ea le0el. here are two cylin-er block,, each containing /o+r cylin-er,, their center line, making an angle o/ 9D -egree, between them. he in-i0i-+al cylin-er, are ,teel /orging,, heat-treate-, machine- an- threa-e- on the o+t,i-e. he,e ,teel ,lee0e, are /lange- at the bottom an- clo,e- at the top, thi, ,+r/ace being /lat, pro0i-ing /or the two 0al0e ,eat,. he cylin-er, are ,crewe- into the ca,t al+min+m cylin-er block, which compri,e the water 1acket, an- 0al0e port,, intake ane3ha+,t pa,,age,. (ach block, a/ter cylin-er, an- other part, are a,,emble-, i, gi0en ,e0eral coat, o/ enamel, both in,i-e an- o+t, each coat being bake- on. he coat, on the in,i-e are applie- +n-er pre,,+re. he pi,ton, are al+min+m ca,ting,, ribbe-, an- pro0i-e- with /o+r narrow ring, at the top in two groo0e, an- one oil ring near the bottom. he hollow ca,e-har-ene- alloy ,teel pi,ton pin, are hel- in the pi,ton, by a ,ingle long ,et ,crew pa,,ing completely thro+gh one en-. he connecting ro-, are o/ t+b+lar ,ection4 the material heat-treate- alloy ,teel. %ne rot+rn, -irectly on the crank pin while the other, which i, /orke-, t+rn, on the o+t,i-e o/ the e3ten-e- part o/ the /ormer. he +pper en-, o/ the connecting ro-, are pro0i-ewith bron>e b+,hing,. he crank,ha/t i, o/ chrome nickel ,teel o/ the /o+r-throw type, 18D -egree, between throw,, machine- all o0er. here are /o+r plain main bearing, bron>e backe- an- babbitt line- an- one ann+lar ball main bearing at the rear KcrankingL en-. he thr+,t /or either a tractor or propeller ,crew i, pro0i-e/or by a -o+ble row ball thr+,t bearing locate- in the /ront o/ the crankca,e. Y he crank,ha/t i, pro0i-e- with a conical ,eat with key /or the propeller h+b an- i, bore- hollow /or lightne,, an- /or the oiling ,y,tem. he 0al0e, are ,et 0ertically in the cylin-er, along the center o/ each block an- are -irectly operate- by a ,ingle cam-,ha/t locate- o0er the 0al0e,. hey are o/ +ng,ten ,teel, with large -iameter hollow ,tem,, working in tight /itting ca,t-iron b+,hing,, pro0i-e- at the +pper en-, with ca,e-har-ene- /lat-hea-e- a-1+,ting -i,c,, +pon which the cam, operate an- are hel- to their ,eat, by two concentric he9cal ,pring, each, either one o/ which i, ,+//icient, in ca,e o/ breakage to the other, to in,+re the 0al0e, ,eating properly. he hollow cam,ha/t, are mo+nte- in three plain bron>e bearing, each an- -ri0en /rom the crank,ha/t by two 0ertical ,ha/t, an- be0el gear, o/ har-ene- alloy ,teel r+nning in plain bron>e bearing,. he,e ,ha/t, are protecte- by ho+,ing, o/ light ,teel t+bing aneach one i, pro0i-e- with a ,crew -ri0er type o/ 1oint near the mi--le, allowing o/ rea-y remo0al o/ the cy9n-er block, witho+t -i,mo+nting other part,. he cam,ha/t,, cam,

an- hea-, o/ the 0al0e ,tem, are all enclo,e- in oil tight ca,t alimii-n+m remo0able ho+,ing,. he cam,ha/t i, -ri0en by conical gear,. he oiling o/ the engine i, pro0i-e- /or by a po,iti0e pre,,+re ,y,tem, a ,li-ing 0ane eccentric type o/ p+mp being mo+nte- 0ertically -irectly below the crank,ha/t in the lower hal/ o/ the crankca,e an- -ri0en by the ,ame be0el gear that -ri0e, the cam,ha/t -ri0e ,ha/t,. hi, p+mp take, oil thro+gh a pipe ca,t integral with the lower crankca,e, /orce, it thro+gh a /ilter al,o ca,t in the ca,e an- pro0i-e- with a remo0able ,creen4 anthen thro+gh other ,teel t+be, ca,t in the ca,e to three o/ the main bearing,. )rom the,e bearing, the oil enter, the hollow crank,ha/t an- i, -i,trib+te- to the /o+r crank pin,, proper oil hole, an- groo0e, being pro0i-e- in the inner connecting ro-, to -i,trib+te the oil where nee-e-. he l+brication o/ the cylin-er, an- o/ the pi,ton pin, i, pro0i-e- /or by oil thrown oiB/ /rom the rapi-ly re0ol0ing crank,ha/t. he /o+rth main bearing i, al,o pro0i-e- with an oil lea- /rom the ,y,tem, which take, care o/ the l+brication o/ thi, bearing, an- thro+gh t+be, r+nning +p the en- o/ each cylin-er block, pro0i-e, oil /or the cam,ha/t,. ", the cam,ha/t, are hollow the oil i, /orce- into them at one en- thro+gh one o/ the bearing,. I+brication o/ the cam, i, pro0i-e- by a ,mall hole in each cam, an- o/ the remaining bearing, by other ,mall hole,. H he e3ce,, o/ oil e,cape, thro+gh the other en- o/ the cam,ha/t in the /orm o/ a ,tream an- oil, the -ri0ing gear, be/ore it ret+rn, to the crankca,e. Ignition i, /+rni,he- by two eight-cylin-er magneto, /iring two ,park pl+g, per cy9n-er. %ne magneto i, -ri0en /rom each o/ the two 0ertical ,ha/t, by ,mall be0el pinion, me,hing in be0el gear, mo+nte- -irectly on the magneto ,ha/t,. "ll engine, +,e- in @ea-plane, or plane, o/ the p+,her type are e:+ippe- with a geare--own han- crank ,tarting -e0ice, an- when th+, e:+ippe- are geare- +p to a ,mall ,tarting magneto which gi0e, a 0ery hot ,park at low engine ,pee-,. "8'9@ M(5 @ 7al0e Clearance,. ; he clearance between the 0al0e -i,c, an- the cam, ,ho+l- be B millimeter, K. DC8C inchL. It i, important to check thi, clearance /rom time to time;ancorrect it i/ it 0arie,, +,ing the ,pecial wrench an- the gage ,+pplie- /or that p+rpo,e in the e:+ipment. 7al0e iming. ;In ca,e it i, nece,,ary to -emo+nt, the cam,ha/t, or the gear,, the /ollowing i, the metho- to +,e in or-er to -etermine the opening an- clo,ing po,ition, o/ the 0al0e,. )ir,t. 8etermine, a, in-icate- abo0e, the clearance between the cam, an- 0al0e -i,c,. @econ-. Mo+nt on the taper o/ the crank,ha/t a -i,c <AD millimeter, K1F.1C<F inche,L -iameter. I/ thi, i, not a0ailable, mark the timing on the propeller h+b it,el/, which ha, a -iameter o/ 18D millimeter, KC.D8AC inche,L. hir-. #lace between the a3i, o/ the cylin-er gro+p, an arrow which will coinci-e with the rim o/ the -i,c or the propeller h+b. )o+rth. %n the /ace o/ the timing -i,c or h+b /lange, mark the top an- bottom center, with regar- to the arrow, an- /rom the,e mark, lay o// the -i,tance, a, in-icate- in the timing -iagram, ,o that the,e line, corre,pon- e3actly to the motor timing.

Ie2< )io. 1DC.; iming -iagram. =hen the a-1+,tment o/ one ,et i, /ini,he-, the ,ame proce-+re ,ho+l- be applie- /or the other, b+t taking acco+nt o/ the /iring an- timing which i, in the /ollowing or-erN lIr-F$-BIr-<$-FI-l$-<I-B$ )or e3ampleN =e know that cylin-er F$ KF rightL intake, a/ter II K1 le/tL4 hence we begin again with the intake opening o/ II an- by t+rning the crank,ha/t 9D -egree, K'2 re0ol+tionL in the -irection o/ rotation, we ha0e -etermine- the opening o/ intake 0al0e o/ cylin-er F$. H( HI@#"5%H@9Il" (5GI5( BD< iming IMI5G 8I"G$"M Iength o/ arc taken in -iameter, Intake open, Intake clo,e, (3ha+,tH open, (3ha+,t clo,e, @park "-0ance o/ <AD mQm K1F.1C<F inche,L <B mQm K1.BM99 inche,L 1AM mQm KA.F9AB inche,L 1MD mQm KM.9DMA inche,L <B mQm K1.BM99 inche,L AF mQm KB.M19C inche,L IMI5G %) M"G5( %@ o/ 18D mQm KC.D8AC inche,L 1 1A a/ter 9.8.C. 8< a/ter I.8.C. CM be/ore I.8.C. 1A a/ter 9.8.C. <B be/ore 9.8.C. )ir,t, Mark the point, o/ ma3im+m a-0ance, a, in-icate- on the timing -iagram, on the /ace o/ the <AD millimeter, K1F.1C<F inche,L timing -i,c or on the propeller h+b /lange.

@econ-. +rn the crank,ha/t o/ the engine +ntil the cylin-er II i, nearing the en- o/ the compre,,ion ,troke, an- the ,park a-0ance line on the -i,c coinci-e, with the timing arrow. hir-. +rn the magneto ,ha/t +ntil the -i,trib+tor br+,h to+che, the -i,trib+tor ,egment, which i, marke- /or Cylin-er II an- bolt -own magneto. )o+rth. Ioo,en the three ,mall bolt, which hol- the magneto gear to the -i,c an- t+rn the -i,c +ntil the platin+m point, o/ the circ+it breaker 1+,t begin to ,eparate. K9,e cigarette paper between the point, /or timing.L hen tighten the bolt,. he two magneto, ,ho+l- be time- in e3actly the ,ame manner, an- i/ one or the other o/ the magneto, i, c+t o+t while the engine i, r+nning, the n+mber o/ re0ol+tion, o/ the engine lo,t ,ho+l- be the ,ame Kabo+t BDL. @park #l+g Connection,. ; he -i,trib+tor -iagram /aci9tate, the connection o/ ,park pl+g wire,. 118D mQm KC.D8AC inche,L i, the -iameter o/ the propeller /lange. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! "ll ,park pl+g, locate- on the intake ,i-e o/ the cylin-er, are wire- to the $. H. Magneto, while the pl+g, locate- on the e3ha+,t ,i-e are wire- to the I. H. magneto. I/ there i, any mi,/iring, thi, arrangement make, it 0ery ea,y to /in- which ,i-e ha, the ba- ,park pl+g. %#($" I%5 $+nning the (ngine. ;5e0er Jloa-J the engine imme-iately a/ter ,tarting it. #artic+larly in winter, allow it to operate at partly clo,e- throttle or abo+t 8DD r.p.m. In 0ery col- weather, we a-0i,e ,topping it a/ter three or /o+r min+te,H operation anwaiting a 9ttle time +ntil the heat com-

)iG. 1D8.;=iring -iagram. m+nicate, to all part, o/ the crankca,e, in or-er to ren-er the oil thinner. he engine i, controlle- by ga, throttle, an- i, /o+n- to ,tart be,t with a 0ery ,mall opening. he throttle le0er ,ho+l- be abo+t MH/ A i22ch /rom the ,top ,crew. he ,econcontrol i, -e,igne- to correct the 0ariation, in carb+retion re:+ire- at the -i/l/erent altit+-e, where the engine i, to operate. %ne ,ho+l- -etermine a /i3e- point, be/ore each ,tart, o/ the be,t po,ition /or the altit+-e control Kthat which corre,pon-, to the greate,t n+mber o/ re0ol+tion,L. hat po,ition generally i, ,ati,/actory +p to 1DDD meter, K<B8D /eetL. "bo0e that, it i,

nece,,ary to make correction,, alway, o/ co+r,e, -etermine- by the re0ol+tion co+nter. @tarting the (ngine.;It ia beat to prime the engine thro+gh the petcocka on the intake pipe, when ,tarting the engine col-. I/ the engine ia warm, no priming aho+l- be +,e-. he choke 0al0e o/ the carb+reter ,ho+l- be rai,e- a, /ar a, po,,ible, an- with the carb+reter /loo-e- an- ,et a, be/ore re/erre- to /or ,tarting, the engine ,ho+l- then be t+rne- o0er at leaat two complete re0ol+tion,, the choke ,et back in the normal po,ition again, an- the engine will then be rea-y to ,tart o//. 5e0er prime the engine when it i, warm, I9B$IC" I%5 5otice.;I/, in ,tarting a new engine which i, being r+n witho+t an oil ra-iator, the oil pre,,+re -oe, not regi,ter, make ,+re that the en- o/ the oil p+mp ,+ction pipe i, not clo,e- with a bra,, pl+g. hi, can be e3amine- by remo0ing pl+g in the bottom o/ the lower hal/ o/ the crankca,e. Be/ore each ,tart, be ,+re o/ the le0el o/ the oil in the crankca,e with the ai- o/ the gage pl+g, place- /or thi, p+rpo,e in the ,+mp. he normal le0el corre,pon-, to the height o/ the ,econ- pl+g, gi0ing abo+t 1D liter, KB.AF gallon,L in the ca,e. he oiling o/ all part, o/ the engine i, a+tomatic, +n-er pre,,+re. he magneto, nee,e0eral -rop, o/ oil in the oil tee- e0ery BD ho+r,. " goo- l+bricating oil or ,ome googra-e o/ ca,tor oil i, H recommen-e-. M"I5 (5"5C( '!e "/ter /i0e ho+r, r+nning the -i,trib+tor block, o/ the magneto, ,ho+l- be cleane- to a0oi- any ,kipping or mi,,ing in their operation. he br+,he, o/ the high ten,ion -i,trib+tor ,ho+l- be dre/erably with l+bricating oil4 likewi,e the path o/ the I the -i,trib+tor block ,ho+l- ha0e a coating o/ oil. at, the ,cattering o/ carbon -+,t in the -i,trib+tor ch ca+,e, ,hort circ+iting or /iring in the wrong "/ter ten ho+r, r+nning an- be/ore each important /lightN Clean the ,park pl+g, Kwith alcohol i/ they are grea,y /rom ca,tor oilL, the magneto -i,trib+tor,, an- the oil /ilter. (0ery twenty ho+r, clean the ga,o9ne ,trainer an- the water /ilter,. (0ery /i/ty ho+r, clean o+t the comb+,tion chamber, a/ter the cy9n-er, ha0e bee1i taken oiB/4 grin- the 0al0e,. 5e0er +n,crew the cylin-er, /rom the water 1acket. "/ter rea,,embly, be ,+re that the timing i, correct. #$(C"9 I%5@ % "!( 958($ )$((lI5G C%58I I%5@ he circ+latmg water can be kept /rom /ree>ing by a--ing BM per cent, o/ glycerine. =itho+t that preca+tion, it i, nece,,ary to -rain the water each night. In or-er to /acilitate ,tarting in the morning an- /reeing K+n-gimimingL the ring,, we a-0i,e gi0ing, while the engine i, ,till hot, a/ter the pre0io+, r+n, ,e0eral ,hot, o/ kero,ene thro+gh the pet-cock, o/ the inlet mani/ol-, an- t+rning the propeller o0er ,e0eral time,. $(C%MM(58" I%5@ )%$ " "CHI5G #$%#(II($@

"lway, p+t the keyway o/ the h+b in the a3i, o/ the bla-e,. @tarting the engine by cranking the propeller i, /acihtate- i/ the propeller i, keye- in that po,ition which i, the mo,t /a0orable /or HG carrying o0er compre,,ion.H2 More than that, thi, po,ition ha,

been a-opte- /or a-1+,tment o/ the layo+t /or /iring the machine g+n thro+gh the propeller. hat recommen-ation, then, become, 0ery important. he mo+nting o/ the h+b on the taper o/ the crank,ha/t re:+ire, 0ery partic+lar preca+tion,4 the h+b ,+pp9e- with each engine ha, been /itte- to it, taper;-o not omit that operation in ca,e o/ replacement o/ the h+b. Be/ore mo+nting be ,+re that the part, /it per/ectly an- are l+bricate- with tallow or oil an- graphite. " ba- /it rapi-ly -e0elop, play an-, i/ r+n in thi, con-ition, will -o great -amage. " /a+lty balance o/ the propeller alway, ca+,e, 0ibration. ", ,oon a, one enco+nter, thi, con-ition, correct the balance with care an- al,o the pitch Kbeca+,e it happen, that woo- warp,L. $(C%MM(58" I%5@ )%$ I5@ "III5G H( (5GI5( I5 "I$#I"5(@ he engine ,ho+l- be anchore- on a rigi- ,+pport which m+,t be ,traight an- ,mooth, where the engine i, /a,tene- on, an- ,ho+l- be 9ne- with /iber. Ho+,ing-in o/ the (ngine.;=hene0er po,,ible the cam,ha/t ho+,ing co0er, ,ho+l- be le/t e3po,e-4 their -i,a,,embly i, then 0ery ea,y an- thi, arrangement permit, the con,tr+ctor to c+t -own the ,i>e o/ the cowl,. I/,H in certain ca,e,, the engine i, mo+ntewitho+t any cowl,, ,ome metho- o/ ,heltering the magneto, ,ho+l- be pro0i-e- /or. #"$ @ % =HICH ("@6 "CC(@@ "58 ("@6 "!(-8%=5 I@ 8(@I$"BI( Magneto,;,park pl+g,;oil le0el pl+g,;oil /ilter,;crank ca,e breather t+be cap. Carb+reter.;"ir ,ho+l- be taken in the o+t,i-e by a leak-proo/ t+be an- ma-e with a minim+m in,i-e -iameter o/ 9D millimeter, K<.MF<F inche,L. "t the lower part o/ the carb+reter i, a nipple, to which a ,mall t+be ,ho+l- be /a,tene-, which let, the ga,oline r+n o//, thi, t+be -i,charging /ar eno+gh to rear +n-er the airplane, Ka, /ar away /rom the e3ha+,t a, po,,ibleL. In a--ition to the throttle 0al0e control9ng the ,pee- o/ the engine, there i, al,o in,talle- in the pilotH, cock-pit another control operating the altit+-e correcti0e mechani,m o/ the carb+reter. here ,ho+l- be al,o, a, clo,e to the engine a, po,,ible, a cock enabling the pilot to ,h+t o// the ga,oline ,+pply. =ater Circ+lation.;It i, important in any ca,e, that there be a ,+//icient hea- o/ water abo0e the highe,t part o/ the cylin-er water ,pace. hi, hea- ,ho+l- ne0er go below <D centimeter, K11.811 inche,L4 when two ,i-e ra-iator, are +,e- they ,hoiiBi2l2 w YG o 1oine-, i/ po,,ible, by a comm+nicating t+be on top. he circ+lating ,y,tem ,ho+l- ha0e at it, highe,t point a ,mall e3pan,ion

tank with a le0el cock, which a0oi-, complete re/illing o/ the tank. 2i,2ace in the tank abo0e the le0el cock ,ho+l- not ha0e le,, than < liter, K< :+art,L capacity, to allow /or the e3pan,ion o/ the water. It i, in-i,pen,able to locate, in an acce,,ible manner, a /ilter between the cylin-er o+tlet, an- each ra-iator to ,top ,e-iment in the water which -epo,it, in the 1acket, an- ten-, to clog the ra-iator,. he -e90ery o/ the water p+mp i, in the neighborhoo- o/ 1DD liter, KBA.F1 gallon,L per min+te at 1FDD r.p.m. he -i//erence between the inlet an- o+tlet temperat+re o/ the water i, abo+t 1D -egree, Centigra-e KBD -egree, )ahrenheit.L %il ank an- Cooling o/ %il. ;I/ the engine i, mo+nte- on a machine inten-e- to make /light, o/ more than three ho+r,, it will be nece,,ary to in,tall an oil re,er0oir Kallowing B liter, KB :+art,L o/ oil +,e- per ho+rL. hi, tank may be +,e- a, an oil cooling ra-iator. In thi, ca,e, the ,+ction pipe in the p+mp m+,t, o/ nece,,ity, be pl+gge-. K" bra,, pl+g, which i, /+rni,he-, may be ,crewe- into the tappe- en- o/ the oil intake by remo0ing the ,i+np -rain pl+g.L

Connect the bottom o/ the oil ra-iator by a pipe to one or the other o/ the oil pl+g, locate- in the rear o/ the crankca,e, on the intake ,i-e o/ the oil pi+np. he ret+rn to the ra-iator i, ma-e by a pipe 1oine- to the ,+mp -rain pl+g. he,e ,+ction an- -e90ery oil pipe, ,ho+l- ha0e an in,i-e -iameter o/ 1F millimeter, K.MM1B inchL /or the ,+ction pipe an- B8 millimeter, K1. 1DBF inche,L /or the ret+rn4 the ra-iator t+be, at lea,t 1D millimeter, K.<9<C inchL in,i-e -iameter. It i, alway, nece,,ary to e:+ip the top part o/ the re,er0oir with a pl+g /or the relea,e o/ air when re/illing. C%M#I( ( 8I@"@@(MBI6 #lace the engine on a ,+itable ,tan-, an- procee- a, /ollow,N )ir,t, 8emo+nting the Carb+reter. ;Back o// the +nion n+t o/ the -etachable /lange- inlet pipe an- the /o+r n+t, ,+pporting the intake mani/ol- tee an- 9/t it o// with the carb+reter. 1F ake o// the inlet mani/ol-, by +n,crewing the eight n+t, on the water 1acket ca,ting,. @econ-. ake o// the breather pipe, the re0ol+tion co+nter -ri0e, the ,park pl+g wire, an- mani/ol-, an- the ,park pl+g,. hir-. 8i,mo+nting the =ater #+mp.;9n,crew the ho,e clamp, on the r+bber connection, o/ the water pipe,. $emo0e the n+t, /a,tening the water pipe /lange, to the al+min+m water 1acket, an- take o// the water pipe,. 9n,crew the imion hol-ing the ,mall copper pipe to the water pi+np an- remo0e pipe. 9n,crew the B n+t, an- lower the complete water pmnp. )o+rth. $emo0ing Magneto,.;2Ioo,en the packing n+t o/ the magneto -ri0e gear ho+,ing. 9n,crew the n+t, hol-ing the ho+,ing an- magneto hol-ing ,crew,. ake o// the magneto, with their gear, by rai,ing magneto, to -i,engage the centering -owel,. )i/th.. aking o// the Cylin-er Block,.; ake o// the oil pipe, to the cylin-er block by +n,crewing the +nion, an- the n+t, attaching the /lange, to the cylin-er 1acket,. 9n,crew the n+t, bolting the cylin-er, to the +pper crankca,e, e3cept one n+t on the in,i-e o/ each gro+p. +rn the crank,ha/t ,o that the pi,ton, o/ cylin-er, 1 an- F o/ the le/t han- cylin-er block are on top. ake o// the remaining n+t an- 9/t o// the le/t block, being care/+l to ,+pport the pi,ton,. he ,ame operation hol-, goo- /or the right hancylin-er block. @i3th. $emo0ing #i,ton,.;9n,crew the wri,t pin ,et ,crew, o/ pi,ton, II, FI, I$ anF$, a/ter ha0ing remo0e- ,pht cotter, K-o not /orget to t+rn the ,lot o/ the oil ring to regi,ter with the cotter holeL. ake o// the pi,ton, by -ri0ing o+t the wri,t pin, /rom /ront to rear /or the le/t an- /rom rear to /ront /or the right ,i-e o/ the motor. +rn the crank,ha/t a hal/ re0ol+tion an- procee- a, be/ore with pi,ton, BI, <I, B$ an- <$. Ca+tion.;5e0er remo0e the cylin-er ,lee0e, /rom the al+min+m water 1acket,. @e0enth. aking 8own the Crankca,e.;9n,crew the n+t, o/ the bearing ,t+-,, both +pper an- lower. In0ert the crankca,e an- take o// the n+t, an- bolt, hol-ing the two hal0e, together. $emo0e ,tarting crank ho+,ing, i/ any, or the co0er plate on the magneto en- o/ crankca,e. Ioo,en +p the 1oint Ko/ the ca,eL with a piece o/ woo-, an- li/t o/i/ the lower hal/ an- a0oi- letting the oil p+mp -ri0ing gear /all. ake o/i/ the lower hal/ o/ the main bearing, o/ the crank,ha/t.

(ighth, $emo0ing Connecting $o-,. ;(3tract the cotter-pin, o/ the bolt, o/ the /orkeconnecting ro-,, +n,crew the n+t, an- remo0e the ro-,. 9nlock the cap ,crew, o/ the inner ro-, Kbe care/+l not to in1+re the babbitt on the e3terior o/ the ro-L an- take o/i/ the connecting ro-, a/ter ha0ing remo0e- the cap ,crew,. 5inth. $emo0ing %il #+mp. ;9n,crew the /o+r n+t, an- remo0e the water p+mp bracket which al,o ,er0e, a, the oil p+mp co0er. 8ri0e o+t the oil p+mp, with the ai- o/ a piece o/ woo- or copper, thro+gh the -ri0ing pinion bearing hole a/ter the pinion i, remo0e-. enth. $emo0ing the Cam,ha/t. ;$emo0e the cotter pin, o/ the n+t, o/ the bearing hol-ing -own bolt,4 +n,crew the,e n+t, an- take o/i/ the ,ha/t with it, three bearing,. (le0enth. $emo0ing 7al0e,. ;Mo+nt the cylin-er block on the cra-le o/ a ,pecial a,,embly ,tan-. #+t into the cy9n-er /o+r piece, o/ woo- ,omewhat longer than the in,i-e o/ the cylin-er, an- hel- together by a cro,, piece attache- to the cylin-er,. "nchor the hooke- 0al0e tool to the ,t+-, o/ the e3ha+,t /lange, an- take o/i/ each 0al0e in the /ollowing mannerN #lace the hollow yoke o/ the le0er on top o/ the 0al0e tappet wa,her an- pre,, -own the le0er +ntil the ,errate- wa,her +nlock, the a-1+,ting ,crew. 9n,crew the m+,hroom with the other han- +ntil the ,pring, are no longer compre,,e-. 8i,pen,e with the le0er KtoolL an- /ini,h +n,crewing the m+,hroom,. $emo0e the retainer, an- the ,pring,. =hen that operation i, /ini,he- /or the eight 0al0e,, remo0e the piece, o/ woo- an- take o+t the 0al0e,. 8I@"@@(MBI6 %) 95I @ 9n,crew the /o+r n+t, bolting the p+mp to the crankca,e an- remo0e, ,+cce,,i0ely, the co0er an- the p+mp ,pin-le with the impeller. Intro-+ce an elbowe- tool, ,:+are on en-, an- pre/erably o/ copper, in the +pper bore o/ the pmnp bo-y, abo0e which it can be grapple-4 then p+ll -own on the ,tem to remo0e the bo-y o/ the p+mp. $emo0ing the Iower Hal/ o/ the Crankca,e /or @+mmary In,pection o/ Connecting $o-,. ;$emo0e the carb+reter an- it, connection, an- pl+g the inlet pa,,age, to the tee, to eliminate the po,,ibi9ty o/ /oreign ,+b,tance, getting in. ake o/i/ the co0er plate at the en- o/ the crank,ha/t or the ,tarting crank mechani,m. $emo0e the water p+mp an- pl+g hole to pre0ent the entrance o/ -irt an- -+,t. 9n,crew the n+t, o/ the bearing ,t+-,, an-, 0ery care/+lly, t+rn the engine bottom ,i-e +p, letting it re,t on the cam,ha/t ho+,ing,. 9n,crew the n+t, o/ the crankca,e ,t+-, an- bolt,, an- take o// the lower hal/ a/ter ha0ing prie- the 1oint apart with a piece o/ woo-. I/ one wi,he, to rotate the crank,ha/t, take o+t the ,park pl+g, on the e3ha+,t ,i-e an- hol- the rear ball race, in place with a woo- /lange -rille- with two hole, corre,pon-ing to the two ,t+- bolt, o/ the bearing. he tool, +,e- are ,hown in )ig. 11D. $("@@(MBI6 "ll /rictional ,+r/ace, ,ho+l- be co0ere- with oil a, they are p+t together. he re/erence, are alway, taken in relation to the /ront o/ the engine. K apere- en- o/ crank,ha/t.L he inner connecting ro-, are +,e- on the le/t gro+p o/ cy9n--er,, the /orke- ro-,

operating in the right gro+p. =itho+t any compre,,ion, it ,ho+l- be po,,ible to t+rn the engine o0er by han- on rea,,embly, by mean, o/ the propeller /lange. "ttaching the %il #+mp. ; he bolt, attaching the p+mp to the crankca,e are ,o ma-e that the oil p+mp cannot be improperly mo+nte-. hi, being in place, be ,+re that H2 H /reely by H( HI@#"5%H@9Il" (5GI5( B1< han- a/ter ha0ing p+t the -ri0ing pinion in place. #lace paper ga,ket between the bracket an- the oil p+mp ho+,ing, an- be ,+re to p+t one hole in the ga,ket, ,o that the oil which leak, by the ,ha/t into the little oil pocket can be ,+cke- back into the oil p+mp. Mo+nting the =ater #+mp. ;)a,ten the water p+mp an- be ,+re, a, be/ore, that the ,pin-le t+rn, by han- thro+gh the agency o/ the -ri0ing pinion. he ,t+//ing bo3 o/ the oil p+mp ,ho+l- be 0ery 9ghtly tightene- +p. ",,embling the Connecting $o-,. ;",,embly o/ the connecting ro-, can be ma-e with the top hal/ o/ the crankca,e in0erte-, b+t it i, pre/erable to -o it at the work-bench, the crank,ha/t en-,



)iZ. 11D. being hel- in a woo--collar. )it an- lock the F inner connecting ro-, in place, then the F /orke- ro-,, being ,+re that the cotter pin, o/ the inner connecting ro- cap ,crew, -o not inter/ere in the clearance, o/ the o+ter ro-,. Cotter pin, in connecting ro-, ,ho+l- /it tight. ",,embly o/ the Crankca,e. ; he top hal/ o/ the crankca,e being in0erte-, on the

a,,embly ,tan-, p+t the top hal/ o/ the "C ca,i h /iltP 1 the pe to gi a/ cc ti @# I c 1/ H( HI@#"5%-@9Il" (5GI5( B1< han- a/ter ha0ing p+t the -ri0ing pinion in place. #lace paper ga,ket between the bracket an- the oil p+mp ho+,ing, an- be ,+re to p+t one hole in the ga,ket, ,o that the oil which leak, by the ,ha/t into the 9ttle oil pocket can be ,+cke- back into the oil p+mp. Mo+nting the =ater #+mp. ;)a,ten the water p+mp an- be ,+re, a, be/ore, that the ,pin-le t+rn, by han- thro+gh the agency o/ the -ri0ing pinion. he ,t+/lBing bo3 o/ the oil pmnp ,ho+l- be 0ery 9ghtly tightene- +p. ",,embling the Connecting $o-,. ;",,embly o/ the connecting ro-, can be ma-e with the top hal/ o/ the crankca,e in0erte-, b+t it i, pre/erable to -o it at the work-bench, the crank,ha/t en-,


" y

)ig. 11D. being hel- in a woo--collar. )it an- lock the F inner connecting ro-, in place, then the F /orke- ro-,, being ,+re that the cotter pin, o/ the inner connecting ro- cap ,crew, -o not inter/ere in the clearance, o/ the o+ter ro-,. Cotter pin, in connecting ro-, ,ho+l- /it tight. ",,embly o/ the Crankca,e. ; he top hal/ o/ the crankca,e being in0erte-, on the a,,embly ,tan-, p+t the top hal/ o/ thi2 main bearing, in place, mo+nt the crank,ha/t in the +pper hal/ o/ the ca,e, ob,er0ing the /ollowing re/erence,N #+t the hal/ bearing, on the lower crankca,e in place. "pply a light coat o/ ,hellac to the /ace, o/ the crankca,e hal0e,, allow it to J,etHH ,e0eral min+te, an- then p+t the lower hal/ in place, hol-ing the oil pmnp -ri0ing gear to keep it /rom /alling o+t. @crew +p the n+t, on the a,,embly bolt, an- ,t+-, an- the n+t, o/ the two ,t+-, o/ the rear bearing4 t+rn the engine o0er an- ,crew +p the main bearing ,t+--bolt n+t,. Bolt the crankca,e -own to the a,,embly ,tan- with at lea,t two bolt,. )ittingthe#i,ton,.; he hal/ circ+lar groo0e, carrying the oil to the pi,ton wri,t-pin, ,ho+l- alway, be t+rne- towar- the in,i-e o/ the engine. 8ri0e in place all the wri,t-pin, o/ the le/t cylin-er gro+p /rom rear to /ront, an- /rom /ront to rear /or the right gro+p. Mo+nt the timing -i,c on the crank,ha/t taper an- rotate the crank,ha/t one-eighth re0ol+tion in the -irection o/ rotation, in or-er to bring the throw, 0ertical an- /it pi,ton, II, FI, I$ an- F$. $otate a hal/ t+rn in the ,ame -irection an- /it F pi,ton, BI, <I, B$ an- <$. Be ,i+-e that the hea-, o/ the cotter pin, /or the wri,t-pin ,et ,crew, -o not pro1ect abo0e the bottom o/ the ann+lar groo0e. It i, recommen-e- that the hea-, o/ the cotter, be lightly peene- to the -iameter o/ the co+nter,ink o/ the hole,. ",,embling 7al0e,. ;#rocee- in the oppo,ite manner to -i,a,,embling. ",,embling the Cylin-er Block,. ;$otate the crank,ha/t an eighth o/ a re0ol+tion, alway, in the -irection o/ rotation, in or-er to bring the F pi,ton, o/ gro+p I to the ,ame height. ip the

a,,embly ,tan- to bring the pi,ton, o/ thi, gro+p 0ertical, attach H3e magneto -ri0e ho+,ing an- it, ,t+//ing bo3 n+t on the t+b+lar +,ing, be/ore p+tting the cy9n-er block in place. +rn the ton ring, ,o that the 1oint, are 18D -egree, apart. K he ,lot, mi- be alternately le/t an- right.L ake the pi,ton ring 1ig ,hown abo0e, an al+min+m contracting ring, an- compre,, the ring,, then gently p+t the cylin-er block in place, which being ahgne-, will go -own o/ it, own weight, the regi,ter o/ the 1aw cl+tch o/ the 0ertical ,ha/t with the -og, o/ the -ri0ing gear being in line. $emo0e the ring 1ig when all the ring, are rece,,e- in the cyhn-er,. @crew -own the n+t, o/ the cy9n-er ,t+-, o/ the le/t cy9n-er block4 tip the ,tan- in the oppo,ite -irection, t+rn the crank,ha/t a :+arter o/ a t+rn, alway, in the -irection o/ rotation, an- go thro+gh the ,ame proce-+re /or the right gro+p o/ cyhn-er,. "ttaching the Cam,ha/t. ;$ea-1+,t the a,,embly ,tan- to it, 0ertical po,ition. ",,emble the cam,ha/t, accor-ing to the re/erence mark,. 8raw +p an- pin the n+t, on the bearing ,t+-, an- a-1+,t the clearance between the cam, an- the 0al0e a-1+,ting m+,hroom. Mo+nting o/ Magneto,. ;)a,ten the timing arrow, im-er the n+t, o/ the /orwarbearing ,t+-,, an- procee- timing the magneto, a, -e,cribe- +n-er paragraph JMagneto,.J "-1+,t the iming. ;2"/ter rea,,embly it i, nece,,ary to retime the engine. he engine being at +pper -ea- center o/ cylin-er II, an- the timing -i,c mo+nte- on the taper, t+rn the engine ,ha/t <B milimeter, /orwar- Kpo,ition where the inlet open, an- the e3ha+,t clo,e, o/ cylin-er IIL an- p+t the cam,ha/t in place, the clo,ing o/ the e3ha+,t cam an- opening o/ the inlet 0al0e cam making the ,ame angle in relation to the 0al0e a-1+,tment m+,hroom, o/ the /ir,t cy9n-er, II. ighten the n+t, on the three bearing, an- a-1+,t the 0al0e clearance to B millimeter,. Bring the -i,c ,lowly backwar- Kt+rn the crank,ha/t in the oppo,ite -irectionL, then gently rotate /orwar-, /eeling the e3ha+,t 0al0e which ,ho+l- clo,e <B millimeter, a/ter -ea- center, while at the ,ame time the inlet 0al0e ,ho+l- begin to im,eat. I/ the timing i, not acc+rate, it i, nece,,ary to take the gear o// /or the ,ake o/ ,hi/ting the collar key on the cam,ha/t, or in t+rning the 0ertical ,ha/t a hal/ re0ol+tion, to gi0e the /oil o gi0e the a-0ance, rotate the gear on the ,ha/t to the right, an- to the le/t /or retar-. %n the <AD millimeter, -i,cN 1 tooth Ko/ the gearL gi0e, AB.8B millimeter,. <2 t+rn o/ the 0ertical ,ha/t an- '2 tooth o/ the gear gi0e, <1.F1 millimeter,. 1 key-way, '2 tooth, gi0e, 1B.MA millimeter,. < key-way, an- '2 t+rn o/ the 0ertical ,ha/t, !o tooth, gi0e, A.B8 millimeter,. =hen the a-1+,tment o/ the I gro+p i, /ini,he-, procee- ,imilarly /or the right gro+p. he intake opening o/ the /o+rth cylin-er, right block, ,ho+l- begin <F o/ a re0ol+tion o/

the motor ,ha/t a/ter the intake o/ II cylin-er. @(C I%5 EI7 H( 95I (8 @ " (@ @ "58"$8 "7I" I%5 (5GI5( %$ JIIB($ 6J (5GI5( hi, engine i, 0ery largely the work o/ Me,,r,. 7incent an- Hall, the /ormer o/ the #ackar- Motor Co. an- the latter o/ the Hall-@cott Motor Co. Many other engineer, contrib+te- to the general /+n- o/ knowle-ge an- the be,t practice both at home anabroa- wa, con,+lte- an- care/+lly con,i-ere-. here i, nothing ra-ically new in the -e,ign e3cept a, pertain, to it, man+/act+ring po,,ibilitie,, an- here we ha0e the a-0antage, o/ the a+tomobile -e0elopment, which ha, been +ti9>e- to it, /+lle,t e3tent. It i, not permi,,ible to print -etail, o/ the new engine at thi, time b+t it can be -e,cribein a general way a, ha0ing ,teel cylin-er, ma-e /rom hollow /orging,, with ,heet-metal water 1acket, wel-e- in place. In /act a+togeno+, wel-ing play, an important part in it, con,tr+ction an- make, po,,ible a m+ch lighter engine than wo+l- otherwi,e be po,,ible. (0ery part ha, been -e,igne- with a 0iew o/ ea,y man+/act+re an- a, a re,+lt it ha, ,eparate 0al0e cage, which are a/terwar- wel-e- in place, water 1acket, which can be ,tampe- o+t in the p+nch pre,, an- rapi-ly a,,emble- an- wel-e- in po,ition, an- all -etail, ha0e been worke- o+t with the 0iew o/ rapi- man+/act+re an- ma3im+m ,er0ice. he engine -e0elop, appro3imately <D hor,epower per cylin-er an- the cylin-er, are ,tan-ar- /or all ,i>e, o/ engine. hey can be combine- in any way -e,ire- on engine ba,e, /or /o+r, ,i3, eight or twel0e cy9n-er, accor-ing to the amo+nt o/ power -e,ire-. he weight i, abo+t B po+n-, per hor,epower in the larger ,i>e,. he ignition ,y,tem i, ,omething o/ a -epart+re /rom c+rrent practice2 b+t i, in -+plicate ,o that either +nit can /ire all o/ the cylin-er,. (ach cylin-er ha, two ,park pl+g, which are alway, a0ailable. 5o ,pecial in,tr+ction, are a0ailable at thi, time. "M($IC"5 "I$#I"5( (5GI5(@ B19 It h .B^,t-a III II t1 .-a 2 e@ % CF DF to M CI

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"I$#I"5( (5GI5(@ he,e in,tr+ction, are tho,e /+rni,he- to in,pector, o/ airplane, /or Go0ernment ,er0ice. It will pro0e help/+l to all who ha0e to -o with airplane work an- gi0e, many +,e/+l ,+gge,tion,. he ill+,tration, ,howing the checking +p o/ propeller -imen,ion, nee- little e3planation. )ig. Ill ,how, a checking plate

)iZ. 111.;Checking plate /or propeller,. on which the propeller i, mo+nte- by it, h+b an- with gra-+ation, e0ery A inche, ,o a, to make it ea,y to check the propeller at +ni/orm point,. he ,:+are tran,/er, the point, on the plate to the propeller it,el/. )ig. 11B ,how, a cro,,-,ection o/ the plate an- the propeller, being mea,+re- an- contain, all nece,,ary in/ormation. he two ,cale, on each ,i-e are gra-+ate- in h+n-re-th, o/ an inch /or acc+rate height rea-ing, when the ,traight-e-ge i, lai- acro,, the chor- o/ the propeller bla-e, a, ,hown. )ig. 11< ,how, a ,pecial protractor /or rea-ing the "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! angle at any -e,ire- point, the pitch being obtaine- /rom the chart, )ig. 11F. )ig,. 11M an- 11A gi0e blank /orm, /or keeping a recor- o/ the propeller,. MQG// (8Gi

)iZ. 11B.;Mea,+ring propeller bla-e. MQc!/e,"ng/e, reae/ a, ,hown at all @tatic #itch mayt[e obtaim /rom Chart )ig. 11<.;#rotractor /or propeller. 8+tie, o/ In,pector, o/ "irplane, an- "irplane (ngine,

"n in,pector i, an a+thori>e- an- re,pon,ible repre,entati0e o/ the 9nite- @tate, Go0ernment. He will act /or the Go0ernment in matter, relating to the in,pection an- acceptance o/ material man+/act+re- /or the Go0ernment. $eport, a, re:+ire- will be ma-e a, toN 1. #rogre,, o/ man+/act+re. B. Material accepte-. <. Material re1ecte-. F. Material ,hippe-. He will accept only ,+ch material a, ,ati,/ie, the re:+irement,. He will -etermine beyon- a -o+btG, where no ,peci/ication, ha0e been i,,+e- by the GkL0emment, that material /or Go0ernment +,e will per/orm the /+nction /or which it i, inten-e-. M("@9$I5G #$%#(II($@ RJM 1D 1A BD [M & & FD FM = M@ #itch in 8egree, )io. 11F,;ChartQor pitch ot propeller. , )io. 11M.;Blank /or propellei -ata. )ig. Ilea.;Blank tor propeller -ata. He will cooperate with other Go0ernment in,pector, /or the goo- o/ the ,er0ice. He will obey or-er, only when ,+ch or-er, emanate /rom a -+ly a+thori>e- ,o+rce. He will re/er all matter, +pon which he /eel, that he i, not :+ali/ie- to act or to ren-er a -eci,ion to the Chie/ @ignal %//icer o/ the "rmy, =a,hington, 8. C. In many ca,e, con-ition, may warrant +,e o/ the telegraph to e3pe-ite in,pection an- pro-+ction. In,pector, ,ho+l- e3erci,e initiati0e an- a,,+me re,pon,ibility in proportion to the e3igencie, o/ the ,er0ice. In,pector, will keep ,+ch recor-, a, will /+rni,h a clear an- complete hi,tory o/ any action taken. In,pector, will call attention o/ the proper a+thority within a man+/act+ring organi>ation to any point, con,i-ere- -o+bt/+l or ob1ectionable. He will ren-er con,tr+cti0e critici,m which will ai- in the correction o/ the -i//ic+lty. Complete /+l/illment o/ the tr+,t impo,e- m+,t be accompli,he-. Har,h an- arbitrary metho-, in per/ormance o/ -+tie, m+,t be a0oi-e-. "n in,pector taking a new ,tation will imme-iately +pon arri0al at the /actory or ,tation pre,ent him,el/ in per,on to the highe,t repre,entati0e o/ the organi>ation there pre,ent. He will a,certain /rom that per,on the name, o/ tho,e per,on, with whom he ,hall ha0e o//icial -ealing,. In,pector, will hol- o//icial comm+nication or -i,c+,, matter, relati0e to -e,ign only with the chie/ engineer, ,+perinten-ent, /oreman o/ the /actory, or a+thori>e- per,on

acting /or them. Matter, o/ -e,ign m+,t be con,i-ere- a, con/i-ential an- only imparte- to the Go0ernment. "ll critici,m, o/ -e,ign an- report, o/ ,erio+, -e/ect, o/ workman,hip or material ,hall be ma-e in writing to the properly a+thori>e- repre,entati0e o/ the organi>ation at /a+lt. "ll contro0er,ie, a, to in,pection that cannot be ,ettle- between the /actory management an- "rmy in,pector will be ,+bmitte- to the %//ice o/ the Chie/ @ignal %//icer. "ll contro0er,ie, reporte- to the Chie/ @ignal %//icer will ,et /orth clearly anconci,ely the attit+-e o/ the man+/act+rer, a, well a, that o/ the in,pector. he ,enior in,pector at any ,tation will ,ign all report, or comm+nication, ma-e to higher a+thoritie, or to the man+/act+rer. %ther in,pector, will report to the ,enior in,pector an- will be ,+b1ect to or-er, /rom him. 7i,iting in,pector, a,,igne- /or temporary -+ty will report to the ,enior in,pector at the ,tation imme-iately +pon arri0al. He will cooperate with the ,enior in,pector at all time,. He will make hi, report, to the %//ice o/ the Chie/ @ignal %//icer an- /+rni,h copy o/ ,+ch report, to the ,enior in,pector at the /actory. He will hol- comm+nication with the man+/act+rer only thro+gh the ,enior in,pector. 1M Genebal $emark, on In,pection In,pector, will bear in min- the /act that the GkL0emment ,peci/ie, material o/ a -e/inite :+ality an- it i, the -+ty o/ the in,pector to make certain that material /+lly meet, re:+irement,. "rmy in,pector, will e3amine only ,+ch material a, ha, been in ,ome way H clearly in-icate- a, in,pecte- by the man+/act+rer,H in,pector,. 5o part, re1ecte- by in,pector, will be +,e- in any a,,embly inten-e- /or Go0ernment +,e e3cept by written a+thority /rom the %//ice o/ the Chie/ @ignal %//icer. "n in,pector will e3erci,e a general ,+per0i,ion o0er raw material recei0e- at the /actory an- likely to be +,e- /or the Go0ernment. )ollowing the pro-+ction an- acceptance o/ a machine o/ any type, complete working -rawing, will be /+rni,he- by the man+/act+rer to the in,pector. "ll other machine, o/ thi, type will be ma-e in accor-ance therewith an- no -epart+re, there/rom permittewitho+t written a+thority /rom the %//ice o/ the Chie/ @ignal %//icer. It i, +n-er,too- that the man+/act+rer may try o+t in the ,ample machine e3perimental /eat+re,, b+t that in all other machine, b+ilt +n-er the ,ame contract there will be no e3perimental -e,ign, material, or workman,hip. MaterialG pro0e- -e/ecti0e may be re1ecte- at any time in the co+r,e o/ man+/act+re or a,,embly, e0en tho+gh ha0ing alrea-y been pa,,e- by an in,pector. It i, +n-er,too- that the man+/act+rer re,er0e, the right to re1ect any material or part, alrea-y accepte- by the Go0ernment in,pector i/ ,+ch re1ection i, appro0e- by the Go0ernment in,pector. (ngine e,t, he :+e,tion ha, ari,en a, to how thoro+gh a rete,t o/ an engine ,ho+l- be in ca,e o/

/ail+re -+ring the in0e,tigation te,t or the %-ho+r te,t. It i, not -e,ire- to ,+bmit the man+/act+rer to +nnece,,ary e3pen,e in thi, connection, b+t it i, -e,ire-, to a,certain beyon- -o+bt whether or not the engine i, really a ,er0iceable engine /or airplane +,age. ", a general r+le it i, ,a/e to ,tate that the /ail+re o/ any 0ital part ,ho+l- be /ollowe- by complete rete,t o/ engine. hi, i, ,+b1ect to mo-i/ication, in accor-ance with the /ollowing ill+,tration,N ",,+me the /ail+re o/ a 0al0e ,pring. It i, -+e to one o/ three thing,--e,ign, material, or workman,hip. It ,ho+l- be the -+ty o/ the in,pector to -i,co0er by a practical metho- hi which cla,, thi, /ail+re may be. I/ -iiD to -e,ign it can be only -etermine- by repeatete,t,. I/ any contin+o+, te,t i, hiterr+pte- by 0al0e ,pring, it i, a ,+,picio+, circ+m,tance, an- the /ollowing proce-+re will probably -i,co0er whether it i, -+e to -e,ign or material. ake other 0al0e ,pring, at ran-om. Break them in any con0enient manner. I/ the grain o/ the ,teel at the /ract+re i, coar,ely cry,talline in all o/ them, then it i, /air to pre,+me that all the 0al0e ,pring, o/ the entire lot are -e/ecti0e an- that the ,teel ha, been improperly heat-treate- or tempere-. I/, on the other han-, the grain o/ the ,teel ,how, a /ine grain /ract+re, characteri,tic o/ goo- 0al0e ,pring ,teel, then it i, probable that repeate/ail+re i, -+e to improper -e,ign. I/ the in,pector /in-, that the ,pring, are either /a+lty in -e,ign or material there i, no +,e in calling /or repeate- te,t, +ntil a new lot o/ ,pring, i, obtaine-. I/, on the other han-, the proce-+re ,how, a goo- grain ,pring ,teel, an- in the opinion o/ the in,pector the -e,ign i, goo-, the /ail+re wa, probably -+e to acci-ental ca+,e, anthe ,pring, may be replace- an- the te,t contin+e- witho+t complete rete,t. In ca,e, o/ thi, kin-, where the in,pector i, in -o+bt, ,ample, o/ the broken part ,ho+lbe ,+bmitte- to thi, o//ice where analy,i, or /+rther e3amination may be ma-e to -etermine the real ca+,e o/ the tro+ble. In ca,e, o/ /ail+re o/ magneto, it may be -+e to the magneto it,el/, or to the magneto -ri0e, which may tran,mit to the magneto ,tre,,e, an- ,hock, that ,ho+l- not be po,,ible in connection with goo- engineering -e,ign. =here the in,pector /eel, that the -e,ign i, at /a+lt, he ,ho+l- ,o report an- with hi, report ,+bmit -etaile- bl+e print, or ,ketche, o/ con-ition, e3i,ting, i/ po,,ible, an,+gge,tion, /or impro0ement,. In ca,e o/ /ail+re o/ bearing,, tro+ble may be -+e to l+bricating ,y,tem being -e,ignewrong, or to acci-ental /ail+re o/ it. he in,pector ,ho+l- be able to -i,criminate an- to know whether rete,t i, nece,,ary. "n engine with an improper l+bricating ,y,tem will /ail repeate-ly, an- rete,t will be calle- /or i/ the in,pector ,+,pect, thi, ca+,e o/ /ail+re. I/ the /ail+re i, pro0en to be acci-ental, then only ,+ch a portion o/ rete,t ,ho+l- be -eman-e- a, in,pector con,i-er, nece,,ary. It i, not -e,irable to en+merate all -etail, that may /ail, b+t i/ /ail+re, are han-le- in the abo0e-,+gge,te- manner, a rea,onable concl+,ion ,ho+l- be po,,ible an- one that w9l at all time, be /air to the man+/act+rer an- at the ,ame time protect the Go0ernment again,t all -e/ecti0e engine,.

