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In This Issue

Alexithymia: Considerations

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for Psychotherapists

Bylaws Ballot

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Candidate Statements

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2007 VOLUME 42 NO. 1


Division of Psychotherapy 䡲 2007 Governance Structure
ELECTED BOARD MEMBERS
President Board of Directors Members-at-Large Michael Murphy, Ph.D., 2007-2009
Jean Carter, Ph.D J. G. Benedict, Ph.D., 2006-2008 Professor and Director of Clinical
5225 Wisconsin Ave., N.W. #513 6444 East Hampden Ave., Ste D Training
Washington DC 20015 Denver, CO 80401 Department of Psychology
Ofc: 202–244-3505 Ofc: 303-753-9258,or 303-526-1101 Indiana State University
E-Mail: jcarterphd@aol.com Fax: 753-6498 Terre Haute, IN 47809
E-Mail: JGBENEDICT@aol.com Ofc: : 812-237-2465 Fax: 812-237-4378
President-elect E-Mail:
Jeffrey Barnett, Psy.D. James Bray, Ph.D., 2005-2007 mmurphy4@isugw.indstate.edu.
747 Buckeye Ct. Dept of Family & Community Med
Millersville, MD 21108 Baylor College of Med Libby Nutt Williams, Ph.D., 2005-2007
E-Mail: drjbarnett1@comcast.net 3701 Kirby Dr, 6th Fl Chair, Dept of Psychology
Houston , TX 77098 St. Mary’s College of Maryland
Secretary Ofc: 713-798-7751 Fax: 713-798-7789 