@o /ar a, po,,ible in connection with engine te,t,, ob,er0ation, ,hall be taken in accor-ance with ,tan-ar-, a-opte- by the @ociety o/ "+tomoti0e (ngineer,. he /ollowing ,+gge,tion, ,ho+l- be a-here- to a, clo,ely a, po,,ible in re/erence to @peci/ication 1DDB, @ection 5o. 11, In0e,tigation e,t. he,e ,+gge,tion, -o not re/er to /inal acceptance te,t, which will be co0ere- later. he in,pector or in,pector, 0iewing the in0e,tigation te,t ,ho+l- bear in min- the /act that the engine to be te,te- i, a /ini,he- pro-+ct, an- no 0ital part, will be allowe- to be change- -+ring the contin+ance o/ the r+". he /ollowing a-1+,tment, wi9 be con,i-ere- permi,,ibleN Ga,ket, may be replace- only once. %ne complete ,et o/ ,park pl+g, may be ,+b,tit+te-. wo 0al0e ,pring, may be replace-. =ater, oil, or ga, leak, may be reme-ie-. #+mp, may be a-1+,te-. Carb+reter, may be a-1+,te-. Magneto, may be a-1+,te-. 7al0e timing may be a-1+,te-. %ther replacement, will not be permi,,ible -+ring thi, or the )inal "cceptance e,t. ime re:+ire- to make any o/ the abo0e a-1+,tment, ,ho+lbe a--e- to the total time o/ r+n. In,pector, will ,+bmit -etaile- report, on ,+ch te,t, to thi, o//ice, an- it i, ,+gge,tethat they make /re:+ent notation, a, to the te,t procee-ing,. he /ollowing ,ho+lrecei0e clo,e attention by in,pector, -+ring the )inal "cceptance e,t o/ A ho+r,. K$e. @peci/ication 1DDB, @ec. 11.L hi, te,t i, to be gi0en e0ery engine b+ilt /or the Go0ernment be/ore being accepte- by the "rmy in,pector,. he entire te,t ,ho+l- be r+n at the ma3im+m hor,epower at rate- re0ol+tion, per min+te o/ the engine, an- only ,+ch a-1+,tment, a, are gi0en +n-er in0e,tigation te,t, will be permitte- witho+t an entirely new r+n o/ the engine. =hen the engine i, -i,a,,emble- a/ter thi, r+n the in,pector ,ho+l- 0iew e0ery part liable to breakage or wear, an- in ca,e o/ e3ce,,i0e wear ,ho+l- in,i,t on replacement o/ the part. =hen ,+ch replacement in0ol0e, a 0ital part, ,+ch a, a pi,ton, bearing, cylin-er, the engine ,ho+l- be ret+rne- to the ,tan- an- entire rete,t ma-e o0er. "/ter thi, rete,t the engine ,ho+l- be -i,a,,emble- an- in,pecte- a, be/ore. he /inal-ho+r te,t i, to be ma-e on e0ery engine ,ol- to the Go0ernment an- on a ,+itable -ynamometer. he engine ,ho+l- ne0er -e0elop le,, than F per cent, o/ it, ma3im+m hor,epower at any time -+ring the r+n. In,pector, ,ho+l- take their own rea-ing, an- a,,+re them,el0e, that the engine i, +p to ,peci/ication, in e0ery -etail. It i, recommen-e- that in a--ition the engine be r+n at <DD to FDD r.p.m. /or at lea,t 1D min+te, an- then the throttle to be opene- :+ickly to a,certain i/ carb+reter i, a-1+,teproperly an- that all cylin-er, are /iring at low engine ,pee-,. In,pection o/ Cylin-er, 1. Cylin-er 1acket, ,ho+l- be te,te- /or leak, while ,+bmerge- in water with air pre,,+ re. #re,,+re to be at lea,t twice that o/ normal water pre,,+re.

B. Cylin-er bore ,ho+l- be checke- care/+lly at /o+r point, both top anbottom, /or being o+t o/ ro+n-, /or being o0er or abo0e tolerance in ,i>e, an- /or /ini,h o/ bore. <. Cylin-er ,t+-, m+,t be o/ proper height an- ,:+are with ,+r/ace. F. 7al0e ,eat, ,ho+l- be in,pecte- /or +ni/orm wi-th an- location. M. 7al0e, a/ter being gro+n- to a ga,oline tight ,eat ,ho+l- be in,pecte- /or leak, in three po,ition, appro3imately 1BD -egree, apart witho+t remo0ing the ga,oline /rom the cage. A. 7al0e ,pring, ,ho+l- be o/ ,peci/ie- ,trength an- when compre,,e- ,ho+l- not be compre,,e- more than -rawing limit,. C. "ll 0al0e mechani,m ,ho+l- be in,pecte- /or workman,hip. 8. Intake mani/ol-, are in,pecte- internally an- e3ternally /or workman,hip4 ,+r/ace, o/ mani/ol- 1oint, an- 0al0e cage 1oint, m+,t be tr+e an- o/ goo- ,+r/ace. he,e ,+r/ace, ,ho+l- be checke- on ,+r/ace plate. In,pection o/ Crank.Ca,e 9pper Hal/ 1. Check -i,tance, /rom center line o/ crank,ha/t to -eck, both /ront an- back, anbetween crank,ha/t an- cam,ha/t. B. Check -i,tance, /rom each en- o/ cam,ha/t to top o/ -eck, an- on 7-type engine, to both -eck,. <. Check cylin-erG center,, al,o bore o/ cylin-er hole,. F. Check cam-/ollower g+i-e hole, /or center, again,t cam,ha/t cam center,. M. Check thr+,t-bearing bore /or ,i>e. A. Check all ,t+-, /or cotter-hole placement, alinement, threa-,, an- all tappe- hole, /or threa-, with pl+g gage. C. Check cam,ha/t bearing to main bearing /or ,i>e, 2linement, an- con-ition o/ bore. 8. Check magneto-bearing bore /or -i,tance /rom cam,ha/t an- ,i>e. 9. (3amine ca,e /or ,an- hole,, ga, hole,, an- -e/ect, ,+ch a, ,hi/ting o/ core,. 1D. Mea,+re the thickne,, o/ all wall, an- -eck,. In,pection o/ Crank Ca,e Iower Hal/ 1. In,pect lower ca,e /or center -i,tance, o/ oil an- water p+mp,. B. In,pect /or oil leak, when /ille- with kero,ene. <. 'oint, o/ +pper an- lower ca,e ,ho+l- be goo- /it. F. Check location o/ gear co0er hole, an- ,+r/ace,. In,pection o/ Crank,ha/t, 1. @tamp man+/act+rerH, n+mber an- @. C. n+mber on ,ha/t.

B. Mea,+re each bearing at /o+r point, 9D -egree, apart. <. Mea,+re thr+,t bearing. F. Mea,+re gear bearing, an- ,eat,. M. ry taper an- ,pline. A. #rope9er-h+b threa-. C. hr+,t-bearing threa-. 8. ry bore- hole /or ,tarter. 9. ry wi-th o/ throw,. 1D. ry wi-th o/ bearing,. 11. Mea,+re length -imen,ion,. 1B. ry oil hole, /or location an- ,i>e. 1<. (3amine /or check, an- /law,. 1F. ry bearing, /or r+n o+t. 1M. @clero,cope te,t /or :+ality o/ ,teel, +,+ally abo+t FD to MB. 1A. In,pect an- mea,+re taper with great care. 1C. In,pect an- mea,+re ,pline or key, with great care. 18. In,pect an- check threa-, with pl+g gage. 19. (3amine r+nning an- ,tan-ing balance. BD. In,pect hole, an- threa-, /or oil ,y,tem in ,ha/t. B1. Make oil-pre,,+re te,t /or leak, in oil ,y,tem. In,pection o/ Cam,ha/t 1. Cam,ha/t, ,ho+l- be te,te- /or har-ne,, by both Brinell an- @clero,cope te,t,. B. @ha/t, ,ho+l- be ,et +p in center, an- each cam te,te- /or opening an- clo,ing point,, ne+tral perio-, amo+nt o/ opening, ,i>e an- con-ition o/ bearing ,+r/ace,, an- -i,tance between cam,. <. Gro+n- ,+r/ace, ,ho+l- be in,pecte- /or /ini,h. F. !ey way, ,ho+l- be in,pecte- /or placement. In,pection o/ @p+r Gear, 1. (ngine ,p+r gear, ,ho+l- be in,pecte- while r+nning on their own center, with twotho+,an-th, back la,h. hi, incl+-e, only ,p+r gear,. B. (ngine be0el ,ho+l- ha0e ,i3-tho+,an-th, back la,h an- are in,pecte- on their own center,.

In,pection o/ Ball Bearing, "ll ball bearing,, both ra-ial an- thr+,t, m+,t rotate /reely an- ,how no perceptible ,hake. In,pection o/ (ngine he /ollowing :+e,tion, ,ho+l- recei0e the in,pectorH, appro0al be/ore he pa,,e, the engine /or Go0ernment +,eN I, engine /a,tene- -own properly when a,,emble- in machine[ "re all connection, ma-e in the mo,t appro0e- manner[ I, carb+reter a-1+,te- properly[ I, oil p+mp working %. !. an- i, oil pre,,+re goo-[ "re 0al0e, time- right an- -o 0al0e ,tem, ha0e proper clearance[ 8o 0al0e ,tem, ha0e ,a/ety pin to pre0ent 0al0e -ropping in cylin-er in ca,e 0al0e ,pring wa,her pin break,[ 8oe, engine ha0e goo- compre,,ion[ I, cam,ha/t in proper alignment ,o that 0al0e, on all cylin-er, open at their proper relati0e time[ 2 I, there any ,+,picio+, noi,e to be hear- at any engine ,pee-[ "re any o/ the 0al0e ,pring, weak[ 8o rocker-arm, hit 0al0e ,tem, ,:+arely[ "re p+,h-ro-, bent, or -o they bin- in any way[ I, propeller tight on crank,ha/t or 1ack,ha/t[ "re there any leak, in ga, mani/ol-, water mani/ol-,, e3ha+,t mani/ol-,, oil pipe,, or air line[ 8oe, engine /+nction properly at low ,pee-, a, well a, high an- with :+ickly openethrottle[ Ha, engine any ba- HGro+ghJ point[ o In,pection o/ Cable =ire, +rnb+ckle,, an- )itting, Cable "re there any kink, in the cable[ "re loop, properly ma-e[ "re thimble, +,e- in eye,[ "re en-, wrappe- properly Kwrap m+,t be at lea,t 1M time, -iameterL[ 5o ,plicing o/ cable i, permitte-. Ha, aci- ,tr+ck cable -+ring ,ol-ering[ "re any o/ the ,tran-, broken[ "re wrappe- en-, ,tream-line- an- ,how the re,+lt o/ ,kille- workman,hip[

$oehling Har- =ire "re there any /ile c+t, or /law, to weaken it[ I, loop we9 ma-e[ I, /err+le p+t on correctly[ "re there any ,harp ben-, or kink,[ "re wire, too loo,e or tight in machine[ 1 hi, ,ho+l- be checke- care/+lly be/ore cylin-er, are p+t on ca,e an- ,ho+l- be kept within clo,e limit,. )itting, I, workman,hip goo-[ I, material goo-[ "re hole, -rille- correctly to -e0elop proper ,trength[ "re there any -eep /ile c+t, or /law, to weaken it[ I, ri0et or pin /a,tening wire p+t in properly[ "re thimble, o/ large eno+gh -iameter[ +mb+ck'e, "ny /ile c+t,, tool mark,, or /law, in ,hank, or barrel[ "re there too many threa-, e3po,e-[ I, t+mb+ckle o/ right ,trength an- ,i>e to -e0elop /+ll ,trength o/ wire[ "re ,hank, bent[ "re threa-, on ,hank or in barrel well ma-e[ I, barrel cracke-[ I, t+mb+ckle properly wire- K,ee ,ketch +n-er J"ppro0e- Metho- o/ =iring +rnb+ckle,JL[ In,pection o/ Iinen "ll linen +,e- in airplane con,tr+ction ,ho+l- be +p to the /ollowing ,peci/ication,N )ree /rom all knot, or kink,. =itho+t ,i>ing or /illing. ", near white a, po,,ible. =eight, between <.M an- F.M o+nce, per ,:+are yar-. @trength per inch ,ho+l- comply with @ignal Corp, ,peci/ication,. In,pection o/ #ropeller, "rmy in,pector, ,ho+l- in,pect all woo- to be +,e- in propeller, /or Go0ernment +,e. hi, woo- ,ho+l- be well ,ea,one-4 /ree /rom knot,, ,ap pocket,, -ry rot, an- ,ho+l- be ,traight in grain. Iamination, ,ho+l- e3ten- the entire length o/ the prope9er o/ the two-bla-e- type anno ,plice, ,ho+l- be allowe- in lamination, in the h+b. %n three-bla-e- type, the ,plice, ,ho+l- be ma-e ,o a, to get greate,t gl+e ,+r/ace an- greate,t cro,,-,ection o/ woo-. Metal tipping ,ho+l- be in,pecte- to ,ee that the metal lie, clo,e to woo-, that nail, or

ri0et, ha0e not ,plit the bla-e, an- that ,ol-er i, place- ,moothly an- properly. #ropeller h+b, ,ho+l- be pre,,e- into propeller, on an arbor pre,,, an- great care ,ho+l- be taken that the woo- i, not in1+re- in the proce,, b+t that a tight /it i, ,ec+re-. H+b bolt, ,ho+l- /it h+b /lange, with 0ery ,mall clearance b+t witho+t /illing, an,ho+l- be a light -ri0e /it thro+gh woo-. he taper an- keyway or ,pline, ,ho+l- be care/+lly in,rJGH&a\H2 \2n- no nickel plating ,ho+l- be allowe- in the,e ,+r/ace,, 2+b bolt, ,ho+l- be wire- in an appro0emanner. Be/ore ,hipping /rom /actory, a9 propeller, ,ho+l- be checke- /or balance, K,tan-ingL on tr+e kni/e e-ge,, /or check, in woo-, /or crack, in gl+e 1oint,, an- /or alignment o/ bla-e,. hi, /inal in,pection ,ho+l- be ma-e imme-iately be/ore ,hipping. #ropeller, ,ho+l- be checke- /or pitch a, per ,ketche, or in ,ome other appro0emanner. he ma3im+m allowable 0ariation in checking bla-e, o/ the ,ame propeller, i, a, /ollow,N Ma3im+m 0ariation, in inche, )or 8 /eet -iameter D.BF )or 8 /eet A inche, -iameter D.BM )or 9 /eet -iameter D.BC )or 9 /eet < inche, -iameter D. B8 )or 9 /eet A inche, -iameter D.B9 "lignment Kto be mea,+re- at a point abo+t B inche, /rom tipLN )or 8 /eet -iameter D. 1BM )or 8 /eet A inche, -iameter D.1AA )or 9 /eet -iameter D.BDD )or 9 /eet < inche, -iameter D.BBM )or 9 /eet A inche, -iameter.J D.BMD #itch Ktaken at point, ABO2 per cent., CM per cent., an- 8C<2 per cent, /rom h+bLN )or M /eet M inche, pitch 1. DD )or M /eet A inche, pitch 1. DB )or M /eet 11 inche, pitch 1. 1D In,pection o/ $a-iator, $a-iator, ,ho+l- recei0e the /ollowing te,tN (ach ra-iator i, to be ,+bmerge- in water an- te,te- with an air pre,,+re o/ A po+n-,, an- when pa,,e- m+,t be /ree /rom all leak,. In in,pecting ra-iator,, care ,ho+l- be

taken that pro0i,ion i, ma-e to in,tall in ,+ch a way that the ra-iator, will not be in1+re- by 0ibration. In,pection o/ =oo"ll woo- ,ho+l- be in,pecte- be/ore 0arni,h i, applie-. he /ollowing :+e,tion, ,ho+lrecei0e the in,pectorH, appro0al be/ore he pa,,e, any woo- /or Go0ernment +,eN I, grain ,ati,/actory[ "re there any ,ap or worm hole,[ "re there any knot, that look a, i/ they wo+l- weaken member[ "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! "ny bra,hine,,[ "ny hole, -rille- /or bolt, or ,crew, that wo+l- weaken member[ "ny ,plit, or check,[ "re lamination, gl+e- properly[ "re there any pl+gge- hole,[ "8y ,ign, o/ -ry rot[ In,pection op Metal )itting, =hen /itting, are copper-plate- an- 1apanne- the in,pection ,ho+l- take place a/ter the copper-plating. he /ollowing :+e,tion, ,ho+l- be appro0e- by the in,pector be/ore being pa,,e-N Ha0e /itting, been bent in a,,embly[ 8oe, /itting ,how any\ -e/ect, that le,,en it, ,trength[ "re hole, -rille- properly[ 8o /itting, /it[ In,pection o/ @heet "l+min+m @heet al+min+m ,ho+l- be in,pecte- /or -e/ect, ,+ch a, crack,, ba- -ent,, an- +n-er ,peci/ication, in gage. =here opening, occ+r in ,heet al+min+m the corner, ,ho+l- be ro+n-e-, a9owing a goo--,i>e- ra-i+,. Correct =in-ing /or 8i//erent-,i>e- Cable, =in-ing, m+,t be e0en with a nice ,tream-line e//ect at en- o/ win-ing. =hen ,ol-er i, +,e-, care ,ho+l- be taken, that aci- -oe, not go beyon- ,ol-ere- portion o/ cable. 8imen,ion, " to be at lea,t 1M time, 8 or -iameter o/ cable K,ee !g. 11CL. rQr2222iQ2 2amnn

+; 2. !- R^L )ig. 11C.;Correct cable win-ing. 2 MMDD po+n-, /or cable, b+t only M1DD po+n-, /or loop %nly non-aci- /l+3 ,ho+l- be +,e- in ,ol-ering. "I$#I"5(@ "58 "I$#I"5( (5GI5(@ B<M "ppro0e- Metho- /or =iring +rnb+ckle In,pector, will e3amine all t+mb+ckle, in e0ery a,,emble- machine to a,certain that the,e part, are locke- in a manner complying with the be,t practice. =hen wire i, +,eto lock the t+rnb+ckle it ,ho+l- be o/ BD gage har- copper wire an- ,ec+re- in an appro0e- manner. =iring a, ,hown in )ig. 118 pro0e- mo,t ,ati,/actory.

I ot le&i tlian F /+ll tami or more than M )ig. 118. 5ote, on +rnb+ckle, an- Connection, @tan-ar- te,t /or t+mb+ckle,N $o-, are ,crewe- into barrel /+ll length o/ threa-, on ro-,, ,o that la,t threa- i, /l+,h with en- o/ barrel, +nle,, otherwi,e ,tate-. +mb+ckle, hel- by pin connection,. #i,ton ,pee- o/ te,ting machine D.1 inch per min+te. (longation i, mea,+re- a, per cent, o/ length o/ ro-, when break occ+r, in ro-, an- per cent, o/ total length o/ barrel when break occ+r, in barrel. @tan-ar- 8imen,ion, an- Ietter, /or +rnb+ckle @ketche, In,pector, ,+bmitting wire or cable te,t ,pecimen, to thi, o//ice /or te,t by the B+rea+ o/ @tan-ar-, ,ho+l- /ollow the proce-+re a, ,hown below, )ig. 119N

)ig. 119. he ,pecimen ,ho+l- be <D inche, long with the ,tan-ar- connection, +,e- in ,er0ice by the man+/act+rer attache- to both en-,. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! e,ting o/ Ignition @y,tem, ". Be/ore Mo3tnting on (ngine It i, a-0i,able to te,t the ignition ,y,tem be/ore it i, mo+nte- on the engine, a, thi, may ,a0e con,i-erable work later in tracing tro+ble,. I. Magneto, e,ting )ig+re,, ;1. Mo+nt magneto on a ,tan-. hi, ,ho+l- con,i,t o/ a metal plate with mean, o/ /a,tening the magneto4 the te,t ,tan- m+,t con,i,t o/ non-magnetic metal, ,+ch a, al+min+m or bra,,, an- be connecte- to a gro+n-e- water or ga, pipe in or-er to a0oi- ,tatic -i,charge,. e,ting //Q2Men,icm H Connection In,+late--H, (lectro-e

2j2Q H`-MMm.Gap ckn2,, I #apei nio

Gro+n- ConnectQon @2

ffy.f -Meteor lyQre erminal. I 2RBron>e Ca,ting h ^ Har- $+bber )ig. 1BD.; e,ting magneto,. B. #ro0i-e magneto with a p+lley /or -ri0ing4 p+lley with two or three ,tep, o/ -i//erent ra-ii an- with a belt groo0e on each ,tep /or -ri0ing at -i//erent ,pee-, i, pre/erable. <. #ro0i-e rece,,ary amo+nt o/ te,t ,park gap,, one /or each high-ten,ion terminal on the magneto, ,ee )ig. 1BD. Clean te,t ,park gap, with alcohol in or-er to remo0e all moi,t+re an- pre0ent ,+r/ace leakage o/ high-ten,ion c+rrent. "-1+,t te,t ,park gap,, -i,tance /rom KBL to K<L ,ho+l- be ,o a, to allow a thin piece o/ paper to be ,lippe- in between the point,, witho+t the paper being torn, b+t the paper ,ho+l- to+ch both point, at the ,ame time. 8i,tance between K1L an- KBL ,ho+lbe A millimeter,4 connect KBL to high-ten,ion terminal on magneto an- K1L to the gro+n-e- te,t ,tan-. F. 9,e ,tan-ar- high-ten,ion cable, /or making connection,4 all contact, m+,t be gooan- all connection, tight. "-1+,tment, o/ Magneto. ;M. I/ po,,ible, remo0e cap on breaker bo3, ,o that operation o/ breaker point, can be ob,er0e- -+ring te,t. "-1+,t the -i,tance between the breaker point, be/ore the te,t4 the -i,tance ,ho+l- be a, /ollow,N 8i3ie magneto,, D.FM to D.MM millimeter, or D.D18 to D.DBB inch. Berling magneto,, D.FD to D.MD millimeter, or D.D1A to D.DBD inch. Bo,ch magneto,, D.<M to D.FM millimeter, or D.D1F to D.D18 inch. Breaker point, m+,t be clean, make contact o0er the whole ,+r/ace, an- line +p properly4 no pitting, b+rning, or o3i-i>ing m+,t ha0e taken place. eat. ;A. "llow magneto to r+n /or 1D min+te, in or-er to be r+n in be/ore ,tarting the te,t4 the ,pee- o/ the magneto -+ring the te,t ,ho+l- be 1M per cent, o0er the ratemagneto ,pee-. Hate- magneto ,pee- mean, the ,pee- at which the magneto i, r+nning when the engine i, r+nning at it, /+ll rate- ,pee-. he magneto ,ho+l- be te,te- /or < ho+r, at abo0e ,pee-. I/ it i, /o+n- nece,,ary to change magneto, a/ter the engine ha, ma-e the A-ho+r,G r+n, the new magneto ,ho+l- be gi0en a A-ho+r,H r+n on the te,t bench at 1M per cent, o0er rate- ,pee-. "/ter thi,, the magneto i, mo+nte- on the engine. he engine ,ho+l- then be te,te- /or 1 ho+r on -ynamometer to check +p the power at /+ll rate- ,pee-. C. %b,er0e clo,ely the ,park,4 all ,park, ,ho+l- be o/ the ,ame ,i>e; i.e., the corona or the /lame on the ,park, ,ho+l- be o/ the ,ame ,i>e an- be e0en, not ,how perio-ical

increa,ing or -ecrea,ing. It i, nece,,ary to watch a ,park clo,ely /or B to < min+te, in or-er to -etect any mi,,ing. 5o mi,,ing m+,t appear at abo0e ,pee-. 8. =atch clo,ely the per/ormance o/ the breaker point,. 5o arcing between the point, m+,t take place. Ii,ten /or e3ce,,i0e noi,e /rom the ball bearing,4 e3ce,,i0e noi,e in-icate, that the bearing, are not properly a-1+,te-, an- thi, may ca+,e break-own in ,hort time. 9. )or the ,low ,pee-, r+n the magneto at appro3imately MD r.p.m. an- increa,e the ,pee- ,lowly +ntil the ,park, appear ab,ol+tely reg+lar witho+t mi,,ing. hi, ,ho+l- be -one with the magneto in /+ll a-0ance, a, well a, in /+ll retar- po,ition. 5ote the,e ,pee-,N It ,ho+l- not e3cee- 1DD to 1MD r.p.m. /or /+ll a-0ance, an- BDD to BCM /or /+ll retar- po,ition, a, the ,tarting o/ the engine otherwi,e will be too -i//ic+lt. he 0ariation o/ the magneto ,pee- can be ma-e by +,ing a /riction -i,c arrangement, or i/ an elecC trometer i, +,e- by changing the re,i,tance in the /iel- an- in the armat+re. In,pection o/ Magneto a/ter e,t, ;1D. "/ter the te,t i, /ini,he- the magneto ,ho+l- be in,pecte- an- the /ollowing point, note-N he breaker point, m+,t ,till be in goo- con-ition4 no b+rning m+,t ha0e taken place. $emo0e the -i,trib+tor plate an- ,ee i/ carbon, ,how any e3ce,,i0e wear. he wearing ,+r/ace ,ho+l- ,how a high poli,h, an- no carbon -+,t ,ho+l- be ,een in,i-e the -i,trib+tor plate. he ,egment, in,i-e the -i,trib+tor plate m+,t not ,how any b+rning o/ the e-ge,, anthe entire ,+r/ace ,ho+l- ,how a goo- poli,h. @egment, m+,t not e3ten- beyon- the ,+r/ace o/ the in,+lation compo,ition. $ea,,emble the magneto an- it i, then rea-y to be mo+nte- on the engine. II. Battery @y,tem 11. Mo+nt the timer -i,trib+tor ,imilar to the magneto. hi, re:+ire, ,pecial /i3t+re,, which -o not nece,,arily ha0e to be o/ non-magnetic material. #ro0i-e a p+lley /or -ri0ing the timer -i,trib+tor in a ,imilar way a, /or magneto +n-er 5o. B. 1B. Make proper connection, between the timer -i,trib+tor, high-ten,ion coil, an,torage battery, a, in-icate- on man+/act+rerH, -iagram, an- make high-ten,ion connection to te,t ,park gap, a, /or magneto +n-er 5o. <. 8o not make /inal connection between the high-ten,ion coil an- the ,torage battery +ntil imme-iately a/ter the timer -i,trib+tor i, ,tarte- to r+n, a, the e3ce,,i0e c+rrent which pa,,e, thro+gh the coil when the timer i, ,tan-ing ,till will in1+re the coil i/ it i, allowe- to /low /or any longer perio-. Connect an amperemeter with ,cale rea-ing D-BM ampere, in between the ,torage battery an- the coil, an- report the c+rrent con,+mption when the timer -i,trib+tor i, r+nning at rate- ,pee-. 1<. 9,e a ,torage battery o/ not le,, than MD ampere-ho+r,, an- a,certain be/ore te,t that the battery i, CM per cent, charge-;i.e., rea-ing with hy-rometer ,ho+l- ,how not le,, than 1BDD Jpoint,4J connection to ,torage battery m+,t be clean. 1F. Make all a-1+,tment, a, -e,cribe- /or magneto +n-er 5o. <, 5o. F, an- 5o. M, anmake te,t a, -e,cribe- /or magneto +n-er 5o. 2, 5o. C, an- 5o. 8. 1M. In,pect the timer -i,trib+tor a, +n-er 5o. 9.

B. "/ter Mo+nting on (ngine I. Magneto, @etting. ;1A. Check the point o/ /iring. hi, -epen-, on the type o/ engine, compre,,ion, an- ignition ,y,tem +,e-4 battery ignition call, /or a larger -egree o/ a-0ance than -oe, magnetic ignition4 the proper point o/ ,etting i, -eci-e- by the man+/act+rer o/ the engine. he point o/ /iring can be mea,+re- on the pi,ton ,troke in inche,, b+t it i, pre/erable to mea,+re it in -egree, on a gra-+ate- -ial, i/ ,+ch can be place- on the crank,ha/t or on the propeller h+b. 1C. I/ two in-epen-ent ignition ,y,tem, are +,e-, the -i//erence in /iring point between the,e ,ho+l- not e3cee- B or < -egree,. hi, ,ho+l- be checke- +p in the ,ame way a, abo0e. =iring Cable,. ;18. @ee that all terminal, are in goo- con-ition, gi0e goo- contact, anthat all terminal, are tight an- ,ec+re-. Check +p all wiring. High-ten,ion cable, m+,t be hel- in t+bing o/ in,+lation material or ,tr+ng /ree in the air, hel- at inter0al, by ,+pport, o/ /iber or bakelite, b+t ,ho+l- not be inclo,e- in metal t+bing. High-ten,ion cable, ,ho+l- not come in contact with any gro+n-e- metal, a, thi, in time may ca+,e break-own. High-ten,ion cable, ,ho+l- be hel- in ,+ch a way that no mo0ement o/ the cable, can take place, a, thi, may re,+lt in cha/ing o/ the cable in,+lation. @park #l+g,. ;19. Check +p the gap, in the ,park pl+g,4 the ,i>e o/ the gap, -epen-, on the type o/ motor, compre,,ion, ,pee- o/ motor, an- ignition ,y,tem +,e-. he gap, ,ho+l- be appro3imately D.D1A to D.DBM inch where magneto, are +,e- an- D.DBM to D.D<B inch where battery ,y,tem, are +,e-. It i, important that all gap, in ,ame motor be o/ the ,ame ,i>e an- no leak, m+,t be 0i,ible aro+n- the ,park pl+g,. BD. 5ote e,pecially the per/ormance o/ the -i//erent make, o/ pl+g, in regar- to crackeporcelain -+e to heat or /rom mechanical rea,on,4 note ,hort-circ+it, -+e to wrong -e,ign o/ porcelain4 note electrical p+nct+re- pl+g, where no mechanical crack i, 0i,ible4 note tro+ble with pl+g, where no apparent rea,on can be /o+n-. hi, may be -+e to leaky porcelain. 5ote i/ -e,ign o/ motor -oe, not allow /or proper cooling o/ the pl+g, or i/ the porcelain i, /lame-,wept. It i, important that the,e point, be care/+lly watchean- that all in/ormation, with ,ample,, be correctly an- :+ickly ,+bmitte-. #er/ormanoe. ;B1. Check +p opening o/ breaker point, a, +n-er 5o. M, check +p that no -amage i, -one to the magneto, ,+ch a, -enting the cap on the breaker bo3, crackemagnet,, loo,e or mi,,ing ,crew,, loo,e cam, in the breaker bo3. In,pect the breaker point, while the motor i, r+nning at the rate- ,pee-. 5o arcing ,ho+l- take place with the magneto in /+ll a-0ance po,ition. BB. I/ the location o/ the magneto i, ,+ch that oil /rom the engine ,ettle, on any part o/ the magneto, it will be nece,,ary to pro0i-e proper leather co0er, /or the magneto,. hi, i, al,o nece,,ary i/ the magneto on a ,eaplane i, e3po,e- to ,alt-water ,pray, e0en i/ the magneto i, o/ the ,o-calle- waterproo/ type. e,t the magneto, an- ,park pl+g, with the engine r+nning by ,hort-circ+iting one magnetoH at a time. I/ any -i//erence in the r+nning o/ the engine can be notice-, then the ,park pl+g, or the magneto which i, not ,hort-circ+ite- i, at /a+lt. In,pect all the ,park pl+g, an- e3change tho,e which are -e/ecti0e, ,hort-circ+it again one magneto4 i/ the tro+ble ,till e3i,t,, it i, -+e to the magneto an- a new magneto ,ho+l- be mo+nteon the engine. B<. I/ one engine ,how, more 0ibration, than other, o/ the ,ame type, the rea,on may be

-+e to +ne0en /iring o/ the magneto; i.e., the two break, are not e3actly 18D -egree, apart4 replace the magneto with another which ha, pro0en ,ati,/actory4 in ca,e the 0ibration, -ecrea,e, the magneto i, a1i /a+lt an- ,ho+l- be ret+rne- to the man+/act+rer. II. Battery @y,tem, BF. Check +p the point o/ /iring in the ,ame way /or magneto, +n-er 5o. 1A an- 5o. 1C. BM. Check +p wiring an- cable, a, +n-er 5o, 184 all low-ten,ion cable, ,ho+l- be armore- with /le3ible t+bing an- the terminal, o/ ,+ch -e,ign that the n+t, cannot loo,en +p -+e to 0ibration, /rom the engine. BA. Check +p the gap, in the ,park pl+g, a, +n-er 5o. 19, an- report on per/ormance o/ -i//erent make, o/ pl+g, a, +n-er 5o. BD. BC. Check +p all point, a, -e,cribe- /or magneto, +n-er 5o,. B1, BB4 an- B<. C. Care op Ignition @y,tem, I. Magneto, Cleaning an- %iling. ;B8. Clean the in,i-e o/ the -i,trib+tor plate with alcohol or ga,oline, an- wipe -ry. hi, ,ho+l- a, a r+le be ,+//icient, b+t in ,pecial ca,e, a little pow-ere- ,oap,tone may be +,e- a, a l+bricant, b+t it ,ho+l- be a0oi-e- i/ po,,ible. he breaker point, may, i/ -irty, be cleane- with a little alcohol or ga,oline. Care ,ho+l- be taken when +,ing the,e comb+,tible li:+i-, that all moi,t+re i, wipe- o// again or allowe- to e0aporate be/ore ,tarting the magneto, a, a ,park may ca+,e e3plo,ion an/ire. he breaker point, can be /ile-, e0en i/ they are pitte- or b+rne-, by mean, o/ a watchmakerH, /ile4 ,an-paper or emery cloth ,ho+l- not be +,e-, a, thi, i, liable to lea0e particle, o/ gla,, or emery between the poi"t,, th+, pre0enting goo- contact. B9. 9,e only J@-in-lJ oil /or l+brication o/ the magneto, an- apply-only one -rop at a time, c+i more -amage i, -one by o0erl0hrieation than by +n-erl+brication. 5o oil ,ho+l- +n-er any circ+m,tance, be applie- to the breaker point,, a, pro0i,ion /or l+brication i, ma-e a+tomatically /rom ba9 bearing,. I+bricate the cam, in the breaker bo3 by +,ing a ,ma9 amo+nt o/ 0a,eline, wiping it o// ,o that only a 0ery thin coat i, le/t. <D. "rmat+re en- play ,ho+l- not e3cee- D.D1 inch. In ca,e it i, more the magneto ,ho+l- be ret+rne- to the man+/act+rer. 5o attempt to remo0e the magnet, or the armat+re /or in,pection ,ho+l- be ma-e, a, it re:+ire, ,pecial /i3t+re, to rea,,emble the,e part, again. Important repair, ,ho+l- be ma-e by the man+/act+rer o/ the magneto or by the te,ting laboratory in Hampton, 7a. Clean porcelain ,park pl+g, by ,craping the carbon an- oil o// the porcelain an- wa,hing with ga,oline or kero,ene. Clean aro+n- mica ,park pl+g, by ,craping the o+t,i-e layer o/ mica o// with a penkni/e4 ,crape in a -irection parallel with the center electro-e, a, thi, will not ten- to loo,en the win-ing o/ the mica. " mica pl+g cleane- in thi, way i, a, goo- a, new. 8o not +,e emery cloth, a, particle, o/ emery are liable to ,tick between the layer, o/ mica. II. Battery @y,tem, Cleaning an- %iling. ;<1. he ,ame point, a, gi0en +n-er B8, B9, an- <D /or magneto, apply to battery ,y,tem,. Care o/ @torage Battery. ;<B. Batterie, m+,t be in,talle- ,o that they are ea,ily

acce,,ible. Battery compartment m+,t be 0entilate- an- -raine-4 battery ,ho+l- ha0e /ree-air ,pace on all ,i-e, an- ,ho+l- re,t on cleat,4 hol-ing -e0ice, ,ho+l- grip ca,e or ca,e han-le,. <<. !eep battery an- interior o/ battery compartment wipe- clean an- -ry4 -o not permit an open /lame near the battery4 keep metal piece, an- tool, away /rom battery an- keep terminal, coate- with 0a,eline. \ I/ the ,ol+tion ha, ,pille- o+t, wipe o// with wa,te, wet with ammonia water. <F. "-- p+re -i,tille- water to battery whene0er the ,ol+tion i, below the mark4 the ,ol+tion ,ho+l- alway, co0er the plate,. @crew the pl+g, -own tight a/ter /i9ing ,oHthat the ,ol+tion cannot leak o+t. <M. Mea,+re /rom time to time the gra0ity o/ the battery ,ol+tion by mean, o/ a hy-rometer. $ea-ing abo0e 1BDD in-icate, that the battery i, o0er hal/ charge-, rea-ing below 1BDD in-icate, that the battery i, le,, than hal/ charge-. " r+n--own battery ,ho+l- be gi0en a /+ll charge at once, an- charging ,ho+l- be contin+e- +ntil the ,ol+tion ,how, a rea-ing o/ 1<DD point,, e0en i/ it re:+ire, twice a, long time a, /or a normal charge. "ci- ,ho+l- ne0er be a--e- to the ,ol+tion in or-er to bring the gra0ity +p to 1A /+ll 0al+e. I/ the battery lo,e, it, charge when ,ti(+i-ing i-le, or i/ one cell gi0e, a con,i-erably lower rea-ing than the other,, there i, ,ome internal tro+ble, an- the battery m+,t be ret+rne- to the man+/act+rer /or repair,. <A. =hen charging the battery, +,e -irect c+rrent o/ a 0oltage MD per cent, higher than the battery 0oltage, anconnect the po,iti0e terminal o/ the battery to the po,iti0e charging wire. " battery which ha, been ,tan-ing i-le /or more than a month ,ho+l- be gi0en a thoro+gh charge be/ore being +,e- again. " battery ,ho+l- ne0er be le/t ,tan-ing i-le /or more than A month,, b+t ,ho+l-, i/ po,,ible, be gi0en a charge once a month. @park-pl+g ro+ble Mo,t o/ the ,park-pl+g tro+ble e3perience- in a0iation engine, ,eem, to be ca+,e- by leaky pl+g,4 not leaky to electricity, b+t leaky to hot ga,e,. hi, i, -+e to ,e0eral portion, o/ the con,tr+ctionN )ir,t, the cement +,e- aro+n- the center electro-e4 an- ,econ-, the wa,her which i, ,+ppo,e- to be ga,-tight, b+t which i, not. #re,,+re e,t ;" pre,,+re te,t o/ 8D po+n-, per ,:+are inch ,how, many leaky ,park pl+g,. he ga,e, blow by, o0erheating the pl+g, crack the porcelain, an- otherwi,e ca+,e /ail+re. hi, -i//ic+lty can be o0ercome to a great e3tent by ,oaking all copper a,be,to, ga,ket, in,i-e the pl+g,, an- between the pl+g, an- the cylin-er hea-, in a ,ol+tion o/ MD per cent, boile- lin,ee- oil an- MD per cent, kero,ene. hi, mi3t+re will ,oak ioto the a,be,to, an- bake har- when the engine warm, +p, th+, /orming a compre,,ion tight 1oint. he ga,ket, can be prepare- ,e0eral month, be/ore being +,e-. It i, al,o recommen-e- to +,e copper a,be,to, ga,ket,, which ha, the opening on the /ace o/ the ga,ket in,tea- o/ on the periphery o/ the circle4 the opening will then be clo,e- by pre,,+re which will make it ga,-tight.

@+gge,tion, an- @ketche, =hen in,pector, ha0e ,+gge,tion, to be ,ent to thi, o//ice /or appro0al, care ,ho+l- be taken that the wor-ing i, ma-e clear an-, i/ po,,ible, a ,ketch ,ho+l- accompany the ,+gge,tion. It i, -e,ire- to enco+rage in,pector, in making ,+gge,tion, /or the impro0ement o/ either the material, ,ol- the Go0ernment or the ,y,tem o/ in,pection. hey ,ho+l- not, howe0er, ,pen- time making ,+gge,tion, an- ,ketche, at the e3pen,e o/ the reg+lar in,pection work. Gl+e he /ollowing remark, re/er to gl+e ma-e only /rom animal hi-e,, ,inew,, etc., an- /rom /i,h. =hen gl+e i, heate- in ,ol+tion it, a-he,i0e power -eteriorate,, an- ,o rapi- i, thi, -eterioration that gl+e may lo,e one-thir- to one-hal/ it, a-he,i0e power in the co+r,e o/ a ,ingle working -ay o/ 8 to 1D ho+r,. In ,hop, where thi, /act i, appreciate-, great care i, taken to keep the time o/ heating -own to the lowe,t limit. @+//icient gl+e /or the -ayH, work ,ho+l- be melte-, coole- an- the 1elly ,er0e- o+t in ,ma9 portion, to the workmen ,o that it may not be kept hot too long. Great care i, al,o e3erci,e- to clean o+t the gl+e pot, e0ery night be/ore :+itting work. M+ch o/ the tro+ble e3perience- with ,+ppo,e-ly ba- gl+e i, -+e to the ,poiling o/ goo- gl+e by long heating. he be,t practice ,eem, to be not to let the temperat+re go abo0e 1FDr to 1MD2 In 1oining woo-, the choice o/ the gl+e will be -ictate- by the kin- o/ woo-, an- it, con-ition a, well a, the nat+re o/ the 1oint an- the kin- o/ ,train it i, e3pecte- to bear, a, to whether it i, ,+b1ecte- to gra-+al or ,+--en ,train,, to p+ll o/ ,hearing ,tre,,, an- the con-ition o/ heat an- moi,t+re to which it i, to be e3po,e-. e,t @pecimen, op Gl+e "ll airplane companie, ,ho+l- ,+bmit ,ample, o/ their gl+eing /or te,t. he ,ample, can be ma-e +p in either o/ two way,N 1. "ccor-ing to the bl+e print o/ the ,hear te,t ,pecimen i,,+e- by the "0iation @ection o/ the @ignal Corp, ,ee )ig. 1B1. B. In the /orm o/ three plank, gl+e- together thro+gho+t their /+ll length. %+t,i-e plank, to be AOi by 2 inch by F /eet4 mi--le plank, MOi by 1 inch by F /eet. he /ollowing in/ormation ,ho+l- be /+rni,he- with the gl+e- ,pecimen,N 1. !in- o/ gl+e. B. Man+/act+rer o/ gl+e. <. #rice per po+n-. F. Iength o/ time gl+e i, ma-e +p be/ore being +,e-. M. "moimt o/ water mi3e- with the gl+e. #o+n-, o/ water to one po+n- o/ gl+e. A. emperat+re o/ gl+e a, applie-. . C. Ma3im+m melting temperat+re o/ the gl+e. 8. hickne,, o/ the gl+e /ilm an- metho- o/ application.

9. #re,,+re applie- to the ,+r/ace, a/ter ,prea-ing the gl+e. 1D. ime allowe- /or the gl+e to ,et. he ,ample, ,ent in /or te,t ,ho+l- incl+-e all 0arietie, o/ woo- +,e- by the company ,en-ing in the ,pecimen,. he ,ample, ,ho+l- be accompanie- by at lea,t H po+n- o/ the gl+e /or a,h, water ab,orption an- 0i,co,ity te,t,. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! "eB are gl+e- ,+r/ace, +n-er te,t, 1D ,:+are inche,. "-" ,ection in compre,,ion, BL2 ,:+are inche,. hi, i, the ratio that ,ho+l- be +,e- K,ee )ig. 1B1L. K7I I +e. --- <2JBbH- H HHBlock i3L pre0ent -enc-ng lament )io. 1B1.;Gl+e te,t block,. @tamping Material, with Go0ernment @tamp =hen material i, to be ,tampe- by an in,pector a, acceptable /or Go0ernment +,e, the in,pection ,tamp ,ho+l- be place- ,o a, to be ea,ily ,een a/ter the machine i, a,,emble-. In,pection an- ,tamping o/ part, will be ma-e by "rmy in,pector, a, /ollow,N =ing beam, will be in,pecte- be/ore being a,,emble- in the wing an- ,tampe- on the in,i-e near the hinge en-. he wing, will be in,pecte- 1+,t be/ore co0ering an- will be ,tampe- on the hinge. $+--er,, ,tabili>er,, ele0ator,, an- /in, will ha0e the metal work in,pecte- be/ore painting an- enameling. he,e a,,emblie, al,o will be in,pecte- 1+,t be/ore co0ering an- ,tampe- on hinge,. Iongeron, will be in,pecte- be/ore a,,embly an- ,tampe- near ,plice. Bo-ie, will be in,pecte- be/ore being co0ere- an- ,tampe- on the in,i-e o/ the +pper longeron, at the pilotH, ,eat. "ll ra-iator, will be in,pecte- by "rmy in,pector, an- te,t, on all ra-iator, ,hall be 0iewe- by in,pector,. #ropeller, will be in,pecte- be/ore 0arni,h i, applie-, an- ,tamp mark will be ma-e on o+ter /ace o/ h+b o+t,i-e o/ propeller h+b /lange. (ngine part, ,ho+l- be ,tampe- where ea,ily ,een a/ter engine i, a,,emble-, or where mo,t con0enient where thi, i, not po,,ible.

@ample, /or e,t o/ "naly,i, In,pector, ,+bmitting ,ample, /or chemical analy,i, by the B+rea+ o/ @tan-ar-, ,ho+l,en- at lea,t < o+nce,. =hen le,, than the -e,ire- :+antity i, a0ailable, ,e0eral o/ the -etermination, may be ma-e on a ,ingle ,ample, an- in certain ca,e, a ,maller :+antity may be +,e- with b+t ,light lo,, in acc+racy4 b+t in ca,e only a limite- :+antity can be obtaine-, ,pecial te,t, m+,t be -e0elope- ,o that the ma3im+m in/ormation will be /+rni,he- /rom the minim+m :+antity o/ material. In,pector, ,+bmitting linen ,ample, /or te,t by the B+rea+ o/ @tan-ar-, ,ho+l- prepare te,t piece, a, /ollow,N #iece, ,ho+l- be c+t 1 yar- in length an- the /+ll wi-th o/ the /abric. =hen connection, are ,ent in /or te,t it i, important that the -iameter o/ the pin +,ewith connection, be ,peci/ie-. "t lea,t three o/ any lot o/ t+mb+ckle, ,ho+l- be te,te- /or breaking . ,trength anre-+ction o/ area. he t+mb+ckle, +,e- /or thi, te,t ,ho+l- be tho,e which are, in the opinion o/ the in,pector, the poore,t o/ the lot. @tr+ct+ral part, ,ent in /or te,t ,ho+l- be accompanie- by bl+e print, or ,ketche, ,howing the location o/ the part an- the loa- it i, -e,igne- to carry. )ract+re- part, ,ent in /or e3amination or microphotographic analy,i, ,ho+l- be care/+lly han-le- an- protecte- be/ore an- -+ring tran,it to pre,er0e the original appearance o/ the /ract+re. In/ormation o/ Material, 9,e" recor- o/ the material, +,e- in the con,tr+ction o/ machine, an- engine, ,ho+l- be kept by the in,pector at a /actory an- a copy o/ ,ame /orwar-e- to thi, o//ice. he recor- /or iron an- ,teel /itting, or part, ,ho+l- gi0e the /ollowing in/ormation. e,t, o/ the material ,ho+l- be ma-e in the pre,ence o/ the in,pector. 6iel- pointN Chemical analy,i, Kcerti/ie- to by en,ile ,trength. the chemi,t per/orming the analy8+ctility, B inche, or 8 inche,. ,i,L. $e-+ction o/ area. !in- o/ /ract+re. "ppearance o/ /ract+re. =ing co0ering,N 8ope,N =eight, be/ore an- a/ter -oping. 5+mber o/ coat,. en,ile ,trength. 5+mber o/ coat, 0arni,h. hrea- co+nt. =oo-N Mo-+l+, o/ ela,ticity. Mo-+l+, o/ r+pt+re. Compre,,i0e ,trength. =ireN Breaking ,trength.

5+mber o/ 9D--egree ben-, be/ore breaking. Gear, an- ,mall part, o/ motor,N @clero,cope har-ne,,. Chemical analy,i,. Brinnell har-ne,, i/ po,,ible. Heat treatment. Crank ca,e an- water 1acket. @ame a, /or other metal,. e,t to be ma-e on te,t co+pon with the ca,ting. ool, /or @tan-ar- (:+ipment o/ In,pector, 1 ,et o/ caliper,, impro0e- e3ten,ion, 9-inch, with ca,e. 1 ,et o/ tool,, @tarrett, in ca,e, con,i,ting o/; 1 tape mea,+re. 1 caliper,, M-inch. 1 gage, -epth. 1 gage, tapper an- thickne,,. 1 be0el an- protector, +ni0er,al. 1 r+le, 9-inch. 1 micrometer, 1-inch, in ca,e. 1 ,et -ie,, ,teel, M2, '2, '2. 1 magni/ying gla,,. 1 wrench, cre,cent, F-inch. 1 thermometer, gl+e-te,ting. 1 ga,ge, micrometer te,t. 1 ,et ,teel letter alphabet an- /ig+re,. In re:+e,ting that a ,et be /orwar-e- to a certain in,pector the /oregoing i, to be con,i-ere- a ,et. In ca,e o/ e3ception,, the ,pecial memoran-+m /rom thi, o//ice will ,o ,peci/y. @(C I%5 E7II @#(CI)IC" I%5 )%$ 9. @. ". MIII "$6 $"I5I5G K"87"5C(8L "I$#I"5(@ I. #reliminary hi, ,peci/ication -e,cribe, the -e,ign, con,tr+ction, e:+ipment, an- re:+irement, o/ a military airplane a-apte- to a-0ance- ,chool in,tr+ction in lan- /lying. he motor to be ,+pplie- by the Go0ernment. II. General $e:+irement, he /ollowing characteri,tic, ,hall be pro0en to the ,ati,/action o/ the in,pector, appointe- by the Go0ernment /or that p+rpo,e. 1. hi, airplane ,hall be a two-place tractor biplane with one /+,elage, an- to be e:+ippe- with one motor. It ,hall be ,+itably con,tr+cte- /or carrying a pilot an- one pa,,enger, an- ,hall be -e,igne- /or carrying a +,e/+l loa- compri,ing the /ollowingN KaL #ilot an- pa,,enger, <<D poim-,. KAL @+pply o/ ga,olme, oil, an- water nece,,ary /or a /light o/ F ho+r,H -+ration with motor t+rning contin+o+,ly the n+mber o/ re0ol+tion, per min+te re:+ire- /or it, ratehor,epower. he rate o/ /+el con,+mption may, at the -i,cretion o/ the in,pector,, be

ba,e- +pon a /light o/ B ho+r,H -+ration with motor t+rning contin+o+,ly the n+mber o/ re0ol+tion, re:+ire- /or it, rate- hor,epower. here nee- be only one ,+cli /light /or the entire gro+p o/ machine,. 9nle,, otherwi,e ,peci/ie- in the or-er, the +,e/+l loa- carrie- on all per/onnance te,t, ,hall be e:+i0alent to the abo0e. B. he airplane ,hall be -e,igne- /or a G+rti,,, eight-cylin-er, mo-el %Eengine, rate- at 9D hor,epower at 1FDD r.p.m., or /or motor, appro0e- by thi, o//ice, o/ act+al hor,epower 11D. mtal low ,pee- ,hall not e3cee- F< mile, an ho+r, hori>ontal high ,pee- ,hall not be le,, than CM mile, n o/ the in,pector,, at lea,t one machine o/ the gro+p BFC

-eli0ere-, to be cho,en at ran-om by the in,pector,, to attain, in le,, than CM min+te,, an altit+-e o/ not le,, than 1D,DDD /eet abo0e ,ea le0el, ,tarting with the abo0e +,e/tloa-. A. he climb ,hall not be le,, than <DDD /eet in 1D min+te, +n-er con-ition, ,et /orth in #aragraph I7. C. he air-worihineaa an- general /lying g+alitiea o/ the airplane to he ,ati,/actory. he,e incl+-e celerity o/ re,pon,e to control, the proper -egree o/ ,ymmetric ana,ymmetric ,tability K,tatic an- -ynamicL, ,tea-ine,, in -i,t+rbe- air, etc., +n-er 0ario+, /lying con-ition,. he primary con,i-eration in -e,ign ,ho+l- he that o/ pro-ticing a machine ,+itable /or a-0ance- in,tr+ction o/ no0ice,. In or-er to -etermine the abo0e attrib+te,, an "rmy pilot may, at the -i,cretion o/ the in,pector,, /ly any or all machine,, e3ec+ting ,harp /ig+re, o/ 2H8,J -i0e,, ,tall, o/ 0ario+, kin-,, ,i-e-,lip,, ,+--en ,topping o/ motor while climbing ,teeply, relea,ing o/ control, /or a perio- o/ time a/ter the machine ha, been ,tea-ie- in hori>ontal /light, an- ,+ch other mane+0er, a, he may -eem nece,,ary to -etermine the general ,+itabi9ty o/ the machine. 8. Mane+0ering on the Gro+n-, ;Mane+0ering ability on the groim- ,hall be ,ati,/actory. he machine ,hall be capable o/ making rea,onably ,harp t+rn, to right anle/t, or o/ being -ri0en along a ,traight co+r,e in any -irection with re,pect to a mo-erate win-. 9. Both the C+rti,, K,ho+l-er or che,t yokeL an- 8eper-+,,in type, o/ control ,hall be /+rni,he- rea-y /or in,tallation in both cockpit,. he control ,hall be -+al /or both type,. By thi, i, meant that two combination, are po,,ible, i.e., -+al 8eper-+,,in, or -+al C+rti,,. Mechanical ea,e o/ operation i, e,,ential. he control to be in,talle- will be in-icate- in the or-er.

III. Con,tr+ction, 8e,ign, (tc. 1. )actor, o/ ,a/ety will be re:+ire- a, /ollow,N KaL Main plane ,tr+ct+re. Con-ition, a,,+me-N K1L Ioa- a, abo0e. KBL "ngle o/ inci-ence o/ mean chor- o/ main plane,4 that o/ ma3im+m li/t coe//icient. K<L "ir ,pee-4 hat normally corre,pon-ing to the abo0e loa- an- angle o/ inci-ence /or the net e//ecti0e ,+r/ace area. )actor o/ ,a/ety i, to be not le,, than ,e0en an- one-hal/ KC.ML. KAL Bo-y an- tail ,tr+ct+re. Con-ition, a,,+me-. K1L "ir ,pee-, 1DD mile, an ho+r. KBL "ngle o/ inci-ence o/ /i3e- hori>ontal tail ,+r/ace, min+, A -egree,4 ele0ator ,+r/ace, min+, BD -egree,. )actor o/ ,a/ety i, to be not le,, than B.M. KcL he ,trength o/ con,tr+ction o/ all part, Ke3treme /lying an- lan-ing con-ition, being con,i-ere-L to be ,ati,/actory. B. "ll -etail, o/ con,tr+ction ,hall be ,ati,/actory, an- con/orm to the be,t pro0en anappro0e- practice. <. he /ollowing -rawing, in triplicate, ,hall be /+rni,he-N KoL Complete ,et, o/ /actory working -rawing, o/ the complete airplane. K_L "cc+rate -rawing, to ,cale o/ a complete machine ,howingN K1L #lan. KBL @i-e ele0ation. K<L )ront ele0ation4 on whiAh ,hall be in-icate- all -imen,ion,, area,, anrelati0e angle,. F. #rice Ii,t,. ;" complete li,t o/ all component airplane part, with proper -e,ignating n+mber, an- price, ,hall be /+rni,he-. In a--ition to the abo0e, the -ata in-icate- on the ,tan-ar- /orm, inclo,e- herewith ,hall, a, /ar a, practicable, be incl+-e-. M. In,tr+ment, an- "cce,,orie,. ; he /ollowing in,tr+ment, an- acce,,orie, ,hall be pro0i-e-. heir location, -e,ign, an- arrangement ,hall be ,+ch a, to ca+,e them to /+nction with ,ati,/actory preci,ion an- reliability +n-er 0ario+, /lying con-ition,. KDL "neroi- barometer, gra-+ate- in /eet, regi,tering /rom ,ea le0el to 1B,DDD /eet4 to be in,talle- in rear cockpit. KAL Clock in rear cockpit. KChel,ea pre/erre-.L KcL Ca,e or bo3 /or tool kit, to be in,talle- imme-iately in rear o/ the pilot an- rea-ily acce,,ible. K-L @ha/t re0ol+tion ,pee- in-icator, to be in,talle- in rear cockpit. K=arner pre/erre-L. KeL Ga,oline-,+pply gage in rear cockpit. KQL %il ,ight-gage in rear cockpit. KgL $a-iator water thermometer, 0i,ible /rom rear ,eat. KhL hrottle control, Kboth han- an- /ootL to be in,talle- in both cockpit,.

KiL Gro+n- wire ,witche, to be in,talle- in both cockpit,. K1L @park a-0ance control, to be in,talle- in both cockpit,. KkL #re,,+re in-icator, /or ga, ,y,tem in,talle- in both cockpit,. K1L Metho- o/ c+tting o// ga,oline ,+pply between carb+reter an- gra0ity tank /rom both ,eat,. KmL @a/ety belt, on both ,eat,. KnL %ne #yrene /ire e3ting+i,her mo+nte- on con0enient bracket, rea-ily acce,,ible to both men. A. Ian-ing Gear. ; he lan-ing gear ,hall be o/ 0ery ,t+r-y con,tr+ction thro+gho+t, o/ the two-wheel type. o be ,+ch a, to ren-er the machine capable o/ being lan-e- in or /lown o+t o/ a /iel- in which the gro+n- i, /airly ,o/t or /airly ro+gh4 an- to im-ergo, witho+t in1+ry, a mo-erately ro+gh han-ling. he wheel, ,hall ha0e BA by F-inch tire, an- A by 1 '2-inch h+b,, an- ha0e tangential ,poke,. C. )+,elage, ; he /+,elage ,hall be o/ one part, not the 1ointe- tail type. "ll t+mb+ckle, in the /+,elage wiring ,hall be ,o locate- a, to be rea-ily acce,,ible. In the ,i-e wiring they ,ho+l- be near the +pper longeron,. he wing ,par /itting, on the /+,elage to which the lower plane, are attache- ,hall be tie- together acro,, thro+gh the /+,elage by ,teel t+bing. he interior o/ the /+,elage ,hall be ,o con,tr+cte- a, to permit thoro+gh in,pection o/ all wiring, control lea-,, etc. ", /ar a, practicable all lea-, ,hall be -irect. 8. ail @ki- an- 7ertical $+--er. ; he -e,ign an- mo+nting o/ the tail ,ki- an- 0ertical r+--er ,hall be ,+ch a, to pre0ent in1+ry to the 0ertical r+--er in ca,e o/ /ail+re o/ the tail ,ki-. 9. +rrib+cklea. ; he n+mber o/ -i//erent ,i>e, +,e- ,hall be re-+ce- to a minim+m. "ll p+lley,, pin,, bolt,, t+mb+ckle,, etc., ,hall be -rille- /or ,a/etying. @a/ety wire ,hall be o/ 5o. 18 gage copper wire. 1D. )iel- o/ 7i,ion. ; he /iel-, o/ 0i,ion /or pilot an- ob,er0er, ,hall be ,ati,/actory. he,e will be in-icate- on the bl+e print, ,+bmitte- with the machine,. 11. "rrangement o/ @eai,. ; he ,eat, ,hall be arrange- in tan-em, one ,eat being -irectly in the rear o/ the other. 1B. Cockpit,. ; he e-ge, o/ both cockpit hole, ,hall be well pa--e-, an- a ,+itable -etachable tran,parent win- ,hiel- pro0i-e- /or both pilot an- ob,er0er. he ,eating an- cockpit arrangement /or pilot an- ob,er0er ,hall be com/ortable, ,ec+re, ancon0enient, an- ,+ch a, to permit, a, m+ch a, i, po,,ible at the ,ame time, ea,y ob,er0ation an- protection again,t -ra/t. he arrangement o/ the cockpit ,hall be ,+ch a, to permit pilot an- ob,er0er to get clear o/ the machine :+ickly in the e0ent o/ an acci-ent, witho+t im-+e -anger o/ becoming entangle- in wire,, etc. @a/ety belt, o/ webbing, with appro0e- :+ick-relea,e -e0ice,, ,hall be ,ec+rely anchore- at con0enient point, in both cockpit,. 1<. Motor In,tallation. ; he ea,e an- con0enience o/ remo0ing motor /rom anin,talling motor in airplane with a minim+m -i,t+rbance o/ connection,, control,, ,tr+ct+re, etc., ,hall be ,ati,/actory. he ho+,ing aro+n- the power plant ,hall be rea-ily

-etachable, an-, in a--ition, ha0e mean, to permit con0enient acce,, to all part, o/ the motor which may re:+ire a-1+,tment or in,pection. he 0ibration at 0ario+, motor ,pee-, an- +n-er 0ario+, con-ition, m+,t not be e3ce,,i0e. 1F. $a-iator. ; he ra-iator ,hall be o/ appro0e- -e,ign an- ,o con,tr+cte- a, to be proo/ again,t the action o/ 0ibration. 1M. Ga,oline ank,. ;Gra0ity /ee- thro+gho+t i, pre/erre-. I/ gra0ity /ee- i, not +,ethro+gho+t, a po,iti0e an- reliable ,y,tem o/ p+mping ga,oline /rom the re,er0e tank, to the gra0ity tank ,hall be pro0i-e-. " gra0ity-/ee- tank capable o/ hol-ing a ,+pply ,+//icient /or at lea,t FD min+te, r+nning at /+ll rate- hor,epower o/ the motor to be ,ec+rely in,talle- in ,+ch a place that the /ee- ,hall be po,iti0e, reliable, an- ,+//icient in all /light attit+-e, +p to <D -egree, inclination, either chmbing or gli-ing. he remaining tank, ,hall be place- near the center o/ gra0ity o/ the machine. "ll /+el tank, ,hall permit o/ being -raine- /rom the bottom. he ga,oline tank,, oil an- water re,er0e, ,hall be o/ ,+//icient capacity to permit a //ight o/ at lea,t F ho+r,G -+ration in hot weather with motor t+rning at the n+mber o/ re0ol+tion, per min+te re:+ire- by it, /+ll rate- power. )+el tank, which may in ,er0ice be ,+b1ecte- to internal pre,,+re ,hall be o/ ,+//icient ,trength to with,tan- an internal pre,,+re o/ at lea,t A po+n-, per ,:+are inch. =here nece,,ary, /+el tank, ,hall be -i0i-e- by the proper n+mber o/ ,wa,h-plate b+lkhea-,. 1A. @er0ice #ipe, an- Connection,. ;Ga,oline, oil, an- water ,er0ice pipe, anconnection, ,hall be proo/ again,t 0ibration. " po,iti0e mean, o/ c+tting o// the ga,oline ,+pply at the ,er0ice tank ,hall be rea-ily acce,,ible /rom both ,eat,. "ll ga,oline t+bing to be ,ati,/actory a, to /le3ibility, -+rability, impenetrability, an- to ha0e been te,te- /or leak, a/ter 0ibration. Ga,oline lea-, to re,er0e tank,, the control lea-,, an- other metho-, o/ a-1+,tment ,hall be pro0i-e- with ,+itable ,a/e an- rea-ily acce,,ible co+pling,. 1C. o @top Motor. ;"t lea,t one reliable metho- o/ ,topping the motor ,hall be pro0i-e-, capable o/ operation /rom both ,eat,. 18. Carh+retion an- %il )ee- with Motor ilte-. ; he oil-,+pply ,y,tem, carb+retion, etc., ,hall be ,+ch a, to permit the motor r+nning ,ati,/actorily at angle, o/ inclination Klateral or longit+-inalL +p to BM -egree, Keither wayL to the hori>on. 19. Back/ire #rotection. ;#o,iti0e an- reliable mean, ,ho+l- be pro0i-e- to pre0ent back/ire ,prea-ing beyon- the carb+reter. BD. =ing, ; %0erhang. ; he +pper plane ,hall e3ten- beyon- the lower plane laterally by an amo+nt appro3imately e:+al to the chor-. railing (-ge )lap,. ; he lateral control ,hall be by mean, o/ trailing e-ge /lap, on the +pper plane only. he wing co0ering to be o/ the be,t gra-e o/ raw linen, o/ weight not le,, than <.CM o+nce, per ,:+are yar-. he metho- o/ co0ering the wing ,hall be the $. ". ). metho- o/ ,ewing an- ,+ch a, to ren-er the cloth o/ the proper ta+tne,,, ,moothne,,, an- ,ec+rity. @+r/ace, ,hall be -ye- an- 0arni,he- in ,+ch a way a, to a//or- ,ati,/actory protection again,t the action o/ rain an- weather.

he color ,cheme ,hall be a, nearly white a, practicable, +,ing ,tan-ar- -ope, an0arni,he,. @tay Bracing. ;@tran-e- ,teel cable ,hall be +,e- /or all ten,ion member, which are rea-ily acce,,ible /or a-1+,tment an- /or all control lea-,. @tr+ct+ral ten,ion member, ,hall be o/ har- cable an- control lea-, ,hall be o/ /le3ible cable. Cable terminal, ,hall be wrappe- an- ,ol-ere-. @piral wire clip,, witho+t ,ol-er ,hall be +,e/or terminal, o/ har- ,inglen,tran- wire. 5o ,plice- terminal, in har- cable wi9 be accepte-. "ll cable, which are member, o/ the wing ,tr+ct+re an- normally +n-er ten,ile loa- in /light ,hall be in -+plicate an- ma-e in-epen-ent between /itting,. @ati,/actory pro0i,ion, ,hall be ma-e, a, /ar a, i, practicable, /or con0enient anthoro+gh in,pection o/ control cable, an- p+lley, an- 0ital ,tr+ct+ral member,. In the internal wing bracing the compre,,ion member, carrying the -rag o/ the wing, ,hall be ,eparate woo-en ,tr+t, an- not wing rib,. $ib web, ,hall be rein/orce- between lightening hole, to ,trengthen them in longit+-inal ,hear. B1. ipping #ropeller,. ; he material an- metho- o/ tipping propeller, ,hall be ,+ch a, to in,+re protection again,t the action o/ ,an-, a, well a, to ren-er the tip, ,ec+re in place. BB. ",aemhly, IH,a,,embly1 an- #acking, ; he pro0i,ion, /or rapi- a,,embling an-i,a,,embling, an- /or packing in crate, o/ con0enient ,i>e an- ,hape /or tran,portation, ,hall be ,ati,/actory. 8etachable bolt,, /itting,, an- other part, ,hall be a, /ew in n+mber an- a, ,imple a, i, con,i,tent with other re:+irement,. I7. e,t, "ny or all o/ the /ollowing r+le, go0erning the metho- o/ con-+cting per/ormance te,t, may be en/orce- at the -i,cretion o/ the in,pector,N 1. "ny or all machine, m+,t pa,, any or all te,t, to -emon,trate g+aranteeper/ormance, an- to -emon,trate that all pro0i,ion, o/ thi, ,peci/ication ha0e been complie- with. B. "ll te,t, ,hall be ,tarte- at appro3imately ,ea le0el. <. )or all te,t, the power plant an- airplane ,hall be i-entical in e0ery -etail with the arrangement it i, propo,e- to +,e in practical ,er0ice. F. he ,ame type propeller, the /actor o/ ,a/ety o/ which i, ,ati,/actory, ,hall be +,e- /or all te,t,. M. he motor ,hall not be -ri0en -+ring any per/ormance te,t, at a ,pee- greater than 1FDD r.p.m. K-oe, not apply to other than C+rti,,%E-BL. A. he ga,o9ne +,e- ,hall be ,tan-ar- a+tomobile ga,oline te,ting not higher than AMrBA. C. he n+mber o/ o//icially ob,er0e- attempt, /or each per/ormance ,hall be -eci-e+pon by the in,pector, at the time o/ the te,t,.

8. Be/ore arri0ing at the ,tarting point /or each o/ the ,pee- te,t,, machine, m+,t be /lown at a height o/ not more than BM /eet /or a -i,tance o/ not le,, than 9DD /eet. he original altit+-e m+,t be maintaine- o0er the ,peci/ie- co+r,e /rom ,tart to /ini,h. 9. he location an- length o/ the co+r,e /or the ,pee- te,t, ,hall be -eci-e- by the Go0ernment. 1D. he perio- o/ time /or the cHmb ,hall ,tart at the in,tant the wheel, lea0e the gro+n- /or /light. 11. Climbing an- ,pee- te,t, ,hall be ma-e by a pilot in the employ o/ the company. 1B. @top watche,, barograph,, an- other in,tr+ment, nece,,ary /or mea,+ring the ,pee-, an- the rate o/ climb ,hall be pro0i-e- by the Gro0em-ment. he /+el an- oil ,hall be ,+pplie- by the Go0ernment. 1<. he in,pector, may, at their -i,cretion, prohibit +nrea,onable -elay, in per/ormance te,t,, ca+,e- by a-1+,tment, in power plant, or airplane, which ,ho+l-, in the opinion o/ the in,pector,, ha0e been ma-e be/ore the -ate o/ -eli0ery a, g+arantee- in the contract. 1F. here ,hall be an in,pection o/ the machine, imme-iately a/ter any te,t, to ,how that all part, an- connection, o/ the power plant an- o/ the airplane are in goo- con-ition. 7. In,pection o/ )actory 8+ring Con,tr+ction %ne or more -e,ignate- repre,entati0e, o/ the Go0ernment will be pre,ent at the /actory -+ring the con,tr+ction o/ the airplane, or-ere-. he,e repre,entati0e, will be pre,ent in the capacity o/ in,pector,, an- will ob,er0e the /ollowing point,, an- ,+ch other, a, they may -eem a-0i,ableN hat the con,tr+ctor, pro0i-e the proper ,trength o/ con,tr+ction an- the proper :+ality o/ material an- gra-e o/ workman,hip /or each machine4 that they make ,ati,/actory pro0i,ion, again,t -eterioration o/ ,tr+ct+ral an- other part, -+e to wear, 0ibration, anthe action o/ ,alt water an- moi,t air, 0arying climatic con-ition,, etc. o -etermine that the con,tr+ctor, ha0e an e//ecti0e ,y,tem o/ e3pert in,pection to in,+re the abo0e :+alitie,. hat all -etail, o/ con,tr+ction con/orm to the be,t pro0e- an- appro0e- practice. o re:+ire ,+ch te,t, o/ material or o/ a,,emble- or component part, a, i, -eemenece,,ary, an- ob,er0e ,+ch te,t,. o re1ect any im,ati,/actory part at any time -+ring the con,tr+ction o/ any machine at the /actory. o re:+ire ,+pplementary te,t, a, -e,ire-, o/ material, an- part, when -eemea-0i,able. o ,ee that ,teel +,e- in con,tr+ction i, o/ ,+ch a gra-e a, to ha0e a high re,i,tance to cry,talli>ation -+e to 0ibration. he +,e o/ ,+ch other material, a, ha0e not been pro0e- by te,t or e3perience to be nonn,+b1ect to cry,ta9i>ation -+e to 0ibration will be -i,co+rage-. o ,ee that pro0i,ion, /or the protection o/ metal part,, an- a-1oining woo-en part,,

again,t the corro-ing action o/ ,alt water an- moi,t air are ,ati,/actory. I/ laminate- woo- part, are +,e-, to ,ee that pro0i,on, /or protecting them again,t the action o/ ,alt water, 0ibration, etc., are ,ati,/actory. #artic+lar care ,hall ha0e been e3erci,e- to pre0ent acce,, o/ moi,t+re at /aying ,+r/ace,, to en- grain b+tt,, ,car/,, an1oint,, an- ,+ch protection m+,t be applie- be/ore the /inal a,,embly o/ part,. o ,ee that the threa-, o/ all bolt, an- n+t, +,e- in the con,tr+ction con/orm to the @. ". (. ,tan-ar-. Interchangeability o/ part,, a,,emble- an- component, /itting,, etc., will be con,i-ere-e,irable, b+t thi, attrib+te ,ho+l- not inter/ere with other,. "t the re:+e,t o/ one o/ the in,pector,, the contractor ,hall /+rni,h the in,pector the /ollowingN 8ata which will ,how the capacity o/ the /actory an- a//iliate- /actorie,, an- the ,tan-ing an- the re,pon,ibility o/ the /irm. 8rawing, pertaining to the con,tr+ction o/ the airplane, being ,+pplie-. It will be con,i-ere- -e,irable to ha0e a+thenticate- -ata /rom win- t+nnel te,t, on an e3act mo-el o/ one o/ the,e machine,, ma-e to a ,+itable ,cale, a, /ollow,N #itching moment, K/orce 0ector, being plotte-L, at angle, o/ inci-ence Kmean chor-, main plane,L /rom min+, 9 -egree, to pl+, BF -egree,, ob,er0ation, taken e0ery < -egree,, an- in a--ition at the /ollowing angle,N Min+, B -egree,, min+, 1 -egree, pl+, 1 -egree, anpl+, B -egree,. he mo-el ,hall ha0e mo0able ele0ator ,+r/ace, c+t o// /or the te,t,. 8ata ,howing the ela,tic limit, har-ne,,, an- other important phy,ical characteri,tic, /rom a+thenticate- recor-, o/ te,t, on the e3act ,teel, Ke3act incl+-ing /inal heat treatment, i/ anyL +,e- in the con,tr+ction o/ the 0ario+, part,. Heliable hi,torical in/ormation regar-ing the origin an- time an- metho- o/ ,ea,oning o/ the material /or woo-en part,. $ecor-, o/ te,t, o/ gl+e, cement, ,hellac, 0arni,h, or -ope, when re:+ire-4 ,+ch te,t, ,ho+l- compri,e alternately ,oaking in ,alt water an- -rying, etc. In the e0ent o/ a -eci-e- -i,agreement between in,pector an- man+/act+rer on a point which in0ol0e, con,i-erable e3pen,e on the part o/ the man+/act+rer in or-er to e//ect the change re:+ire- by the in,pector,H ,+gge,tion, the matter ,hall be re/erre- to the o//icer in charge o/ the "0iation @ection /or -eci,ion. In,pector, an- their a,,i,tant, ,hall be gi0en /ree acce,, at all time, -+ring the man+/act+ring o/ airplane, or part, thereo/ being con,tr+cte- in accor-ance with thi, ,peci/ication, to any an- all part, o/ the /actory in which a part o/ the airplane i, han-le-. "cceptance o/ an or-er +n-er thi, ,peci/ication ,hall ,igni/y that the contractor agree, to all o/ the pro0i,ion, o/ thi, ,peci/ication an- that the tr+e intent an- p+rpo,e o/ the,e pro0i,ion, will be a-here- to. G(%$G( %. @Z9I($, Iie+tenant Colonel2 @ignal Corp,, 9nite- @tate, "rmy,

In Charge o/ the "0iation @ection, @ignal Corp,, %//ice op the Chie/ @ignal %//icer. 8( "II@ %) $"I5I5G #I"5(@ he machine ill+,trate- in )ig. 1BB i, a biplane that ha, been -e,igne- partic+larly /or training-,chool p+rpo,e,. hi, mean, that it m+,t be o/ ,t+r-y con,tr+ction to with,tanthe con,tant

)ia. 1BB.;)ront o/ training machine. har- +,a2e gi0en in a military preliminary training ,chool, where it i, han-le- almo,t e3cl+,i0ely by +ntraine- men. It will be notice- that thi, machine ha, a three-wheelelan-ing gear, the ,mall /ront wheel being /or the p+rpo,e o/ pre0enting the machine /rom no,ing into the gro+n-, e0en i/ the lan-ing i, not e3actly a, it ,ho+l- be. here i, o/ co+r,e the +,+al tail lan-ing ,ki- in a--ition to the three wheel, in /ront. In common with all mo-ern training machine,, there are pro0i,ion, /or two per,on,, each in a ,eparate cockpit, one in /ront o/ the other, an- each pro0i-e- with a ,eparate control ,o that the ,t+-ent can gra-+ally become acc+,tome- to han-ling the machine when it i, in the air. H( M"I5 8IM(5@I%5@ he ,pan o/ the +pper wing i, F< /eet 1D inche,, an- o/ the lower wing <B /eet, making an o0erhang o/ nearly A /eet on each en-. he chor-, or wi-th o/ the wing, i, A /eet, an- the gap, or -i,tance between the wing,, C1 inche,. hi, /ollow, common practice o/ making the -i,tance between the wing, abo+t the ,ame a, the chor-. Increa,ing thi, -i,tance a--, to the length o/ the wing ,tr+t, an- re:+ire, that they be o/ hea0ier ,ection, owing to the increa,e- length. Ie,,ening the -i,tance between wing, -ecrea,e, their e//iciency a, ,+pporting ,+r/ace,.

he ,tagger, or the -i,tance which the +pper wing pro1ect, in a-0ance o/ the lower, /orm, an angle o/ F<2 -egree, with the /ront e-ge o/ the lower /rame. hi, amo+nt i, o/ten gi0en in inche,, an- in thi, ca,e wo+l- be abo+t M<2 inche,. he o0erall length o/ the machine i, BA /eet C inche,, an- the height 1D /eet 1D inche,. he angle o/ inci-ence, which mean, the angle o/ the +n-er ,i-e o/ the plane when the machine i, in a hori>ontal /lying po,ition, i, BO2 -egree,. he -ihe-ral angle, or the angle which the wing, a,,+me with the hori>ontal, i, < -egree,, an- the ,weep back M -egree,. hi, mean, that the /ront e-ge o/ each plane i, 8M -egree,. Both the -ihe-ral an- the ,weepback an,gle a-- to the ,tability o/ the machine when it i, in the air. he machine, incl+-ing engine, water an- acce,,orie,, b+t 1C witho+t /+el, weigh, 1<MD po+n-,, an- the machine /+lly lottFki 19MD po+n-,, incl+-ing the pa,,enger,. It, ma3im+m ,peechllH /+ll loa- i, A8 m9e, per ho+r, an- it, mimHmi+n ,pee- <C mihiiiI hi, low minim+m ,pee- i, partic+larly a-0antageo+, in a tnib ing machine, a, it enable, the ,t+-ent to lan- at a comparati0il/ low ,pee-. It, range o/ action at economical ,pee- i, <MD miki an- it, gli-ing angle 1 in 8. hi, mean, that i/ the a0iator i, BDDD /eet in the air, he can gli-e 1A,DDD /eet be/ore making a lan-ing. hi, po,,ibility gi0e, him a range o/ < mile, in picking a lan-ing place, which i, ample -i,tance in almp,t e0ery ca,e. It al,o ,how, the ,a/ety o/ /lying at a con,i-erable height in,tea- o/ near the earth. he machine can climb BADD /eet in 1D min+te,. It i, e:+ippewith a Hall-@cott /o+r-cylin-er water-coole- motor, rate- at 9D hor,epower at 1FDD r.p.m. hi, motor weigh, F1D po+n-, an- ha, a M by C-inch cylin-er. he /+el con,+mption i, 9<2 gallon, per ho+r, an- the /+el tank hol-, <1 gallon,. he l+bricating-oil capacity in the crank ca,e i, < gallon,. he lan-ing gear can be rea-ily replace- by pontoon, /or +,e o0er water, ,o that the ,ame machine may be employe- /or training either army or na0y ,t+-ent,. B9II8I5G H( )9@(I"G( Beginning with the con,tr+ction o/ the /rame,, it i, intere,ting to ob,er0e how they are b+9t +p /rom ,tan-ar- part,. )ig. 1B< ,how, the two +pper longeron,, or ,i-e /rame,, place- on the a,,embling ,tan-,, with both the cro,, an- the +pright ,trap, in place. he,e longeron, are +,+ally o/ a,h,-care/+lly ,electe- an- ,plice- in the center, owing to the -i//ic+lty o/ ,ec+ring ,ingle piece, long eno+gh /or thi, work. he ,plice i, long, with the two part, ri0ete- together an- then care/+lly wrappe- an- 0arni,he-. he,e ,plice, are ,o ,ec+rely ma-e that they rarely gi0e tro+ble or ,how weakne,, o/ any kin-. he /+,elage i, b+ilt bottom ,i-e +p, beca+,e the +pper longeron, are ,traight. =ith all the ,tr+t,, which are +,+ally o/ ,electe- ,pr+ce 8( "II@ %) $"I5I5G #I"5(@

care/+lly ma-e to mea,+rement be/orehan-, an- with the 0ario+, metal /itting, by which they are hel- in po,ition at the proper point on the longeron, it i, a comparati0ely ea,y matter to a,,emble thi, part o/ the /+,elage. Great care, howe0er, m+,t be taken to ha0e it ab,ol+tely ,traight with regar- to a central line, a, only a ,mall -e0iation make, it,el/ /elt in the /lying o/ the machine. "/ter the 0ertical ,tr+t, are locate- in their proper /itting,, the c+r0e- longeron,, which become the lower ,i-e o/ the /+,elage when it i, complete-, are p+t in place with the ai- o/ ,imilar /itting, that hol- the ,tr+t, in their correct po,ition a, in )ig. 1BF. hen the wire, are p+t in place, each o/ ,+itable length an- with it, proper t+rnb+ckle4 an- a/ter all are in po,ition, the a-1+,tment o/ the,e 0ario+, wire, to their proper ten,ion begin,. hi, a-1+,ting, or ten,ioning, o/ the ,tr+t wire, i, a ,omewhat -elicate operation, a, each

wire m+,t be tight eno+gh to take it, proper amo+nt o/ the loa-, b+t not ,o tight a, to impo,e +nnece,,ary ,tre,, on either the wire, or the woo-en ,tr+t,. =hen one care/+lly ,t+-ie, the 0ario+, tr+,, wire,, +,+ally two in each panel on both the ,i-e, an- the bottom, he begin, to reali>e the po,,ibilitie, o/ b+il-ing +p a light ,tr+ct+re that ,hall at the ,ame time be e3cee-ingly ,trong in e0ery -irection. It i, con,i-erable o/ a 1ob to ha0e all the,e wire, c+t to proper length, an- one that re:+ire, the +tmo,t care in e0ery partic+lar, a, the wire, m+,t not be bent too ,harply nor in1+re- in any way that will weaken them an- make /ail+re, probable at that point. @ome i-ea o/ the way in which the /itting, are p+t in place on the longeron, can be ha/rom )ig. 1BM. hi, /itting ,+rro+n-, the longeron, an- al,o pro0i-e, a ,ocket /or the +pper en- o/ the 0ertical ,trap4 in a--ition, there are ,e0eral ear, on thi, /itting, to which the tr+,, wire, or their t+rnb+ckle, are attache-. he ill+,tration ,how, the workman tightening one o/ the pair o/ t+rnb+ckle, at thi, partic+lar point. It al,o ,how, how the wire, are connecte- to the t+rnb+ckle, an- gi0e, ,ome i-ea o/ the cro,,bracing an- connection, /or the ,+pport, ,hown in the /oregro+n-. "nother clo,e 0iew ,howing ,ome o/ the connection, i, pre,ente- in )ig. 1BA. hi, i, a 0iew in the cockpit o/ one o/ the,e machine, an- ,how,, in a--ition to the /itting, on the en- o/ the ,trap,, ,ome o/ the control ro-, an- a portable typewriter, which wa, being trie- o+t. he ill+,tration gi0e, ,ome i-ea o/ the care that m+,t be taken to pre0ent any po,,ible cha/ing between the wire, an- the /+el tank, which i, in /ront. " hea0y pa- o/ ,o/t /elt may be ,een between the en-, o/ the t+rnb+ckle an- the tank, to pre0ent 0ibration /rom e0er bringing the,e two point, together. It will al,o be notice- that lengthwi,e ten,ion wire, are +,e- to in,+re the /itting, ,hown being alway, in their proper po,ition. he,e wire, are connecte- in ,wi0eling ear,, ,o a, to ha0e the ten,ion in a -irect line at e0ery 1oint. @ome i-ea o/ the metal /itting, may be ha- /rom )ig. 1BC, which ,how, what i, known a, a +ni0er,al /+,elage /itting. he main portion o/. the /itting i, ,een blanke- o+t at -F, anwith the hole, all p+nche- at B, "t C i, one o/ the,e /itting, bent +p into it, proper ,hape /or application on the longeron o/ the /+,elage. "t 8 i, ,hown the blanking o+t o/ a piece that i, a/terwar- /orme- into a ,:+are c+p, a, at (. hi, c+p i, wel-e- into po,ition on the other /itting, /or +,e in certain place, on the /+,elage. %ne o/ the,e /itting, i, ,hown complete at H1 with two c+p, wel-e- in place. "t G may be ,een the blanking, per/orating an- ben-ing o/ a ,wi0eling piece by which t+rnb+ckle, or other connection, can be connecte- to the /+,elage /itting, ,o a, to make what i, practically a +ni0er,al 1oint, with /ree mo0ement in e0ery -irection. he,e part, are ,hown in po,ition at H, ", the man+/act+re o/ airplane, increa,e, ,o that a large pro-+ction i, a,,+re-, the,e an- other /itting, will be pro-+ce- m+ch more rapi-ly an- ecpnomically than i, now po,,ible. "t the pre,ent time, the n+mber re:+ire- ha, not ,eeme- to warrant the nece,,ary e3pen-it+re /or p+nche, an- -ie,, in or-er to ha0e the,e piece, practically complete- on the p+nch pre,,. he time i, not /ar -i,tant, howe0er, when thi, i, bo+n- to be the ca,e, an- both -e,igner, an- maker, o/ p+nche, an- -ie, that can be +,e- /or thi, p+rpo,e are ,+re to be in -eman-. @ome i-ea o/ the n+mber o/ the,e /itting, an- their weight can be ha- /rom the /ollowing li,t o/ part,, which are among tho,e +,e- in the con,tr+ction o/ the /+,elageN #o:n-i =ire;1AF /eet o/ 5o. 9 a0iator wire D.D<C po+n- per /oot D.DA

1BD /eet o/ 5o. 1D a0iator wire D.DB9 po+n- per /oot 8.F8 +rnb+ckle,;1DA at 1.BM o+nce 8.B8 Cle0i, pin,;1CF at D.1BM o+nce 12 Cotter pin,;1CF app- D.BM )err+le,;BBD at D.BM o+nce 8.FF Iock wire;1<M /eet o/ 5o. BD copper wire at D.<1 po+n- per 1DD /eet... D.FB erminal,;CF at D.FM o+nce B.D8 )itting,;<8 KmainL C''A Ball an- ,ocket /itting,, o/ which /o+r are +,e-, weigh appro3imately 1D o+nce, each. 5+mber o/ /itting, re:+ire-; appro3imately AM. he entire /+,elage weigh, appro3imately 1AD po+n-,, the ,heet-metal /itting, /orming abo+t C per cent. o/ the total weight. he wire,, t+rnb+ckle,, terminal,, /err+le, an- cle0i, an- cotter pin, aggregate abo+t 1A per cent, o/ the total weight. "/ter the /+,elage i, completely a,,emble-, it i, nece,,ary to be ,+re that it i, in ab,ol+te alignment in e0ery way. " center line i, r+n thro+gh the bo-y an- it, proper alignment -etermine- by thi, mean,. he correct tightening o/ all the tr+,, wire, i, :+ite a problem an- re:+ire, an e,pecially ,kille- man, a, each wire i, tightene- by ,o+n-, the -i/l)erent length, o/ wire, gi0ing a -i//erent tone a, they are 0ibrate-. he completion o/ the /rame incl+-e, the /a,tening in place o/ the two beam, which ,+pport the motor an.which are +,+ally known a, the engine be-. hey are ,hown in )ig. 1B8, where the motor i, being lowere- into po,ition. he /ront o/ the /+,elage i, brace- by the 8( "II@ %# $"I5I5G #I"5(@ BA< 9-,hape- ,teel ,+pport that ,+rro+8-, the engine be- an- tie, together the whole /ront, or no,e, o/ the machine. he engine i, ,hown in place in )ig. 1B9. he ga,oline tank i, in po,ition, an- the man at the le/t i, p+tting the controlling mechani,m into po,ition. hi, 0iew ,how, the wheel control, ,ometime, tnown a, the J8ep,J thi, wheel being mo+nte- on an arch /rame that ,wing, back an- /orth an- in ,o -oing control, the mo0ement o/ the ele0ating plane,, or /lipper,, at the rear.

)ia. 1B9.;(ngii +rning the wheel control, the aileron, /or balancing an- banking on c+r0e,. he wing, o/ thi, type o/ airplane are almo,t entirely o/ woo- con,tr+ction, a, can be ,een in the ill+,tration, which /ollow. )ig. 1<D ,how, the -e0elopment o/ the rib,. hey con,i,t o/ three part, in a--ition to the top an- bottom member, which come, in contact with the cloth co0ering. ", can be ,een /rom ", the,e rib, are /ir,t c+t /rom /airly thick material an- are then ,awe- into thin ,trip,, a, ,hown at B. he opening, are ,awe- o+t /or the ,ake o/ lightne,,, a, at C, an- the whole

'/cb )ill, l2ill. ; Howfthe ril1,Harc ma-o.

)io. 1<1,; ",,e+ibiiiiii wing with ,parii. rib i, a,,emble- in a ,+itable /i3t+re, a, at 8, when the top an- bottom piece, are tackean- gl+e- into place, being hel- by mean, o/ the ,mall cam-,hape- clamp, ,hown. he complete- rib i, ill+,trate- at (, he,e rib, are then a,,emble-, a, ,hown in )ig. 1<1, by threa-ing o0er the main ,par,, which are clampe- in their proper po,ition at the /ront en- while the rib, are being ,li- into their proper place. %wing to the ,weep back o/ the wing, o/ thi, machine, the rib, are not at e3act right angle, to the ,par,, b+t make an angle o/ 8M -egree, on one ,i-e an- 9M -egree, on the other. hi, i, beca+,e the rib, m+,t be in line with the -irection o/ /light in or-er to re-+ce the re,i,tance that the machine pre,ent, to the air with which it come, in contact. he wing being co0ere- might ,eem to make thi, +nnece,,ary, b+t all cloth ,ag, a little between the rib, an- lea0e, them a tri/le higher than the plane between. hi, i, one o/ the /iner -etail, to a0oi- re,i,tance an- ,kin /riction. )ig. 1<B i, another 0iew o/ wing con,tr+ction in 0ario+, ,tage, an- gi0e, a goo- i-ea o/ the appearance o/ the rib, in place on the main ,par. he,e ,par,, it will be notice-, are c+t away on the ,i-e ,o a, to approach the I-beam con,tr+ction a, m+ch a, po,,ible. "/ter the rib, are properly locate-, they are /a,tene- in po,ition by ,mall nail,, an- the /ront an- rear e-ge, are /a,tene- in place. "t the top o/ the /ront, or lea-ing, e-ge i, a 0eneer o/ perhap, yg inch co0ering the +pper c+r0e o/ the rib, on their entering e-ge, in or-er to ,+pport the cloth thoro+ghly at thi, point. (3periment, are being ma-e in ,ome place, to eliminate thi, 0eneer a, a ,+pport to the linen, b+t no other con,tr+ction ha, a, yet pro0e- it,el/ entirely ,+cce,,/+l. " complete- wing /rame i, ,hown in )ig. 1<<. It i, an +pper wing, a, can be note- by the ,pace le/t /or the aileron at the back, or trailing, e-ge. It will al,o be ob,er0e- that the cro,,-wing i, brace- with tr+,, wire, e3ten-ing thro+gh the hollow ribbe- con,tr+ction, the /ini,he- /rame being more rigi- than wo+l- +,+ally be con,i-ere- po,,ible in ,o light a ,tr+ct+re o/ thi, ,i>e. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%!

he wing i, now rea-y to recei0e it, linen co0er, which i, care/+lly ,ewe- to pattern anhel- in po,ition with ,mall tack, an- /inally by ,ewing with linen threa-. Iq i, /a,tenewith threa- to each o/ the rib,, the,e ,eam, being /inally co0ere- by a ,trip o/ linen that i, hel- in po,ition by the 0arni,h, or -ope, +,e-. he application o/ thi, -ope ,hrink, the linen tight on the /rame an- take, +p all ,lackne,, in the co0ering. he /inal coating o/ -ope ren-er, the cloth ab,ol+tely waterproo/ an- pre,ent, a ,oli- ,+r/ace to the air. #ro0i,ion i, ma-e thro+gh eyelet, locate- at the lower portion o/ the +n-er ,i-e o/ the wing /or allowing the e,cape o/ any moi,t+re that might con-en,e on the in,i-e ,+r/ace, o/ the wing or otherwi,e work it, way into them. " partly co0ere- wing can be ,een in )ig. 1<F. he c+r0e- e-ge, o/ aileron,, r+--er, an- ele0ate- plane, are ma-e o/ metal in ,ome /actorie,, either t+bing or a ,pecially -rawn 9-,ection being employe-. In thi, machine, howe0er, no metal i, employe- /or thi, p+rpo,e, all the piece, /orming the c+r0e- e-ge

being b+ilt +p /rom 0eneer, an- bent to /orm witho+t ,eaming. )ig. 1<M gi0e, ,ome i-ea o/ the way in which thi, i, -one. @+b,tantial woo-en /orm, are pro0i-e- o/ the proper ,hape /or the piece, to be bent. hin ,trip, o/ the woo- /rom which the,e piece, are to be /orme- are then p+t in a hotbo3 ,+pplie- with ,team pipe, an- are thoro+ghly heate- to a, high a temperat+re a, can con0eniently be han-le- with the bare han-. he,e piece,, perhap, OF i2ch thick, are then thoro+ghly coate- with care/+lly prepare- gl+e, an- a, many o/ the ,trip, a, may be re:+ire- are place- one on top o/ the other. =hile the piece, are yet warm anthe gl+e i, ,till per/ectly ,o/t an- li:+i-, they are place- between the /orm,, bent to con/orm with them, an- the whole thing i, clampe- by the han- clamp,, a, ,he =hen the woo- an- the gl+e ha0e thoro+ghly -rie-, tb a ,ection o/ the proper ,hape b+ilt +p o/ ,e0eral 1 tion,. It -oe, not go o+t o/ ,hape, b+t ha, pro0e- 1 reliable. 1r+CB ,) 'I(CH"5Ht.-H ^

In )ig. 1<A can be ,een ,e0eral aileron,, at " an- @, an ele0ating plane, at C, an- a center panel, or that part o/ the +pper wing which goe, o0er thi, engine an- /+,elage, at 8. hi, 0iew ,how, the center panel mo+nte- on hor,e,, where it ha, 1+,t been co0ere-. It al,o ,how, the ,pool o/ linen threa- by which the co0ering i, ,ewe-, an- the ,trip, o/ linen cloth that are 0arni,he- in po,ition o0er the ,titche, that hol- the /abric to each rib. he,e ,trip, can be ,een alrea-y pa,te- in place on the aileron, an- the ele0ating plane,. )or co0ering the top o/ the /+,elage ,o a, to gi0e it the ,treamline e//ect, a ,heet al+min+m top i, p+t on 1+,t behin- the engine. @ome o/ the,e co0ering plate,, in which are the opening, /or the two cockpit,, can be ,een in )ig. 1<8. Behin- thi, al+min+m top a light woo-en /ramework i, b+ilt +p. It i, co0ere- with the ,ame /abric a, the wing, ancontin+e, the ,treamline back /rom the metal plate,. )ig. 1<C ,how, thi, /ramework

rolle- +p on it, ,i-e, al,o a r+--er hel- +p in po,ition. he ,hort metal plate, ,een ,tan-ing by the po,t. )ig. 1<8, /orm part o/ the co0ering, or hoo-, aro+n- the engine, the one ,hown being a plate /or co0ering the /orwar- part o/ the +n-er ,i-e o/ the /+,elage. 5ear thi, are two tank,, one /or water an- the other /or ga,oline, /rom which it will be ,een that there i, con,i-erable ,heet-metal work in the mo-ern airplane in a--ition to the woo-en plane an- propeller an- the /abric +,e- /or co0ering. he e-ge, o/ the cockpit are well pa--e- an- co0ere- with either leather or ,ome o/ it, imitation,, an- the ,eat, /or the pilot, are pa--e- an- co0ere- in the ,ame way. In thi, connection it i, intere,ting to mention that there i, a ten-ency towar- e3treme ,implicity in the -e,ign o/ the,e ,eat, an- the +phol,tery that co0er, them, leather being no longer ab,ol+tely re:+ire- e3cept by a /ew go0ernment,. It i, one o/ the many ca,e, where ,peci/ication,, a, originally written, call /or an article that i, perhap, no more e3pen,i0e than it, ,+b,tit+te4 b+t in too many ca,e, the,e ,peci/ication, are ne0er change-, regar-le,, o/ "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! con-ition, that may ari,e. =e /in- many in,tance, o/ +nnece,,ary e3pen,e in matter, o/ thi, kin-. he ,tr+t, ha0e to be care/+lly ma-e to ,ec+re ma3im+m ,trei2h with lea,t winre,i,tance. hey are /ini,he- while hel- between center,, a, ,hown in )ig. 1<9, one man ,haping a

)io. 1<9.;Making ,tr+t,. . 1FD.;Cohering wheel,. ,tr+t with a -raw-kni/e an- the other gaging a ,tr+t /or ,i>e an- conto+r. )ig. 1FD ,how, how the wire wheel, are co0ere- with cloth to re-+ce win- re,i,tance, a hole being le/t to get at the air 0al0e o/ the t+be, he co0er, are then -ope- to -raw them tight on the wheel,. @(C I%5 EIE "@@(MBII5G C9$ I@@ $"I5I5G M"CHI5(@ 1. #acke- /or @hipping he component part, o/ the ,tan-ar- '5F-B are packe- /or ,hipment in two ca,e,. he ca,e i, -e,ignate- by the name o/ it, ma1or content,, a,N

1. )+,elage. B. #anel,. he content, o/ the,e bo3e, are note- on packing ,heet,. 1. he /+,elage contain, the motor ,et in place4 the in,tr+ment boar- an- in,tr+ment, all connecte- +p4 the carb+reter control an- a-1+,tment, throttle control, ,park a-0ance control an- magneto c+to+t ,witch all connecte- +p an- rea-y /or operation4 an- the tail ,ki- in place. he control bri-ge i, in place. he lea-, attache- to -r+m an- wheel o/ bri-ge, /or operating the aileron,, will be /o+n- wrappe- aro+n- the ,eat rail,4 the lea-, /or controlling the ele0ator, will be /o+n- attache- to the ,i-e, o/ the 9-bri-ge, with en-, pa,,e- thro+gh the /airlea-, an- coile- +p in the /+,elage back o/ the pilotH, ,eat. he r+--er control wire, are attache- to the /oot control bar, an- lea-ing to the rear eno/ the /+,elage co0er are coile- +p rea-y /or lea-ing thro+gh the /+,elage /or attachment to the r+--er. he lan-ing gear, completely a,,emble- witho+t the wheel,, an- with the cro,,-,tay wire, connecte- +p b+t ,lack, i, al,o packe- in thi, ca,e. he wheel, o/ the lan-ing gear, the propeller an- e3ha+,t e:+ipment will al,o be /o+n- in thi, bo3. B. he panel bo3 contain, all the panel, with ,ocket, an- hinge, all attache-. he tran,0er,e an- longit+-inal wire, will be /o+n- attache- to the +n-er ,i-e o/ the +pper wing, coile- +p an- rea-y /or attaching to the lower wing. he aileron co+trol p+lley, are all in place on the +n-er ,i-e o/ the +pper wing4 the aileron control cable, are pa,,ethro+gh the,e p+lley, an- coile- +p;,hackle, an- pin at one en- /or attaching to the control pylon, o/ the aileron, an- t+rnb+ckle, at the other en- /or attaching to the Jlea-J coming /rom the control bri-ge an- thro+gh the ,i-e o/ /+,elage. hi, ca,e al,o contain, the ele0ator, an- r+--er, with control or operating pylon, remo0e-. "ll the control or operating pylon, /or the aileron,, ele0ator, an- r+--er are packe- in thi, ca,e. "l,o, all the panel ,tr+t, an- engine ,ection ,tr+t, are packe- in thi, bo3. he -etail, o/ content, are gi0en in the packing li,t,, marke- J#anel,.J B. Han-ling In han-ling an- hoi,ting the,e ,hipping bo3e,, care ,ho+l- be taken when +,ing a ,ling that the center o/ the li/t come, ,omewhat ahea- o/ the center o/ the bo3. hi, point can be :+ickly -etermine- by trial, by li/ting the bri-le +ntil the bo3 ri-e, le0el. <. %pening Bo3e, he ca,e ,ho+l- be place- on the gro+n- or /loor, on a /irm bearing o0er it, entire length. Care ,ho+l- be taken to ha0e the part marke- J opGG +ppermo,t. hi, will a0oithe po,,ibility o/ wrenching the motor /rom it, be-4 al,o the nece,,ity o/ t+rning the /+,elage o0er. he top may be rea-ily recogni>e- by the con,tr+ctionN not ha0ing any metal ,trap, tying it -own. he top ,ho+l- be care/+lly prie- loo,e with a crowbar or ,imilar tool. hen care/+lly remo0e the ,i-e an- en-, o/ the bo3. he bottom ,i-e antemporary ,tr+t, o/ the packing ca,e are le/t in place +n-er the /+,elage +ntil rea-y to a,,emble the r+nning gear m place. he propeller, wheel, an- other part, packe- in thi, ca,e ,ho+l- be remo0e- /rom the member, o/ the packing ca,e to which they are ,ec+re-. F. Ian-ing Gear ",,embly to )+,elage

he lan-ing gear i, a,,emble- by mo+nting the wheel, on to the a3le, an- bolting wheel, in place with bolt, an- accompanying n+t, an- cotter,. he /+,elage ,ho+l- now be ele0ate- to recei0e the lan-ing gear. hi, may be accompli,he- in one o/ two way,;either by tackle4 or by ,him, an- blocking. KaL I/ block an- tackle are +,e- to rai,e the /+,elage, pa,, a line +n-er the engine be,+pport, or ,ill, 1+,t to the rear o/ the ra-iator. o thi, line attach hook o/ block. 8o not attach li/ting -e0ice in any other M"55($, % "7%I8 8"M"GI5G %$ C$9@HI5G @%M( #"$ . =ith the /+,elage now re,ting on it, attache- tail ,ki-, li/t the /ront en- +ntil the lower longeron clip, /or attachment o/ lan-ing gear ,tr+t, clear the lan-ing gear. he,e clip, on the lower longeron /or connecting the /ront ,tr+t, o/ the lan-ing gear. he ,hort bolt,, with lockwa,her,, n+t, an- cotter,, are in the clip, attache- to the bottom longeron,. he lockwa,her, are p+t +n-er the hea- o/ the bolt, an- when the clip, on the longeron, line +p with the "@@(MBII5G C9$ I@@ $"I5I5G M"CHI5(@ BC< clip, on the en-, o/ the ,tr+t, o/ the lan-ing gear, the,e bolt, are pa,,e- -own thro+gh the hole, th+, aligne-. hi, place, the n+t, on the -own ,i-e o/ the connection, th+, /acilitating a,,embling an- in,pection o/ connection,. he ca,tellate- n+t, are then p+t on the bolt, an- -rawn +p tight, +ntil the -rille- hole in the bolt i, 0i,ible thro+gh the ca,tle o/ the n+t. hen in,ert cotter pin an- ,prea- the two lea0e, backwar- o0er the n+t.

)ig. 1F1.

)ig. 1FB.

)ig. 1F<.

)ig. 1FF. )ig,. 1F1 to 1FF.;9ncrating airplane. hi, lock, the n+t in place. =hen the lan-ing gear ha, been completely a,,emble- to the /+,elage, the tail o/ the machine ,ho+l- be ele0ate- an- ,+pporte- by a hor,e anblocking +ntil the +pper longeron i, le0el. hi, can be -etermine- by placing a ,pirit le0el on the +pper longeron at the tail or on the two engine be- ,ill, K,ee )ig. 1FFL. KAL he other metho- that may be employe- /or rai,ing the /ront en- o/ the /+,elage, to a,,emble the lan-ing gear, i, the /ollowingN remo0e the ,hip-i, pin! blocking an- /ront /looring o/ ,hipping ca,e /rom +n-er the /ore part o/ the /+,elage. In,ert a block +n-er the bottom longeron,, th+, coming ahea- o/ the point on which the /+,elage i, re,ting, a, ,hippe-. hi, blocking ,ho+l- be aligne- +n-er the 0ertical ,tr+t K,ee )ig. 1F1L. he /looring to the rear o/ the blocking ,ho+l- now be remo0e-. By lowering the tail, the no,e o/ the machine i, ele0ate-, the abo0e-mentioneblocking ,er0ing a, a /+lcr+m. Block +p +n-er no,e o/ machine, placing blocking +n-er $"8I" %$-B$"C!( , "58 5% 958($ $"8I" %$ K,eC )ig. 1FBL. I/ the tail o/ the machine be now li/te-, thi, no,e blocking ,er0e, a, a /+lcr+m, an- the /+,elage will clear the blocking at that point. Block +p again with we-ge, +ntil blocking i, tight again,t lower longeron K,ee )ig. 1F<L. By -epre,,ing tail o/ machine, the no,e will again be ele0ate- ,o that the blocking there will now nee- to be increa,e-. By thi, alternating metho- o/ changing the /+lcr+m point an- increa,ing the blocking, the no,e o/ the machine can +ltiniatoly be blocke- +p ,+//iciently high Kwith tail o/ machine on the gro+n- an- blocking reino0oclL that the lan-ing gear may be a,,emble- to /+,elage, )ig. 1FF. M. Hori>ontal @tabili>er D "/ter the +pper longeron i, le0ele- +p, the hori>ontal ,tabili>er i, a,,emble- to the tail o/ the /+,elage a, in )ig. 1FM. (ach +pper longeron ha, one 9-bolt an- /o+r ,tan-arbolt,, tie- together in pair, on the +n-er ,+r/ace o/ the longeron by two connecting plate, /a,tene- to it. he,e bolt, ha0e the leg, pointe- +pwar-, an- ,er0e to hol- the hori>ontal ,tabili>er in place. he,e bolt, are -i,po,e- a, /ollow,N %ne 9-bolt ,ec+re, the lea-ing e-ge o/ the hori>ontal ,tabili>er4 the /o+r bolt, arrange- in pair, an- engage the /ront beam o/ the hori>ontal ,tabili>er. he hori>ontal ,tabili>er i, aligne- o0er the,e bolt,, placing the wa,her plate on the +pper ,+r/ace o/ the hori>ontal ,tabili>er, o0er the interme-iate ,et o/ bolt,4 an- the two bolt, on each ,i-e o/ the tail po,t at the +pper longeron le0el. he n+t, are ail -rawn +p tight, +ntil the hole -rille- in the bolt become, 0i,ible thro+gh the ca,tle in the n+t, an- cotter pinne-. A. 7ertical @tabili>er he 0ertical ,tabili>er i, now /a,tene- to the hori>ontal ,tabili>erN 1. liy mean, o/ the bolt, which pa,, thro+gh the /orwar- an- a/ter part, o/ the hori>ontal

,tabili>er, anB. By mean, o/ the /le3ible ,tay line, r+nning /rom the top o/ the 0ertical ,tabili>er to the +pper ,+r/ace o/ the hori>ontal ,tabili>er. he /orwar- bolt, pa,, thro+gh the clip at the lower /ront point o/ the 0ertical ,tabili>er. "@@(MBII5G C7$ I@@ $"I5I5G M"CHI5(@ BCM he holta which are /a,tene- to the tail poet o/ the /+,elage, an- eng2e the a/ter en- o/ the hori>ontal ,tabili>er, al,o engage the l+g, /a,tene- to the bottom e-ge o/ the 0ertical ,tabili>er at the rear 8raw the n+t, +p tight an- lock with cotter pin, he /le3ible wire cable,, attache- to the 0ertical ,tabili>er, an- t+mb+cklea are +,e- to align an- tie -own the 0ertical ,tab-i>er

C. $+--er he control pylon, or brace, are /ir,t attache- to the r+--er. he,e brace, are ,o placethat the +pper tip, point towar- the hinge line. In thi, /a,hion the hole, will match +p. he bolt, an- n+t, /or ,ec+ring brace, to the r+--er are ,hippe- an- /a,tene- to the brace,. Be/ore mo+nting the r+--er the 0ertical ,tabili>er ,ho+l- be checke- +p, ,o that it i, in pl+mb alignment with the tail po,t. hi, check i, ab,ol+tely nece,,ary to in,+re "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! the ab,ol+te alignment o/ th2 hinge, in the 0ertical ,tabili>er an- the tail po,t. . he r+--er i, now mo+nte- onto the tail po,t an- 0ertical ,tabili>er by mean, o/ the hinge,. he hinge pin, are now in,erte- in the hinge,, an- cotter pin, pa,,e- thro+gh the -rillehole, in the bottom o/ the pin,. he cotter pin, ,ho+l- be ,prea- backwar- a, +,+al. 8. (le0ator,

he,e are /ir,t e:+ippe- with the control brace, which, with the accompanying bolt,, n+t, an- cotter,, are /o+n- in the =ing #anel #acking Bo3. 7 2@ymmetrical abo+t thi, Center Iine

%5 $%I B$"C( C%5 $%I--B$"C( 7n%5 =-<'q .f.' )ig. 1FA. he po,ition o/ the ba,e o/ the control brace i, in-icate- in )ig. 1FA. he,e brace, are al,o arrange- ,o that the +pper tip, point towar- the hinge line. he ele0ator, are mo+nte- to the hori>ontal ,tabili>er by mean, o/ the hinge, an- hinge pin,. he hinge pin, are kept in their bearing, by the cotter pin,, in,erte- thro+gh the -rille- hole, in the bottom o/ the hinge pin,. he po,ition o/ the ele0ator, are al,o ,hown in )ig,. 1FM an- 1FA. 9. #anel ",,embly he panel, are now to be a,,emble-. Be/ore the main panel, can be connecte- to the /+,elage, the engine ,ection panel m+,t be erecte-. (ngine @ection #anel. ; he engine ,ection ,tr+t, are ,et into place into their ,ocket, on the +pper longeron,. he,e po,t, are /o+n- packe- in the J#anelJ bo3. he /orwar- po,t, are appro3imately hel- in place by the /le3ible wire line, to be /o+n- coile- +p an- temporarily /a,tene- +n-er the cowl in the motor compartment. he rear ,tr+t, are appro3imately hel- in place by the /le3ible wire line,

lea-ing /rom the lower longeron an- will be /o+n- coile- +p +n-er the a/t-cowl. he engine ,ection panel i, now mo+nte- on the ,tr+t,, a/ter the /ront tran,0er,e bracing, between the po,t,, i, appro3imately tr+e- +p. he engine ,ection panel po,t, an- wire, are then tr+e- +p prior to /+rther erection. hi, con-ition i, obtaine- by a-1+,ting all HHmate- J or ,imilar wire, to the ,ame length. 1D. Main #anel, he main panel, are now to be a,,emble- to the machine. here are two metho-, /or accompli,hing thi,N KaL ",,emble panel,, ,tr+t, an- wire,, be/ore attaching to /+,elage. KAL ",,emble the +pper plane to the engine ,ection, an- complete a,,embly. he /ir,t metho- i, the mo,t a-0antageo+,, ,ince it permit, the ,etting o/ the main panel, at the appro3imately correct ,tagger an- -ihe-ral, an- -oe, not re:+ire a, m+ch ,+b,e:+ent a-1+,tment a, the ,econ- metho-. K"L )ir,t Metho- ;=ing, ComiLletely ",,emble"ll the main ,tr+t, will be /o+n- to bear a n+mber. he,e n+mber, r+n /rom 1 to 8. he metho- +,e- in nimibering ihe po,t, i, a, /ollow,N @tarting a, po,t 5o. 1, with the o+ter po,t on the le/t han- ,i-e o/ the pilot, a, he /ace, hi, -irection o/ tra0el, the /ront po,t, are n+mbere- ,+cce,,i0ely /rom -tCen/er Iine o/#o,t@r2 ; Qr '; 1 1B )$%5 b $("$ B(m2i3 Fr`;7J BI"M.-2. /lI.'2 E ; )ig. 1FC. 5o. 1 to 5o. FN 5o,. 1 an- B being on the le/t ,i-e an- 5o,. < an- F being on the right ,i-e. he rear po,t, are ,imilarly n+mbere- /rom 5o. M to 8N 5o,. M an- A being on the le/t an- 5o,. C an- 8 being on the right. hi, ,y,tem o/ n+mbering -oe, not incl+-e the engine ,ection ,tr+t,. )ig. 1FC ,how, the ,y,tem graphically. he ,y,tem o/ marking al,o in,+re, that the ,tr+t, are not in0erte- in their ,ocket,. hi, i, accompli,he- by painting the n+mber on the ,tr+t, ,o that when 0iewe- /rom the pilotH, ,eat all n+mber, can be rea-4 i.e., the n+mber, aro p/tinto- on that ,i-e o/ the ,tr+t inten-e- to /ace the /+,elage, a, -ia-!minniatically ,hown in )ig. 1FC. I/ a ,tr+t be in0erte- by mi,take2 it can th+, :+ickly be -etecte-. 1. he +pper le/t wing panel i, /ir,t e:+ippe- with the /ront an- rear ma,t, by in,erting the ma,t, into their ,ocket, on the +pper ,+r/ace o/ the panel. he ma,t wire, are then connecte- +p to the anchor plate,, locate- on the +pper ,+r/ace to the right an- le/t o/ the ma,t-,ocket. "-1+,t the te+Hion in the,e wire,, by mean, o/ t+mb+ckle,, +ntil the

/ront an- rear wing lLcani, lLecomc ,traight. B. @tan- the +pper le/t wing panel an- lower le/t wing panel on their Jlea-ingJ or JenteringJ e-ge,, properly ,+pporting the panel, in c+,hione- lLlKLKXk8 to pro0KMit -amage to the no,e. @pace the panel, apart, appro3imately eKi+al to the length o/ the ,tr+t,. )ig. 1F8. <. 5e3t connect +p the -iagonal cro,, wire,. he,e m+,t be loo,ely connecte- +p Kby loo,ening +p the t+rnb+ckle,L, to permit the ea,y entering o/ the po,t, into the ,ocket,. he wire, are connecte- be/ore the po,t, or ,tr+t, are ,et in place, ,ince, with the latter in place, the connecting o/ the wire, to the l+g, o/ the ,ocket, i, accompli,he- only with -i/l@ic+lty. "/ter the,e wire, are th+, connecte-, in,ert the po,t, an- bolt, into place. F. Connect +p loo,ely the Jlan-ingJ K,ingleL wire, an- J/lyingJ K-o+bleL wire, o/ the o+ter bay to hol- the wing, together a, a +nit. he o+ter bay i, th+, completely wire-, tho+gh b+t loo,ely. M. he po,t, that are +,e- /or thi, le/t ,i-e are, accor-ing to the -iagram, 5o. 1, 5o. B, 5o. M an- 5o. A. 5o. 1 i, the o+ter /ront4 5o. B the inner /ront4 5o. M i, the o+ter rear4 5o. A the inner rear. A. he wing,, a, abo0e a,,emble-, are now erecte- to the /+,elage. (3treme care ,ho+lbe e3erci,e- in tran,/erring the wing, to the /+,elage, not to ,train or break them. In carrying the wing,, +,e woo-en boar-, place- +n-er the wing,, an- block +p +n-er the wing beam, Kwhich can be ea,ily locate- by the line o/ /itting, attache-L ,o that the,e take the ,train o/ the "@@(MBII5G C9$ I@@ $"I5I5G M"CHI5(@ BC9 loa-. 8o not attempt han-ling a,,emble- wing,, +,ing the po,t, a, carrier,, or by attachment, to the trailing or lea-ing e-ge,. )ig. 1F8 ,how, a goo- manner in which the panel, may be ,hi/te-. he wing, ,ho+l- be /irmly ,+pporte- temporarily by a ,+itable ,ling at the +pper o+ter po,t point Knot beyon- thi, pointL, or by a hor,e, properly blocke- +n-er lower wing at o+ter lower po,t point Knot beyon- thi, pointL, -+ring /itting o/ wing to machine. @ee )ig. 1F9 /or arrangement. he

)ig. 1F9. wing, will ha0e the appro3imate ,tagger i/ a,,emble- a, abo0e, ,ince the po,t, are in place an- the ten,ion cro,, wire, are a-1+,te- to almo,t correct length when ,hippe-.

In,ert the hinge pin, thro+gh the hinge,, locate- at 1 )ig. 1F9, a, now co+ple- +p. C. "-1+,tment /or 8ihe-ral. ; he /+,elage m+,t now be le0ele- +p tran,0er,ely anlongit+-inally. " ,pirit le0el place- acro,, the two engine-be- ,+pport, will -etermine the tran,0er,e con-ition. =ith the le0el place- /ore an- a/t on the longeron,, or on the engine be-,, the longit+-inal le0el i, e,tabli,he-.

8. "-1+,t the ten,ion on the /lying an- lan-ing wire, +ntil the -ihe-ral o/ 1 -egree i, e,tabli,he-, al,o to make the lea-ing an- trailing e-ge, parallel

"rrangement o/B/ocking er/ wQmmQQQQQQmQmQQ )ig. 1MD. an- ,traight. he amo+nt o/ li/t /or the 1--egree -ihe-ral i, B22 inche, in 1< /eet A inche, K-i,tance /rom the inner e-ge o/ the panel to the center-line o+ter po,tL. "n ea,y metho- /or checking the correct a-1+,tment o/ t2 "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! -ihe-r_l i, to place a block B2 inche, high on the +pper gi+/ ace o/ the lomr wing, at the e3treme inner e-ge. " ,traight e-ge re,ting on thi, block an- on the +pper ,+r/ace o/ the wing K,traight e-ge kept parallel to /ront or rear beamL ,ho+l- be le0el. )ig. 1MD. hi, may al,o be checke- by +,ing a light ,pirit le0el, ,+,pen-e- /rom t, ,tring ,tretcheo0er the gi0en range. I/ a block B2 inche, high be -ampe- to the ir+ier e-ge o/ the panel, _n- a line p+lle- ta+t /rom thi, block to the center line o/ the o+ter beam, the le0el ,+,pen-e- ne3t to the block wiZ be e+/@ciently ,en,iti0e to -etermine the re:+ite-2iree o/ -ihe-ral. )ig. 1MD ,how, the arrangement -iagrammatically. I/ the o+ter en- o/ the wing, i, too high, the lan-ing K,ingleL wire, are too ,hort an- the /lying K-o+bleL wire, are too long. Hence, loo,en,ing +p e:+ally on the inner an- o+ter, /ront an- rear @ying K-o+bleL wire,, will correct thi, con-ition. I/ the panel, are too low K-ihe-ral not +p to 1 -P2reeL, re0er,ing the abo0e metho- correct thi, con-ition. 9. "-1i+tmenl /or @tagger-; he ten,ion in the longit+-inal cro,, wire, i, now a-1+,te/or ,tagger. he -i,tance between a pl+mb line -roppe- /rom the lea-ing e-ge o/ the +pper wing an- the lea-ing e-ge o/ the lower

)iZ. 1M1. wing ,ho+l- be 1B2e inche,. I/ the amo+nt i, lea, than 1B!b inche,, the line lea-ing /rote the lower wing /ront ,ocket to the +pper wing rear ,ocket H, too long. Hence, -rawing +p on thi, line an- lengthening o+t on the iro,, line will correct thi, con-ition. I/ the -i,tance b"n 1B2g nche,, re0er,e connection, o/ wire length, K,ee )ig. 1A1L. 1D. Check +p the -ihe-ral to ,ee i/ thi, ha, been -i,t+rbe- while ,etting ,tagger. "l,o check +p with eye the alignment o/ the /ront an- rear beam, an- paralleli,m o/ lea-ing an- trailing e-ge,. I/ the,e are not paiallel, a-1+,tment o/ the lan-ing K,ingleL wire, in the inner bay Kne3t to /+aelageL trill geaeraily correct thi, con-ition. 11. he wing ,ki-, on the +n-er n-e o/ the lower wing ,ho+l- now be /a,tene- to the ,ocket,, -irectl4 +n-er tli\i %M.t\i poeEi,. 1B. Ben- all cotter pin, o+t, an- lock t+mb+ckle, with ,a/ety wire,. hi, latter i, accompli,he- by /ir,t pa,,ing a ,o/t wire thro+gh the eye o/ one ,hank o/ the t+mb+ckle, then win-ing the wire /o+r to /i0e time, abo+t the ,hank, the ,horter, loo,e en- o/ the wire being wrappe- im-er the win-ing,4 then pa,, the /ree en- thro+gh the ,mall hole in the center o/ the barrel, then thro+gh the eye o/ the oppo,ite ,hank, wrapping thi, /ree en- aroim- thi, ,hank an- wire. hi, e//ecti0ely lock, the t+mb+ckle,. 1<. he other ,i-e o/ the machine Kright ,i-eL i, then a,,emble- in the ,ame manner. KBL @econ- Metho- o/ (rectin: #anel, he /ollowing o+tline metho- i, gi0en4 the -etail, o/ han-ling an- a-1+,ting o/ wire, are i-entical with the -etail, gi0en /or the /ir,t metho-N 1. In,ert ma,t, Kcabane,L into ,ocket, an- connect ma,t wire, to anchor terminal,. "-1+,t ten,ion o/ ma,t wire, +ntil beam, are ,traight. B. Connect +pper panel to engine ,ection an- bolt +pper en- o/ ,tr+t, into /itting,. <. 'ack +p wing tip o/ +pper panel ,o that lower panel can be connecte-. F. C'onnect lower panel to /+,elage. M. CkLnnect acro,, -iagonal wire,. A. Bolt lower en-, o/ ,tr+t, into /itting, on lower wing. C. Connect lan-ing K,ingleL wire,. 8. Connect /lying K-o+bleL wire,. 9. #rocee- in like manner with other ,i-e o/ machine. 1D. $emo0e 1ack, an- le0el /+,elage longit+-inally an- tran,0er,ely. 11. "-1+,t ten,ion on lan-ing K,ingleL an- /lying K-o+bleL wire, +ntil the -ihe-ral i, 1 -egree4 lea-ing an- trailing e-ge, are parallel an- ,traight. 1B. "-1+,t ten,ion on -iagonal wire, +ntil ,tagger i, 1B2A inche,. 1<. "ttach wing ,ki-,. 1F. Ben- cotter pin, an- ,a/ety wire t+mb+ckle,.

11. "ileron "-1+,tment "ttach both aileron, Kone on each ,i-e o/ machine, a/ter ha0ing mo+nte- control brace, to aileron,L an- /a,ten pin, o/ hinge, with the nece,,ary cotter pin,. emporarily ,+pport aileron, ,o that their trailing e-gea are 1 inch hehw the trailing e-ge, o/ the +pper panel,. hen connect +p the /le3ible tie-line that, pa,,ing o0er the top o/ the +pper wing,, thro+gh /airlea-,, i, connecte- at the center by a t+rnb+ckle, an-, pa,,ing thro+gh p+lley, attache- to the +pper ,+r/ace, /ront beam, i, attache- Kby ,hackle anpinL to the +pper control brace o/ the aileron. hi, HHlea-HH i, allowe-, ,o that Y when in /light, the /orce o/ the li/t will ,omewhat rai,e both aileron, an- bring their trailing e-ge, on a line with the trailing e-ge, o/ the panel,. 5ow lea- the en- o/ the aileron control line attache- to bri-ge thro+gh the hole in each ,i-e o/ the /+,elage Kbetween /ront an- rear ,eat,L. 9ncoil the connecting line which pa,,e, o0er the p+lley attache- to the lower ,+r/ace o/ the +pper wing, near the /ront o+ter po,t. "ttach ,hackle an- pin en- to lower control brace o/ aileron, an- attach t+mb+ckle en- to loop o/ aileron control lea- attache- to bri-ge Kan- which pa,,e, thro+gh ,i-e o/ /+,elageL. In making thi, la,t attachment, the lea-, ,ho+l- be ,o arrange- Kby mo0ing the wheel on the bri-geL that the length, pro1ecting thro+gh the /+,elage are e:+al. 1B. $+--er Control "-1+,tment 9ncoil the line, attache- to the r+--er bar, to lea- o+t thro+gh the +pper ,+r/ace o/ the rear en- o/ the /+,elage co0er, an-, keeping the r+--er control bar at right angle, to the longit+-inal a3i, o/ the machine, /a,ten the en-, ot the control brace,. 5e3t take +p the ,lack o/ the line,, by mean, o/ the t+rnb+ckle,, a-1+,ting the ten,ion e:+ally in each ,et4 the r+--er control bar K/oot control barL ,ho+l- remain at right angle, to the longit+-inal a3i,, when the r+--er i, ne+tral Kor in a 0ertical plane thro+gh thi, /ore ana/t a3i,L. 1<. (le0ator Control "-1+,tment emporarily maintain the ele0ator, in the plane o/ the hori>ontal ,tabili>er Kne+tral po,itionL. Mo0e the 9-bri-ge, )ig. 1MB, /orwar- +ntil the -i,tance between the in,tr+ment boar- an- the nearer ,+r/ace o/ the t+be o/ the bri-ge i, 9 inche,. By /i3ing thi, -i,tance /rom the in,tr+ment boar- or -a,h to the back o/ the bri-ge, a ,light lea- i, gi0en to the control, /or the greater range /or rai,ing the ele0ator,. 5ow +ncoil the wire, lea-ing /rom the clip, attache- to the ,i-e, o/ the bri-ge, an- coile- +p a/t the pilotH, ,eat. #a,, the wire attache- to the lower clip, o+t thro+gh the ,i-e o/ the /+,elage, thro+gh the lower o/ the two 0ertical hole,, a/t o/ the pilotH, ,eat. =ith the bri-ge la,he-, or /a,tene- to the 9-inch po,ition, connect thi, wire to the +pper control brace o/ the ele0ator. $epeat operation /or other ,i-e o/ machine. @imilarly the wire attache- to +pper clip on 9-bri-ge i, pa,,e- thro+gh the +pper hole in /+,elage ,i-e, an- attache- to the lower control brace o/ the ele0ator. )a,ten the /le3ible t+bing /airlea-, on the +pper brace control wire to the lea-ing e-ge o/ the hori>ontal ,tabili>er. )ig. 1AB ,how, the general arrangement o/ the control,. "-1+,t ten,ion in the,e wire,, by "@@(MBII5G C9$ I@@ $"I5I5G M"CHI5(@

Cli2H "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%!

"@@(MBII5G C9$ I@@ $"I5I5G M"CHI5(@ B8M

9M % ,Joi-/i mean, o/ t+rnlL+cklc,, ,o that all line, ha0e the ,ame -egree o/ ta+tne,,. he ele0ator, will then lLe ne+tral /or thi, po,ition o/ the bri-ge. )ig,. 1MF an- 1MM ,how ,i-e an- /ront 0iew, o/ the a,,emble- machine. 1F. General "ll connection, ha0ing now been ma-e, care/+lly go o0er each ,hackle, pin ant+mb+cklc, an- ,ee that all pin, are properly in place, all n+t, on bolt, tight, an- all cotter-pinne-. ry o+t all control, /or action an- /ree-om o/ mo0ement. @ec that no brace wire, are ,lack, yet not ,o ta+t that, when pl+cke-, they J,ing.J "ttach n+,c wire, lea-ing /rom no,e o/ machine to interme-iate po,t,, /ront an- rear.

he lower wire connect, +p with the lower /ront ,ocket, on the +pper ,+r/ace o/ the lower panel4 the +pper wire connect, +p with the +pper-rear ,ocket plate on the +n-er ,i-e o/ the +pper panel, a/ter the panel, are attahce- to /+,elage, with ,tagger an-ihe-ral properly correcte-. @(C I%5 EE G(5($"I 8IM(5@I%5@ %) $"I5I5G M"CHI5(@ " goo- i-ea o/ the general -imen,ion, o/ training machine, may be ha- /rom the ill+,tration, in )ig,. 1MM to 1M8 incl+,i0e. hi, ,how, a ,lightly mo-i/ie- C+rti,, machine which ha, pro0e- 0ery ,+cce,,/+l in preliminary training work. he large ,i-e 0iew, )ig. 1MM, ,how, the general appearance o/ the machine an- gi0e, it, main -imen,ion,. he appearance o/ the machine /rom the /ront, together with the lea-ing -imen,ion,, i, ,hown in )ig. 1MA, while a top 0iew, ,howing the po,ition an- proportion o/ the aileron,, i, gi0en in )ig. 1MC. he Briti,h an- Cana-ian /lier, pre/er the GG,tickHH control, a, ,hown in )ig. 1M8, to the wheel or GG8epHH control, /or all e3cept the hea0ie,t machine,. he -etail, o/ thi, control, a, in,talle- on the -+al, or -o+ble control machine,, i, clearly ,hown an- it, operation can be ea,ily trace-. " /ore-an--a/t mo0ement o/ either ,tick control, the ele0ator, by which the machine i, ma-e to either a,cen- or -e,cen-. " ,i-e mo0ement o/ the ,tick operate, the aileron, an- maintain, the balance or ai-, in t+rning by pre0enting ,ki--ing an- ,i-e ,lip. @teering i, -one by the /oot bar ,hown.

@(C I%5 EEI H%= H( J(6(@J %) H( "$M6 =%$! =e rea- o/ the airplane being the eye, o/ the army, b+t /ew o/ +, reali>e what thi, really mean,. he ol- metho-, o/ ob,er0ation /rom ,ome high point or e0en /rom a capti0e balloon are ne3t to impo,,ible in thi, greate,t o/ all war,, a, the balloon ,tan-, 0ery little chance again,t the ,wi/t airplane, either in -irect attack or in gi0ing the range to the g+nner, by wirele,,. Con,e:+ently it i, e3tremely intere,ting to know how the,e mo-ern eye, -o their work. (0erything i, time-, an- time- acc+rately, /rom a pre-etermine- ho+r, which i, known a, the J>ero o/ the -ay.J hi, >ero may be at any ho+r or /raction o/ an ho+r ,et by the comman-er. hi, plan ren-er, it e3tremely -i/l@c+lt /or any ,py to get in/ormation to

the enemy, e0en i/ he know, the or-er,4 /or +nle,, he al,o know, the >ero /rom which the operation, are all time-, the in/ormation wo+l- be o/ little 0al+e. =hen a battery comman-er -e,ire, acc+rate in/ormation a, to any ob1ect he wi,he, to ,hell, he comm+nicate, with hi, air ba,e. hen a ,potting plane, carrying an ob,er0er, goe, +p at the proper time to a height o/ 1M,DDD /eet, thi, being the +,+al ob,er0ation height at pre,ent. he climb may take <D min+te,, /or the,e ,potting plane, are not o/ the /a,te,t an- are not /ighting machine, in many ca,e,. Ha0ing reache- the 1M,DDD-/oot le0el, the pilot g+i-e, hi, machine in long o0al,, or elongate- letter %H,, o0er the place the g+nner, want to reach. , He arrange, hi, o0al, ,o that the long ,i-e o/ the letter % i, in the -irection o/ the win-. hi, proce-+re enable, the ob,er0er to make hi, ob,er0ation while the plane i, at it, ,low ,pee- in going again,t the win- an- to +tili>e the other part o/ the o0al /or ,en-ing hi, wirele,, me,,age, to the g+n comman-er. In thi, way the g+nner i, kept con,tantly in/orme- a, to each ,hot, i/ it be long-range work, an- the ,potting plane o/ten ,tay, in the air /or B or < ho+r, while a certain po,ition i, being -emoli,he-, to be calle- -own at the -i,cretion o/ the comman-er, i/ it i, not /orce- -own. 9@I5G C"M($"@ % I%C" ( HI88(5 B" ($I(@

B+t thi, work o/ ob,er0ation i, not a, ea,y a, the -e,cription may ,o+n-. =ith care/+lly conceale- batterie,, it i, 0ery -i//ic+lt to locate them acc+rately /rom ,+ch a height, which i, nearly < mile,N he ob,er0er i, /+rni,he- with map, o/ the co+ntry, which are ma-e in mo,t ca,e, /rom pre0io+, photograph, taken by other ob,er0er,. =ith the,e a, a g+i-e, the ob,er0er take, many photograph, with a ,pecial camera, either thro+gh the bottom o/ the plane or o0er the ,i-e. he,e camera, ha0e len,e, o/ three -i//erent /ocal length,, BD, AD an- 1BD centimeter,, to be +,e- in accor-ance with the work in han-. he ,horter-/oc+, camera nat+rally take, a 0ery wi-e angle with a corre,pon-ingly ,mall ob1ect an- may not -i,co0er the thing -e,ire-, which i, the hi--en battery that i, keeping :+iet to a0oi- re0ealing it, po,ition. hen the ,econ- len, i, trie-, gi0ing a /ielo/ abo+t 8DD ,:+are /eet at the height o/ 1M,DDD /eet. It i, the len, mo,t +,e- /or thi, plotting work. By taking photograph, that lap o0er each other, a 0ery complete topography may be worke- o+t. I/ the hi--en battery i, not ,hown, the longe,t len, i, +,e-, which greatly enlarge, the ,i>e o/ the ob1ect an- +,+ally allow, the enemyH, g+n, to be picke- o+t. @ho+l- thi, /ail, howe0er, a, happene- at 6pre,, where a battery o/ big g+n, were ,creene- with won-er/+l care an- co+l- not be -i,co0ere- e0en with the long-/oc+, len,, the mo,t -angero+, work o/ the a0iator become, nece,,ary. hi, ta,k con,i,t, in /lying low eno+gh to allow the ob,er0er to pick o+t the battery with power/+l /iel- gla,,e,. =hen we reali>e that antiG aircra/t g+n, ,ometime, bother a man at 1B,DDD /eet an- e0en higher, the ha>ar- entaile- in /lying a, low a, BDDD /eet2 or e0en lower at time,, can be +n-er,too-. 6et thi, /eat ,ometime, become, nece,,ary, e0en at the lo,, o/ one or more machine,4 /or i/ the g+n, are not -i,co0erean- ,ilence-, it may entail the lo,, o/ h+n-re-, o/ troop, an- may mean the /ail+re to capt+re a certain po,ition. @o care/+lly i, thi, work o/ plotting -one an- ,o many are the photograph, taken in important ,ection, o/ the /ront that the ob,er0er become, ,o / ami9ar with the co+ntry an- it, inhabitant, that he can pick o+t certain -ot, that he know, are men4 an- he can tell what the per,on i, -oing an- where he i, going, a,,+ming o/ co+r,e that he i, p+r,+ing hi, reg+lar ta,k,.

'+,t a, the pre,ence o/ o+r J,potterJ o0er the enemy i, o/ great 0al+e to o+r ,i-e, ,o i, it corre,pon-ingly in1+rio+, to the other4 an- the /a,t /ighting plane, o/ the enemy try to -ri0e him -own in or-er that the artillery may not ha0e thi, -ea-ly an- acc+rate eye o0er their po,ition,. o protect the a0iator at hi, po,t, the /a,t /ighting machine, o/ hi, own army o/ten /ly high abo0e the ,potting plane, ,o a, to be able to ,woop -own on an enemy be/ore he can -i,t+rb the ,potter. It i, the,e enco+nter,, protecting oneH, own ,potter, an- -ri0ing -own the ,potter, o/ the enemy, which gi0e the real air battle, anwhich o+tri0al the wil-e,t /ancie, o/ the great -reamer o/ year, ago, '+le, 7erne. @ome o/ the,e battle, are almo,t +nbelie0able an- will /orm ,ome o/ the mo,t thril9ng anec-ote, o/ the war. @(C I%5 EEII H( C"5"8I"5 $"I5I5G C"M# " B%$8(5 he air-rome, or /lying /iel-, at Camp Hoare, which a-1oin, the in/antry camp at Camp Bor-en, %ntario, Cana-a, i, an e3cellent e3ample o/ what can be -one to -e0elop a /lying /iel- :+ickly when nece,,ity re:+ire,. hi, partic+lar tract o/ abo+t 8FD acre, i, locate- in a co+ntry in which a ,an-y ,oil pre-ominate, an- wa, co0ere- with h+n-re-, o/ tree, an- ,t+mp, when the /ir,t ,tep, were taken to con0ert it into a /lying /iel-. he /ir,t engineer, arri0e- early in )ebr+ary o/ thi, year, when there wa, < /eet o/ ,now on the gro+n- an- the temperat+re wa, ho0ering aro+n- BDr below >ero. he ,t+mp, were p+lle- o+t, the gro+n- wa, le0ele- into comparati0e ,moothne,,, an/lying commence- in B month,H time. hi, in0ol0e- more than the clearing o/ the /iel-, /or hangar,, machine ,hop,, o/l@ce,, commo-io+, :+arter, /or the ,t+-ent, ano/l@cer,, me,, hall, an- cheer/+l rea-ing an- lo+nging room, ha- to be erecte-. $ela3ation i, a, nece,,ary a, ,tren+o+, app9cation in the ,t+-y an- practice o/ the airmanH, art. )+rthermore, gra,, ha, been coa3e- into e3i,tence o0er nearly the entire /iel-. here are 1M hangar,, each accommo-ating ,i3 machine, an- containing one room /or ,tore, an- another /or clothing an- /itting, /or the ,t+-ent, a,,igne- to that hangar. here are al,o o/l@ce, /or each ,:+a-ron where all recor-, are kept, a, well a, the general /iel- o/l@ice an- 0ario+, in,tr+ction room, where the intricacie, o/ the airplane engine, the machine gim, air photography, mapping, -irecting battery /ire, wirele,, anthe 0ario+, acti0itie, with which the mo-ern military a0iator m+,t be /amiliar are ta+ght. $epair ,hop, /or engine, an- plane,; /or ,al0aging whate0er may be +,able /rom wreck,;a black,mith ,hop, te,ting ,tan-,, an- ga,o9ne ,torage an- garage, go to make +p the intere,ting whole. Ii2ach o/ the 1M hangar, Kone o/ which i, ,hown in the hea-ing ill+,trationL i, 1BD by AA /eet an- i, ma-e with lattice- woo-en roo/ tr+,,e, that ,pan the whole ,tr+ct+re ,o a, to lea0e the interior /ree /or the accommo-ation o/ machine,. he hangar, co0er a ,pace o/ abo+t b mile on one ,i-e o/ the /lying /iel-. Back o/ the,e, ,eparate- by a concrete roa-, are the ,hop,, o//ice,, garage,, technical ,tore,, in,tr+ction room,, etc. he :+arter, /or the o//icer,, ,t+-ent, an- mechanic, are perhap, y2i or b mile away, ,o a, to make the rela3ation a, complete a, po,,ible. )+rthermore, a, /ar a, po,,ible, ,hop talk i, tabooe/rom the table an- lo+nging room,. ("CH @Z9"8$%5 H"@ 18 M"CHI5(@ (ach ,:+a-ron con,i,t, o/ 18 machine,, an- con,e:+ently occ+pie, three hangar,. (ach ,i3 machine, i, known a, a J/light.J here are /i0e ,:+a-ron, to thi, /iel-, making 9D

machine, all tol-, o/ which abo+t AD per cent, are kept in cKMn-mi,,ion at all.time,. (ach ,:+a-ron i, compo,e- o/ abo+t 1MD ,t+-ent,, or ca-et,, who are gra-+ate- a, they become pro/icient an- are then rea-y to go o0er,ea, /or a--itional training on the type, o/ machine, +,e- on the battle /ront. he,e men lea0e in cla,,e, or gro+p, o/ BM or <D, at the -i,cretion o/ the comman-ing o//icer, ,o that there are alway, new an- ol- ,t+-ent, at the /iel-, a//or-ing new ,t+-ent, the bene/it o/ ob,er0ing tho,e who ha0e ha- more e3perience. he /i0e ,:+a-ron, at Camp Hoare re:+ire a total o/ abo+t CBD men, 1MD o/ whom are the mechanic, employe- in the repair, -i0i,ion,. (ach ,:+a-ron ha, it, traine- gro+p +n-er a lea-er, who may be calle- a /oreman with the title o/ corporal. he men in each gro+p -i,mantle wrecke- machine,, take o// C"5"8I"5 $"I5I5G C"M# " B%$8(5 B9C an- replace wing, or other parte, get the machine, to the repair ,hop, or hangar, anotherwi,e a,,i,t in keeping the machine, o/ their ,:+a-ron in /lying con-ition. he way in which the,e men han-le -amage- part, ,how, the training they ha0e ha- a, well a, their a-aptability in new line, o/ en-ea0or, /or only a /ew o/ them were ,kille- in thi, work pre0io+, to their enli,tment. " /ew are /rom (ngli,h /iel-,, while a ,till ,maller n+mber ha0e ,een ,er0ice behin- the /ighting line, in )rance an- ,o know e3actly what the con-ition, are at the /ront. he,e men a,,i,t greatly in the training o/ new men anare -o+btle,, largely re,pon,ible /or the ,y,tematic manner in which the work i, han-le- at the camp. @%M( %) H( JC$"@H(@J wo typical training-camp Jcra,he,J are ,hown in )ig,. 1M9 an- 1AD, an- the way in which the wrecking crew get, to work

remin-, one o/ the men at the repair pit, in a long--i,tance a+tomobile race. (0ery man know, hi, partic+lar 1ob an- ,tart, to work a, ,oon a, he reache, the machine. he,e cra,he, are nearly alway, the re,+lt o/ poor lan-ing, rather than o/ /all, -+e to engine /ail+re or lo,ing control o/ the machine in the air. %n thi, acco+nt the breakage, are comparati0ely light, altho+gh con,i-erable -amage i, -one in any ca,e, a, can be ,een /rom the ill+,tration,. In making a balan-ing the /ront

en- o/ the machine +,+ally -rop,4 the wheel, ,trike the gro+n- with eno+gh /orce to cr+mple the ,tr+t, that go /rom the a3le to the /+,elage or bo-y, the wheel, are /orceback +n-er the

lower plane, an- -amage them in ,ome way or other, the propeller, or Jprop,J a, it i, calle- /or ,hort, -ig, into the gro+n- an- break, o//, an- the whole thing look, m+ch more ba-ly C"5"8I"5 $"I5I5G C"M# " B%$8(5 B99 -ampe- than i, act+ally the ca,e. )ig. 1A1 ,how, the wheel, -ri0en back +n-er the plane,. ", ,oon a, a machine ,trike, the gro+n- the crew ,tart, a/ter it with a repair kit, an- in a /ew min+te, the wing, are o//, a, I'C((B in )ig. 1AB, an- the machine i, on it, way to the hangar, +nle,, the -amage i, im+,+ally ,erio+,. Generally the wheel, -o not cr+mple, ,o they can be +,e- a, a tr+ck /or rolling the machine

acro,, the /iel-, a, in )ig. 1A<. I/ the lan-ing ha, ha- eno+gh ,i-ewi,e motion to cr+mple the wheel,, b+t not eno+gh to ,erio+,ly -amage the a3le, new wheel, can be p+t on /or rolling the I "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! %n thi, acco+nt the breakage, are comparati0ely light, altho+gh con,i-erable -amage i, -one in any ca,e, a, can be /rom the ill+,tration,. In making a ba- lan-ing the /ront 2 I

en- o/ the machine +,+ally -rop,4 the wheele ,trike the gro+n- with eno+gh /orce to cr+mple the ,tr+t, that go /rom the a3le to the /+,elage or bo-y, the wheel, are /orceback +n-er the

lower plane, an- -amage them in ,ome way or other, the i pelli , calle- /or ,hort, -ig, into the gro+n- an- break, o@, an- the whole thing look, m+ch more ba-l1n ler, or prop, -amage- than i, act+ally the ca,e. )ig. 1A1 ,how, the wheel, -ri0en back +n-er the plane,. ", ,oon a, a machine ,trilce, the gro+n- the crew ,tart, a/ter it with a repair kit, an- in a /ew min+te, the wing, are o//, a,

in )ig. 1AB, an- the machine i, on it, way to the hangar, +nle,, the -amage i, +n+,+ally ,erio+,. Generally the wheel, -o not 1r+mple, ,o they can be +,e- a, a tr+ck /or rolling the machine

acro,, the /iel-, a, in )ig. 1A<. I/ the lan-ing ha, ha- eno+gh ,i-ewi,e motion to cr+mple the wheel,, b+t not eno+gh to ,erio+,ly -amage the a3le, new wheel, can be p+t on /or rolh+g the machine4 b+t i/ thi, cannot be -one, a tr+ck that i, attache- to each ,:+a-ron goe, a/ter the machine an- cart, it to the hangar. H( M% %$ $"5@#%$ I ((8(8 (ach ,:+a-ron ha, a tran,port +nit o/ it, own, ho+,e- in a garage behin- it, ,ection o/ the hangar,, con,i,ting o/ one #ackar- motor tr+ck o/ <-ton capacity, two light ten-er, K@t+-e-bakcr ,i3-cylin-er cha,,i, with a ,i-e-,eate- bo-y to carry eight or ten menL, two In-ian motorcycle, an- one ,i-e car. In ca,e a machine ha, to make a /orce- lan-ing o+t,i-e the air-rome an- ,+//er, ,ome -am(2e -oing ,o, the ,:+a-ron com-

man-er i, noti/ie-, an- he -i,patche, the tr+ck with ,+ch part, a, may be nee-e- to make repair, in the /iel- tc2ether with a ten-er an- eno+gh men to -o the work. In ca,e the machine cannot be repaire-, the men -i,mantle it, loa- it on the tr+ck an- carry it back to the hangar, repair ,hop or ,al0age ,hop, -epen-ing on it, con-ition. he training machine, weigh abo+t BDDD po+n-,, m+ch o/ thi, weight being at the /ront, ,o that when it become, nece,,ary to p+t the /+,elage, or /rame, on a tr+ck con,i-erable li/ting ha, to be -one. "n in,tance o/ thi, i, ,hown in )ig. 1AF, where the /+,elage wa, broken in lan-ing, a, were al,o the lower plane, an- the propeller. "/ter remo0ing the wing,, the tr+ck wa, broi2bt on the /iel- an- backe- into po,ition in /ront o/ the engine. hen, while the /ront wa, being li/te- by the ai- o/ ,cantling, lai- +n-er the engine, the tr+ck wa, backe- +n-er care/+lly an- the /ront o/ the /+,elage loa-e- on the tr+ck. he rear en-, with it, +n-amage- r+--er, ,tabili>er, an- ele0ating plane,, wa, kept o@ the gro+n-, the

remain, being taken to the hangar /or /+rther -i,manthng. In thi, in,tance the /+,elage wa, a total wreck, tho+gh the engine wa, not ,erio+,ly -amage-. "/ter the engine an,+ch o/ the rear en- a, i, ,een to be +n-amage- are remo0e-, the re,t goe, to the ,al0age ,hop /or com//lteH/t plete -i,mantling. he t+rnb+ckle,, the cable, with their eye, an- loop, an- all ,mall part, which are +,able or which ha0e ,crap 0al+e are ,a0e- an- p+t into ,pecial bin,. #lane, that can be repaire- go to the wing ,hop, an- i/ only one longeron or main /rame piece o/ the /+,elage i, broken, the /rame can be repaire- by p+tting in a new piece or part o/ a piece, a, ,hown in )ig. 1AM. I/ a main ,par i, broken in a wing, it i, not con,i-ere- a-0i,able to attempt a repair, a, when a wing ha, ha- ,+//icient ,hock to break a ,par it i, more than likely that all the other member, ha0e been ,tre,,e- beyonthe ,a/ety point. $a-iator, are liable to be -amage- in cra,he, o/ almo,t any kin-, an e3ample o/ thi, being ,hown in )ig. 1AA, where the plane /ell \i+ite a -i,tance. )ort+nately there were no /atalitie,. )or ,+ch repair, a, can be ma-e, a part o/ the black,mith ,hop i, /itte- with ,heet-metal ,hear,, roll, an- ,ol-ering apparat+,, a, well a, an o3yacetylene wel-ing an- bra>ing o+t/it /or ,+ch c+tting an- wel-ing a, maybe nece,,ary. here i, al,o a tire 0+lcani>er, a, the problem o/ keeping pne+matic tire, an- t+be, in goo- con-ition i, 0ery ,erio+, at time,. ", with the a+tomobile, nothing ha, yet been

/o+n-, that e:+al, an air c+,hion between the earth an- the machine ,+ch a, /+rni,heby tire,. "/ter MD ho+r, in the air Kan acc+rate recor- i, kept o/ e0ery plane an- e0ery engineL, the engine i, e3amine- witho+t taking it o+t o/ the machine. (0ery cylin-er i, taken o//, the pi,ton,

are ,cr+tini>e-, the play in the pi,ton an- crankpin i, note-, the carbon i, ,crape- /rom the pi,ton, an- cylin-er,, the 0al0e, are gro+n-, an- the engine i, p+t in goo- ,hape /or /+rther r+nning. )ig. 1AC ,how, thi, being -one an- al,o the manner in which the part, are kept ,eparate in the bo3 on the /loor. "/ter 1DD to 1MD ho+r,, i/ nothing el,e ha, happene- to make repair, nece,,ary, the engine i, remo0e- /rom the machine, taken to the engine repair ,hop an- thoro+ghly o0erha+le-. hi, incl+-e, taking o// connecting ro-, to e3amine bearing,, replacing with new metal i/ nece,,ary Kwhich i, nearly alway, the ca,eL, e3amining /or connecting-ro- crack,, in,talling new pi,ton ring, ,ho+l- the,e be re:+ire- an-, in /act, p+tting the engine in practically a, goo- con-ition a, when new. 2 i 2r )or hol-ing the engine,, in,tea- o/ the re0ol0ing ,tan-, ,+ch a, are +,e- in the /actorie, where they are b+ilt, the engine ba,e i, bolte- to two ,+b,tantial woo- ,trip,, abo+t B by <, with the en-, pro1ecting ,+//iciently to hol- them on /rame, at each en-. he,e ,tick, ha0e han-le, on the en-,, th+, making it ea,y to ,hi/t the engine, /rom one po,ition to another K,ee )ig. 1A8L /or the con0enience o/ the workman. %ne o/ the -anger, o/ a /orce- lan-ing, with the atten-ant cra,h, i, the ben-ing o/ the engine crank,ha/t when the propeller ,trike, the gro+n- or the engine it,el/ no,e, into the earth too -eeply. =hen thi, occ+r, the engine i, ,ent to the main repair ,hop, in oronto2 where there are /acilitie, /or ,traightening the ,ha/t, an- p+tting them in ,hape again. =here the ,ha/t i, not bent an- the repair, can be ma-e at Camp Hoare, the ro-, are /itte- with the crank,ha/t hel- a, ,hown in )ig. 1A9. hi, i, a ,imple clamping -e0ice place- on the bench, /or hol-ing the ,ha/t /rom t+rning while the o+ter en- i, ,+pporte- a, ,hown. In thi, way it i, m+ch ea,ier to /it the ro-, than i/ the ,ha/t wa, on the bench, a, the ro-, may be ,wimg all the way aroim- the ,ha/t ,o a, to /eel the /it in all po,ition,. It i, one o/ the little ,hop -e0ice, that make /or :+icker an- ea,ier work. )(= (5GI5( )"II9$(@ he motor ,hop ha, ten benche, an- a ,mall machine e:+ipment, thi, being ample to keep 9D machine, in operation a, /ar a, the engine en- i, concerne-. )rom the motor ,hop the rea,,emble- engine goe, to the te,ting ,tan-, )ig. 1CD, behin- the black,mith ,hop, being rolle- o+t on a pair o/ lan-ing wheel, connecte- by an a3le an- con,tit+ting a 0ery ,imple tr+ck /or the p+rpo,e. he engine i, r+n on the ,tan- /or a hal/ ho+r an- i, then p+t back into ,er0ice. It i, grati/ying to note that engine /ail+re, are /ew an- /ar between, altho+gh con,tant care i, nece,,ary to maintain magneto,, ,park pl+g, an,imilar part, at ma3im+m e//iciency ,o there will be no /ail+re while in the air. he lan-ing wheel, are o/ wire an- weigh m+ch le,, than might be ,+ppo,e-. hey are co0ere- with cloth to re-+ce win- re,i,tance while in the air, thi, co0ering being p+t on in the ,hape o/ cloth -i,c, that come o0er the e-ge o/ the rim. he,e -i,c,, in a--ition to being cemente- to the rim, are hel- by the bea- o/ the clincher tire, +,e-. he wheel,, be/ore an- a/ter co0ering, are ,hown in )ig. 1C1. o maintain the ,+pply o/ wheel, /or a training camp i, ,omething o/ a problem, a, the n+mber o/ breakage,, or ,+ch -amage a, p+t, a wheel or tire temporarily o+t o/ commi,,ion, 0arie, within wi-e limit,. In 1 month, /or e3ample, only BD wheel, were re:+ire- to keep all the a0ailable machine, o/ one ,:+a-ron in oommi,,ion /or 8DD /lying ho+r,. In the /ir,t C -ay, o/ the

ne3t month BF wheel, wore +,e- -+ring BMD /lying ho+r,, an epi-emic o/ ba- lan-ing, being re,pon,ible /or the -i//erence. ", abo+t AD per cent, o/ the machine, are in commi,,ion on the

a0erage, thi, mconi2 only two wheel, each a month in the /ir,t ca,e an- abo+t ten wheel, per machine /or the ne3t month. !((#I5G "CC9$" ( $(C%$8@ It i, important in a training camp to maintain acc+rate an- a-e:+ate recor-,, an- the way in which thi, i, -one at Camp Hoare i, impre,,i0e in it, thoro+ghne,, ancompletene,,. (ach ,:+a-ron comman-er keep, an "cc+rate recor- o/ the per/ormance o/ each man an- each machine in hi, charge. (0ery /light i, recor-e-, /rom the time a man lea0e, the gro+n- till he ret+rn,, an- the -ata are cre-ite- both to the man an- to the machine. (0ery ho+r the engine r+n, i, recor-e-, both to in,+re it, being oile- at the proper time an- to pre0ent it /rom being r+n /or more than MD ho+r, be/ore +n-ergoing the /ir,t e3amination. "/ter 1B ho+r, o/ r+nning, the oil i, emptie- /rom the crank ca,e an- new oil p+t in it, place. hi, recor- i, kept in each hangar /or the machine, that belong there, a boar- with ,mall clock -ial, an- ,+itable han-, being +,e- /or thi, p+rpo,e. he engine repair ,hop keep, it recor- o/ repair, an- o/ the progre,, o/ the,e repair, on a boar- /itte- with hook, an- metal -i,c,. here i, a col+mn /or each ,tep in the repair work an- ,+//icient room to ,how all the engine, that can be ,ent thro+gh the ,hop at one time. he -i,c, are colore- -i//erently on the two ,i-e,, the light ,i-e in-icating that nothing ha, been -one or that the work i, not complete-, while the -ark ,i-e appearing in any col+mn ,how, that thi, portion o/ work ha, been complete-. In thi, way the ,tat+, o/ any engine in the ,hop can be rea-ily known at a glance. )rom a ,+r0ey o/ the

boar- it can be ,een what engine, are behin- /or one rea,on or another, an- men can be taken /rom one engine to h+rry another along ,ho+l- thi, be -eeme- -e,irable /or any rea,on. he 0ario+, recor-, are ,+mmari>e- in the o//ice o/ the comman-ing o//icer. Ma1or D. 8. )illey, in ,+ch a way that he can tell almo,t at a glance the con-ition o/ the entire e:+ipment. Co0ering one ,i-e o/ hi, o//ice i, a rack that remin-, one o/ the ,y,tem employe- in many railroa- ,hop, to ,how the con-ition o/ the locomoti0e, or rolling ,tock a, well a, it, -i,po,ition along the many -i0i,ion, o/ the roa-. "mong other in/ormation the boar- ,how, the con-ition o/ e0ery airplane in the camp, whether it i, in /lying con-ition or whether it, i-lene,, i, ca+,e- by the engine or the plane not being rea-y. It ,how, the progre,, o/ each ,t+-ent an- 1+,t what part o/ hi, co+r,e o/ in,tr+ction he i, engage- in, an- gi0e, the comman-ing o//icer a general i-ea o/ the work o/ the entire camp. Chart, on the ,i-e wall, gi0e ,+mmarie, o/ the total ho+r, /lown at the ,chool each -ay, week an- month, the work -one by each ,:+a-ron an- each ,t+-ent, an- ,+ch other in/ormation a, help, in the planning o/ in,tr+ction an- mechanical -etail,. $ecor-, are al,o kept o/ each ca-etH, per/ormance in wirele,,, in -irecting g+n/ire, in photographing prominent po,ition, on the earth, in han-ling the machine g+n in the air an- all the other article, with which they m+,t be /amiliar. $"I5I5G "7I" %$@ )%$ H( B$I I@H "$M6 )ew o/ +, appreciate, when we rea- o/ the -aring e3ploit, o/ an a0iator on the battle /ront in )rance, 1+,t what he -oe, /rom -ay to -ay an- 1+,t what he ha, to know. 5or ha0e we e0en a /aint i-ea o/ the training which a military a0iator m+,t +n-ergo in the,e -ay,. he ,chooling which an a0iator m+,t to thro+gh to-ay i, -i//erent /rom what wa, re:+ire- o/ him only a /ew year, ago, ,o rapi- ha0e been the -e0elopment, on the we,tern /ront. %nly < year, ago the military a0iator wa, a mere theory4 there wa, no -e/inite conception a, to hi, -+tie, e3cept that he wa, to /ly an- ,ee what he co+l- o/ the enemy line,, with an occa,ional bomb--ropping mi,,ion. o-ay, howe0er, hi, whole ,tat+, ha, change-, an- he i, perhap, the mo,t 0er,atile per,onage in the whole army. =e are apt to think o/ the a0iator a, a ,ort o/ ,pecial cha+//e+r, ,+ch a, we might /in- at the wheel o/ a /a,t racing car;a man ,kille- in -ri0ing an- with ner0e eno+gh to take chance, with -eath in or-er to win the race. B+t ,+ch a -ri0er i, an amateiir in compari,on with the mi9tary a0iator, /or the mere piloting o/ the airplane i, b+t a minor part o/ the -+tie, o/ the military pilot. he mo-em a0iator m+,t not only be ,kille- in g+i-ing hi, machine;an- thi, incl+-e, all the trick, o/ looping, /alling another mane+0er, to get away /rom or to mi,lea- the enemy; b+t he m+,t be an e3pert with the machine g+n, m+,t im-er,tan- wirele,, telegraphy, m+,t operate ,pecial camera, /or ob,er0ation, an- map making, m+,t be a na0igator in,o/ar a, it come, to /l<ring by compa,, an- /ollowing ro+te, lai- o+t /rom place to place, m+,t learn to -epen- on the compa,,, to 1+-ge -i,tance, o/ cannon range an- correct the g+nner, when their range i, inacc+rate. In a--ition to all thi, the mo-ern /lier m+,t become /amiliar with the theorie, o/ a0iation, learn to know engine, an- their tro+ble,, an- la,t, b+t not lea,t, be thoro+ghly /amiliar with military -i,cipline in all it, -etail,. )or when the ,+cce,, o/ a whole engagement may -epen- +pon all the 0ario+, +nit, cooperating acc+rately an- e3actly, it i, o+t o/ the :+e,tion to ha0e the a0iator or any other important /actor get to hi, po,t M or 1D min+te, late beca+,e he -i- not appreciate the nece,,ity o/ obeying or-er, e3actly

an- to the min+te. "n- thi, i, all the more ,triking when we con,i-er that the age, o/ the be,t a0iator, 0ary /rom 18 to BM, age, which -o not +,+ally re,pon- to -eman-, /or haran- /a,t -i,cipline in any line. H%= "7I" %$@ "$( $"I5(8 Can-i-ate, /or the a0iation corp, come /rom ci0ilian li/e at the age, alrea-y mentione-, an- i/ they pa,, the me-ical te,t, are a,,igne- to the ca-et wing. he e3act :+ali/ication, are e3tremely har- to -e/ine an- -epen- moreG on how the yo+ng man J,i>e, +pJ a/ter a little ob,er0ation than on any ,et r+le, which can be lai- -own. Many college men make e3cellent /lier,, b+t not ,o m+ch on acco+nt o/ being college men a, beca+,e they are alert, ha0e recepti0e min-, an- are li0e wire, generally. heir ,t+-ie, in Greek an- mathematic, ha0e not m+ch to -o with it, a, 0ery little o/ the latter i, nece,,ary. In /act, many bright boy, with only an elementary e-+cation make e3cellent military a0iator,. "bo+t the only calc+lation, nee-e- are to correct -ri/t -+e to the win-, an- with a goo- -ri/t in-icator e0en thi, .i, har-ly nece,,ary. he main re:+irement, /or a military a0iator are intelligence an- co+rage rather than any ,peci/ie- knowle-ge a, to mathematic,, mechanic, or other branche, o/ the higher e-+cation. he more o/ the,e he po,,e,,e, the better, b+t they are not e,,ential to the making o/ a goo- military pilot, a, ha, been -emon,trate- in many in,tance,. Y It i, beca+,e the college man +,+ally po,,e,,e, the /ir,t two re:+irement, that he make, a goo- pilot, while hi, other accompli,hment, help him in the /ine point, o/ hi, 0ario+, -+tie, at the /ront. "n or-inary e-+cation, incl+-ing the three $2,, make, a ,+//icient /o+n-ation i/ the /ir,t two re:+irement, are in hi, mental make-+p. ", all military pilot, are cla,,e- a, o//icer,, beginning with a commi,,ion a, ,econlie+tenant, when they get into act+al military /lying, it i, /o+n- e3pe-ient to gi0e them B or < week,H military training in the early ,tage, o/ their in,tr+ction. hi, make, them /amiliar with military -rill in it, 0ario+, pha,e, an- /it, them to take charge o/ ,mall bo-ie, o/ men in the /iying camp,, a, well a, to comman- other pilot, a, they ,how aptit+-e in their work an- are a-0ance- to /ir,t lie+tenant, where they are in charge o/ a J/light,HH or part o/ a ,:+a-ron, +,+ally a thir-, or ,i3, machine,. hen come, ,:+a-ron comman-er, wing comman-er, etc. H( #$IM"$6 $"I5I5G he preliminary, or primary, training incl+-e,, in a--ition to the military -rill, a /o+n-ation o/ elementary theory o/ /light, o/ plane an- engine con,tr+ction, o/ wirele,,, photography, map making, g+n/ire control an- the many acti0itie, which go to make +p the -+tie, o/ the mihtary pilot at the /ront. hi, in"I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! 0ol0e, the +,e o/ act+al engi8e,, ,ometime, more or le,, in ,ection, to ,how their con,tr+ction an- to become more or lea, /amiliar with their theory an- metho- o/ operation, a, well a, the part, which are liable to gi0e tro+ble an- the way to reme-y ,+ch -i//ic+ltie,. In the ,ame way the general con,tr+ction o/ the plane, an- other part, o/ the machine i, pointe- o+t, not with a 0iew o/ making the pilot an e3pert mechanic, b+t to gi0e him a general knowle-ge, both /or hi, own in/ormation an- /or it, e//ect on the mechanic, who will look a/ter the machine, /or him. I/ the mechanic, know that the pilot ha, a /air general knowle-ge o/ hi, machine, they are apt to re,pect hi, mechanical a, well a, hi, /lying ability an- look a/ter hi, machine more clo,ely. Here al,o the a0iator learn, abo+t ,trippiiig a motor an- a

C"5"8I"5 $"I5I5G C"M# " B%$8(5 <11 plane, ao- the care o/ g+n,, the han-ling o/ wirele,, in,tr+ment,, the artillery co-e, the artillery pict+re target, #annea+ ,ignaling an- photography, with e,pecial re/erence to C(tmera, /or atrial ,er0ice. hi, in,tr+ction con,i,t, largely o/ lect+re, which are ill+,trate- an- e3plaine- in 0ario+, way,, an- on which e3amination, m+,t be pa,,ebe/ore the ,t+-ent can be pa,,e- to

"($r"I G+nnery

the /ir,t, or elementary, /lying ,:+a-ron. Hi, recor- o/ progre,, i, ,hown in the accompanying page, o/ the tran,/er car-, )ig,. 1CB to 1CM. B+t there i, more to the e3amination, than the written te,t,. he whole character o/ the ,t+-ent i, con,tantly +n-er ob,er0ation, an- only tho,e with the nece,,ary :+ali/ication,, :+ite a,i-e /rom book Imowle-ge an- mechanical ability, can be pa,,e"I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! into the ne3t gra-e which goe, to the /ir,t training camp /or act+al /l<-ng. )or +nle,, the ,t+-ent ha, the nece,,ary :+ali/ication, to -o goo- work at the /ront4 or at lea,t to make an in,tr+ctor, there i, no +,e in taking +p 0al+able time an- ,ma,hing machine, in the e//ort to get him into the ah-. It i, what he -oe, a/ter he become, a /lier that co+nt,. PYL !\C.

-\\\- at n9 9t Y w\/-t per RXRYPY. $ecor- o/ #rogre,, B"nmra " RZ7"@M=Ik K% "M9t/ m "Mtm/ = "@ (ight ww-a par Biaato ata-la/ aa- racai0la/. aat tl I a-aataaH PY^ mtr. =/lttaa tnaiaattaa o/ t 2aaatiaa, paaaa- M par aaat. aanaat. Baagla/ < targata aanaatly, aaa-la/ tkair map aann-iaataa, aa- aaiag "rtillaiC Co-a aa%raaa- Bigaala witkoot arror. @aa-iag niaiatara #aaaaa0 aeear-atal/ /rom -iitaaaa o/ 1DD 1ai-a, at rata o/ F wor-a par niaata. Cloarl/ rea-abla apa @aaor- pra--,aa- at rata o/ I wor-a par aiaata. K//L 9M aK =IM- =rittaa analaatioa o/ D :aaatloar paaaa- = par aaat. oorraat. $ecor- o/ #rogre,, L B"nmra at k3oh>e B"Einiro RZ7"8B%ira 8B "lIB% %@ !,noonoii"I M9Mnon, Y.`3i".9,a.l^.9, %Mtor "D.98A K"i%.1L.L. K1L (ight ao-e wor-, par niaate Kcennt-o- A ianor, to a wor-L, Mo-iag aa- raaat0iag. eat to bo a/ I a-aataaH -aratioa. m m w m b1aet =rittaa a>aariaatlaa a/ 1D o nago @ targata aa rr aa tl y, ing thair aap to ar - laatoa, a\F aaiag "rtillar Ca-a aa-

ICiaiatara %rooa- ttgaala withaat arrar. !ea-iag #aaaaaa aaaarataly /raai tha air, at rata o/ F wor-a par aaa^ ata. Cloarly raa-abia apG &aa ar- proG -oaa- at rata o/ t wor-a par a9aata. %L %aa aartaao/ 1D pa/li to bo raaga" )it Mgat aorraatl/, aap ao-oi-laataa o/ targat to bo aaat, an- "rti9ar1 Ca-a +- %rooa- Bigaala aorraatly aoa-. & aaa- /raa tka air aorraatly tba maaaiag a/ 1D oat o/ It "rt9toi Co-o MgaalaHplaaaob tha graaa-. #hotography MB%%I or M%$"I KaL Iaataroa oa #hotography. KbL Ioetaiaa oa Gaaaraa aaa- /ar "arlal #hat"2 graphy. KaL Iaataraa oa #hatagiaphiag oa "att0a @arrlaai )ig. 1CF. heir training incl+-e, military -rill an- the ,chool o/ aerona+tic, with it, theory o/ a0iation, the ,t+-y o/ engine, an- plane, an- their con,tr+ction, machine gim,, in,tr+ment, o/ a0iation, wirele,,, map rea-ing, location /rom the ,tart,, etc. hi, preliminary training may take 1 month or B, accor-ing to the p+pil. =hen2 in the opinion o/ the comman-ing o//icer, the ,t+-ent i, C"5"8I"5 $"I5I5G C"M# " B%$8(5 <1< :+ali/ie- to procee-, he i, a,,igne- to the primary /iying ,chool /or a co+r,e which +,+ally take, abo+t B week,. In a--ition to mere theory o/ /l<-ng the ,t+-ent i, taken +p with the in,tr+ctor in a two,eate- machine ha0ing -o+ble control,, an- recei0e, /rom < to A ho+r, in the air with the in,tr+ctor. hi, take, the place o/ the /ormer metho- o/ HHgra,, c+tting,J or Jta3ying,J where the ,t+-ent -ro0e a low-powere- an- chppe--wing machine aro+n- the /iel- to learn the control,

% #II% " H%M( K1L 8o not loM thi, car- or 1oar gra-aatioo will iM-tbywI KBL %b being traB&/\rre- /rom one 9nit to aoether, Rhow thi, ear- to the %//lcer Comn+a-in// the 9nit CDa are lea0ing, who will /ill in what yoa ba % patM-, an- will lea0e the othen blank

%n arri0al at 1ronr new 9nit, ,how it again to the %/l@eer ConB%Ban-iag yonr new 9nit, an- aak him to /ill it in be/ore yoa lea0e. I/ yo+ /ail to -o thia, or lea, it, CDa are liable to be ,ent baek to pa0 again. "B$%"8 %n being peete- to a 9nit with the (.#.. ihow the ear- to yo+r Comman-ing %'Beer there. He will -iapeee o/ H aa be thinka /it )ig. 1CM. an- gain con/i-en-e. he ,t+-ent gra-+ally control, the machine more an- more +ntil the in,tr+ctor /inally relin:+i,he, the control, an- the ,t+-ent -ri0e, in the air anmake, the lan-ing,, with the in,tr+ctor alway, at han- to take the control o/ the machine ,ho+l- it become nece,,ary. =hen the ,t+-ent become, competent to ,tart an- lan- a machine he i, ma-e to /ly alone, or J,olo,J /or /rom M to C ho+r, an- i, then, at the -i,cretion o/ the comman-ing o//icer, tran,/erre- to one o/ the a-0ance- /lying camp,, where he generally ,pen-, abo+t A week,. "t thi, a-0ance- camp hi, /lying i, -i0i-e- into three part,, the /ir,t B week, with the cro,,-co+ntry ,:+a-ron, the ,econ- with the wirele,, ,:+a-ron an- the la,t B week, with the g+nnery ,:+a-ron. he cro,,-co+ntry work co0er, :+ite a wi-e area o/ co+ntry an- con,i-erable high /lying an- ha, three te,t, which m+,t be pa,,e- be/ore going into the wirele,, ,:+a-ron. he cro,,-co+ntry te,t i, to /ly a AD-mile triang+lar co+r,e, lan-ing at two checking point, an- ret+rning to the home camp. hen there are two height te,t,, one o/ <DDD an- the other o/ 8DDD /eet, with /o+r /ig+re 82, to in,+re goocontrol in t+rning in both -irection,, /lying at the high point, /or at lea,t 1M min+te, to gi0e con/i-ence at the,e height, an- /inally to 0olplane, or gli-e, to earth with the engine ,h+t o// an- lan- rea,onably near a circle MD yar-, in -iameter, which i, clearly markeby a bor-er o/ broken ,tone. here are al,o /light, in /light or ,:+a-ron /ormation, a typical /ormation being ,hown in )ig. 1CA-1CC. he o//icer in charge o/ the //ight lea-, at ", the ne3t two, B an- C, /ly a gi0en -i,tance behin-, to one ,i-e an- abo0e the lea-er, the ne3t two, 8 an- (y /ollowing in ,imilar or-er. he la,t man (1 to g+ar- again,t rear attack,, /ly, in the center an- ,till higher, to be able to ,woop -own on an attacking plane at any time. he main -i//ic+lty encoimtere- in /ormation /lying i, to maintain the e3act relati0e po,ition,, -+e to the -i//erence in the ,pee- o/ the 0ario+, machine,. Ha0ing pa,,e- the,e te,t,, the ,t+-ent goe, to the wirele,, ,:+a-ron /or another B week,, where he i, in,tr+cte- in artillery ob,er0ation, in bomb -ropping, an- in what i, calle- Jcontact patrol,J which mean, that he m+,t make hi, ob,er0ation, at a height o/ only MDD or ADD /eet /rom the earth. he artillery ob,er0ation in,tr+ction ha, been 0ery care/+lly worke- o+t to repro-+ce act+al war con-ition, in the ,imple,t an- mo,t ,ati,/actory manner. It incl+-e, the +,e o/ hi, wirele,, apparat+, in ,ignaling the batterie, an- the +,e o/ ,moke p+//, to repre,ent the ,hot, /ire-.

)iZB. 1CA Mi- 1CC. "$G( @ %5 H( G$%9H8 =ith the machine g+n mo+nte- on the airplane, ,hooting at ,ilho+ette target, on the gro+n- i, part o/ the co+r,e, the machine being /lown low /or that p+rpo,e. In thi, work the machine g+n i, +,+ally operate- by a ,econ- man, a,lnareconnai,,a+ceor rai-ing machine. In mo,t o/ the air /ighting, howe0er, the machine i, a ,ingle-,eater, anthe pilot operate, the g+n a, well a, the machine. In the,e ca,e, the g+n i, +,+ally /a,tene- to the machine at the ,i-e, an- i, aime- by pointing the whole machine at the target, which i, generally another machine. It i, po,,ible /or an e3pert pilot to han-le a mo0able g+n in ,ome ca,e,, a, he gi0e, 0ery little attention to hi, machine e3cept in trick work, either attacking or el+-ing hi, enemy. "nother /orm o/ g+n practice i, at a target which i, towe- by another machine, b+t at a con,i-erable -i,tance behin- it, m+ch a, i, -one in ,ome /orm, o/ na0al-target practice. hi, target i, a piece o/ white cloth, perhap, 8 /eet ,:+are, hel- at the /ront by a ,tick which i, weighte- to keep it 0ertical an- towe- /ar behin- an airplane. hi, repre,ent, an enemy plane /airly well an- i, attacke- by other plane, carrying machine g+n,, the,e machine, being -e,ignate- by black triang+lar /lag, /lown /rom the rear o+ter wing ,tr+t,, to warn other machine, to keep o+t o/ range o/ g+n/ire when they are in action. H( C"M($" G95 )or machine-g+n practice at enemy airplane,, the camera g+n i, al,o +,e-, thi, being almo,t a -+plicate o/ the Iewi, machine g+n an- /itting in the ,ame mo+nting. he /ilm pa,,e, behin- a gla,, ,creen r+le- with ,mall black circle, /or locating the po,ition o/ the pict+re with relation to the bore o/ the machine g+n, an- the,e circle, ,how on the photograph it,el/ whene0er an e3po,+re i, ma-e. he camera i, aime- by mean, o/ 0ery ingenio+, ,ight,, the ,ame a, on the g+n it,el/, an- the location o/ the enemy airplane on

the circle, ,how, e3actly where the machine or the pilot wo+l- ha0e been hit ha- an act+al ,hot been /ire-4 hi, make, an in-i,p+table recor-, an- the photograph /orm, a part o/ the ,t+-ent,2recor- in thi, ,:+a-ron K,ee )ig. 1C8.L Ha0ing pa,,e- thi, ,ection o/ the ,chool, the ca-et i, a,,igne-, at the -i,cretion o/ the comman-ing o//icer, to go o0er,ea, /or the /inal training on battle an- ,co+t machine, be/ore being ,ent to the /ront to win hia ,p+r, in action o0er the battle line,. he tran,/er car- ,how, hi, ,t+-ie, an- the recoro/ them. =e m+,t not /orget that the a0iator i, not merely the pilot who enable, ,omeone el,e to make the nece,,ary ob,er0ation or to /ight o// the enemy plane, when thi, become, nece,,ary, b+t that in nearly all ca,e, he i, ab,ol+tely alone, tho+,an-, o/ /eet in the air, an- that he alone m+,t g+i-e hi, machine, operate hi, machine g+n, ,en- hi, wirele,, me,,age, make hi, map, or take photo-

graph,, an- that in mo,t ca,e, he i, little more than a boy in year,, yet with /ar greater re,pon,ibility an- ,kill than mo,t ol-er men ,ho+l-er or ac:+ire. he airplane i, in it, in/ancy, an- it i, to yo+th that we m+,t look /or it, ,+cce,,/+l operation, /or the pre,ent at lea,t. It i, to the intrepi- -aring o/ yo+th that we owe it, -e0elopment in the pre,ent war. here are /ew ,erio+, acci-ent,, b+t e0ery pro0i,ion i, ma-e /or taking care o/ ,+ch a, -o occ+r. he amb+lance, Jh+ngry Ii>>ie,J a, the ca-et, call it, i, alway, in rea-ine,, /or an emergency call. @+gge,tion, /or the @t+-ent in "0iation 2 he,e ,+gge,tion, are by $oger 'ann+,, the well-known in,tr+ctor, an- while written ,ome time ago, are ,till applicable in mo,t ca,e,. he /ir,t thing /or the ,t+-ent in a0iation to learn an- the la,t thing /or him to /orget i, that a0iation i, a ,erio+, b+,ine,,. here i, a ,trong ten-ency /or /amiliarity to breecontempt in thi,, a, in any other ha>ar-o+, occ+pation, an- we m+,t be con,tantly on o+r g+ar- again,t thi, ,tate o/ min-. )lying look, ,o ea,y that almo,t e0ery ,t+-ent i, well pro0i-e- with -el+,ion, an- con/i-ently e3pect, that the /ew -i//ic+lt point, will, on acco+nt o/ hi, e3ceptional ability, be ma,tere- in little or no time. )ort+nately, only a /ew min+te, in the air are re:+ire- to take thi, o+t o/ him an- make him per/ectly tractable. he ,t+-ent m+,t p+t him,el/ ab,ol+tely in the han-, o/ the in,tr+ctor, an-

make +p hi, min- at the ,tart to obey or-er, to the be,t o/ hi, ability. He m+,t con,tantly impre,, +pon him,el/ the nece,,ity o/ keeping cool in a pinch, ,+ch a, a /orce- lan-ing. here ha0e been rare in,tance, o/ the ,t+-ent cl+tching the control antaking it away /rom the in,tr+ctor, with -i,a,tro+, re,+lt,. B+t thi, will ne0er occ+r i/ the ,t+-ent ha, the proper point o/ 0iew an- i, on hi, g+ar- again,t ,+ch an emergency. he capable airplane pilot keep, a m+ltit+-e o/ thing, in min- with 0ery little e//ort. B+t the ,t+-ent ,ho+l- not concern him,el/ with too many thing, at the ,ame time. I/ hi, attention i, not concentrate- on anything in partic+lar an- he -epen-, +pon a ha>y proce,, o/ ab,orption it will take him m+ch longer to become pro/icient. o ill+,trate, on hi, /ir,t trip or two he ,ho+l- -e0ote hi, entire attention to the Jele0ator,J learning to keep the machine at a gi0en angle in-icate- by the in,tr+ctor. ", ,oon a, a little pro/iciency ha, been ac:+ire- with thi, control, he will begin to +,e the aileron control, either ,tick or wheel, an- ,o on, +ntil he can keep the machine /lying nicely in a ,traight line. hi, training will re:+ire abo+t ,i3 trip,. Correcting #ropeller or:+e By thi, time the ,t+-ent will ha0e notice- that one wing ha, a ten-ency to ,tay lower than the other. hi, i, ca+,e- by the tor:+e or t+rning ten-ency o/ the motor. =hen the machine i, t+rning a right-han-2propeller, it will be the le/t wing which ha, the ten-ency to -ip. b+t only a 0ery ,light pre,,+re on the wheel will be ,+//icient to correct thi,, an- keep the wing, le0el. hi, tor:+e e//ect i, in accor-ance with 5ewtonH, law o/ motion, which ,tate, that when any /orce i, in operation, there m+,t alway, be an e:+al /orce acting in the oppo,ite -irection. Hence, when the motor t+rn, the propeller to the right, it e3ert, an e:+al ten-ency to t+rn it,el/ to the le/t. Going a little /+rther, thi, /orce i, the ,i-e action o/ the pi,ton, +pon the cylin-er,. In e0ery e3plo,ion o/ a right-han- motor a ,trong pre,,+re i, e3erte- +pon the le/t ,i-e o/ the pi,ton. he ,+m total o/ the,e /orce, to the le/t i, e:+al to the /orce e3erte- in t+rning the propeller, an- they compri,e the tor:+e o/ the motor. hi, m+,t be co+nteracte- by the aileron,, +nle,, ,ome other pro0i,ion i, ma-e /or it. =hen the machine i, gli-ing with re-+ce- throttle, thi, /orce -i,appear, an- the wing, ,tay le0el o/ their own accor-. It will al,o be note- that the C+rti,, '5F machine ha, a ten-ency to ,teer to the le/t when /lying +n-er power. hi, i, ca+,e- mo,tly by the -ra+ght o/ the propeller. =hen the propeller pa,,e, thro+gh the air it p+,he, the air behin- it an- al,o gi0e, it a whirling motion. In thi, an- many other machine, the r+--er i, ,lightly abo0e the line o/ the propeller ,ha/t, which p+t, it in the +pper part o/ the -ra+ght. he whirling motion o/ thi, -ra+ght ca+,e, it to pa,, acro,, the tail o/ the machine /rom le/t to right. It i, the pre,,+re o/ thi, air on the le/t ,i-e o/ the r+--er which make, the machine tento t+rn towar- the le/t. he le/t aileron being carrie- ,lightly lower than the right to compen,ate /or the tor:+e al,o ca+,e, a ten-ency /or the machine to t+rn to the le/t, b+t thi, i, not a, ,trong a, the e//ect /rom the -ra+ght. Making +rn, 8+ring the co+r,e o/ the,e /ir,t hal/ -o>en le,,on, the ,t+-ent will get ,omewhat /amiliar with the /eeling o/ the machine while making a t+rn. 5ow he will begin making t+rn, an- circle, him,el/. It take, more ,pee- an- more power to /ly a machine in a circle than to /ly it ,traight, an- the ,maller the circle, the more ,pee- re:+ire- to keep the machine /rom lo,ing altit+-e. In the early -ay, o/ /lying when it took all the power a0ailable to keep the machine /lying ,traight, it wa, nece,,ary to 1allow /or a con,i-erable lo,, o/ altit+-e when making a t+rn, an- the operation wa, more or le,,

ha>ar-o+,. 5ow when we ha0e a goo- amo+nt o/ re,er0e power thing, are :+ite -i//erent, an- any goo- machine will be able to maintain it, altit+-e on a circle +nle,, it be one o/ 0ery ,mall ra-i+,. %n large t+rn, it i, :+ite ,a/e to permit the machine to climb, b+t /or the ,t+-ent, practi,ing t+rn, o/ mo-erate ra-i+,, it i, be,t to keep the machine /lying hori>ontal, that i,, neither -e,cen-ing nor climbing. @+ppo,ing, now, we wi,h to make a le/t-han- t+rn, with a C+rti,, '5F tractor, going at abo+t CD mile, per ho+r, an- -e,cribing a circle o/ abo+t 1DD yar-, ra-i+,. he proper amo+nt o/ bank /or thi, t+rn will be abo+t BD -egree, /rom the hori>ontal. o make the t+rn the ,t+-ent will gra-+ally mo0e hi, r+--er to the le/t, an- at the ,ame time ,tart the bank with the aileron,. In thi, way the rate o/ t+rning an- the bank will increa,e gra-+ally, ,tea-ily, an- in the ,ame proportion. =hen the machine i, t+rning at the -e,ire- rate, ,top the mo0ement o/ the r+--er an- only ,+e it /+rther to keep the machine t+rning at the ,ame rate. "bo+t thi, time it will probably be nece,,ary to bring the aileron control back to abo+t it, ne+tral po,ition to pre,er0e the angle o/ the bank, a, the machine bank, o/ it, own accor-. Machine, -i//er greatly in the amo+nt the aileron, m+,t be +,e- on the t+rn, an- the ,ame machine will act -i//erently +n-er -i//erent win- con-ition,, ,o no /i3e- r+le, can be laye- -own. he ,t+-ent nee- not be in the lea,t alarme- i/ he ha, to +,e the aileron, twice a, m+ch one -ay in making hi, t+rn, a, he -i- the -ay be/ore. In any ca,e, ,tart the bank with the aileron, an- a/ter the t+rn i, in progre,, +,e them in whiche0er way i, nece,,ary to make the machine -o what yo+ want. %n a le/t-han- t+rn the ele0ator will not ha0e to be +,e- m+ch to keep the machine /l1-ng le0el. In coming o+t o/ the t+rn, le0el +p with the aileron, an- ,traighten o+t with the r+--er gra-+ally, operating the control, in +ni,on, an- making the action a, ,mooth a, po,,ible. In making a t+rn to the right the ,ame operation, are per/orme- in the oppo,ite -irection, e3cept with the important -i//erence that there will be a -eci-e- ten-ency /or the machine to no,e -own. hi, i, on acco+nt o/ the g1rro,copic action o/ the propeller, an- it will re:+ire a mo-erate +,e o/ the ele0ator to keep the machine le0el. Gyro,copic "ction op #ropeller hi, gyro,copic action o/ the propeller i, ,ometime, :+ite ,trong an- it i, well to +n-er,tan- it thoro+ghly. =itho+t a knowle-ge o/ thi, /orce it, mani/e,tation, will ,eem my,terio+, an- ,ometime, -i,concerting. he action i, a, /ollow,N In thi, ca,e, the airplane propeller i, the gyro,cope, an- the a3i, o/ rotation i, the propeller ,ha/t, or crank,ha/t. 5ow, when we t+rn thi, a3i, in any plane, the gyro,cope ca+,e, re,i,tance to the t+rning /orce,, an- at the ,ame time e3ert, a ten-ency to t+rn aro+n- an imaginary ,traight line in the ,ame plane, b+t at right angle, to the a3i, o/ rotation. he -irection in which the g1rro,cope ten-, to t+rn aro+n- thi, imaginary line, normal to the a3i,, -epen-, +pon the -irection o/ rotation o/ the gyro,cope. In making a t+rn to the right with a right-han- propeller the gyro,cope i, t+rne- in the hori>ontal plane. It trie, to re,i,t thi, motion, b+t it i, not ,trong eno+gh /or that an- the pilot i, not e0en con,cio+, o/ the re,i,tance, beca+,e it i, the ,ame whether the t+rn be to the le/t or right. he line aro+n- which it ha, the ten-ency to t+rn, will lie al,o in the hori>ontal plane, an- at right angle, to the crank,ha/t o/ the motor, an- the no,e o/ the machine will ten- to rotate -ownwar-, aro+n- thi, line. Hence the machine ten-, to -i0e on the right t+rn. %n the lo/t t+rn the machine ten-, to no,e +p, a, the /orce, are 1+,t re0er,e-. hi, ,ame rea,oning will hol- goo- /or any gyro,copic action.

)lying Ie0el an- @talling It i, alway, -i//ic+lt /or the ,t+-ent to tell when he i, /lying le0el, when he i, climbing at the ma3im+m ,a/e climbing angle, an- whon hc1 i, ,talling. " machine i, ,ai- to ,tall when it no longer ha, the iLowor Kor ,pee- in the ca,e o/ a 0olplaneL to maintain it, tr+e lino o/ /light, -etermine- by the a3i, o/ the /+,elage. I/ yo+ try to make a machine climb at too great an angle, it will ha0e to e3pen- ,o m+ch o/ it, power in li/ting the machine 0ertically that an angle i, e0ent+ally reache- at which the machine will be ,lowe- -own below it, minim+m /lying ,pee-. I/ hel- at thi, angle the machine will no longer climb at all b+t will begin to ,ettle. hi, i, a -angero+, con-ition a, the control, ha0e 0ery little e//ect an- a ba- p+// may +p,et the machine. Howe0er, the con-ition nee- not be /eare-, a, it i, ea,ily recogni>e- by the limp /eeling o/ the control,, a wobbly /eeling in the whole machine, an- a laboring o/ the motor. he ,t+-ent will be re:+ire- to keep the machine le0el or at mo-erate angle, a, in-icate- by the in,tr+ctor, an- he will ha0e to learn to recogni>e the correct angle, by the appearance o/ ,ome part o/ the machine, no,e, ,tr+t,, wing, etc. B1 "/ter the ,t+-ent ha, ma-e ,ome t+rn, an- begin, to han-le hi, control, with a -egree o/ con/i-ence, he will begin to ha0e an i-ea o/ the proper amo+nt o/ bank re:+ire-. he ,pee- o/ the machine an- the ra-i+, o/ the t+rn -etermine thi, angle. he greater the ,pee- o/ the machine, the greater the angle o/ bank re:+ire- /or a circle o/ gi0en ra-i+,. "n- i/ the ,pee- o/ the machine be con,tant, the ,maller the circle, the greater will be the bank re:+ire-. =hen the machine i, not correctly banke- it will ,i-e-,lip. I/ the bank i, too ,mall the ,lipping will be o+twar-. hi, i, not -angero+,. I/ the bank i, too great, it will ,lip inwar- an- -ownwar-. hi, i, -angero+,. =hen the machine i, ,lipping o+twar- it i, correcte- either by banking more or making the t+rn larger. =hen ,lipping -ownwar-, gi0e le,, bank or make the t+rn ,maller. " pilot ,ho+l- be able to tell when he i, banking properly by the /eeling o/ hi, machine, b+t many ne0er ac:+ire thi, ability. " ,pirit le0el will tell the tr+th, an- o/ten the win- can be /elt coming in ,i-Keway, when the machine i, ,lipping. Mention ha, been ma-e abo0e regar-ing machine, ,ettling on t+rn,. hi, i, :+ite -i//erent /rom ,i-e-,lipping. " machine will ne0er ,i-e,lip i/ properly banke-, tho+gh it may ,ettle ba-ly. =hen the machine i, banke-, it, wing, may be con,i-ere- a, ,hortene- to a ,pan e:+al to the 0ertical pro1ection o/ the wing, on the hori>ontal plane. %b0io+,ly, i/ the e//ecti0e ,+r/ace i, ,+//iciently re-+ce-, a point will be reache- when it i, no longer capable o/ ,+,taining the machine, an- ,ettling will be the re,+lt. hi, ,ettling i, not -angero+,, b+t m+,t be anticipate- when /lying at low altit+-e,. $i,ing an- Ian-ing #racti,ing t+rn, will occ+py the /+ll attention o/ the ,t+-ent /or abo+t ,i3 le,,on,. 5ow twel0e le,,on,, or abo+t hal/ o/ the in,tr+ction time ha, been e3ha+,te-. he remaining twel0e le,,on, will be occ+pie- in learning to take the machine o// the gro+n- an- to lan- it. Ian-ing a machine i, the great b+gbear o/ the ,t+-ent,, an- i, -o+bly -i//ic+lt beca+,e e0en ,light mi,take, are 0ery noticeable, an- the penaltie, may be ,e0ere. here are two recogni>e- metho-, o/ lan-ing, both o/ which are in common +,e, re/erre- to a, the ,low, or tail-low lan-ing4 an- the /a,t, or tail-high lan-ing. he ,low lan-ing i, the type which ,ho+l- be learne- by the ,t+-ent, a, it i, the ,a/e,t +n-er all con-ition, an- the only practical metho- /or ro+gh gro+n- or coming into ,mall /iel-,. @+ppo,e we are coming into the /iel- on an ea,y gli-e. Begin to bring +p the no,e when the machine

i, abo+t <D /eet /rom the gro+n- an- contin+e to -raw in on the ele0ator 0ery gently. hi, m+,t be time- ,o that the machine become, le0el when it get, abo+t F /eet abo0e the gro+n-. By thi, time the nmchine ha, lo,t /lying ,pee- an- i, beginning to ,ettle rapi-ly. "t the ,ame time the ele0ator i, being bro+ght back /irmly, ca+,ing the tail to -rop, an- the machine to lo,e ,pee- ,till more rapi-ly. he great angle o/ inci-ence o/ the wing, keep, the machine /rom -ropping too rapi-ly. It ,ho+l- alight on the wheel, an- tail ,ki- at the ,ame time. In thi, po,ition it lan-, at the lea,t po,,ible ,pee- an- make, the ,horte,t po,,ible r+n, with the e3ception o/ a pancake. In ca,e a /orce- lan-ing i, nece,,ary in a /iel- ,o ro+gh or ,mall that it i, impo,,ible to lan- witho+t -amaging the machine to ,ome e3tent, the machine ,ho+l- be Jpancake-.J hat i,, carry o+t the ,ame metho-, a, abo0e -e,cribe-, e3cept -o it a /ew /eet /+rther /rom the gro+n-. he machine will ,ettle hea0ily to the gro+n- an- the lan-ing gear may be -amage- b+t the ,pee- will be /+rther re-+ce-, le,,ening the -anger o/ r+nning into ,ome -itch or ob,tr+ction. $emember, ne0er r+n hea- /ir,t into anything. In ca,e o/ tro+ble thi, i, ab,ol+tely the mo,t important thing to remember. @witch o// the motor to a0oi- the po,,ibility o/ /ire, an- -o anything rather than r+n into anything ,oli-. I/ the machine i, bro+ght -own tail /ir,t or on one wing the chance, o/ ,erio+, in1+ry are greatly le,,ene-. In making a tail-high lan-ing the machine come, into the /iel- ,lightly /a,ter an- i, bro+ght towar- the gro+n- in m+ch the ,ame manner, e3cept in,tea- o/ bringing the tail -own low, the machine i, permitte- to gli-e abo+t le0el +ntil it ,ettle, an- r+n, on the wheel,Honly. In thi, ca,e the tail i, kept +p, which keep, the machine /rom bo+ncing. Care m+,t be taken not to let the tail -rop +ntil /l1-ng ,pee- i, entirely lo,t, a, it i, 0ery ea,y to -rop the tail too :+ickly, in which ca,e the machine will gli-e +p into the air again +ntil it, ,pee- i, gone, a/ter which it will /all to the gro+n- with a th+-. Getting o// the Gro+nIn taking the machine o// the gro+n-, great ca+tion i, nece,,ary. It m+,t be kept ,traight /rom the ,tart or tro+ble will /ollow. here are two /actor, which ten- to t+rn the airplane to the le/t. )ir,t, in the ca,e o/ a right-hantractor like the '5, the tor:+e o/ the motor pre,,e, -own the le/t wing an- wheel, ca+,ing a greater re,i,tance on thi, ,i-e. @econ-, the r+--er being abo0e the line o/ the propeller get, imore bla,t on the le/t on acco+nt o/ the whirling motion o/ the air ,tream, the ,ame a, in /light. he,e /actor, taken together become :+ite e//ecti0e, an- at the ,ame time the tail ,ki- i, -igging into the gro+n- ,o that the tail -oe, not rea-ily re,pon- to the r+--er a, it -oe, when the tail i, clear o/ the gro+n-. Hence, the ,t+-ent m+,t be on hi, g+ar- again,t thi, ten-ency to t+rn. " goo- preca+tion i, to ,tart o+t with the r+--er bar a little to the right an- the wheel banke- a !ttle a, i/ to p+t the machine into a right-han- bank. hi, will o//,et the t+rning ten-encie,. he ,t+-ent will al,o notice that a, the machine pick, +p ,pee- the r+--er ,eem, to become more an- more ali0e +n-er hi, /eet, an- the /a,ter the machine goe, the le,, motion i, nee-e- to pro-+ce the ,ame amo+nt o/ t+rning. =hen the machine i, going ,lowly the r+--er m+,t be mo0e- ,trongly to gi0e any re,+lt, at all. @+gge,tion, a, to "ir Con-ition, here are in circ+lation a n+mber o/ r+le, an- notion, a, to the proper way to mane+0er when p+//, an- ba- air c+rrent, are enco+ntere-, b+t the,e are 0ery likely to be mi,lea-ing, a, /ew people really know m+ch abo+t the inner working, o/ the atmo,phere. here are ,ome point,, tho+gh, which are well eno+gh +n-er,too- to be -ealt with here. %ne bit o/ a-0ice alway, hol-, goo- an- that i,N J8o not /ight the win-

any more than yo+ ha0e to.GH Mo,t pilot, +,e the control, more than nece,,ary. " well--e,igne- machine will -o a great -eal /or it,el/ i/ yo+ gi0e it a chance. " machine will /re:+ently get a boo,t, that i,, will ri,e rapi-ly /or B or < ,econ-, witho+t any great change o/ angle. hi, may be ca+,e- by air that i, act+ally tra0elling in an +pwar- -irection4 or by air that i, tra0elling at a -i//erent 0elocity /rom that o+t o/ which the machine ha, 1+,t pa,,e-, ca+,ing a momentarily greater 0elocity o/ the machine with re,pect to the air. he machine will al,o ri,e when pa,,ing into col-er air. In any o/ the,e ca,e, there i, no ca+,e /or an3iety, an- nothing o+t o/ the or-inary nee- be -one. (3actly the re0er,e ca,e will ca+,e the airplane to -rop rapi-ly. hi, i, rather an +ncom/ortable /eeling at /ir,t, b+t one get, +,e- to it an- the machine i, per/ectly ,a/e. here i, no nece,,ity /or hea-ing -own, or anything like that. %n thi, acco+nt, tho+gh, it i, ne0er ,a/e to pa,, o0er any ob1ect with only a ,mall margin o/ clearance, a, one may be -roppe- -irectly on to ,omething. =hen an airplane pa,,e, into the hot ,moke o/ a chimney it will -rop with great ,+--enne,,, altho+gh the col+mn may be ri,ing rapi-ly. hen it i, no longer in air, b+t i, in a mi3t+re o/ light ga,e, o/ 0ery poor ,+pporting power. @o -o not try to take the lightning-ro-, o// any chimney,. It i, 0ery -e,irable that the pilot ,ho+l- ha0e a clear +n-er,tan-ing o/ relati0e 0elocitie,. he win- will ha0e a certain 0elocity, relati0e to the earth, or co+r,e, which we m+,t take into con,i-eration when going /rom the earth into the air, or /rom the air onto the gro+n-. B+t when we are clear o/ the gro+n- an- -epen-ing entirely +pon the air, it, 0elocity o0er the earth -oe, not a//ect the /lying o/ the machine at all, e3cept a, to the na0igation o/ the machine /rom one point to another. In other wor-,, we may make circle, in the air, gli-e,, -i0e,, etc., 1+,t a, i/ the air ha- no 0elocity at all. =hen the wini, blowing it i, 1+,t a, i/ the win- were ,till an- the earth mo0ing beneath it. @ome people /ancy that when they are /lying into the win- an- wi,h to lea- aro+n- ,o the wini, behin- them, that they m+,t make a large t+rn an- gi0e them,el0e, time to pick +p 0elocity. hey get thi, impre,,ion /rom the /act that when hea-ing into the win- they are going ,lowly o0er the gro+n- an- when they t+rn aro+n- they will be going 0ery rapi-ly with re,pect to the earth. hi, e3ample i, cite- a, a typical /allacy an- ha, no /o+n-ation whate0er on /act. In making ,+ch a t+rn yo+r 0elocity relati0e to the win- -oe, not change in the lea,t, an- yo+r change, o/ 0elocity relati0e to the gro+n- will be taken care o/ by the win- witho+t any ,trategy on yo+r part. Change, op 7elocity an- =inhe rea,on that the,e an- ,imilar i-ea, ha0e gaine- ,+ch pop+larity i, that the machine -oe, act+ally han-le -i//erently with the win- on -i//erent :+arter,. Y In a win- o/ BD mile, per ho+r the real 0elocity will probably 0ary /rom 1D to <D mile, per ho+r anthe,e change, will take place in a /raction o/ a ,econ-. here will be other 0elocity change, taking longer perio-, o/ time, an- ,o on. " ,trong win- will ha0e a co+ntle,, n+mber o/ little 0elocitie,, 0ortice,, wa0e motion,, an- other characteri,tic,. It i, the action o/ the,e internal mo0ement, in the win-, a//ecting the machine /rom -i//erent angle, that we notice. ", a general r+le, the ,tronger the win- the more n+mero+, an- the ,tronger will the,e internal mo0ement, be4 an- the more we will notice the -i//erence, between /lying into the win- an- with the win- behin-. he air will be /o+n- e3ceptionally b+mpy when it i, changing in -irection4 al,o when the 0elocity i, increa,ing or -ecrea,ing rapi-ly. he ,moothe,t win- i, enco+ntere- when it ha, tra0elle- a long -i,tance o0er water. %b0io+,ly, win- /rom a city or mo+ntaino+, co+ntry will be 0ery irreg+lar an- will

re:+ire con,i-erable +,e o/ the control,. It i, gene/ally ,tate- that a machine will climb better hea-e- into the win-. hi, i, more o/ten tr+e than not, b+t there are time, when the machine will climb better with the win- on the tail. 8o not get the i-ea that yo+ cannot climb +nle,, hea-e- into the winor yo+ will o/ten go to +nnece,,ary tro+ble. =hen /lying within a /ew /eet o/ the water with the win- on the tail in win-, o/ <D mile, per ho+r or better, it will be 0ery -i//ic+lt an- ,ometime, impo,,ible to climb. hi, con-ition i, ca+,e- by the rolling motion imparte- to the air by it, /riction again,t the water.. hi, rolling motion increa,e, with the 0elocity o/ the win- an- may be a ,o+rce o/ great -anger. It i, ea,ily a0oi-e-, howe0er, by keeping at lea,t MD /eet, an- pre/erably higher abo0e the water when the win- i, behin-. =hen /lying in a ,trong p+//y win-, it i, not well to keep the machine climbing at it, ma3im+m angle. In thi, po,ition it ha, little re,er0e ,peean- i/ the climbing angle i, ,+--enly increa,e- by a p+//, the machine will be in a bapo,ition to combat a ,econ- or thir- p+// i/ ,+ch ,ho+l- be enco+ntere-. he ,ame rea,oning hol-, goo- when making a ,harp t+rn an- a ,teep bank. he machine i, more ea,ily p+t into a -angero+, po,ition. he,e warning, are only o/ importance while ,till relati0ely near the gro+n-, ,ay within 1DDD /eet. "/ter goo- altit+-e ha, been attaine-, an- there i, plenty o/ room to ,traighten o+t, many preca+tion, may be neglecte- by the ,kill/+l pilot. 5ot the lea,t important /eat+re o/ /light i, ,trategy. 6o+ will be well repai- /or looking ahea- an- a0oi-ing complicate- ,it+ation,. It i, m+ch better to keep o+t o/ tro+ble than to be cle0er at getting o+t o/ it. =hen /lying in ba- co+ntry, ,t+-y the local con-ition, an- map o+t yo+r /light in yo+r min- ,o a, to keep within reach o/ goo- lan-ing gro+n-, a, m+ch a, po,,ible. Iook /ar ahea-, an- al,o behin-. @(I(C I5G M(CH"5IC@ )%$ H( $%6"I )I6I5G C%$#@ Con,i-erable -i,cretion m+,t be e3erci,e- in the ,election o/ mechanic, /or the /lying corp,, a, ,o m+ch -epen-, +pon the mechanical con-ition o/ the airplane. Men who apply /or enli,tment in thi, -epartment are :+e,tione- care/+lly by the o//icer in charge an- are then te,te- a, to their pro/iciency in their re,pecti0e line, be/ore being accepte/or ,er0ice. hi, i, calle- Jtra-e te,ting,J an- i, accompli,he- by re:+iring the applicant to per/orm the 0ario+, kin-, o/ work in which he claim, to be pro/icient. "pplicant, who -e,ire to be /itter, or machini,t, are :+e,tione- regar-ing their knowle-ge o/ motor, an- o/ ,+ch machinery a, they will be oblige- to han-le. heir ability to +,e the lathe an- ,imilar tool, i, a,certaine- by p+tting them at work on a lathe mo+nte- in an a+to-tr+ck machine ,hop ,+ch a, i, act+ally +,e- behin- the line, on the we,tern /ront. Here the men m+,t ,ati,/actorily ,how that they im-er,tan- how to -o the kin- o/ work which will be re:+ire- o/ them. I/ the applicant, are not :+ali/iea, /itter,, they are cla,,e- a, helper,, with the po,,ibility o/ being a-0ance- later i/ they progre,,. Carpenter, or cabinet maker, are te,te- in the making o/ -o0etail an- other 1oint,, ani/ they pa,, thi, ,ati,/actorily they will be employe- to repair the 0ario+, woo-en part, o/ the airplane, ,+ch a, the /+,elage, wing,, wing ,tr+t, an- lan-ing gear. @ailmaker, an- tho,e ha0ing training in the making o/ tent,, o0erall, or other garment,, are employe- to co0er plane, an- -o ,imilar work. )or te,ting the,e, a ,mall ,ection or panel o/ a wing i, +tili>e-, the applicant being re:+e,te- to ,ew +p an I-,hape- tear. he neatne,, with which thi, i, -one ,how, hi, e3perience. In a ,imilar way ,heet-metal worker, are te,te- by being re:+ire- to c+t, ,hape an-

,ol-er ,e0eral ,mall ,heet-metal piece, o/ 0ario+, -e,ign, ,o a, to ,how whether they are capable o/ repairing or replacing ,ome o/ the ,heet-metal part, o/ an airplane, ,+ch a, engine hoo-,, ga,oline tank, an- ra-iator,. "/ter the men ha0e been ,electe-, they are enli,te- in the reg+lar way an- gi0en a certain amo+nt o/ military -rill, principally /or the ,ake o/ in,tilling in them an +n-er,tan-ing o/ the nece,,ity /or -i,cipline an- a ,en,e o/ re,pon,ibi9ty regar-mg the :+ality o/ the work an- the nece,,ity o/ ha0ing it -one promptly. hey are in,tr+cte- in the con,tr+ction o/ i+ternal-comb+,tion motor, in general an- in the partic+lar type, in +,e in the camp at which they are to be ,tatione-, an- recei0e con,i-erable in/ormation which will help them to per/orm their 0ario+, -+tie,. =hen the men who are a,,igne- to each J/light,HGH which in thi, ca,e mean, ,i3 machine,, or a thir- o/ a ,:+a-ron, are thoro+ghly traine-, they become e3tremely pro/icient. (ach man ha, a certain part o/ the work to han-le in -i,mantling or -i,a,,embling a machine that may be in nee- o/ repair, /or any rea,on. =hen a ,t+-ent make, a ba- lan-ing an- cr+mple, hi, r+nnmg gear +n-er the wing,, it take, b+t a 0ery /ew mm+te, /or the repair crew to take the wing, o// the bo-y, or /+,elage, a/ter which the machine i, taken to the hangar /or repair,. (ach man i, re,pon,ible /or a certain portion o/ the work, an- all connection, are :+ickly taken o+t ,o that the 0ario+, part, may be ,eparate- ea,ily. he /orm ,hown i, /or recor-ing the n+mber o/ men enli,te- in the 0ario+, branche,, an- gi0e, ,ome i-ea o/ the 0ariety o/ mechanic, re:+ire-. he men march to an- /rom their :+arter, in military /ormation an- are +n-er military -i,cipline. @#"$( #"$ @ )%$ $"I5I5G "I$#I"5(@ he problem o/ keeping airplane, in ,er0ice re:+ire, con,tant care an- a corp, o/ traine- mechanic, to make nece,,ary change, an- repair,. B+t more than thi,, it al,o nece,,itate, ha0ing a goo-ly ,+pply o/ ,pare part, to -raw /rom, ,o that -amage- wing,, aileron,, lan-ing gear, an- other part, o/ the machine it,el/, not to mention ,mall part, o/ the engine, may be rea-ily replace- an- the whole machine p+t back into ,er0ice at the earlie,t po,,ible moment. In thi, connection it i, e3tremely intere,ting to note the e3perience o/ the Cana-ian 8i0i,ion o/ the $oyal )lying Corp,, a, it, practice /orm, a 0ery goo- ba,i, +pon which to e,timate the n+mber o/ ,pare part, it i, nece,,ary to keep on han-. he en+meration i, gi0en merely a, a ,+gge,tion, a, the part, re:+ire- 0ary wi-ely /rom -ay to -ay4 an- i/ a new li,t were to be compile- a month /rom now, it wo+l- probably be change- in ,e0eral partic+lar,. " ,t+-y o/ the accompanying table,, howe0er, partic+larly in regar- to the part, o/ the plane, them,el0e,, ,how, ,e0eral intere,ting /eat+re,. )or e3ample, it ha, e0i-ently been /o+n- that twice a, many lower plane, are -amage- a, +pper plane,, an- thi, can rea-ily be im-er,too- a/ter one ,ee, the wheel, or ,tr+t, o/ the lan-ing gear /orce- back +n-er an- ,ometime, +p thro+gh the /abric o/ the lower plane. 8amage to the +pper plane i, m+ch le,, likely to occ+r, an- only hal/ the n+mber o/ ,pare part, i, pro0i-e- on thi, acco+nt. Both the ,ki-, +n-er the en- o/ the wing,, or cane,, a, they are calle- in thi, 9,t, anthe a3le, o/ the lan-ing gear are e0i-ently nee-e- in :+ite large :+antitie,. In the ,ame

way, wheel, /or the lan-ing gear an- inner t+be, /or the tire, are re:+ire- in large :+antitie,, while the tire, them,el0e, are or-ere- in only comparati0ely ,mall n+mber,. hi, in-icate, that t+be, are 0ery apt to be blown by ha0ing the tire, /orce- ,i-ewi,e o0er the rim, rather than by p+nct+re, which wo+l- a//ect the tire it,el/ a, well a, the t+be,. =heel, are al,o /re:+ently -amage- by lan-ing with con,i-erable ,i-e motion, which cr+mple, the rim an- twi,t, the ,poke, o+t o/ ,hape. %nly hal/ o/ the,e ,pare part, are i,,+e- to the ,:+a-ron in the beginning, the remain-er being kept at /lying hea-:+arter,, ,o a, to ha0e the latter act a, a re,er0oir /or ,+pply. hen, in ca,e any one /lying camp ha, an epi-emic o/ acci-ent, o/ a certain kin-, the e3tra ,pare part, nee-e- can be -rawn /rom the e3tra ,+pply at the central -epot ,tore,. he li,t /ollow,N "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! able I.; (nginb @pare, ro$ 1DD Machine, 8e,cription $epair ,ection at Bor-en "ircra/t -epot (ngine-repair ,ection "+3iliary air-intake a,,embly Breather pipe a,,embly Cam /ollower g+i-e a,,embly Cam,ha/t a,,embly Cam,ha/t gear Cam,ha/t bearing /ront Cam,ha/t center Cam,ha/t rear Carb+reter complete with brace, an- ,t+b,.. Carb+reter ,etting 1et,, a,,orteCarb+reter ,etting choke, each o/ three ,i>e, Carb+reter ,etting pilot 1et 5o. FD Carb+reter ,etting compen,ator 5o. 1DD Carb+reter hot-air bo3 a,,embly I Connecting-ro- a,,embly complete with bear- , ing, I

Connecting-ro- bearing, complete i Crank-ca,e lower hal/ a,,embly H Crank-ca,e oil--rain pl+g Crank-ca,e +pper hal/ a,,embly Crank,ha/t with pl+g,, gear, n+t,, lock ring,, complete Crank,ha/t bearing,, /ront main +pper Crank,ha/t bearing,, center main +pper Crank,ha/t bearing,, rear main +pper Crank,ha/t bearing,, cap, /ront +pper Crank,ha/t bearing,, cap, center +pper Crank,ha/t bearing,, cap, rear +pper 6oke cylin-er tie -own =ater-p+mp ,t+- ,ha/t Crank,ha/t gear Crank,ha/t lock wire Cylin-er a,,embly with 1acket, only (3ha+,t-0al0e ,pring ,eat wa,her,.. (3ha+,t 0al0e, (3ha+,t-0al0e ,pring, 1D M <D B A M AD < A A 1D 1A 1A B 1D B <D B B <D FD

1DD MD BDD 1D M 1DD F BD < 9 < M MD < A A 1D BF BF M 1D B M M 1M M 1D <D 1D AD M M MD 1DD BDD 1MD BMD BD 1D 1DD 1D <D 1D <D 1D 1D 1DD 1D 1M 1M BD

1BD 1BD 1D 1D M 1D 1D <Di 1D, BDG ADi BD BDD 1D 1D MD. 1DD MDD <DD MDD C"5"8I"5 $"I5I5G C"M# " B%$8(5 <<1 able I.; (ngine @parb, /or 1DD Machine, ; qponiin+e-L 8e,cription $epair ,ection at Bor-en "ircra/t -epot (ngine-repair ,ection Inlet 0al0e, Inlet-0al0e ,pring, Cylin-er ga,ket, (ngine-be- bolt a,,embly )ront gear-ca,e co0er a,,embly )ront gear-ca,e co0er packing n+t. .. Intake mani/ol- pipe an- 6-a,,embly Magneto -ri0e a,,embly complete %il-p+mp relea,e-0al0e a,,embly %il-pre,,+re reg+lator-0al0e ,pring... #i,ton complete with ring, #i,ton ring, #i,ton pin, #ropeller-h+b back wire $ocker-arm an- p+,h-ro- a,,embly.. $ocker-arm bearing pin Intake p+,h-ro- an- bearing pin

(3ha+,t p+,h-ro- an- bearing pin. . . B+,hing, re-+cer, b to 'i inch achometer with /le3ible ,ha/t achometer -ri0e ,ha/t achometer -ri0e gear achometer -ri0en gear hr+,t bearing with a-apter ring .... hr+,t-bearing a-apter ring hr+,t-bearing lock ring hr+,t-bearing lock-ring n+t hr+,t-bearing en- clamp %il ,ight-/ee- a,,embly =ater inlet-pipe a,,embly =ater o+tlet-pipe a,,embly =ater-p+mp a,,embly =ater-p+mp ,ha/t =ater-pmnp impeller =ater-p+mp impeller lockn+t =ater-p+mp b+,hing, large BD BDD MD AD B 1D M B B BD BD <DD



1D BD BD 1D <D <D <D "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! able I.; (ngine @pare, /or 1DD Machine, ; KCar9in+e-L 8e,cription ,@@@ at I 2'@2G Bor-en I PG\#sG =ater-p+mp b+,hing, ,mall =ater-p+mp ,ha/t collar =ater-p+mp ,ha/t wa,her, large =ater-p+mp ,ha/t wa,her, ,mall =ater-p+mp ,ha/t co+pling =ater-p+mp ,ha/t center =ater-p+mp ,ha/t member =ater-p+mp ,t+- ,ha/t ,pring =ater-pi+np packing n+t, ,mall =ater-p+mp packing n+t, large Magneto high-ten,ion cable, yarMagneto leather co0er %il pre,,+re gage Ga,oline ,h+t on cock ,pring lock Cam,ha/t gear p+ller Crank,ha/t gear p+ller Complete ,et o/ ga,ket, /or motor 7al0e li/ter M+//ler e3ha+,t (lbow, /or e3ha+,t m+//ler

%il-p+mp a,,embly %il-p+mp gear,, each %il-p+mp gear,, ,ha/t b+,hing Crank-ca,e co0er a,,embly Magneto co+pling r+bber ,egment,... Magneto, an- @park, /or Magneto, Magneto, complete Interr+pter contact ,pring, Interr+pter contact ,crew, Interr+pter co0er a,,embly Interr+pter le0er clamp ,pring Interr+pter contact lock ,crew Interr+pter le0er Interr+pter c+,hion ,pring Interr+pter le0er coil ,pring Interr+pter ,pring mo+nting ,crew... BD BD BD BD B B B 1D 1D 1D MD B YB B B


1D MD M MD MD M <DD 1D YYY BD 1D (ngine-repair ,ection AD AD AD AD 1D 1D 1D <D <D <D MD 1D 1D 1D 1D 1D <D 1D BD 1DD 1D 1DD 1DD 1D MDD 1D <D <D M <D <D BM <D <D <D C"5"8I"5 $"I5I5G C"M# " B%$8(5 <<[ able I.; (ngine @pare, /ob 1DD Machine, ; qCor-in+e-L Magneto, an- @park, /or Magneto, $epair ,ection at Bor-en "ircra/t -epot (ngine-repair ,ection Interr+pter block mo+nting ,crew in,+lating b+,hing Interr+pter block mo+nting ,crew in,+lating wa,her Interr+pter block mo+nting ,crew wa,her Interr+pter block mo+nting ,crew

Interr+pter he3agon ,crew in,+lating b+,hing.. Interr+pter gro+n- br+,h Interr+pter gro+n- br+,h ,pring Interr+pter he3agon mo+nting ,crew Interr+pter a-1+,ting wrench Cam ho+,ing Cam-ho+,ing clamp #inion #inion key, Con-en,er a,,embleerminal plate a,,embleCon-en,er mo+nting ,crew #rimary clamp lock ,crew 5orma ball bearing K-ri0ing an- interr+pter en-,L Interr+pter en- bearing 8ri0ing en- bearing 8+,t wa,her 8+,t-wa,her clamp 8i,trib+tor gear a,,emble8i,trib+tor block 8i,trib+tor block co0er Cable terminal pl+g a,,emble8i,trib+tor block ,t+-, lower 8i,trib+tor block ,t+-, +pper 8i,trib+tor block clamping ,pring a,,embly.. 8i,trib+tor /inger a,,emble8i,trib+tor /inger br+,h K,:+areL 8i,trib+tor /inger br+,h ,pring 8i,trib+tor /inger contact br+,h <D <D MD <D 1M

BD BD BD BD 1D <D <D <D <D <D MD MD <D 1D M M <D MD M <D M <D M M M M M < B B M AD <D M M MD MD "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! ablb I.; 2(noinb @pare, /ob 1DD Machine, ; KContin+e-L Magneto, an- @park, /or Magneto, $epair ,ection at Bor-en "ircra/t -epot (ngine-repair ,ectiPHi

8i,trib+tor /inger contact br+,h ,pring Collector br+,h Collector br+,h ,pring @park gap yoke a,,emble@park gap yoke contact b+tton @park gap yoke contact b+tton ,pring @park gap yoke mo+nting ,crew Br+,h-hol-er a,,embleBr+,h-hol-er co0er a,,embleBr+,h-hol-er clamp a,,embleHigh-ten,ion terminal n+t High-ten,ion terminal wa,her "-1+,table bearing b+,hing n+t "-1+,table bearing b+,hing "-1+,table bearing b+,hing clamp ring "-1+,table bearing b+,hing clamp ring ,crew. "-1+,table bearing ball bearing "-1+,table bearing ,pacing ring erminal pl+g clamp a,,embleerminal pl+g clamp bracket a,,embleerminal pl+g clamp bracket ,crew Gear,ha/t n+t lock ,crew Bearing ,crew Magnet ,trap, Magnet ,trap, ,crew @ha/t wa,her @ha/t n+t Gear,ha/t wa,her Gear,ha/t n+t 1A 1M 1M 1M 1M

1D 1D 1D 1D 1D BM BM BM < M <D 1D M < < BM BM M M M M < M M M 1D 1D 1D < <D <D <D <D

<D able II.; "irplane @pare, /or 1DD M"cm5B, "rticle Z+antity "ileron,, top right-han-, complete with /itting, FD "ileron,, top le/t-han-, complete with /itting, FD "ileron,, bottom right-han-, complete with /itting, FD "ileron,, bottom le/t-han-, complete with /itting, FD "3le,, metal, with cap, an- /lange, 1DD able II.; 2"ibplanb @pare, /or 1DD Machine, ; qContin+e-L "rticle Z+antity Bearer,, engine, complete with /itting,, pair, BD Bracket,, /+,elage, /or ,tr+t,, ,et, CM Bracket,, wing ,ki-,, ,et, BM Bri-ge,, connecting, ,tr+t, MD Cane,, wing ,ki- BDD Control, K-+alL, ,et, M Cor-, ela,tic, ,hock ab,orber, yar-, ADD Co0er,, can0a,, o+ter, /or wheel, 1D Co0er,, can0a,, inner, /or wheel, 1D Cowling, engine M Cowling, +n-er,hiel- M (le0ator,, pair, 1M )airing,, a3le, complete 1DD )in, BD Ma,t,, wing, ,et, FD #lane,, main top, right-han-, complete with /itting, <M #lane,, main top, le/t-han-, complete with /itting, <M #lane,, main bottom, right-han-, complete with /itting,. CD #lane,, main bottom, le/t-han-, complete with /itting,.. CD #lane,, tail, complete with /itting, 1D #lane,, center, complete with /itting, BD

#ropeller, BDD $a-iator, BD $+--er, AD @ki-,, tail, complete BD @tr+t,, main plane, o+ter, /ront MD @tr+t,, main plane, o+ter, rear MD @tr+t,, main plane, interme-iate, /ront MD @tr+t,, main plane, interme-iate, rear MD @tr+t,, central /ront BM @tr+t,, central rear BM @tr+t,, inter aileron BD @tr+t,, right-han-, /ront 1DD Y @tr+t,, right-han-, rear 1DD @tr+t,, le/t-han-, /ront 1DD @tr+t,, le/t-han-, rear 1DD ank,, main petrol M +be,, inner BMD ire,, o+ter BM =heel,, complete BMD =in-,creen, 1D "I$#I"5( (5GI5( $(#"I$@ " %$%5 %

he Cana-ian 8i0i,ion o/ the $oyal )lying Corp, i, ,y,tematically arranging /or the repair o/ airplane, an- engine,. =ith hea-:+arter, in oronto, the -i0i,ion i, planning to ha0e general repair, to both engine, an- plane, ma-e at that point. "ll the /lying /iel-,, which incl+-e the /ir,t, or primary, /iel- at 8e,eronto an- the ,econ-ary /iel-, at Iea,i-e, $i-ley #ark an- Camp Bor-en, ha0e what might be calle- /iel- repair ,hop, /or minor repair, an- al,o /or the reg+lar o0erha+ling an- cleaning which become nece,,ary a/ter MD ho+r, o/ act+al /lying. In the ,ame way minor repair, to plane, anlan-ing gear are al,o ma-e in the ,hop, at the 0ario+, /lying /iel-,. =hen, howe0er, a crank,ha/t ha, been bent by a ,e0ere cra,hing o/ the machine on lan-ing, no repair, are attempte- at the /lying /iel-, b+t the complete engine i, ,hippeto the main repair ,hop at oronto. Here it i, taken apart an- thoro+ghly e3amine- in e0eiy partic+lar. Broken an- -amage- part, are remo0e- an- replace-, an- the engine p+t in ,hape /or act+al ,er0ice an- ,hippe- back to the /lying /iel- a, ,oon a, it ha, been te,te-. %wing to the -i//ic+lty o/ ,ec+ring ,kille- mechanic, /or all thi, work, it ha, been /o+n-

a-0i,able to pick the be,t men a0ailable an- train them along ,pecial line, o/ repair,. 9n-er the g+i-ance o/ a /ew ,kille- mechanic, men become /airly e3pert in han-ling connecting ro-,, pi,ton pin, an- work o/ that kin-, an- thi, metho- ha, been /o+n- to work o+t a, well a, can be e3pecte- where ,kille- men cannot be ,ec+re-. It take, comparati0ely little training to make a man /airly ,kill/+l, an- by keeping him contin+ally on ,ome partic+lar 1ob he ,oon learn, to han-le it in a 0ery ,ati,/actory manner. B%E(@ )%$ ("@6 H"58II5G @pecial tray,, or bo3e,, which can be ea,ily han-le-, are ma-e /or hol-ing the -i//erent part, on their way thro+gh the ,hop, an- great care i, taken to ha0e e0ery part ab,ol+tely right be/ore the engine i, rea,,emble-. he /orm, +,e- in keeping track o/ thi, work a, it goe, thro+gh the ,hop are ill+,trate- herewith. (ngine, are allotte- to (ngine $epair #ark, a, the ,hop, are terme-, by the $oyal )lying Corp, hea-:+arter,. (ach engine i, gi0en a logbook /or all /+t+re work. hi, book gi0e, a complete hi,tory o/ the engine at all time,. %n receipt o/ allotment,, a 1ob n+mber i, gi0en to the engine by the comman-ing o//icer, an- all -epartment, are a-0i,e- o/ thi, n+mber when they recei0e the engine. he engine, are then ,ent to the -i,mantling -epartment, which imme-iately a-0i,e, the o//ice o/ the comman-er that they ha0e been recei0e-, gi0ing both their own an- the makerH, n+mber. he logbook, then go to the o//ice, which /orwar-, them to the in,pection -epartment4 there partic+lar, o/ all work re:+ire- to be -one are /ille- in, an- the work act+ally per/orme- an- pa,,e- i, entere-. 5o -epartment e3cept the in,pection -epartment make, entrie, in the logbook,. %n completion o/ the engine, the logbook, are ret+rne- to the comman-ing o//icer /or hi, ,ignat+re. he,e book, are packe- an- -i,patche- with the engine, to the /lying /iel-,. he entrie, in the logbook,, while a, conci,e a, po,,ible an- not gi0ing -etail, a, to the replacement o/ bolt,, n+t,, etc., only the main part, being mentione-, are ,+ch, howe0er, a, to enable the ,:+a-ron, to obtain a goo- knowle-ge o/ the work which ha, been -one on the engine,. @ho+l- it be apparent /rom the con-ition o/ the engine that it ha, not ha- /air treatment while with the ,:+a-ron,, an2entry to that e//ect i, ma-e in the logbook an- where po,,ible a reme-y i, ,+gge,te-. 5o work i, ,tarte- on an engine imtil a/ter receipt o/ the 1ob n+mber. H( )%$M@ 9@(8 he -i,mantling -epartment make, o+t )orm 5o. 1, )ig. 1C9, in -+plicate, retaining one copy an- /orwar-ing the other to BB the in,pection room. "H part, o/ the engine are thoro+ghly cleane- be/ore lea0ing the -i,mantling -epartment an- the 0al0e, lightly gro+n- in to /acilitate in,pection.

he -i,mantling -epartment al,o make, o+t a bl+e tag, )orm 5o. B, /+rni,hing a, many copie, a, there are part, tray, /or the engine. he,e /orm, remain with the engine +nt9 it ha, pa,,e- thro+gh the ,hop, an- i, rea-y /or packing. )orm 5o. < i, ma-e o+t by the in,pection -epartment, the lower portion being +,e- /or -rawing part, /rom the ,tore,. hi, lea0e, a carbon copy o/ ,tore, -rawn /or the ,heet beneath. he carbon copy i, retaine- an- complete- by the in,pection room +pon receipt o/ part,. )orm 5o. F i, ma-e o+t by the in,pection -epartment. It gi0e, partic+lar, o/ the work to be -one an- i, attache- to each part re:+iring attention. he -epartment -oing the work complete, the /orm, ,en-ing it back to the in,pection room together with the part when the work i, /ini,he-. 5o engine lea0e, the in,pection room +ntil it i, complete in all it, part,. @ho+l- any part, not be in ,tock, the engine remain, there +ntil they are ,ec+rean- ha0e pa,,e- in,pection. " re- tag, )orm 5o. M, remain, with the engine +ntil it, ret+rn to the in,pection room. )orm 5o. A, )ig. 18D, i, now ,tarte- by the in,pection -epartment, an- thi,, together with it, en0elope. 5o. C, remain, with the engine +ntil it i, complete-. "ll entrie, on thi, car- are ma-e by the in,pection -epartment, which /orwar-, it to the comman-ing o//icer a, ,oon a, the /inal te,t o/ the engine i, complete- an- it i, rea-y /or ,er0ice. )orm 5o. 8 i, ma-e o+t by the a,,embly -epartment, the in,pector, ,igning in the top right-han- col+mn a, the ,e0eral operation, o/ a,,embly are in,pecte- an- pa,,e-. "

carbon copy o/ the 0al0e an- magneto ,etting i, ma-e an- /orwar-e- -irect to the te,ting -epartment. )orm 5o. 9 i, then ma-e o+t by the te,t -epartment. he ,etting o/ the 0al0e, an- the magneto i, ,hown a, it remain, a/ter the engine ha, been te,te- an- pa,,e- /or tor:+e. hi, will not nece,,arily be the ,ame a, that gi0en by the a,,embly -epartment i/ better re,+lt, can be obtaine- with ,ome other ,etting. "ll ,etting, are gi0en in -egree, an- not a, mea,+rement, o/ the ,troke. %n completion o/ the te,ta, )orm 5o. 9 i, ,ent to the o//ice c the comman-ing o//icer, where it ia -+plicate- on )orm 5o. 1 /or ,en-ing o+t with the engine logbook. he original i, the

ret+rne- to the te,t -epartment, where it ia /ile- /or /+t+r re/erence. ", the engine pa,,e, thro+gh the ,hop, /or the ,econ- -ia mantling, rea,,embly, etc., a/ter the /ir,t te,t, a ,econ- /orm, ha0ing the ,ame 1ob n+mber a, the original, i, ma-e o+t by each -epartment. he,e /orm, are kept with the /ir,t /orm, by each -epartment. (ach -epartment keep, it, complete- /orm, in n+merical or-er, accor-ing to the 1ob n+mber,, ,o a, to be ea,ily /o+n- /or re/erence. "ll -epartment, make a -aily report be/ore 9 a.m., a, ,hown in )orm 5o. 11, to the comman-ing o//icer in charge o/ the entire ,chool. )orm 5o. 1B ,how, an engine-recor- car- which i, kept in the o//ice o/ the comman-ing o//icer an- i, bro+ght +p to -ate /rom the ret+rn, by the ,e0eral -epartment, gi0en in )orm 5o. 11. hi, gi0e, a conci,e hi,tory o/ each engine a, long a, it remain, in ,er0ice.

"ll time ,pent an- material +,e- at the repair park are acco+nte- /or +n-er the hea-ing, which ,how where all charge, ,ho+l- be ma-e. 'ob n+mber, incl+-e all time an- material +,e- in connection with the repair anreb+il-ing o/ airplane engine, an- al,o the o0erha+l an- repair, o/ motor tran,port 0ehicle,. he,e n+mber, are allotte- by the comman-ing o//icer, who a-0i,e, the -epartment, concerne- o/ the n+mber, allotte- to each engine or motor tran,port 0ehicle. @tock n+mber, incl+-e all time an- material +,e- on man+/act+re- work, ,+ch a, engine part,, tool, or article, man+/act+re- /or other +nit,. "ll re:+e,t, /or thi, cla,, o/ work are ma-e o+t on a ,pecial /orm, the article pa,,ing thro+gh the in,pection -epartment. hey are then tran,/erre- to the repair ,tore, an- rei,,+e- by them to the proper -epartment. "ll or-er n+mber, originate in the -rawing o//ice, where a book i, kept which recor-, all n+mber, i,,+e-. =here -rawing, are re:+ire-, the,e bear the ,tock or-er n+mber in a--ition to it, -rawing n+mber. @ho+l- /+rther ,imilar article, be re:+ire- a/ter completion o/ the /ir,t or-er, the new or-er will ha0e the ,ame n+mber a, the original an- be /ollowe- by a letter o/ the alphabet, commencing with ". H%= %$8($ 59MB($@ "$( GI7(5 =ork, or-er n+mber, incl+-e all repair, or alteration, to machine tool,, plantGor b+il-ing,. $e:+e,t, /or thi, cla,, o/ work are ma-e o+t by the -epartment re:+iring the work to be -one. hi, take, a work, or-er ni+nber prece-e- by the initial letter, o/ the -epartment, /or e3ample, =. %. MQ@BDB ,tan-, /or work, or-er n+mber BDB, i,,+e- by the machine ,hop. (ach -epartment keep, a recor- o/ all or-er, i,,+e-. #ermanent work, or-er, Kcommon to all -epartment,L. %nly time ,pent on the,e or-er, -+ring the working ho+r, o/ the park i, to be acco+nte- /or. =orking or-er nmnber 1DD1;Cleaning. =orking or-er nmnber 1DDB;8rill. =orking or-er n+mber 1DD<;G+ar-,. =orking or-er n+mber 1DDF;Iea0e. =orking or-er n+mber 1DDM;(3c+,e- -+ty or ho,pital. =orking or-er n+mber 1DDA;%r-erly -+tie,. =orking or-er n+mber 1DDC;General work in connection with laying o+t plant. (ach -epartment ren-er, a weekly ,+mmary o/ all time, in man-ho+r,, worke- on each or-er. hi, goe, to the ,tore, by 9 a.m. Mon-ay. he ,tore, keep a recor- o/ all time ,pent an- material +,e- on each or-er, in the /orm o/ a loo,e-lea/ le-ger. ime ,heet, are ma-e o+t by all noncommi,,ione- o//icer, below the rank o/ ,ergeant Kwith the e3ception o/ clerk, an- ,toremenL. he time ,heet, are ,igne- by the noncommi,,ione- o//icer in charge o/ the ,ection, anpa,,e- to the o//icer in charge o/ the -epartment, who /ile, them when the nece,,ary in/ormation ha, been ,ec+re-.

#"$ @ H" 5((8 "

(5 I%5

"/ter an engine ha, been r+n /rom 1DD to 1MD ho+r,, it i, gi0en complete o0erha+ling. 5ew connecting-ro- bearing,, an- in mo,t ca,e, main bearing,, are al,o in,talle-. he,e bearing, are ca,t in the ,hop, on a bra,, back, an- a/ter being /itte- in place are care/+lly line- an- reame- to the proper ,i>e. @craping i, practically +nknown, a, i, now the ca,e in nearly all the better gra-e a+tomobile ,hop,. here are a great 0ariety o/ breakage, /rom 0ario+, ca+,e,. "mong the,e i, the breaking o/ the pi,ton pin, which +,+ally -e,troy, the pi,ton an- /re:+ently break, the ,mall eno/ the connecting ro-. hi, i, probably ca+,e- by the pi,ton pin, being ca,e har-enetoo -eep, which make, them brittle, owing to the lack o/ the ,o/t core, a, the,e pin, are hollow. he bearing o/ the,e pin, i, in the al+mini+n pi,ton, a, ha, pre0io+,ly been -e,cribe- in connection with the b+il-ing o/ the C+rti,, motor. he,e wear in time, an- o0er,i>e pi,ton pin, are being trie- to reme-y thi, -i/iic+lty. Bron>e b+,hing, may al,o be a-opte- later in ca,e o/ /+rther wear, or i/ the enlarge- pin, -o not pro0e entirely ,ati,/actory. Crank,ha/t, are /re:+ently bent when the propeller ,trike, the earth in making a balan-ing, an- a ,pecial <M-ton hy-ra+lic pre,, i, being in,talle- /or ,traightening the,e ,ha/t,. It i, the intention to clamp the en- ,ha/t bearing, in a ,+itable /i3t+re an- apply pre,,+re where0er it may be nece,,ary in or-er to bring the ,ha/t back to it, normal po,ition or to within D.DDB inch o/ ,traight. I/ the ,ha/t i, o0er D.DBD inch o+t o/ 9ne, it i, not +,+ally con,i-ere- a-0i,able to attempt ,traightening. $(#"I$I5G C$"5! C"@( B6 =(I8I5G =hen a crank,ha/t become, bent /rom an acci-ent o/ thi, kin-, it +,+ally crack, or otherwi,e m+tilate, the crank ca,e or engine /ace, or both. Many o/ the,e can be repaire- by an e3pert o3yacetylene wel-er, b+t it i, 0ery nece,,ary to hol- the piece, /irmly in po,ition to pre0ent their being ba-ly warpe- by the local application o/ inten,e heat. o a0oi- thi,, hea0y ca,t-iron block, are to be +,e-, to which the ca,e, will be bolte$%6"I )I6I5G C%$#@ KM9 "$6 =I5GL 5%9@ )%$ HI( G9I8"5C( %) M(CH"5IC@ I5 CH" $G( %) "($%# I"5(@. he /ollowing 5ote, will a,,i,t Mechanic, in charge o/ the $igging an- (ngine o/ an "eroplane in the metho-ical carrying o+t o/ meir -+tie,. hey are a g+i-e. It m+,t not be a,,+me- that the,e are all the point, to be atten-e- to. G(5(B"I 5%IB. RM%BBB "57 )lim@. MechanicG who ht0e char1ce o/ a machine are prinaril0 reapomiMe /or it, n/ety whild +n-er their charge. hey thowl- conatantly try to think o/ new mc%MMb to em+re thiG. hey \bo+M in0ariably bring any /re+ pointt to the notice o/ their )li/ht Comman-er, in or-er that the re,t o/ the Corp, may bene/it by them. hey ,ho+l- alway, try to /in- o+t the tmm o/ anything wrong, an- in/orm the o//icer in chwge o/ the machine o/ their

opinion. he0 ,ho+l- bear in min- any partic+lar inci-ent, which may ha0e happeneto the machine +n-er their charge -+ring each /light, an- be on the look-o+t /or ,ign, o/ ,tre,,e, that may ha0e occ+rre- to the machine in con,e:+ence o/ theae inci-ent,. )or e3ampleea ,teep ,piral may ca+ie ,i-e ,train, on the engine bearer,N a /light in baweather may ca+,e ben-ing ,tre,,e, on the longit+-inal member, o/ the bo-y, be,i-e, ,tretching Khe li/t an- -rag wire,, /i2 5o part o/ a machine can be ,a/ely o0erlooke-, ankoo- mechanic, will alway, be ,eeking /or the po,,ible ca+,e o/ acci-ent, an- bringing them to the notice o/ the o//icer in charge o/ the machine 5o alteration or repair i, to be ma-e to a machine witho+t /ir,t reporting to. anobtaining the ,anction o/, the )light Comman-er nam nm mechanic, in chabob o/ wanano. 8"II6 nmracno5 "ll ,tntti an- Kheir ,ocket,, longcrani. ,ki-,. _c "ll o+t,i-e mm an- their anachmcnt,. "ll control le0er, or wheel,, control wire,, an- cabteG an- their attachment,. K he control cableG tho+l- not be loo tight, othcrwiic they will r+b itiHly in the g+i-ei. he control le0er tho+l- be ict central in the acropt,nc bo-y, or in a con0enient po,ition /or Khe pilot when control, arc ne+tral;tc, po,ition Kor /lying le0el;an- ,ho+l- kn0c a goo- range o/ ele0ator mo0e mcnt +p an- -own. he /+ll amo+nt o/ warp each way tho+l- 8e obtainable, ray ipccial attention to cab+ct an- control wireG wberc ihcy paaeo0cr p+lley, or Khro+gh g+i-eG, an- Ko alt ,plit pinGN p+t Khe /inger, both wayG trttt caMcG to ter i/ there + any tign o/ traLingN keep the p+lley, well l+br!atc- with thick oil an- the g+i-e, well grea,e-.H "ll ,plice, Kor any itgn/o/ their -rawing. Iih an- +n-er-carriage caMct Kor any ,ign, o/ ,tretching. "ll /abric wbcthcr on wing, or other part, o/ the mrchinc, lor hole,, c+t,, weak or ba-ly -ope- place,, or ,ign, o/ being ,oake- with petrol, a+i- Ko ,ee i/ iK i, properly Ka,reneKo Khe wing,, _c. "ll o+K,i-c t+mb+ckle,, Ko ,ec that they ha0e ,+//iacnt Kbrea-G engage-, an- KhaK Khey are properly locke-. "3lea, wheel,, ,hock-ab,orber,, an- Kyrc,. p+mping Khe laner +p Ko Khe correcK pre,,+re. he ,cat,, both Kor pa,,enger an- pik3. ,eeing Khat the /a,Kcning, nn correct. @a/ety belt,Han- their /a,teninga."ll ii+tniK8enK, an- Kheir Ka,KeningX@ he -aily e3amination ,ho+l- be carrie- o+K ,y,Ke//laKically in the /ollowing or-er .; PaL Iower wing,, +n-cr-camage complete, Kail-planca, rn3k all wire, ,KKachc- Ko tnc,e. Kail,ki-, an- all attachmen+ an- r+--er. = 5acelle or bo-y, bolK, o/ lower pl/nc. all caaKroi le0er, an- wirca KKL op wing,, wing/lap, an- wireG he +n-er-camaPe. Kail2tki- an- a!ackmeata. an- li/t an- -raK wireG, /or ta+lnetG he w h e e l , , a/ter.a roogh lan-ing, /or bent ,polie,, nnco0eni2 them i/ nece,,ary "/Ker Ayinc i, /ini,he- /or the Pi&y. wipe all Klie oil o// Khe plane, a, /ar a, po,,ible with a

cloth or coKKon `t2Ke i mml a,t /c wmi /m Hh pm/+t . %icek %0er all -imen,ion,, ,paa, chor-, gap. ,+ggcr o/ winp. angle o/ inci-ence o/ )ing, ,a- Kail. -ihe-ral angle,H al ig n m e n t o/ bo-y, ro--er an- -e0ato/,, an- Khe general Knrth o"he machine (3amine Kbe poinK, o/ cro,,ing o/ all wire, to tee there ,re no ,ign, o/ wear, an- Khat each wire i, properly bowi- wiKb in,alaKing Kape Ko pre0enK r+bbing (3amine all placea where wirea croaa Khe ,tnrt,, an- le, i/ Khe pbKe /\PLiiirea renewal (3amine any coatni wirea which are bo+n- Kogether, an- ,ec that Khey are correct KIn,+lating Kape ,ho+l- be a,e- /or ibi, in prc/erenoe Ko +ire, a, Khe laKKer may iltp anKa+te a lock.L I the wheeb /or bcoK or k^o,e apoke,. +nco0ering Khem /er Kh& porpoae, i/ Kbey ha0e co0er, AKKe\ Y"II "% control wire, bekmpag to Khe engine an- all et,ctiic connection,, wire, an- ,witebea @ee thM 9lk ,witch mii Khrottle ,top Khe engioe #etrol an- Ail Kaok,. pipe, aa- ga n g, G @ec that the eopper pipe, are not Ay,talli,e-. an- r+b metal one, are not pen,hc#ay porticnlar aKKentioa 1D the ognacetioa \/ petrol aa- oil pipe, to ,ee that they arc light, aa- to cocka lo ,ee that th:r arc R aw-nng or-er I alnpiiw iharoaghl/ & icc i/ k I, eonact aa- -iat the aatt arc light a,i p re m + re p+mp C/ ,nyL aa- AD the top tank Check the aaw+ni o/ o- aa- petrol m Kaak, )iZ. 181. ,o a, to hol- them /irmly in po,ition -+ring the wel-ing operation. In thi, connection it i, intere,ting to note that a large heating /+rnace ha, been pro0i-e- into which the crank ca,e, alrea-y bolte- on it, hea0y ca,t-iron /orm, can be heate- a, hot a, may be nece,,ary, be/ore the wel-ing i, attempte-. hi,, in ,ome in,tance,, i, abo+t BDD -egree, below )ahrenheit, the melting point o/ the alloy, a, thi, temperat+re ha, been /o+n- to a,,i,t the wel-ing to a large -egree an- al,o to pre0ent warping a/ter the piece i, remo0e- /rom the ca,t-iron /orm. here i, al,o con,i-erable repair work on the engine ra-iator,, which mean, ,heet-metal work, ,ol-ering an- bra>ing to a con,i-erable e3tent. In all the repair -epartment, it i, nece,,ary to e3erci,e e3treme care, partic+larly when green men are being broken in. I5@ $9M(5 @ )%$ "I$#I"5(@ he a0iator re:+ire8 a n+mber o/ in,tnit+ent, to ioB+re proper han-ling o/ the machine. @ome o/ the,e are +eceB,ary beca+,e the a0iator ha, no mean, o/ knowing hi, e3act po,ition witho+t

them. High in air, or in the clo+-, with no ,ight o/ lan-, he cannot tell when he i, /lying le0el, climbing too ,teeply or banke- to a -angero+, -egree, witho+t ,ome in,tr+ment, to tell him hi, po,ition. he,e in,tr+ment, are4 tachometer or ei2ne ,pee- in-icator, <FA i+chaometime, incl+-e, aco+nter to gi0e total engine re0ol+tion,4 Rmpa,a4 clinometer4 banking in-icator4 inci-ence in-icator4 timeter4 ra-iator ttiermometer4 air ,peein-icator4 -ri/t in-i-tor4 ,tabili>er4 clock4 map boar-4 engine control,4 /+el an- bricating gage,4 ignition ,witche,, bomb ,ighting an- -ropping cchani,m4 camera an- machine g+n.

lie tacliomcter i, practically a ,pee-ometer ,imilar to tho,e Xe- in a+tomobile,.

he compa,, ai-, in na0igation a, at ,ea, two type, being own in )ig,. 18B an- 18<. he,e are Creagh-%,borne li:+i- impa,,e,, )ig. 18B, being o/ the +,+al hori>ontal type. he ner bowl i, /ille- with a mi3t+re o/ alcohol an- -i,tille- water. the compa,, car- /loating in the li:+i-. he inner bowl re,t, on hor,e hair which act, a, a ,pring to ab,orb 0ibration. he mi3t+re o/ li:+i- /or air compa,,e, 0arie, /rom FM per cent alcohol an- MM per cent, o/ water to almo,t p+re alcohol. he high percentage o/ alcohol i, to pre0ent /ree>ing at high altit+-e,. In ,hipping li:+i- compa,,e,, the 1ar -+e to tran,it almo,t in0ariably ca+,e, b+bble, to appear in the li:+i-. hi, can be rea-ily reme-ie- by care/+lly remo0ing the inner bowl, taking o+t the /illing pl+g an- a--ing a /ew -rop, o/ either alcohol or -i,tille- water with a me-icine -ropper or /o+ntain pen /i9er. hi, applie, to both type, o/ compa,,. In the ,econ- compa,, ,hown, the gra-+ation, are on the o+t,i-e rim o/ a ring which i, mo+nte- on the /loat. hi, /loat i, centere- on a ,+itable 1ewele- pi0ot in both ca,e,. hi, compa,, i, hel- in the o+ter ring by mean, o/ the /o+r ,pring mo+nting, ,hown. he,e al,o contiain ,o/t iron core, with which to correct certain compa,, error,, while the ,mall ro+n- compartment on top hol-, permanent magnet, when nece,,ary, to correct other error,. he correction o/ the,e error, can har-ly be taken +p here, a, it re:+ire, long e3perience to in,+re ,+cce,,. he ,mall arrow on the wire acro,, the /ace o/ the compa,, can be ,et to allow /or the -ri/ting o/ the plane. he 0ertical white line i, a wire /rom which the rea-ing, are taken. he hori>ontal 9ne act, to ,ome e3tent a, a& banking in-icator by ,howing when the machine i, o+t o/ the hori>ontal. he in-icating wire, an- the /ig+re, an- gra-+ation, on both compa,,e, are painte- with ra-i+m material ,o a, to ,how at night withG no o+t,i-e ill+mination. he @perry Clinometer i, ,hown in )ig. 18F. hi, i, mo+nte- on the back ,i-e o/ the -a,h with the ,mall ro+n- portion pro1ecting thro+gh. hi, ,how, the angle o/ the plane with the hori>ontal an- ,how, the a0iator whether the angle i, ,a/e /or hi, plane. he ,cale i, on the rim o/ a wheel which i, weighte- an- the ca,e t+rn, aro+n- the wheel. " 0ery neat in,tr+ment i, the @perry banking in-icator in )ig. i@o. he o+tline o/ the airplane ia ,et le0el with the machine an- the white bar i, connecte- to a pen-+l+m in,i-e the ca,e. =hen the plane i, banke- /or a t+rn the pen-+l+m /lie, to the o+ter ,i-e o/ the circle an- ,wing, the white line o+t o/ the hori>ontal 1+,t in proportion to the ra-i+, an- ,pee- o/ the t+rn.

I/ the airplane i, banke- the proper amo+nt, the white hne an- the o+tline o/ the plane will be parallel the ,ame a, when the machine i, le0el. I/ the plane i, not properly banke- /or the t+rn, the line, will ,how which way the machine ,ho+l- be tippe- an- how m+ch. It i, a 0ery ,imple -e0ice an- 0ery e//icient. he two ,crew, "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! allow a-1+,ting to the plaoe witho+t re:+iring too care/+l work in mo+nting.

" 0ery nece,,ary in,tr+ment i, the Clark angle o/ inci-ence in-icator in )ig. 18A. hi, /a,ten, to one o/ the ,tr+t, between the wing,, pre/erably ,o that the pointer an- ,cal2 can be ,een the pilot. he 0ane i, ,o proportione- that it remain, le0el en the plane i, in motion. -2Iectrical connection, r+n to the ro+n- in-icator ,hown, thi, ng locate- on the -a,h, an- containing three lamp,, green, re-, i white. he in-icating 0al0e i, ,o a-1+,te- that when /lying el no light b+rn,. =hen c9mbing the green light ,how, en the proper c9mbing angle /or be,t e//iciency i, reache-.

Hi thi, climbing angle i, increa,e- to the ,talling point;which Nhe -anger point, the re9ght ,ignal, the a0iator to -ecrea,e angle. @ho+l- he 0olplane Kor gli-eL at too ,teep an angle an- attain a igero+, ,pee-, the white light i, ,hown. he three light, gi0e a po,iti0e tell-tale a, to /lyii2 con-ition, i make thi, a partic+larly 0al+able in,tr+ment. H( CI%C! " high gra-e, 1ewele- clock i, al,o an important part o/ the e:+ipment o/ a mo-ern airplane a, correct timing i, 0ery nece,,ary /or nearly all mi9tary operation,. "I IM( ($ %$ "I I 98( B"$%M( ($ hi, in,tr+ment, )ig. 18C, ,how, the height o/ the airplane abo0e the earth. It contain, a metal 0ac++m bo3 or chamber which i, acte- on by the 0arying -en,ity o/ the atmo,phere. hi, act+ate, a han- an- ,how, the height on the -ial. he -ial i, a-1+,teto >ero on the gro+n- ,o a, to ,how the /lying height at that altit+-e. he lock ,hown hol-, the -ial in the po,ition ,et. he -ial -iameter i, abo+t F inche, an- both -ial anhan- are ma-e l+mino+, in the -ark by ra-i+m material. @(C I%5 EEI7 H( I(=I@ M"CHI5( G95 he Iewi, machine g+n i, +,e- 0ery largely in airplane work an- ha, pro0e- 0ery ,+cce,,/+l. It i, a ga,-operate- g+n an- ha, a po,iti0e air-cooling -e0ice ,omewhat along the line, o/ the )ranklin metho- o/ cooling ga,-engine cylin-er,. It ha, a rotating -r+m maga>ine which hol-, FC cartri-ge, an- -o+ble -r+m, are al,o +,e- hol-ing MD more than thi, n+mber. he g+n alone weigh, BA po+n-, 1B o+nce, an- with the army tripoan- maga>ine in place it weigh, <D po+n-, BOQ2 o+nce,. )or airplane +,e it ha, a ,pecial g+n mo+nting which allow, it to be ea,ily ,wi0elle- into almo,t any po,ition. @ee )ig. 188. he barrel i, ,+rro+n-e- by, an- thro+gho+t it, length i, in -irect metallic contact with, an al+min+m ra-iator. he ra-iator ha, high longit+-inal ra-ial /in,, an- it i, inclo,e-

in a ,teel ra-iator ca,ing that i, open at both en-, an- e3ten-, /orwar- beyon- the m+>>le o/ the barrel. he barrel mo+thpiece, ,ec+re- to the barrel by a le/t-han-ethrea-, contain, a c+p-,hape- apert+re -e,igne- to -irect the m+>>le bla,t into the /orwar- e3ten,ion o/ the ra-iator ca,ing ,o a, to in-+ce ,+ction o/ air /rom breech to m+>>le in,i-e the ra-iator ca,ing an- along the ,+r/ace, o/ the /in,. 5ear the barrel m+>>le an- in it, +n-er ,i-e i, a port thro+gh which pow-er ga, at barrel pre,,+re i, a-mitte- -+ring the time re:+ire- /or the b+llet to pa,, /rom the port to the m+>>le. he pow-er ga, pa,,e, into a ga, chamber an- thence into a ga, cylin-er beneath the barrel an- parallel with it, in which it -ri0e, a pi,ton rearwar-. he pi,ton i, pinne- ,ec+rely to the rack, which i, pro0i-e- with teeth on it, lower ,+r/ace me,hing with teeth in the periphery o/ the gear. B< <M<

he recei0er i, ,ec+re- to the barrel by a large ,:+are threa- an- i, piercelongit+-inally by two bore,, one abo0e the other. he,e bore, are connecte- by a narrow

,lot /rom the rear o/ the recei0er almo,t to it, /ront en-. he pi,ton tra0el, in the lower bore o/ the recei0er, which /orm, a rearwar- e3ten,ion o/ the ga, cylin-er +n-er the barrel. Y he +pper bore in the recei0er /orm, the boltway in which the bolt tra0el,. he bolt i, ,+,pen-e- on an- operate- by the ,triker po,t at the rear en- o/ the rack. he ,triker i, pinne- in the ,triker po,t, which /it, into a cam ,lot in the bottom o/ the bolt. hi, ,lot i, c+t away towar- the a3i, o/ the bolt /or the ,triker, an- the /ace o/ the bolt i, pierce- a3ially /rom thi, ,lot to permit the ,triker to reach the primer o/ the cartri-ge in the chamber. @+itable -elay, in the action, a/ter locking the bolt an- be/ore /iring, ana/ter /iring an- be/ore +nlocking, are pro0i-e- by the longit+-inal portion o/ the ,lot /or the ,triker po,t in the bottom o/ the bolt. Iocking an- +nlocking are accompli,he- by the cam angle, at the rear o/ the ,lot in the bolt. Breech clo,+re i, by rotary locking, the breech bolt ha0ing /o+r locking l+g, that are t+rne- in the corre,pon-ing locking rece,,e, in the recei0er. 9n-er the recei0er at it, /ront en- i, /itte- the gear ca,e, which contain, the gear an- the main,pring. he latter i, o/ the ribboZ type an- i, wo+n- +p on the opening, or rearwar-, ,troke o/ the action by the me,hing o/ the teeth o/ the gear with the corre,pon-ing teeth +n-er the rack. he ,pring ten,ion ,o obtaine- i, the mean, /or the clo,ing ,troke o/ the action by rotating the gear in the oppo,ite -irection an- ,o -ri0ing the rack, which i, part o/ the pi,ton, /orwar-. "bo0e the recei0er an- pi0ote- on the maga>ine po,t i, the /ee--operating arm. It i, -ri0en by the +pper l+g o/ the /ee--operating ,t+- Kattache- to the rear o/ the bolt anwith it, +pper l+g tra0elling in a ,lot thro+gh the +pper ,+r/ace o/ the recei0erL, which engage, a groo0e +n-er it, c+r0e- rearwar- e3ten,ion ,o a, to ,wing the /ee--operating arm to the le/t -+ring the opening mo0ement o/ the bolt an- to the right -+ring it, clo,ing mo0ement. he /ee- pawl on the /ee--operating arm engage, an- rotate, the maga>ine, an- the cartri-ge opening in the /ee--operating arm recei0e, an- g+i-e, the cartri-ge -eli0ere- to it. he /ee- co0er i, ,ec+re- to the top o/ the recei0er. "t the rear en- it carrie, the rear ,ight ba,e, an- +n-er it, /ront e-ge are /itte- the ,top an- rebo+n- pawl, an- their ,pring. he /imc-tion o/ the ,top pawl i, to engage with an o+ter pro1ection o/ the maga>ine pan, which i, rotate- by the /ee- pawl on the operating arm, an- pre0ent, too great a mo0ement. he reboim- pawl engage, with another pro1ection o/ the maga>ine pan an- pre0ent, it, rotation in the re0er,e -irection, ,o that the maga>ine i, acc+rately in-e3e- an- po,iti0ely locke- by each cycle o/ operation. " /orwar- pro1ection at the le/t ,i-e o/ the /ee- co0er carrie, the cartri-ge g+i-e, to which the /ee--operating arm -eli0er, the cartri-ge in loa-ing. he bolt carrie, two e3tractor, lying in rece,,e, in it, top an- ,i-e, an- the e1ector i, pi0ote- in a rece,, in the recei0er at the le/t o/ the boltway. he pi,ton i, operate- by han- by the charging han-le, which i, /itte- in it at the rear o/ the recei0er when the b+tt,tock i, remo0e- an- which tra0el, in the ,lot in the le/t ,i-e o/ the recei0er. he ,a/ety i, a plate ,li-ing 0ertically in way, on the le/t ,i-e o/ the recei0er. In it, +pper e-ge are two rece,,e, -e,igne- to engage with the charging han-le, one in it, /orwarK+ncocke-L an- the other in it, rearwar- Kcocke-L po,ition. o p+t the g+n when cockeon ,a/e, rai,e the ,a/ety an- p+ll the trigger. he charging han-le engage, in /ront o/ the rece,, in the ,a/ety an- pre0ent, it, acci-ental mo0ement. hi, lock, the g+n again,t operation or -i,charge. o p+t the g+n in action, -raw back the charging han-le to cock an- pre,, the ,a/ety -own. he ,a/ety al,o, when rai,e-, clo,e, the ,lot in the le/t ,i-e o/ the recei0er, in which the charging han-le tra0el,, an- pre0ent, ,an-, m+-, -+,t, etc., /rom getting into the action. he trigger i, containe- in the g+ar-, which i, a pi,tol-grip /orm. It i, attache- to a ,ear

which, when the trigger i, relea,e-, engage, a notch in the +n-er ,i-e o/ the rack an- hol-, the action open at the 0ery beginning o/ the clo,ing ,troke. he b+tt,tock i, +,+ally o/ a /orm ,imilar to a ri/le b+tt,tock, b+t a ,pa-e grip may be ,+pplie-. (ither ri/le b+tt,tock or ,pa-e grip i, attache- by interr+pte- threa- to the boltway in the rear o/ the recei0er. he b+tt-tang or ,pa-e-grip tang lock, +p the entire rear en- o/ the recei0er an- take, the thr+,t o/ the recoil o/ the pi,ton. H( M"G"lI5( he maga>ine i, a circ+lar ,teel -r+m in which the cartri-ge, are arrange- ra-ially, b+llet en-, towar- the center. he maga>ine center i, o/ al+min+m. It ha, a -eep ,piral groo0e in it, in which the b+llet en-, o/ the cartri-ge, engage an- by which they are controlle-. =hen the maga>ine i, latche- in place on the maga>ine po,t, the maga>ine center i, keye- to the maga>ine po,t an- hel- ,tationary. he maga>ine pan carrying the ,eparator pin, an- the cartri-ge, i, rotate- aro+n- the center -+ring the operation o/ the g+n, ,o that the ,pirally arrange- col+mn o/ cartri-ge, i, -ri0en -own the groo0e o/ the maga>ine center +ntil each cartri-ge i, ,+cce,,i0ely reache- by the /ee--operating arm. he action o/ the g+n i, a, /ollow,N Commencing with the g+n in the HHrea-y to /ee-HH po,ition, a /ille- maga>ine being latche- on the maga>ine po,t an- the charging han-le ha0ing been -rawn /+lly to the rear by han- ,o that the ,ear engage,Gthe rack an- hol-, it back, the trigger i, pre,,e-. hi, relea,e, the rack, which i, -ri0en /orwar- by the ,pring-act+ate- rotation o/ the gear. he ,triker po,t, by pre,,+re o/ it, neck again,t the le/t ,i-e o/ the cam ,lot in the bolt, -ri0e, the bolt Kwhich cannot be camme- aro3m- beca+,e o/ it, l+g, tra0elling in the corre,pon-ingly ,hape- groo0e, in the boltwayL ,traight /orwar- in the boltway. he /ee--operating ,t+- carrie- /orwar- with the bolt cam, the /ee--operating arm to the right, the /ee- pawl ,lipping o0er a H( I(=I2 M"CHIE( -// l @@I`g hit,t Pi2 P42 3hm rei9e/teet. her /,-k/r po,e +nir mi>ai!2 ,ar Pt/ 1i+ /m i>i tb2 i32t. aci- h2 /i,n_er rr)eI rarrHy Nai) `in22 `Q+Nk whik hN 3h/N tat@Mp/2y -bi-+l Bt i/e,ic ir i2 grp2 1/ rQ m 2Q t222 h r0H+it[. atQnnni the top o/ tine- HMccme(r 2\iiINnk2 t. ^12 /2N2 pawl, ib/t!+ib ai(aici/t one ot tb,- cbemt pwowG-o/ tl2i/N +2,bX9Ni<klityh `/"ii. /NNkrri/&. the mac+>,!- a/\Pciii ,ic(-y to 2Ih0GN rit/N /init rrartri-1wN -own into t/ce- \1rcrMap/ -iwwt-I tho4 /2t2rQi-2Q/12rr2timt arm by the rot"ticMi oc tbc >((!+on/ 2nr1 i++-rior .2/1aratom aro+n- the ,t_tacM,aynr. i,2nriE er1 rria2Bi/&2r /1i+9>t. he cartri-ge ope,iiite cc lii/ M\2 tini2 ar3/iy with ti&QN cartri-i!r it ha, 1ii\t r(Pei e1I<ww./iiXin1-iG\ to `9ibi2. H@i/9H2 the +pwar- pro1ecting a)nn2 cc a_e /awd , wh+rh carr^H the c+nri/l2/N g+i-eN an- the,e a2Ik2 /=[ciai\wi2 itrol the /t/tnri/l/i/N a2 .02ion a\ it lea0e, the magakiicie. #et-e/twar- tra0el rQ/ the //re--operating arm bring[ tiiw2 \1r-4 a2 GQ!2/i a2 it lea0/N[G the maga>ine. )+rther Ie/mrini rQ/ the /22N--P^/vrrating arm bring, the e42nirM&ic1 tbQ rrart.ri-12e g+i-e an- itPM -ownwar- ,pring ter+/iocI. "+ o1rit, the HYpri/1g [Gti1- on the /ee--operating arm oIm+t, ti/ee pawl2 which iiP then pr/2'i2rrl /orwar- by it, ,pring Ni(i&i nt\ /+rther rotation o/ the maga>ine. X l+g on the hr/t o/ the //.-r4--operating ,t+- now ,trike, the m- o/ the e1ector, -ri0ing it

into it, ,lot an- pi0oting th2 Lq the e1eetor o+t no that it ,trik/2 the ,i-e o/ the empty ,hteII. ha\ !till `/FH1HM carrie- by the e3tractor, an- throw, it gh ih/N e1ector /!2rt oiit o/ the recei0er to the right, i0ar- the /rn- o/ the rr2arwar- tra0el o/ the rack, the bent iwar- pro1r1ction o/ the lower ,+r/ace o/ the rack who,e pro1ection on the rim o/ the maga>ine an- engaging behin- it. he ,pring ,t+- on the /ee--operating arm pre,,e, the ,top pawl back to pre0ent it, intercepting a pro1ection o/ the maga>ine. he hea- o/ the bglt now reache, the hea- o/ the e1ector, which it pre,,e, back into the e1ector c+t, ca+,ing the rear o/ the e1ector to be pi0ote- o+t into the boltway behin- the bolt. he /ace o/ the bolt now ,trike, the ba,e o/ the cartri-ge, which i, hel- rea-y /or it in the loa-ing ramp, o/ the recei0er, an- it -ri0e, the cartri-ge be/ore it into the chamber. he e3tractor, ,pring o0er the rim a, ,oon a, the cartri-ge ,eat,. '+,t a, the cartri-ge ,eat,, the locking l+g, o/ the bolt clear the /ront o/ the cr+ci/orm part o/ the boltway /orme- by their g+i-e groo0e, an- reach their locking rece,,e,. he bolt /ace now lie, again,t the rear en- o/ the barrel an- the hea- o/ the cartri-ge, anthe ,triker po,t ,till pre,,ing again,t the le/t ,i-e o/ the cam ,lot in the bolt now cam, the bolt to the right, t+rning the locking l+g, /+lly into the locking rece,,e, o/ the recei0er. ", the bolt locking i, complete-, the ,triker po,t enter, the longit+-inal /ront part o/ it, c+t an- carrie, the ,triker again,t the primer o/ the cartri-ge in the chamber, /iring the cartri-ge. H( ())(C %) )I$I5G )iring -e0elop, the power /or another cycle o/ operation,. ", ,oon a, the b+llet ha, pa,,e- the ga, port near the m+>>le o/ the barrel, ga, +n-er pre,,+re i, -ri0en thro+gh the ga, port into the ga,-chamber glan- an- chamber an- thro+gh the hole in the ga,reg+lator c+p onto the hea- o/ the pi,ton, -ri0ing it rearwar- in the ga, cylin-er. 8ri0ing the rack teeth back o0er the gear teeth with which they me,h rotate, the gear ane3ten-, the main,pring -+ring the entire opening mo0ement. 8+ring the /ir,t 1b inche, o/ rearwar- tra0el the ,triker po,t mo0e, back with a longit+-inal part o/ it, c+t in the bolt, with-rawing the point o/ the ,triker /rom the /ace o/ the bolt, the bolt remaining locke- an- ,tationary. In the ne3t b inch o/ tra0el the ,triker po,t, -ri0en ,till /arther rearwar- in the bolt, ,trike, with it, right ,i-e the cam ,+r/ace in the right ,i-e o/ it, ,lot in the bolt, ca+,ing the bolt to rotate /rom right to le/t, t+rning the locking l+g, o+t o/ their rece,,e,. he ,triker po,t now reache, the rear o/ it, c+t in the bolt, an- it, /+rther tra0el carrie, the bolt -irectly back with it4 the empty ,hell i, hel- in the grip o/ the e3tractor, till the /ee--operating ,t+- ,trike, the rear o/ the e1ector. G he top l+g o/ the /ee--operating ,t+-, tra0elling in the groo0e in the +n-er ,i-e o/ the /ee--operating arm, cam, the /ee--operating arm ,o that it ,wing, acro,, the top o/ the recei0er /rom right to le/t. he /ee- pawl, acting again,t one o/ the o+ter pro1ection, o/ the maga>ine pan, carrie, the maga>ine aro+n- ,+//iciently to -ri0e the /ir,t cartri-ge -own into the cartri-ge opening in the /ee--operating arm by the rotation o/ the maga>ine pan an- interior ,eparator, aro+n- the ,tationary, ,pirally groo0e- maga>ine center. he cartri-ge opening o/ the /ee--operating arm, with the cartri-ge it ha, 1+,t recei0e-, now commence, to pa,, +n-er the +pwar- pro1ecting arm, o/ the /ee- co0er, which carry the cartri-ge g+i-e4 an- the,e arm, commence to control the cartri-ge a, ,oon a, it lea0e, the maga>ine. )+rther le/twar- tra0el o/ the /ee--operating arm bring, the cartri-ge a, ,oon a, it lea0e, the maga>ine. )+rther le/twar- tra0el o/ the /ee-operating arm bring, the cartri-ge +n-er the cartri-ge g+i-e an- it, -ownwar- ,pring ten,ion. "t thi, point, the ,pring ,t+- on the /ee--operating arm clear, the ,top pawl, which i, then pre,,e- /orwar- by it, ,pring an- pre0ent, /+rther rotation o/ the

maga>ine. he l+g on the le/t o/ the /ee--operating ,t+- now ,trike, the rear en- o/ the e1ector, -ri0ing it into it, ,lot an- pi0oting the hea- o/ the e1ector o+t ,o that it ,trike, the ,i-e o/ the empty ,hell, which ha, ,till been carrie- by the e3tractor, an- throw, it thro+gh the e1ector port o+t o/ the recei0er to the right. owar- the en- o/ the rearwar- tra0el o/ the rack, the bent K-ownwar- pro1ection o/ the lower ,+r/ace o/ the rack who,e ,pace /orm, the cocking notchL ri-e, o0er the no,e o/ the ,ear, temporarily -epre,,ing it again,t the ten,ion o/ the ,ear ,pring, which imme-iately ri,e, again. he rear en- o/ the rack .then ,trike, the b+tt tang, terminating the opening ,troke. he /ee--operating arm i, now at the e3treme le/t, the cartri-ge ha, been bro+ght o0er the cartri-ge opening in the top o/ the recei0er again,t which the cartri-ge g+i-e pre,,e, it, the rebo+n- pawl engage, an e3terior pro1ection o/ the maga>ine ,o a, to pre0ent backwar- rotation, anthe main,pring i, in /+ll ten,ion. I/ a/ter it, /ir,t pre,,+re the trigger ha, been in,tantly relea,e-, the pi,ton an- rack will be intercepte- by the engagement o/ the no,e o/ the ,ear with the cocking notch or bent in the lower e-ge o/ the rack, ,+,pen-ing the operation o/ the g+n in the Jrea-y to /ee-J po,ition. I/ pre,,+re ha, been maintaine- on the trigger, the clo,ing ,troke will in,tantly be repeate-4 an- a+tomatic operation o/ the g+n will contin+e +ntil the cartri-ge, in the maga>ine are e3ha+,te- or pre,,+re i, remo0e- /rom the trigger. )ee- i, ab,ol+tely po,iti0e an- +na/l/ecte- by the po,ition o/ the g+n. he cartri-ge i, +n-er complete mechanical control -+ring e0ery ,tage o/ /ee-ing. he /imctioning o/ the g+n i, +na/l/ecte- by pointing it ,traight +p or ,traight -own or t+rning it on it, ,i-e or +p,i-e -own. (1ection i, al,o po,iti0e. he /orm, o/ ga, port, reg+lator c+p, cylin-er an- pi,ton permit /+nctioning the g+n by a materially ,maller 0ol+me o/ ga, an- at m+ch lower pre,,+re than in ga,-operatemechani,m, o/ pre0io+, -e,ign. ", a re,+lt, ,hock an- ,train o/ part, are minimi>e-, an- retraction o/ the breech mechani,m by han- i, /acilitate-. he gim may be entirely -i,mo+nte- witho+t other tool, than a cartri-ge an- a ,mall ,panner. $emo0ing the b+tt,tock an- with-rawing the rack, pi,ton an- bolt lea0e the barrel an- cylin-er rea-y /or cleaning. hi, permit, in,pection o/ the banret or in,ertion o/ the cleaning ro- into the barrel /rom either en-. @emi-a+tomatic /ire K,ingle ,hot,L or a+tomatic /ire may be obtaine- at will witho+t e3tra part, or ,pecial a-1+,tment. 7ibration o/ the barrel i, ,o -ampe- an- broken +p by the ra-ial ,+pport a/l/or-e- the barrel by the ma,, an- ,tr+ct+re o/ the ra-iator that ,ingle ,hot, are /ire- on the ,ame line o/ ,ight a, that o/ /+ll a+tomatic /ire. he m+>>le bla,t, -irecte- by the barrel mo+thpiece onto the interior o/ the ra-iator ca,ing in /ront o/ the m+>>le to in-+ce the air c+rrent thro+gh the ra-iator, e3ert, a /orwar- p+ll on the ra-iator ca,ing which ne+trali>e, the recoil to ,+ch an e3tent that the gim may be /ire- /rom the ,ho+l-er with acc+racy an- witho+t incon0enience. he ab,ence o/ recoil an- 0ibration permit, ,ati,/actory +,e with a 0ery light mo+nt or with no mo+nt. he gim i, ab,ol+tely mobile. Be,i-e, it, ability to /+nction normally at any angle or in

any po,ition, it may be carrie-, loa-e- an- locke- by one man, who can commence /iring a, :+ickly an- ea,ily a, with the Mo-el 19D< ,er0ice ri/le. " maga>ine may be place- on the maga>ine po,t an- latche-, or may be +nlatche- anremo0e- with one han-. he maga>ine latch i, con0eniently operate- by the th+mb o/ the han- that p+t, the maga>ine on the maga>ine po,t or remo0e, it /rom the po,t. 5o -elicate a-1+,tment i, nece,,ary in p+tting the maga>ine on the po,t an- preparing to /ire, an- it may be -one with a, m+ch ,pee- in total -arkne,, a, in -aylight. he new mo-el Iewi, airplane g+n ha, no ra-iator. hi, ha, been a-opte- /or 9. @. airplane,. @(C I%5 EE7 "BI(@ "5 ^ 89G$"M@ M("@9$I5G H( C%I (5 @ %) H%$Il%5 "I C6II58$IC"I "5!@

In a hori>ontally -i,po,e- cylin-rical tank the content, cannot be mea,+re- witho+t the knowle-ge o/ certain geometrical relation, e3i,ting between the height at which the li:+i- ,tan-, an- the 0ol+me it occ+pie,. he,e are gi0en herea/terN /ir,t,

)i-. 189.; ank -i0i-e- into 1D part, o/ e:+al height. KCa,e in which meaa+re-ment ia taken with an or-inary loot r+le.L in relation o/ 0ol+me to height4 ,econ-, in relation o/ height to 0ol+me. yj total 0ol+me o/ tank4 7 j 0ol+me occ+pie- by li:+i-4 8 j -iameter o/ tank4 h j height o/ li:+i- in tank. (3ample, 1. o /in- the capacity o/ a tank 1B inche, in -iameter by FD inche, long. "BI(@ "58 8I"G$"M@ he or-inate corre,pon-ing to 1B inter,ect, the JC+r0e Gallon, per Inch o/ IengthJ at D.FD inch. M+ltiplying 1 by FD we /in- the capacity o/ the tank wo+l- be 19.A gallon,. B. o /in- the -i,tance abo0e the bottom o/ the ,tick KtaN in inche, /or any n+mber o/ gallon,. )ia. 1=^.;C+r0e, to lay oH o/ a hori>ontal c1 ",,+me that a tank 1B inche, in -iameter an- FD inche, k ha0ing a capacity o/ 19.A gallon, Ka, pre0io+,ly /o+n-L conta < gallon,.

he -ecimal proportion o/ the total 0ol+me occ+pie- b1 gallon, j i/g j D.1M<. "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! he or-inate corre,pon-ing to thi, 0al+e inter,ect, the JC+r0e o/ 8epth )actorJ at D.B1<. M+ltiplying thi, by 1B, the -epth or -iameter, we ha0e B.MMA or appro3imately Bb2 inche, abo0e the bottom. C%5 (5 @ %) C6II58$IC"I "5!@ Ga,oline or other tank, are /re:+ently o/ 0ario+, ,hape, in or-er to /it into a0ailable opening, in the machine,. he,e re:+ire ,pecial mea,+ring -e0ice, a-apte- to their pec+liar ,hape. B+t a, ro+n- tank, are +,e- where0er po,,ible an- it i, con0enient to know how m+ch they contain at 0ario+, time,, the accompany-

)io. 191. ing -iagram may be o/ ,er0ice in ,ome ca,e,. hi, enable, one to mea,+re the content, o/ a cylin-rical tank with 0ery little tro+ble i/ a ,tick i, gra-+ate- in accor-ance with thi, -iagram. he,e ,how how to mea,+re with either a /oot r+le or how to gra-+ate a ,tick /or the p+rpo,e o/ gi0ing -irect rea-ing,. $%#( B$"!( 865"M%M( ($ )%$ (5GI5( (@ I5G "ltho+gh the power o/ an engine i, +,+ally te,te- by noting the n+mber o/ re0ol+tion, which it will -ri0e it, propeller, it i, ,ometime, -e,ire- to know the brake hor,epower which i, being -e0elope-. )ig. 191 gi0e, two 0iew, o/ a rope brake -yna"BI(@ "58 8I"G$"M@ <AM mometer recommen-e- by the @. ". (. with /+ll in/ormation a, to how it i, to be +,e-, the proper rope ,i>e o/, the working ten,ion, angle o/ contact an- all nece,,ary -ata. hi, al,o tell, when it can be +,e- witho+t water-cooling an- when water )ig. 191 ,hown abo0e con,i,t, o/ aweight = Kpo+n-,L ,+,pen-e- by the rope ang+ar-e- again,t +pwar- motion by ,top #. he ,cale @ recor-, the coimterp+ll in po+n-, at the other en- o/ the rope. =ith the ,pee- 5 o/ the p+lley in r.p.m. an- the ra-i+, $ o/ the p+lley in /eet, the brake hor,epower -e0elope- i,N

rJ2H2 <<,DDD which re-+ce, to the /ormN B.H#. j D.DDD19 $5 q=-@L )ig. 19B i, ,omewhat more elaborate an- con,i,t, o/ a plat/orm ,cale ,+pporting a /rame which carrie, the rope an- ha, a han--

)io. 19B. wheel a, ,hown /or a-1+,ting it, ten,ion. hi, len-, it,el/ rea-ily to the mea,+rement o/ larger power, where a n+mber o/ parallel ,tran-, o/ rope nee- to be +,e-. =ith the ,cale rea-ing = Kpo+n-,L an- the weight ! Kpo+n-,L o/ the /rame mechani,m on the plat/orm, the brake hor,epower -e0elope- i,N B.H#. j D.DDD19 $5 q=-!L "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! in which $ an- 5 ha0e the ,ame ,igni/icance a, in the prece-ing /orm+la. he amo+nt o/ energy which can be r22-iate- /rom a gi0en brake -epen-, +pon the amo+nt an- nat+re o/ it, ,+r/ace a, well a, it, linear ,pee-. " r+le to -etermine the nece,,ity o/ water-cooling i, a, /ollow,N M+ltiply the wi-th o/ the p+lley /ace in inche, by it, linear ,pee- in /eet per min+te an-i0i-e by the hor,epower to be ab,orbe-. I/ the :+otient e3cee-, 9DD, air-cooling will -o. It i, i, between FDD an- 9DD, the brake ,ho+l- be water-coole-. I/ le,, than FDD, the p+lley i, too ,mall. o -etermine the ma3im+m ten,ion on the rope, an- /rom thi, the ,i>e re:+ire-, /in/ir,t the e//ecti0e p+ll in po+n-, which i,N (//ecti0e #+ll j MBMD2 $5H in which H i, the hor,epower to be ab,orbe-, $ i, the ra-i+, in /eet o/ the p+lley, an- 5 i, the ,pee- in r.p.m. o/ the p+lley. he e//ecti0e p+ll i, the -i//erence between the ten,ion, on the two en-, o/ the rope an- can be +,e- with the /ollowing table to -etermine the ten,ion in the tight ,i-e, that i,, the ma3im+m ten,ion. !nowing the angle o/ t+rn or the total angle o/ contact o/ rope an- -r+m or p+lley, it i, ea,y to ,elect the corre,pon-ing con,tant in the ,econ- col+mn with which to m+tiply the e/l/ect-i0e p+ll in or-er to ,ec+re the 0al+e o/ the ma3im+m ten,ion.

It then remain, to ,elect a rope or ,e0eral ,tran-, o/ rope who,e combine- ,trength corre,pon-, to the working ten,ion, gi0en in the /ollowing tableN " /an -ynamometer +,e- :+ite ,+cce,,/+lly in a+tomobile practice i, ,hown in )ig. 19<. he part, areN K"L 8ynamometer ,ha/t. KBL 9ni0er,al 1oint yoke integral with ". KCL 'ohn,on bar :r +ni0er,al ,ha/t which connect, engine to -ynamometer. K8L "rm, o/ -ynamometer, a ,oli- bar o/ nickel ,teel. K(L )an bla-e,, hea0y ,heet al+min+m. he,e ha0e ,ection, o/ angle iron permanently ri0ete- to the bla-e,, the angle, being place- back to back an- ,pace- the thickne,, o/ the arm 8. K)L H+b, ,ec+rely keye- to ,ha/t an- ,lotte- /or arm 8. 5ickel ,teel. KK[L Hea0y ca,t-iron /rame ,+pporting ,ha/t ", KHL Ca,t-iron cap /or ,lee0e 5. KIL (3ten,ion o/ ,ha/t "1 to -ri0e tachometer. KQL =e,ton electrical tachometer, generator +nit. K!L )le3ible connection to tachometer. KIL Hea0y ca,t-iron be- plate ,+pporting engine an- -ynamometer. K"/L #rotecting cage, wire netting. K5L Ca,t-iron ,lee0e in which " i, mo+nte- on hea0y ann+lar ball bearing,. @li-able en-wi,e to /acilitate :+ick +ni0er,al "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! connection with engine thro+gh C. $etaine- in po,ition when -ynamometer i, in +,e by hinge- c9p D, which then /it, into the /lpace between collar on 5 an- cap H. KDL Hinge- clip abo0e re/erre- to. q#L Hole, in 8 reg+larly ,pace-, /or a-1+,tment o/ (. CZL 9ni0er,al engine ,tan-, ea,ily a-aptable to the ,e0eral ,i>e, o/ engine, pro-+ce-. K$L 5ickel-,teel bolt, ,ec+ring ( to 8. ", a matter o/ preca+tion again,t the 0ery high ,tre,,e, that iir -\@ \I iN H2HH2-.-I/G

are ,et +p in the -ynamometer at high ,pee-,, it ha, been /o+n- a-0i,able to ha0e the arm,, h+b, an- bolt, ,ec+ring the bla-e, to the arm all o/ <'2 per cent, nickel ,teel. " cage o/ '2-inch me,h wire netting A /eet high wa, al,o b+ilt, enclo,ing the /iel- o/ the rotating arm, an- bla-e,, to pre0ent acci-ent,. he pro3imity o/ the -ynamometer to ,+rro+n-ing ob1ect, i, o/ ,ome importance. It ,ho+l- be place- ,o a, to be at lea,t A to 8 /eet /rom a ,i-e wall or ceiling4 that i,, there ,ho+l- be con,i-erable /ree air ,pace all aro+n- the /iel- o/ the rotating bla-e,. he pre,ence o/ the wire netting cage +n-o+bte-ly ha, ,ome e//ect on the -ynamometer, b+t a, thi, i, a con,tant an- incl+-ein the calibration it may be neglecte-. @#(CI)IC G$"7I 6 "58 =(IGH %) =%%8@ he e3ten,i0e +,e o/ woo- in airplane con,tr+ction an- the po,,ibihty that ,+b,tit+te, may ha0e to be /o+n- /or a,h, ,pr+ce an- black waln+t, make, it a-0i,able to know ,omething abo+t other 0arietie, o/ woo-, an- their :+alitie,. he /ollowing table gi0e, both the ,peci/ic gra0ity an- the weight o/ a large n+mber o/ more or le,, well-known woo-,. @ "58"$8IlI5G "I$C$") =%$! =ith all part, ,tan-ar-i>e-, it wo+l- be po,,ible to t+rn o+t airplane, in m+ch the ,ame way a, the mo-ern a+tomobile /actorie, t+rn o+t their ,tan-ar- pro-+ct, e3cept that in thi, in,tance the :+antity i, not ,+//icient to allow o/ ,pecial machinery or o/ machinery o/ any kin- /or ,ome o/ the more complicate- metal ,hape,. he,e m+,t be con,tr+ctemore or le,, by han-, with the ai- o/ /orm,, /iling, 1ig, an- ben-ing /i3t+re,, an- in ,ome ca,e, the ol- art o/ /orming ,heet metal with the mallet i, calle- into play on the ,pecial ,hape, re:+ire-. "n e3ample o/ thi, kin- o/ work i, the +pper part o/ the hoo-, or ca,ing, which /it, o0er the engine, the ,i-e, o/ thi, hoo- being /orme- in grace/+l c+r0e, to accommo-ate ,ome o/ the 0al0e mechani,m an- other part, at the top o/ the engine. hi, /orming i, -one :+ite ea,ily with the ,heet al+min+m +,e-, the ,heet being clampe- o0er a /orm an- -rawn to the -e,ire- /orm with a ro+n--/ace- mallet. In a ,imilar manner the ga,oline pocket in the +n-er ,heet o/ the hoo- i, -rawn +p :+ickly an- in per/ect conto+r, to in,+re that all the ,+rpl+, ga,oline -rain, away an- -oe, not acc+m+late an- po,,ibly ca+,e tro+ble. BF "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! he /+,elage i, b+ilt +p in the reg+lar way e3cept that ,pecial /itting, ha0e been -e0i,e/or the t+rnb+ckle connection, at each /+,elage ,tr+t. ",h i, +,e- /or the longeron, an,pr+ce

able I.; Ben-in: "llowance /ob @heet Metal "BI(@ "58 8I"G$"M@ <C1 able I ; Bbn-in: "llowancb /ob @heet Metal ; KContin+e-L hickne,, Ma - D.18CM 8egree, $a-i+, Ha He Ha H He 1M <D FM AD CM 9D D.1AA8 D.B1A D.BAF9 D.<1F1 D.F1BB /or the ,tr+t,, a, i, common practice. he engine mo+nting i, o/ laminate- woo-, with two ,trip, o/ ,pr+ce in the center an- a ,trip o/ a,h top an- bottom. @pecial mo+nting, are pro0i-e- /or the tail ,ki-, which allow great latit+-e o/ mo0ement with a minim+m o/ breakage. =ing /rame, are ,tan-ar-i>e-, each piece being ma-e to -rawing an- the piece, ma-e +p /or ,tock. he,e are then taken /rom the ,tockroom in ,+//icient :+antity to b+il- one or more wing,, which are loa-e- on a tr+ck an- wheele- to the wing a,,embly -epartment. Here the /rame, are a,,emble-

an- care/+lly /ini,he-, an- the wing, or panel, i, then rea-y /or co0ering. he co0er, are ma-e +p to pattern, ,9ppe- o0er the wing /rame an- ,ewe- in place. 5o tacking i, +,ee3cept a, a temporary /a,tening while the co0er i, being ,ewe- on the /rame. It i, then rea-y /or the coat o/ HH-ope,J which ,hrink, the cloth ta+t on the /rame, an- al,o make, it waterproo/. "ileron,, r+--er,, ele0ating plane, an- ,tabi9>ing plane, all go thro+gh the ,ame proce,,, e3cept that ,ome o/ the,e ha0e /rame, ma-e entirely o/ metal, while other, are ma-e o/ combination, o/ woo- an- metal. he metho- o/ co0ering i, the ,ame in both ca,e,, howe0er, e3cept that no temporary tacking i, po,,ible on the all-metal /rame,. hen the wing, an- other part, are rea-y /or a,,embling into their re,pecti0e +nit, an/or /inal a,,embly on the complete- machine. he wing, are tie- together with g+y wire, o/ ,+b,tantial ,i>e, the,e being o/ wire cable with thimble, ,plice- into the en-, /or /a,tening into the 0ario+, /itting, an- to the t+rnb+ckle,, by which they are kept ta+t. he ,plicing o/ the,e wire cable, aro+n- the thimble, re0i0e, an art which /ormerly belonge- to the ,ea/aring man. It re,+lt, in a mo,t ,+b,tantial /a,tening, an- ,a/ety i, the chie/ re:+irement in an airplane. hi, ,plicing i, now -one 0ery -e/tly an- rapi-ly by women a, well a, by men, which i, har-ly in keeping with na+tical lore. he prime e,,ential in airplane b+il-ing i, care/+l work at e0ery t+rn, an- thi, i, impre,,e- on the worker, by /re:+ent ,ign, which rea-, HH" Hi--en 8e/ect May Ca+,e the 8eath o/ a Man.HG "ll material i, care/+lly te,te-, ,teel, are broken to te,t ,trength an- to+ghne,,, woo- i, te,te- both in the ,oli- an- when gl+e- +p, an- the greate,t care po,,ible i, taken to a0oi- error. =oo- to be gl+e- i, heate- in ,pecial o0en, be/ore the gl+e i, applie-, ,o that the latter may keep hot an- li:+i- +ntil the "BI(@ "58 8I"G$"M@ <C< able II.; 8rill @i>e, aper #in, #intiM 8iameter en- o/ reamer )ractio8al ,i,e 8rill +i,e 8ecimal ,i,e I )ractional I ,iie Cotter an- Cle0i, #in, #in ei3e H Hi Hi

Hi H 8ecimal ,i>e )ractional ,i>e D.DABM D.D9<CM D.1BM D.1MABM D.18CM D.B18CM D.BMD D.B81BM D.<1BM D.<CM D.F<CM D.M He HB H B He bB 7a bB He H He 8rill ,i>e 5o. MB 5o. F1 5o. <D 5o. B1 5o. 1B 5o. B )or'i I or bB %or2e 7or2

8ecimal ,i>e )ractional ,i>e 4H ie H D.DA<M D.D9A D.1B8M D.1M9D D.189 D.BB1 D.BMC D.BMD D.B9D D.B81 D.<1A D.<1BM D.<CC D.<CM D.F<CA D.M He HB H bB He y,B 7a bB He H He H

"I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! part, can be properly clampe- in the gl+ing pre,,. he gl+e itHol/ i, kept at a +ni/orm temperat+re an- i, ma-e +p /re,h each Klay 8D a, to ,ec+re the be,t po,,ible re,+lt, anto a0oi- the -anger o/ lamination, or gl+e- 1oint, becoming loo,e thro+gh in/erior gl+e or improper working con-ition,. ahlk III. ; 8rill @i>e, /or =oo- @crew,, Machine @crew, an- Bolt, "nother e3ample o/ the care taken i, ,hown in the prece-ing table, o/ allowable ben-, /or ,heet ,teel. he -ata were care/+lly worke- o+t /rom act+al te,t, ,o a, to a0oi/ract+re, when ben-, are nece,,ary a, they are in many ca,e,. he other table, are al,o +,e/+l in aircra/t work. "BI(@ "58 8I"G$"M@ I5CB(! to 89CIM"IB "58 MIIIIM( ($@ "I$C$") M(CH"5IC@ H"58B%%! o change temperat+re /rom )ahrenheit to centigra-e procee- a, /ollow,N @+b,tract <B4/rom )ahrenheit temperat+re. M+ltiply by M an- -i0i-e by 9. "BI(@ "58 8I"G$"M@ <CC a DD @ # DD YP H % M Bo h% & 9 H % I4 % % o

o % o % % oA

H'_B % oa ii

8 22 C% C% C% % Z 7Yoo@M B4 C% o o E Y C% 22B E CF

t& \8 s 2 \ fr H2 &R 2 YY

oooo &-F &-Y 2 .-F DD C% B2 C% 8 B Y YY Y-Y C tG t& ooo /H /ii2 &-F YJ -J3 C% DD oo C Y C% 5 \o <& BBB\[ -2 2 2 Q2 r2 &" 7^ G% c@ t [ 2 5 \o C% oo BoPboi^DKb&-\ IH oF /^F p2 K2 /^F E E EJG @ DD t@ CF ZZ # %^ 9 MM % %

% o o 1- -

II YYc % hi oa Y- Na :ooooo/G e9 c2 -i2 -i2 tti +i 2 2 @o ooooo CI C%C%C%hoC8%/tC%%%C% %i% Hl%i-i/-iC%C%C% M@BGBBDDDD&-F 2# 28 C% 2p Y Y Y Y Y o\ oooooo G o o o CI @CI - \D 9< 1-F l% t\ 2 Y C% CI 2 - CI CI K% 2 % Y-Y Y-2 JDD tCI C% % Y % % CF Y CI Y o Y oooo DD Po

l% C8 l% C% l% CI o 9< C% r& -DD 2F % Y KI % i% tY C% % 2 l% Y o Y o o o fN @2 CM H' a DD Y-Y CI CI DD C% DD C% Y %i DD &-l Y-Y C% \ tDD \-H % % Y DD \-P CM l% C% &-\ CI DD HPKY C% 22 Y Y Y g/-i DD ^o DD C% &-Y C% C% C% &H C% Y 2 CM 2 C% C% t.-F 1-1 % Y G-F R 2ci2-o CI C% CI C% DD 2 DD C% CM DD C% 0H C% ^-F - to 2 C% % ^D C% \-H CI Y C% % CI oYo % C% 2 DD \ 9< % Y-Y DD C%

t2 CM C% CI ^D . . . Y - tG C% DD C% t2 t,. r -2 - C% l% C% b

I o t,. 9L 2 i-P t,. N<I o & o C% A % Z iM Z E i 2 i B 2 -. > tG &-H IH % 2 t ,, o f ,i-P\D2&-li%t2C% @c%C%Z2%%%P-P Y %\-2t&^%cD/iiFt2CD2 - o 2 &o o^ Y Y -co -N-N-N-NH2woot2 %%%%%L DD C% C% 1-F 9< t2 C% J2 Y C% % DD 22 Y Y o Y /-H tG C% cocoiocpfr\2Z12 -, 1-1 ! iA MM J2 & DD @(C I%5 EE7I ($M@ 9@(8 I5 "M$%5"9 IC@ he /ollowing li,t o/ aerona+tical tenn,, a-opte- by the 5ational "-0i,ory Committee /or "erona+tic,, ha, been prepare- with a 0iew to eliminating the -+plication, con/+,ion an- erroneo+, +,e o/ term,. "cceleration.;Increa,e in 0elocity. "ero-ynamic,.; he ,cience o/ air in motion

"ero-rome.; he (+ropean name /or a /l1-ng /iel-. )ormerly meant any /lying machine. "ero/oil.;" thin wing-like rigi- ,tr+ct+re, /lat or c+r0e-, -e,igne- to obtain reaction +pon it, ,+r/ace, /rom the air thro+gh which it mo0e,. "erona+tic,.; he ,cience o/ aerial na0igation. "erona+t.; he pilot o/ a balloon. "eroplane.;@ee "irplane. "ileron.;" mo0able a+3iliary ,+r/ace +,e- /or the control o/ rolling motion;that i,, rotation abo+t the /ore-an--a/t a3i,. "ircra/t.;"ny /orm o/ cra/t -e,igne- /or the na0igation o/ air;airplane,, balloon,, -irigible,, helicopter,, kite,, kite balloon,, omithopter,, gli-er,, etc. "irplane.;2" /orm o/ aircra/t hea0ier than air, which ha, wing ,+r/ace, /or air ,+pport, with ,tabili>ing ,+r/ace,, r+--er, /or ,teering, an- power plant /or prop+l,ion thro+gh the air. hi, term i, commonly +,e- in a more re,tricte- ,en,e to re/er to airplane, /ittewith lan-ing gear ,+ite- to operation /rom the lan-. I/ the lan-ing gear i, ,+ite- to operation /rom the water, the term J,eaplaneHH i, +,e-. K@ee -e/inition.L #+,her, ;2" type o/ airplane with the propeller or propeller, in rear o/ the wing,. rc+ior. ;" type o/ airplane with the propeller or propeller, in /ront o/ the wing,. "ir #ocket. ;" local mo0ement or con-ition o/ the air which may a/i/ect control o/ the airplane. "ir-,crew. ;@ee #ropeller. "ir-,pee- In-icator. ;2"n in,tr+ment /or mea,m-ing the 0elocity o/ the air, with re,pect to the ob1ect to which the in,tr+ment i, /i3e-. "ir-,pee- Meter. ;"n in,tr+ment -e,igne- to mea,+re the 0elocity o/ an aircra/t with re/erence to the air thro+gh which it i, mo0ing. "ltimeter. ;"n in,tr+ment mo+nte- on an aircra/t to contin+o+,ly in-icate it, height abo0e the ,+r/ace o/ the earth. "nemometer. ;"n in,tr+ment /or mea,+ring the 0elocity o/ the win- or air c+rrent, with re/erence to the earth or ,ome /i3e- bo-y. "ngle. ; %/ "ttack, ; he angle between the -irection o/ ihe relati0e win- an- the chor- o/ an aero/oil, or the /ore-an--a/t a3i, o/ a bo-y. Critical. ; he angle o/ attack at which the li/t i, a ma3im+m. 8ihe-ral, ;@ee 8ihe-ral. Gli-ing. ; he angle the /light path make, with the hori>ontal when /lying in ,till air +n-er the in/l+ence o/ gra0ity alone. Inci-ence. ; he angle o/ the plane, with center line o/ the airplane. )or the rigger thi, mean, the angle the chor- o/ the wing make, with the a3i, o/ the propeller.

",pect $atio. ; he ratio o/ ,prea- to chor- o/ an aero/oil. "0iation. ;@ame a, "erona+tic,. "0iator. ; he operator or pilot o/ hea0ier-than-air cra/t. hi, term may be appliee:+ally, regar-le,, o/ the ,e3 o/ the operator. "3e, o/ an "ircra/t. ; hree /i3e- line, o/ re/erence4 +,+ally centroi-al an- m+t+ally rectang+lar. he principal longit+-inal a3i, in the plane o/ ,ymmetry, +,+ally parallel to the a3i, o/ the propeller2 i, calle- the /ore-an--a/t a3i, Kor longit+-inal a3i,L4 the a3i, perpen-ic+lar to thi, in tlie plane o/ ,ymmetry i, calle- the 0ertical a3i,4 an- the thira3i,, perpen-ic+lar to the other two, i, calle- the athwart,hip a3i, Kor tran,0er,e or lateral a3i,L. In mathematical -i,c+,,ion, the /ir,t o/ the,e a3e, i, calle- the E-a3i,, the ,econ- the l-a3i,, an- the thir- the y-a3i,. Ballonet.;" ,mall balloon within the interior o/ a balloon or -irigible /or the p+rpo,e o/ controlling the a,cent or -e,cent, an- /or maintaining pre,,+re on the o+ter en0elope to pre0ent -e/ormation. he ballonet i, kept in/late- with air at the re:+ire- pre,,+re, +n-er the control o/ a blower an- 0al0e,.

Balloon.;" /orm o/ aircra/t compri,ing a ga, bag an- a car, who,e ,+,tentation -epen-, on the b+oyancy o/ the containe- ga,, which i, lighter than air. Capti0e, ;" balloon re,traine- /rom /ree /light by mean, o/ a cable attaching it to the earth. !ite, ;"n elongate- /orm o/ capti0e balloon, /itte- with tail appen-age, to keep it hea-e- into the win-, an- -eri0ing increa,e- li/t -+e to it, a3i, being incline- to the win-. Bank.; o incline an airplane laterally;that i,, to rotate it abo+t the /ore-an--a/t a3i,. $ight bank i, to incline the airplane with the right wing -own. Banking $+--er.;@ee "ileron. Barograph.;"n in,tr+ment +,e- to recor- 0ariation, in barometric pre,,+re. In aerona+tic, the chart, on which the recor-, are ma-e are prepare- to in-icate altit+-e, -irectly in,tea- o/ barometric pre,,+re. Barometer.;"n in,tr+ment /or in-icating the -en,ity o/ the air. Bay.; he ,pace enclo,e- by two ,tr+t, an- whate0er they are /i3e- to. K(ngli,h.L Biplane.;" /orm o/ airplane in which the main ,+pporting ,+r/ace i, -i0i-e- into two part,, one abo0e the other. Bo-y o/ an "irplane. ;" ,tr+ct+re, +,+ally inclo,e-, which contain, in a ,tream-line ho+,ing the power plant, /+el, pa,,enger,, etc. Boom. ; he long ,par, 1oining the tail o/ a p+,her airplane to it, main li/ting ,+r/ace. Bracing. ;" ,y,tem o/ ,tr+t, an- tie wire, to tran,/er a /orce /rom one point to another. Cabane. ;" combination o/ two po,t, or horn, o0er the /+,elage /rom which the anti-li/t wire, are ,+,pen-e-. CabrA. ;2" /l1-ng attit+-e in which the angle o/ attack i, greater than normal4 tail -own4 -own by the ,tern;tail low. Camber. ; he con0e3ity or ri,e o/ a c+r0e o/ an aero/oil /rom it, chor-, +,+ally e3pre,,e- a, the ratio o/ the ma3im+m -epart+re o/ the c+r0e /rom the chor- a, a /raction thereo/. J op camberHH re/er, to the top ,+r/ace o/ an aero/oil, an- Jbottom camberHH to the bottom ,+r/ace4 Jmean camberJ i, the mean o/ the,e two. Canar-. ; he name Kliterally meaning J-+ckJL gi0en to a type o/ airplane o/ which the longit+-inal ,tabili>ing ,+r/ace i, in /ront o/ the main li/ting ,+r/ace. Capacity. ; Ii/ting, ; he ma3im+m /lying loa- o/ an aircra/t. Carrying. ;(3ce,, o/ the li/ting capacity o0er the -ea--loa- o/ an aircra/t, which latter incl+-e, ,tr+ct+re, power plant an- e,,ential acce,,orie,. Carrying Capacity. ;@ee Capacity. Ca,tle-n+t. ;" n+t ,lotte- to recei0e a cotter pin or other retaining -e0ice. Ca0itation o/ #ropeller. ; he ten-ency to pro-+ce a ca0ity in the air.

Cell. ; he +pper an- lower ,+r/ace, which are hel- together by ,tr+t,, wire,, etc., to /orm a JcellJ or bo3. Center. ; he point in which a ,et o/ e//ect, i, a,,+me- to be acc+m+late- pro-+cing the ,ame e//ect a, i/ all were concentrate- at thi, point. %/ B+oyancy. ; he center o/ gra0ity o/ the /l+i- -i,place- by the /loating bo-y. %/ #re,,+re o/ an "ero/oil. ; he point on the chor- o/ an element o/ an aero/oil, prolonge- i/ nece,,ary, thro+gh which the line o/ action o/ the re,+ltant air /orce pa,,e,. %/ #re,,+re o/ a Bo-y. ; he point on the a3i, o/ a bo-y, prolonge- i/ nece,,ary, thro+gh which the line o/ action o/ the re,+ltant air /orce pa,,e,. Centri/+gal )orce. ; he /orce ten-ing to /orce o+twar- any bo-y mo0ing in a c+r0epath. Cha,,i,. ; he wheel,, a3le,, ,hock ab,orber,C ,ki-, an- ,tr+t, connecting them to the re,t o/ the machine. Chor-.; %/ an "ero/oil @ection. ;" right line tangent to the im-er c+r0e o/ the aero/oil ,ection at the /ront an- rear. Iength. ; he length o/ the chor- i, the length o/ the aero/oil ,ection pro1ecte- on the chor-, e3ten-e- i/ nece,,ary. Cle0i,. ;2" J9HH ,hape- /itting +,e- to 1oin a wire to another /itting. Cloche. ; he bell-,hape- /rame which /orm, the lower part o/ pilotH, control le0er in Bleriot airplane K9terally meaning J bellJL. Cockpit. ; he opening, an- ,pace in the /+,elage where pilot or ob,er0er ,it,. Control Ie0er. ; he le0er or ,tick /or controlling air ,+r/ace,. %/ten calle- J1oy-,tick.J Control,. ;" general term applying to the mean, pro0i-e- /or operating the -e0ice, +,e- to control ,pee-, -irection o/ /light, an- attit+-e o/ an aircra/t. Cotter #in. ;" pin o/ hal/-ro+n- ,teel -o+ble- back +pon it,el/ "/ter being place- in it, hole, the en-, may be ,prea- locking it in place. Critical "ngle. ;@ee "ngle, Critical. 8Acalage. ;"n increa,e in the ang+lar ,etting o/ the chor- o/ an +pper wing o/ a biplane with re/erence to the chor- o/ the lower wing. 8e0elope- "rea o/ a #ropeller. ;2" layo+t o/ the area o/ a propeller bla-e -e,igne- to repre,ent the total area o/ the -ri0ing /ace, in which the element, o/ area are -e0elopea, i/ +n/ol-e- onto the plane o/ the -rawing Knece,,arily an appro3imation on -e/inite a,,+mption,, a, no tr+e -e0elopment o/ the heli3 can be ma-eL. 8ihe-ral "ngle. ; he angle which the wing, make with a hori>ontal line /rom tip to tip o/ wing. he -ihe-ral angle o/ the +pper wing may an- /re:+ently -oe, -ii//er /rom that o/ the lower wing in a biplane. 8irigible. ;" /orm o/ balloon, the o+ter en0elope o/ which i, o/ enlongate- /orm,

pro0i-e- with a propelling ,y,tem, car, r+--er, an- ,tabili>ing ,+r/ace,. 5o0r-rigi-, ;" -irigible who,e /orm i, maintaine- by the pre,,+re o/ the containe- ga, a,,i,te- by the car-,+,pen,ion ,y,tem. $igi-, ;" -irigible who,e /orm i, maintaine- by a rigi- ,tr+ct+re containe- within the en0elope. @emi-rigi-. ;" -irigible who,e /orm i, maintaine- by mean, o/ it, attachment to an e3terior gir-er con,tr+ction containing the car. 8i,c "rea o/ a #ropeller.; he total area o/ the -i,c ,wept by the propeller tip,. 8i0e. ; o -e,cen- ,o ,teeply a, to pro-+ce more than /lying ,pee-. 8i0ing $+--er.;@ee (le0ator. 8ope. ;" general term applie- to the material, +,e- in treating the cloth ,+r/ace o/ airplane member, to increa,e ,trength, pro-+ce ta+tne,, an- act a, a /iller to maintain air-tightne,,4 +,+ally o/ the cell+lo,e type. 8rag. ; he total re,i,tance to motion thro+gh the air o/ an aircra/t;that i,, the ,+m o/ the -ri/t an- hea- re,i,tance. 8ri/t. ; he component o/ the re,+ltant win- pre,,+re an- an aero/oII or wing ,+r/ace parallel to the air ,tream attacking the ,+r/ace. "cti0e. ;8ri/t or re,i,tance pro-+ce- by li/ting ,+r/ace,. #a,,i0e. ;8ri/t pro-+ce- by -etrimental or non-li/ting ,+r/ace,. (-ge. (ntering. ; he /ront e-ge o/ a wing or any aero/oil. railing. ; he rear e-ge o/ a wing or any aero/oil. (//iciency.; he work -e90ere- -i0i-e- by the work p+t into a machine, or o+tp+t -i0i-e- by inp+t. "irplane. ;2Ii/t an- 0elocity -i0i-e- by re,i,tance. (ngine. ;Brake hor,epower -i0i-e- by in-icate- hor,epower. #ropeller. ; hr+,t in /oot po+n-, -i0i-e- by hor,epower o/ engine E <<,DDD. (le0ator.;2" hinge- ,+r/ace /or controlling the longit+-inal attit+-e o/ an aircra/t;that i,, it, rotation abo+t the athwart,hip a3i,. (mpennage.; ail plane,. (ngine, $ight or Ie/t Han-.; he -i,tinction between a right-han- an- a le/t-hanengine -epen-, on the rotation o/ the o+tp+t ,ha/t, whether thi, ,ha/t rotate, in the ,ame -irection a, the crank or not. " right-han- engine i, one in which, when 0iewe/rom the o+tp+t ,ha/t, looking towar- the o+tp+t en-, the ,ha/t i, ,een to rotate clockwi,e. (ngine, "nti-normal.;"n engine, when 0iewe- /rom the propeller en-, who,e propeller rotate, in a clock-wi,e -irection. (ngine, 5ormal.;2"n engine, when 0iewe- /rom the propeller en- the propeller i, ,een

to rotate in an anti-clockwi,e -irection. (ntering (-ge.;@ee (-ge. (ye-bolt.;2" bolt ha0ing an eye in it, hea- to which a wire may be attache-. )actor o/ @a/ety.; he breaking ,trength o/. a piece -i0i-e- by the ma3im+m ,tre,, it i, calle- +pon to bear. )airing.;" co0ering o/ thin woo- or ,heet al+min+m bent o0er -etrimental ,hape, to gi0e a J/airJ or ,tream-line ,hape a, in the entering e-ge o/ wing,, or rear o/ ,tall lan-ing ,tr+t,. )airlea-.;2" piece o/ t+bing thro+gh which control wire, are pa,,e- in or-er that they may be properly -irecte-. )err+le. ;2" wrapping o/ tin or ,ome ,imilar material aroim- the b+tt en- o/ any member or a ,plice. )inene,,. ; he proportion o/ length to ma3im+m wi-th. )in,. ;@mall plane, on aircra/t to promote ,tability4 /or e3ample, 0ertical tail /in,, hori>ontal tail /in,, ,ki- /in,, etc. )light #ath. ; he path o/ the center o/ gra0ity o/ an aircra/t with re/erence to the air. )loat. ; hat portion o/ the lan-ing gear o/ an aircra/t which pro0i-e, b+oyancy when it i, re,ting on the ,+r/ace o/ the water. @ee #o,ition. )lying Boat. ;"n aeroplane o/ ,+ch a -e,ign that it, bo-y act, a, a boat on the water an- carrie, the empennage an- pa,,enger,. It al,o carrie, the motor at time,, b+t the general po,ition o/ the motor in thi, type o/ machine i, in the main cell. )oot-po+n-. ; he mea,+re o/ work4 1 po+n- rai,e- 1 /oot. )+,elage. ;@ee Bo-y. Gap. ; he -i,tance between the pro1ection, on the 0ertical a3i, o/ the entering e-ge, o/ an +pper an- lower wing o/ a biplane. Gir-er. ;" ,tr+ct+re -e,igne- to re,i,t ben-ing an- to combine ,trength an- 9ghtne,,. Gli-e. ; o /ly witho+t power. Gli-er. ;" /orm o/ aircra/t ,imilar to an airplane, b+t witho+t any power plant. =hen +tili>e- in 0ariable win- it make, +,e o/ the ,oaring principle, o/ /light an- i, ,ometime, calle- a J,oaring machine.HH Gli-ing "ngle. ;@ee "ngle, G9-ing. G+y. ;" rope, chain, wire or ro- attache- to an ob1ect to g+i-e or ,tea-y it, ,+ch a, g+y, to wing, tail or lan-ing gear. Gyro,cope. ;" hea0y wheel re0ol0ing at high ,pee- which ha, a ten-ency to maintain it, plane o/ rotation again,t -i,t+rbing /orce,. Hangar. ;" ,he- /or ho+,ing airplane,. Hea- $e,i,tance. ; he total re,i,tance to motion thro+gh the air o/ all part, o/ an

aircra/t not a part o/ the main li/ting ,+r/ace. @ometime, terme- Jpara,ite re,i,tance.J BM Helicopter. ;" /orm o/ aircra/t who,e ,+pport in the air i, -eri0e- /rom the 0ertical thr+,t o/ propeller,. Hori>ontal (:+i0alent. ; he hori>ontal pro1ection o/ a bo-y. Horn. ; " ma,t +,+ally ma-e o/ ,teel t+be, to which the control wire, on control ,+r/ace, are attache-. Hor,e #ower, hr+,t. ; he pro-+ct o/ the pitch o/ a propeller in /eet le,, the ,9p, it, thr+,t in lb,., it, n+mber o/ re0ol+tion, per min+te, an- a con,tant, Maoo%H Hy-roaeroplane. ;"ny type o/ aeroplane -e,igne- to ri,e /rom an- light on the water. Hy-roplane. ;" /orm o/ pontoon +,e- in hy-roaeroplane, that ha, a planing e//ect +pon the water when gi0en /orwar- motion. Inclinometer. ;"n in,tr+ment /or mea,+ring the angle ma-e by any a3i, o/ an aircra/t with the hori>ontal. 'oy-,tick. ;@ee Control Ie0er. !-,tr+t. ;"n interplane ,tr+t, ,hape- a, the letter HH!,J taking place o/ both /ront anrear ,tr+t,, o/ the maincell, a, well a, -ri/t an- anti-ri/t wire,. !eel #lane "rea. ; he total e//ecti0e area o/ an aircra/t which act, to pre0ent ,ki--ing or ,i-e ,9pping. !eel-,+r/ace. ;"ll the ,+r/ace to be ,een when 0iewing an aeroplane /rom the ,i-e. !ing-po,t. ;2" ,tr+t pa,,ing thro+gh a ,i+-/ace +,+ally attache- to the main ,par, to which brace wire, are attache-. @ometime, +,e- a, a le0er /or control ,+r/ace,. !ite. ;" /orm o/ aircra/t witho+t other propelling mean, than the towline p+ll, who,e ,+pport i, -eri0e- /rom the /orce o/ the win- mo0ing pa,t it, ,+r/ace. !ite Balloon. ;@ee Balloon, !ite. Iamination. ;" term app9e- to two or more piece, /a,tene- together by gl+e or other mean, to gi0e more ,trength to the imit th+, ma-e +p. Ian-ing Gear. ; he im-er,tr+ct+re o/ an aircra/t -e,igne- to carry the loa- when re,ting on, or r+nning on, the ,+r/ace o/ the lan- or water. Iateral @tability. ;@ee @tability, Iateral. Iea-ing (-ge. ;@ee (ntering (-ge. Ieeway. ; he ang+lar -e0iation /rom a co+r,e o0er the earth, -+e to cro,,-c+rrent, o/ win-. Ii/t. ; he component o/ the /orce -+e to the air pre,,+re o/ an aero/oil, re,ol0eperpen-ic+lar to the /light path in a 0ertical plane. Ii/t Bracing. ;@ee @tay.

Ii/t--ri/t $atio. ; he proportion o/ li/t to -ri/t, or re,i,tance. Ii/ting Capacity. ;@ee Capacity, Ii/ting. Ioa-, )+ll. ;@ee Capacity, Ii/ting. $e,er0e Kor +,e/+lL.;@ee Capacity, Carrying. Ioa-ing. ;@ee =ing Ioa-ing. Iongeron. ;%ne o/ the /o+r or more long ,par, r+nning lengthwi,e o/ the bo-y or /+,elage. Iongit+-inal. ;" /ore an- a/t member o/ the /raming o/ an airplane bo-y, or o/ the /loat,, +,+ally contin+o+, acro,, a n+mber o/ point, o/ ,+pport. Iongit+-inal @tability. ;@ee @tabi9ty, Iongit+-inal. Io+0reN ;2"n opening +,+ally in an engine hoo- to allow pa,,age o/ air /or 0entilation. Metacenter. ; he point o/ inter,ection o/ a 0ertical line thro+gh the center o/ gra0ity o/ the /l+i- -i,place- by a /loating bo-y when it i, tippe- thro+gh a ,mall angle /rom it, po,ition o/ e:+i9bri+m an- the incline- line which wa, 0ertical thro+gh the center o/ gra0ity o/ the bo-y when in e:+i9bri+m. here i,, in general, a -i//erent metacenter /or each type o/ -i,placement o/ the /loating bo-y. Monoplane. ;" /orm o/ airplane who,e main ,+pporting ,+r/ace i, -i,po,e- a, a ,ingle wing on each ,i-e o/ the bo-y. Montant. ;" ,tr+t in the /+,elage. Motor. ;@ee (ngine. M+ltiplane. ;"n airplane with three or more wing ,+r/ace,. 5acelle. ;@ee Bo-y. 9,+ally re/er, to no,e o/ bo-y. 5at+ral @tability.; @:e @tability. 5e+tral Ii/t Iine. ;2" ,traight line /rom the trailing e-ge o/ an aero/oil, ,o place- that it i, parallel to the -irection o/ motion when there i, no 9/t. 5ormal #lane. ;"nother e3pre,,ion /or -iametral plane, an- merely re/er, to the ma3im+m cro,, ,ectional pro1ection o/ the bo-y. It al,o re/er, to a /lat ,+r/ace helperpen-ic+lar to the air c+rrent. 5o,e 8i0e. ;" -angero+,ly ,teep -e,cent, hea--on. %mithopter. ;" /orm o/ aircra/t -eri0ing it, ,+pport an- pro-pel9ng /orce /rom /lapping wing,. %+trigger. ;" ,par r+nning /rom the main cell to the longit+-inal or -irectional control ,+r/ace,. 8oe, not apply to /+,elage ,par,. #ancake. ; o ,tall an- -rop, or ,ettle to the gro+n- in lan-ing. #itch o/ #ropeller. ; he -i,tance a propeller wo+l- a-0ance in one re0ol+tion i/ the air were ,o9-.

#itot +be. ;" t+be with an en- open ,:+are to the /l+i- ,tream, +,e- a, a -etector o/ an impact pre,,+re. More +,+ally a,,ociate- with a concentric t+be ,+rro+n-ing it ha0ing per/oration, normal to the a3i, /or in-icating ,tatic pre,,+re. he 0elocity o/ the /l+i- can be -etermine- /rom the -i//erence between the impact pre,,+re an- the ,tatic pre,,+re. hi, in,tr+ment i, o/ten +,e- to -etermine the 0elocity o/ aircra/t thro+gh the air. #lane. ;@ometime, applie- to the whole /l1-ng machine, b+t more o/ten to a wing. #ontoon. ;" /loat +,e- im-er /+,elage an- wing, to ,+pport plane when lan-ing on or ,tarting /rom the water. #ower, Margin o/. ;#ower a0ailable abo0e that nece,,ary to maintain hori>ontal /light. #ropeller.; #ropeller or:+e. ; he /orce gi0ing a machine a ten-ency to rotate in a -irection oppo,ite to that in which the propeller i, t+rning -+e to the action o/ the propeller on the air. 8e0elope- "rea o/, ;@ee 8e0elope- "rea o/ a #ropeller. 8i,c "rea o/, ;@ee 8i,c "rea o/ a #ropeller. $ighi2han-,;%nZ in which the heli3 i, right-han-e-. #+,her. ;@ee "irplane. #ylon. ;2" marker o/ a co+r,e. $ace o/ a #ropeller. ; he air ,tream -eli0ere- by the propeller. $emon. ;" local mo0ement or con-ition o/ the air which may ca+,e -i,placement o/ an airplane. $ib.; @ee =ing. $ight Kor Ie/tL Han-; (ngine, ;@ee (ngine. #ropeller, ;@ee #ropeller, $ight-han-. $igi- 8irigible. ;@ee 8irigible, $igi-. $+--er. ;" hinge- or pi0ote- ,+r/ace, +,+ally more or le,, /lat or ,tream-line-, +,e- /or the p+rpo,e o/ controlling the attit+-e o/ an aircra/t abo+t it, 0ertical a3i, when in motion. $+--er Bar. ;Control le0er mo0e- by pilotH, /eet an- operat-mg the r+--er. @a--le. ;" ,mall piece o/ tin ci+-0e- in the ,hape o/ a wire loop an- ,ol-ere- into the loop ,o that the wire cable will not /ray by r+bbing on the /itting. @eaplane. ;" partic+lar /orm o/ airplane in which the lan-ing gear con,i,t, o/ pontoon, or other -e0ice, ,+ite- to operation /rom the water. @er0ing. ; o bin- with cor- or wire4 +,e- in connection with 1oint, an- ,p9ce,.

@hackle.; @ee HHCle0i,.J @hock "b,orber. ;"n ela,tic member connecting the lan-ing wheel, or ,ki- to a /i3emember o/ the machine. @i-e @lipping. ;@li-ing towar- the center o/ a t+rn. It i, -+e to e3ce,,i0e amo+nt o/ bank /or the t+rn being ma-e, an- i, the oppo,ite o/ ,ki--ing. @ki--ing. ;@li-ing ,i-ewi,e in /light away /rom the center o/ the t+rn. It i, +,+ally ca+,e- by in,+//icient banking in a t+rn, an- i, the oppo,ite o/ ,i-e ,lipping. @ki-,. ;2Iong woo-en or metal r+nner, -e,igne- to pre0ent no,ing o/ a lan- machine when lan-ing or to pre0ent -topi H into hole, or -itche, in ro+gh gro+n-. Genera9y -e,igne- to /+nction ,ho+l- the wheel, collap,e or /ail to act. @kin )riction. ;)riction between air an- ,+r/ace o/ the plane,. @lip. ; hi, term applie, to propeller action an- i, the -i//erence between the act+al 0elocity o/ a-0ance o/ an aircra/t an- the ,pee- calc+late- /rom the known pitch o/ the propeller an- it, n+mber o/ re0ol+tion,. @oaring Machine. ;@ee G9-er. @ocket. ;" type o/ /itting taking the b+t en- o/ a ,par or ,tr+t an- ,+rro+n-ing it completely. @pan. ;8i,tance /rom tip to tip o/ wing,. @par. ;"ny long piece o/ woo- or other material. Main. ; he ,par to which all the rib, are attache-. It al,o tran,/er, a goo- ,hare o/ the 9/t /rom the rib, to the bracing. @plice, "merican. ;2" /orm o/ ,oli- wire ,p9ce in which a loop i, ma-e an- the ret+rning en- i, attache- to the main wire by a tin /err+le. he whole 1ob i, ,ol-ere-. @plice, to.; o 1oin two or more part, together. @plice, (ye.;" /orm o/ cable ,plice in which a loop i, ma-e an- the ret+rning en- i, wo0en into the main wire. he 1ob i, ,er0e- with twine b+t not ,ol-ere-. @plice, )rench. ;" type o/ ,o9- wire ,plice in which a loop i, ma-e an- the ret+rning en- i, attache- to the main wire by a /err+le ma-e /rom abo+t ,e0en t+rn, o/ the ,ame ,i>e wire being ,plice-. 5o ,ol-er i, +,e-. @plice, $+nning. ;" /orm o/ cable ,plice in which a loop i, ma-e an- the ret+rning eni, attache- to the main wire by a ,er0ing o/ a /ine wire. he whole 1ob i, ,ol-ere-. @prea-. ; he ma3im+m -i,tance laterally /rom tip to tip o/ an airplane wing. @prea-er. ;" hori>ontal compre,,ion member in a /+,elage r+nning in a lateral -irection. @tability. ; he :+ality o/ an aircra/t in /light which ca+,e, it to ret+rn to a con-ition o/ e:+i9bri+m when meeting a -i,t+rb-ance. K hi, i, ,ometime, calle- HH-ynamical ,tability.JL

8irectional. ;@tability with re/erence to the 0ertical a3i,. Inherent. ;@tability o/ an aircra/t -+e to the -i,po,ition an- arrangement o/ it, /i3epart,. Iateral. ;@tabi9ty with re/erence to the longit+-inal Kor /ore an- a/tL a3i,. Iongit+-inal. ;@tability with re/erence to the lateral Kor athwart,hipL a3i,. @tabili>er. ;@ee )in,. Mechanical. ;"ny a+tomatic -e0ice, gyro,copic or otherwi,e, -e,igne- to ,ec+re ,tabi9ty in /light. @tagger. ; he amo+nt o/ a-0ance o/ the entering e-ge o/ the +pper wing o/ a biplane o0er that o/ the lower4 it i, con,i-ere- po,iti0e when the +pper ,+r/ace i, /orwar-. @talling. ;2" term -e,cribing the con-ition o/ an airplane which /rom any ca+,e ha, lo,t relati0e ,pee- nece,,ary /or ,teerageway an- control. @tato,cope. ;"n in,tr+ment to -etect the e3i,tence o/ a ,mall rate o/ a,cent or -e,cent, principally +,e- in ballooning. @tay. ;" wire, rope, or the like, +,e- a, a tie-piece to hol- part, together or to contrib+te ,ti//ne,,4 /or e3ample, the ,tay, o/ the wing an- bo-y tr+,,ing. @tep. ;" break in the /orm o/ the bottom o/ a /loat. @train. ;8e/ormation or r+pt+re ca+,e- by ,tre,,. @tream-line )low. ;2" term in hy-romechanic, to -e,cribe the con-ition o/ contin+o+, /low o/ a /l+i-, a, -i,ting+i,he- /rom e--ying /low where -i,contin+ity take, place. @tream-line @hape. ;" ,hape inten-e- to a0oi- e--ying or -i,contin+ity an- to pre,er0e ,tream-like /low, th+, keeping re,i,tance to progre,, at a minim+m. @tre,,. ; he loa- impo,e- on any piece or ,tr+ct+re. @tr+t. ;" compre,,ion member o/ a tr+,, /rame4 /or in,tance, the 0ertical member, o/ the wing tr+,, o/ a biplane between longeron, in a /+,elage, etc. @weepH Back. ; he hori>ontal angle between the lateral Kathwart,hipL a3i, o/ an airplane an- the entering e-ge o/ the main plane,. achometer. ;"n in,tr+ment recor-ing the motor ,pee- in re0ohition, per min+te. ail.. ; he rear portion o/ an aircra/t, to which are +,+ally attache- r+--er,, ele0ator, an- /in,. ail )in, or #lane,. ; he 0ertical an- hori>ontal ,+r/ace, attache- to the tail, +,e- /or ,tabi9>ing. ail @li-e. ;=hen an airplane ,9-e,, or -i0e,, backwar-. hr+,t 8e-+ction. ;8+e to the in/l+ence o/ the propeller,, there i, a re-+ction o/ pre,,+re +n-er the ,tem o/ the 0e,,el which appreciably re-+ce, the total prop+l,i0e e//ect o/ the propeller. hi, re-+ction i, terme- Jthr+,t -e-+ction.J ractor. ;@ee "irplane.

railing (-ge. ; he rearmo,t portion o/ an aero/oil. riplane. ;" /orm o/ airplane who,e main ,+pporting ,+r/ace, are -i0i-e- into three part,, one abo0e the other. r+,,. ; he /raming by which the wing loa-, are tran,mitte- to the bo-y, compri,e, ,tr+t,, ,tay, an- ,par,. +mb+ckle. ;" /orm o/ wire-tightener con,i,ting o/ a barrel with an eyebolt ,crewe- in each en-. 9-bolt. ;" bolt threa-e- on both en-, an- ,hape- a, the letter HH9.J 9,e- in ,ome type, to anchor both the wire, an- /itting,. In other ca,e, it i, +,e- where hole boring i, prohibiit0e. 9-bri-ge. ;"n arche- ,+pport pa,,ing o0er the operatorH, leg, an- carrying the aileron control wheel. he /orwar- an- backwar- mo0ement o/ the bri-ge control, the ele0ator,. 7elometer. ;@ee "ir-,pee- Meter an- "nemometer. 7ent. ;" t+be between the ,tep o/ a hy-roplane an- it, top to eliminate ,+ction while in a planing attit+-e. 7etting. ; he proce,, o/ ,ighting by eye along e-ge, o/ ,par,, plane,, etc., to a,certain their alignment. 7ol-pi:+A. ;@ee 5o,e 8i0e. 7ol-plane. ;@ee Gli-e. =ake Gain. ;8+e to the in/l+ence o/ ,kin /riction, e--ying, etc., a 0e,,el in mo0ing /orwar- pro-+ce, a certain /orwar- mo0ement o/ the /l+i- ,+rro+n-ing it. he e//ect o/ thi, i, to re-+ce the e//ecti0e re,i,tance o/ the h+ll, an- thi, e//ect, -+e to the /orwar- mo0ement o/ the wake, i, terme- the HHwake gain.J In a--ition to thi, e//ect the /orwar- mo0ement o/ thi, bo-y o/ /l+i- re-+ce, the act+al a-0ance o/ the propeller thro+gh the ,+rro+n-ing me-i+m, thereby re-+cing the propeller hor,epower. =arp. ; o change the /orm o/ the wing by twi,ting it, +,+a9y by changing the inclination o/ the rear ,par relati0e to the /ront ,par. =a,h. ;8i,t+rbance o/ the air pro-+ce- by /light o/ airplane. =a,h-in. ;Increa,ing angle o/ inci-ence towar- wing tip. =a,h-o+t. ;8ecrea,ing angle o/ inci-ence towar- wing tip,. =in- @creen. ;" ,mall ,creen, +,+ally o/ cell+loi-, to protect a0iator or ob,er0er, /rom air pre,,+re. =in- +nnel. ;" large t+be +,e- /or e3perimenting with ,+r/ace, an- mo-el,, anthro+gh which a c+rrent o/ air i, /orce- by a power -ri0en /an. hi, ,how, the action o/ ,+r/ace, in /light an- gi0e, m+ch +,e/+l in/ormation. =ing,. ; he main ,+pporting ,+r/ace, o/ an airplane.

=ing Ioa-ing. ; he weight carrie- per +nit area o/ ,+pporting ,+r/ace. =ing $ib. ;" /ore-an--a/t member o/ the wing ,tr+ct+re +,e- to ,+pport the co0ering an- to gi0e the wing ,ection it, /orm. =ing @par. ;"n athwart,hip member o/ the wing ,tr+ct+re re,i,ting ten,ion ancompre,,ion. =ire Control. ;=ire connecting a controlling ,+r/ace with the pilotH, control le0er, wheel or r+--er bow. 8ri/t. ;=ire to pre0ent wing, being /orce- backwar- -+ring /light. Ian-ing, ;=ire oppo,e- to abo0e, to ,+,tain ,+r/ace when at re,t. Ii/t or )lying. ;=ire +,e- to brace wing, /rom collap,ing +pwar- -+ring /light. Iocking. ;=ire K,o/tL to pre0ent a t+rnb+ckle or other /itting /rom lo,ing it, a-1+,tment. @naking. ;=ire K,o/tL wo+n- ,pirally or tie- aro+n- another wire an- attache- at each en- to the /ramework. 9,e- to pre0ent the wire aro+n- which it i, J,nake-HH /rom being entangle- in propeller in ca,e o/ breakage. 6aw.; o ,wing o/l/ the co+r,e abo+t the 0ertical a3i,, owing to g+,t, or lack o/ -irectional ,tability. "ngle o/, ; he temporary ang+lar -e0iation o/ the /ore-an--a/t a3i, /rom the co+r,e. "-1+,tment, an- in,pection, B1 ,tan-ar-, /or Hall-@cott engine,, 118 "ileron,, B1 a-1+,tment, B81 con,tr+ction, BAC "ir-coole- engine,, weight, 8< con-ition,, <BF -i,trib+tor, 1MA p+mp /or Hall-@cott engine, 1BB "irplane,, engine,, 8D-9A general con,tr+ction, 1-M in,pection, BB1-BFA military +,e, 81 propeller, BC-MC ,tan-ar-i>ing work, <A9 ,tan-ar-, o/ the @. ". (., AM-CC theory, A wiring, M8-AF woo- /or con,tr+ction, C8 "ltimeter, <MB "ltit+-e barometer, <MB

e//ect on engine,, 9<, 9F on motor, 8B "merican airplane engine,, table o/ characterii@tic,, B19 "ngle, -ihe-ral, 9 o/ inci-ence, A, 1M, 1C, 18, FM Clark in-icator, <MD "0iator,, training, <DC ,+gge,tion, /or ipt+-ent,, <18 Back/iring o/ engine, 1FC Balance, FA Banking in-icator, @perry, <F9 the machine, <BB Battery ,y,tem,, care o/, BF1 te,ting, B<8, BFD Ben-ing, 18 allowance /or ,heet metal, table,, <CD Bolt,, A9 ,tan-ar-, AM Cable en-,, AA win-ing, B<F wire, in,pection, B<1 Cable,, ,tran-e- wire, AB Camber o/ propeller bla-e, FF, MF o/ wing,, 9 Camera g+n, <1A Camera,, +,e in airplane,, B9< Camp Hoare, air-rome at, B9M-<FM Cam,ha/t, in,pection, B<D Cana-ian training camp at Bor-en, B9M-<FM bo3e, /or han-ling, <<A camera g+n, <1A cra,he,, B9C engine repair, at oronto, <<A e3amining the engine, <D< /orm, +,e- /or repair, etc., <<C keeping recor-,, <DA motor tran,port +nit, <DD or-er n+mber,, <FB o0erha+ling engine, <FB repairing crank ca,e, <F< <9M I58(E Cana-ian training camp at Bor-en, ,electing mechanic, /ot $oyal )lying Corp,, <BC ,hooting at target, on the gro+n-, <1M ,pare part, /or airplane,, <B8 ,:+a-ron,, B9A ,+gge,tion, /or ,t+-ent, in a0iation, <18 training o/ a0iator,, <DC Carb+reter in C+rti,, engine, 1DB Hall-@cott engine, 1B<

Hi,pano-@+i>a engine, BDC @t+rte0ant engine, 1F8 Care o/ airplane, BM Center o/ gra0ity, 1M o/ re,i,tance, 1F Centigra-e, -egree,, to )ahrenheit, <CA Chri,ten,en air ,tarter, 1F<, 1MM Clark angle o/ inci-ence in-icator, <MD Cleanline,, o/ airplane, BM Clinometer, <F8 Clip en-,, AC Col+mn control, CC Compa,,, <FC Compre,,ion, 18 Con,tr+ction o/ airplane,, general, 1-M o/ /+,elage, BM8 Control cable,, a-1+,tment o/, BB ,+r/ace,, B1 Cooling the @t+rte0ant engine, 1MF Copper protection ,trip, /or propeller,, <C Crank ca,e, in,pection, BB9 repairing, <F< Crank,ha/t,, in,pection, BB9 Creagh-%,bome li:+i- compa,,, <FC C+bic mea,+re,, table, <CC C+rti,, "eroplane _ Motor Corporation, 9C C+rti,, engine, 9C-11A car/o+retion, 1DB ignition, 1DD lo,t power an- o0erheating, 1DA l+brication, 1D1 magneto timing, 1DD noi,y operation, 1D8 o0erha+ling an- in,pection, 1DB ,etting +p, 9C ,kipping or irreg+lar operation, 1DF ,peci/ication o/ motor, 9C ,traightening connecting ro-,, 11F tro+ble chart, 1D< 0al0e ,etting an- timing, 99 C+rti,, plant, te,t, on bolt,, AM C+rti,, training machine, aileron a-1+,tment, B81 a,,embling, BC1-B8A -imen,ion,, B8C-B91 ele0ator,, BCA, B8B lan-ing gear a,,embly to /+,elage, BCB packe- /or ,hipping, BC1 panel a,,embly, BCA

r+--er, BCM, B8B ,tabili>er,, BCF C+rti,, triplane ,co+t, angle o/ inci-ence, C C+r0at+re o/ propeller bla-e,, ,ee Camber. Cylin-er,, in,pection, BB8 metal +,e-, 9D po,ition o/, 8C 8e/inition, o/ term, +,e- in aerona+tic,, <C8-<9F 8egree,, )ahrenheit to Centigra-e, table, <CA 8iagram,, <AB-<CC 8ihe-ral angle, 9 <9C 8imen,ionB o/ training machine,, BAC, B8C-B91 8irectional ,tability 1M 8i,torte- ,+r/ace,, 1A, 1C 8i3ie 81 magnet,, 1MD 8ri/t o/ airplane,, 8. @ee al,o @i/t--ri/t ratio. 8ri9 ,i>e,, table, <C<, <CF 8rop /orging,, M 8+ple3 Mo-el %. 8. lenith carb+reter, 1BF 8ynamometer, /an, <AC rope brake /or engine te,ting, <AF (//iciency o/ the machine, 8 (le0ator, B1 (ngine,, airplane, FA, 8D-9A air an- water-coole- engine,, weight, 8< allH@teel cylin-er, 91 back/iring, FC C+rti,,, 9C-11A cylin-er, metal +,e-, 9D -ynamometer /or te,ting, <AF e//ect o/ altit+-e, 8B, 9F on hor,epower, 9<

/lame propagation rate, 8M /+el, 8F Gnome, 1AF-19C Ha9-@cott, 11C-1<C Hi,pano-@+i>a, 91, 198-B1A Y in,pection, BB1-BFA 1acket wall, ca,t iron, weight o/, 89 pilotH, ,tarting ,ignal,, F8 pi,ton ,pee-, 8M po,ition o/ cylin-er,, 8C pre,,+re an- ,pee-, 8M problem o/ -e,ign, 8B re-+cing weight, 89 rotary, FC (ngine,, ,tarting, FC @t+rte0ant, 1<8-1M9 ,+pport,, -imen,ion,, CA table o/ characteri,tic, o/ "merican engine,, B19 te,t,, 81, BBA homa,-Mor,e, 1AD-1A< tro+ble chart, 1D< 9. @. @tan-ar- or Iiberty, B1C 0ol+metric e//iciency, 8A weight, 8B working o/, F8 (ye, o/ the army, B9B )actory in,pection, BM< )ahrenheit, -egree,, to Centigra-e, <CA )an -ynamometer, <AC )a,tening har- wire,, ,tan-ar-, AA )i9ey, Ma1or %. 8., <DA )lame propagation rate, in engine,, 8M )lying boat, angle o/ inci-ence, C )lying le0el in airplane,, <B1 )lying po,ition, B< )+el /or engine,, 8F )+,elage, B a-1+,tment, BF b+il-ing, BM8 Galla-et, B9

Gallan-et propeller, <A Gal0ani>e- non-/le3ible cable en-,, AA Ga,oline ,y,tem o/ Hall-@cott engine, 1BB Glo,,ary o/ aerona+tical term,, <C8-<9F Gl+e, BFB Gnome engine, 81, 1AF-19C cleaning cylin-er,, 18B climbing an- t+rning, 19F I58(E Gnome engine, cycle o/ operation, 19D -e,cent,, 19M han-ling in /light, 19F the pi,ton, 1CC ignition, 19B long--i,tance /light,, 19M l+bricating ,y,tem, 19< o0erha+ling, 1AC reg+lating ga,oline /or rapi/light, 19M remo0ing crank ca,e an- mother ro-, 1CF ,hort crank,ha/t, 1CD r+nning, 19< ,torage, 19A te,ting connecting ro-,, 18D timing the engine, 191 0al0e,, 18A Go0ernment in,tr+ction, to in,pector, o/ airplane,, BBD-BFA Hall-@cott airplane engine,, 11C-1<C air p+mp, 1BB carb+reter, 1B< cleaning pi,ton,, 1<< -i,a,,embling, 1<1 /itting new cylin-er,, 1<C ga,oline ,y,tem, 1BB grin- 0al0e,, 1<< ignition ,y,tem, 1BM in,tr+ction, to in,+re ma3im+m ,er0ice, 11C l+bricating ,y,tem, 118-1BB preparation /or ,er0ice, 11C rea,,embling engine, 1<F remo0ing wri,t pin,, 1<F ,tan-ar- a-1+,tment,, 118 ,tarting engine, 1B8 ,tati,tic ,heet, 1BA temperat+re gage, 1BM water circ+lation, 1B8 Hall-@cott Motor Co., B1A Han-ling airplane,, BF Hi,pano-@+i>a engine, 91, 198-B1M a-1+,tment,, BD1 attaching propeller,, BDA carb+reter, BDC -i,a,,embly, BD9-B1B l+brication, BDM oil tank an- cooling o/ oil, BD9 operation, BDF rea,,embly, B1B retiming the engine, B1M timing o/ magneto,, BD< 0al0e timing, BD1 water circ+lation, BDC H+b /or propeller,, ,tan-ar-, <C mo+nting, o/ propeller,, <M Hy-ro-airplane, angle o/ inci-ence, C

Ignition ,y,tem, care o/, BFD in C+rti,, engine, 1DD in Gnome engine, 19B in Hall-@cott engine,, 1BM in @t+rte0ant engine, 1F9 te,ting, B<A Inche,, table to -ecimal, an- millimeter,, <CM In,pection, B1, BA, BB1-BFA battery ,y,tem, B<8, BFD cable win-ing,, B<F cable wire, t+mb+ckle, an- /itting,, B<1 crank ca,e, BB9 crank,ha/t,, BB9 C+rti,, engine, 1DB cylin-er,, BB8 engine, B<D gl+e, BFB ignition ,y,tem,, B<A in/ormation o/ material, +,e-, BFM linen, B<B <99 In,pection, magneto,, B<A, B<9 metal /itting,, B<F propeller,, B<B ra-iator,, B<< ,ample, /or analy,i,, BFM ,heet al+min+m, B<F ,park-pl+g tro+ble, BFB ,tamping material,, BFF tool, /or ,tan-ar- e:+ipment, BFA woo-, B<< In,pector, o/ airplane,, 9. @., in,tr+ction,, BBD-BFA In,tr+ction, to in,pector, o/ Go0ernment airplane,, BBD-BFA In,tr+ment, /or airplane,, <FA-<MB Interplane ,tr+t,, BD 'ann+,, $oger, <18 !eel ,+r/ace, 1M Iagrange, Capt., 81 Ian-ing in airplane,, <BB Iateral ,tability, 1C Iewi, machine g+n, <M<-<A1 e//ect o/ /iring, <M8 maga>ine, <MC

Iiberty engine, B1A Ii/t--ri/t ration, 8, FM Ii/t o/ the wing,, C Iinen, in,pection, B<B Iongit+-inal ,tability, 1C Ioop,, wire, M9 I+bricating ,y,tem, in C+rti,, engine, 1D1 in Gnome engine, 19< in Hall-@cott engine, 118-1BB in Hi,pano-@+i>a engine, BDM in @t+rte0ant engine, 1FF I+cke, C. !, 8B Machine gim, Iewi,, <M< Magneto ba,e, CM care o/, BFD te,ting, B<A, B<9 timing, 1DD Material,, in/ormation /or in,pector,, BFM Mea,+ring the -ihe-ral angle, 9 ,tagger, 1B Mechanic,, ,electing, /or $oyal )lying Corp,, <BC Military airplane,, camera, to locate batterie,, B9< engine, ,ee Hi,pano-@+i>a engine, ob,er0ation /rom, B9< +,e o/, 81 Military tractor, angle o/ inci-ence, C Military training airplane,, b+il-ing the /+,elage, BM8 C+rti,, machine,, a,,embling, BC1-B8A -etail, o/, BMA-BCD -imen,ion,, BMC, B8C-B91 in,pection o/ /actory, BM< ,pare part, /or machine,, <B8 te,t,, BMB 9. @. ,peci/ication,, BFC-BMM wing,, con,tr+ction, BA< @ee al,o C+rti,, training machine. 5+t,, A9 ,tan-ar-, AA %b,er0ation /rom military airplane, B9B %il,, l+bricating, 119. @ee al,o I+bricating ,y,tem. %lm,tea-, 8r., <B %0erha+ling the C+rti,, engine, 1DBH I58(E #ackar- Motor Co., B1A i #acking +p /rom the gro+n-, BF #hotograph, /rom airplane,, B9< #ilotH, ,ignal,, F8 #ipeline marking,, CA #i,ton ,pee- in engine,, 8M #itch o/ propeller, MB #re,,+re in engine,, 8M

#roblem o/ airplane-engine -e,ign, 8B #ropeller, B<, BC-MC balance, M< balancing, <1 bla-e,, te,ting ,hape o/, << camber o/ bla-e, FF, MF care o/, <A, MM copper protection ,trip,, <C Y -e/ect,, <A engine, FA /o+r-bla-e-, <A g1rro,copic action, <BD h+b mo+nting,, <M ,tan-ar-, <C in,pection, B<B 1oint,, MM length o/ bla-e,, M< mechanical ,trength, BC metho- o/ making, B9 mo+nting, MM %lm,tea- type, <B pitch, MB rotating, to ,tart the engine, MB ,lip, MB ,pee-, 8D ,tarting the engine, FC ,toring, <A ,traightne,,, MF ,+r/ace area, MF con-ition o/, MM te,ting weight, <F te,t, o/, F< #ropeller, tor:+e, MM correcting, <18 two-bla-e-, <A

wa,h in an- wa,h o+t, MC woo- +,e-, B9, << #rotection o/ propeller,, <C $a-iator,, in,pection, B<< $epair o/ airplane, an- engine,, <<A $e,i,tance o/ airplane,, 8 $igging, note, /rom $oyal )lying Corp, Man+al, FM $i,ing in airplane, <BB $o- en- pin,, AM, A9 $ope brake -ynamometer /or engine te,ting, <AF $otary engine,, FC $oyal )lying Corp, Man+al, note, on rigging, FM on ,tability, 1M on wiring, A1 $oyal )lying Corp,, ,electing mechanic, /or, <BC @e--on, I =., 81 @el/-,tarter, Chri,ten,en, 1F<, 1MM @hackle pin,, AM @hackle,, AC @hear ,tre,,, 18 @heet-metal ,tamping,, M @ignal, o/ pilot, F8 @lip o/ propeller, MB @ociety o/ "+tomoti0e (ngineer,, -ynamometer /or engine te,ting, <AF ,tan-ar-,, AM-CC wire loop,, M9 @park-pl+g -imen,ion,, CA tro+ble, BFB @peci/ication, /or 9. @. mi9tary training airplane,, BFC-BMM @pee- o/ engine,, 8M FD1 @perry banking in-icator, <F9 clinometer, <F8 @plice, /or /le3ible cable en-,, AA @plit-or/ (lectrical Co., 1BM magneto,, 1F9 @pr+ce, /or ,tr+t,, 1 ,peci/ication,, C8 @p+r gear,, in,pection, B<D @:+ier, G. %., BMM @tability o/ airplane,, 1M -irectional, 1M /actor, a//ecting, 1M lateral, 1C longit+-inal, 1C @tagger, 9, 1C mea,+ring, 1B @talling the machine, <B1 @tamping material, with go0ernment ,tamp, BFF @tan-ar- a-1+,tment, /or Hall-@cott engine,, 118 @tan-ar- "irplane Corporation, angle o/ inci-ence, C @tan-ar- %il Co., 119 @tan-ar-i>ing aircra/t work, <A9 @tan-ar-, o/ the @. ". (., AM-CC bolt,, A9 chp en-,, AC engine ,+pport,, CA /a,tening har- wire,, AA

gal0ani>e- non-/le3ible cable en-,, AA magneto ba,e, CM n+t,, A9 pipe-line marking,, CA ro- en- pin,, A9 ,hackle,, AC ,park pl+g,, CA ,plice, /or /le3ible cable en-,, AA thimble, /or wire en-,, AA t+rnb+ckle,, AA @tarting the engine, FC BA . @tick control, CC @toring propeller,, <A @tran-e- wire cable,, AB @tream-lining, 8 @tre,,e, an- ,train,, 18 in wing wiring, AB @tr+t,, 1, F interplane, BD @t+rte0ant airplane engine, 1<8-1M9 bearing,, 1M9 carb+reter, 1F8 Chri,ten,en air ,tarter, 1F<, -1MM cooling, 1MF 8i3ie 81 magneto, 1MD ga,oline an- oil tank,, 1F1 ignition, 1F9 in,talling, 1FD l+brication, 1FF maintaining compre,,ion, 1M9 ra-iator, 1FD r+nning the engine, 1F< ,tarting the engine, 1F1 ,topping the engine, 1FF timing the air -i,trib+tor, 1MA +npacking, 1FD

0al0e a-1+,tment, 1M8 timing, 1M8 0al0e,, 1M8 able,, <AB-<CC achometer, <FC ail plane, a-1+,tment, BF ank,, mea,+ring content,, <AB emperat+re gage on Hall-@cott engine, 1BM en,ion, 18 o/ wire,, A1 erm, +,e- in aerona+tic,, <C8-<9F e,t,, engine, BBA o/ military training airplane,, BMB o/ propeller,, F< I58(E heory o/ airplane,2 A-BA -ihe-ral angle, 9 li/t o/ the wing,, C mea,+ring the ,tagger, 1B ,tability, 1M himble, /or wire en-,, AA homa,-Mor,e engine, 1AD-1A< ool, /or in,pector,, BFA or:+e o/ propeller, MM, <18 or,ion, 18 raining a0iator, /or Briti,h army, <DC camp at Camp Hoare, Cana-a, B9M-<FM machine ' 5 F B., angle o/ inci-ence, C @ee al,o Military training airplane,. ro+ble chart, 1D< +mb+ckle,, M8 in,pection, B<1 ,tan-ar-, AM, AA ,tan-ar- -imen,ion,, B<M wiring, B<M +rning e//ect o/ propeller, MM +rn, in airplane,, making, <19 9n-ercarriage, a-1+,tment, BF 9. @. military training airplane,, ,peci/ication,, BFC-BMM 9. @. @tan-ar- a0iation engine, B1C 7ac++m %il Co., 119 7al0e ,etting on C+rti,, engine, 99 7elocity an- win-, change, o/, <BM 7incent, B1A 7ol+me,, con0er,ion table, <CC 7ol+metric e/lBiciency o/ engine,, 8A =a,h in an- wa,h o+t, MC =a,her, on bolt hea-,, M =ater-coole- engine,, weight, 8<

=eather cock ,tability, 1M =eight o/ engine,, 8< =heel control, CC =in-, change, o/, <BM =ing wiring ,tre,,e,, AB =ing,, camber, 9 con,tr+ction, BA< H/t, C =ire,, care o/, BM =iring the plane, M8-AF loop,, M9, A1 note, /rom $oyal )lying Corp, Man+al, A1 ,tan-ar-, o/ the @. ". (., AM-CC ,tran-e- wire cable,, AB ,tre,,e, in wing wiring, AB ten,ion, A1 te,ting wire, AD t+rnb+ckle,, M8 =oo- /or airplane con,tr+ction, C8 /or ,tr+t,, 1 in,pection, B<< nat+re +n-er ,tre,,, 18 ,peci/ic gra0ity an- weight, <A9 ,peci/ication, /or ,pr+ce, C8 '95 B F 191 / & 2/2HNJ10#H#2H /t==I . ya/1222H2Hy1M %i (5CI5. . $"5@. IIB$"$6 81B 958($G$"89" ( IIB$"$6 CAF-CF9F %7($89( )I5( Y BMG #($ 8"6 8" ( 89( i,2Hii 2

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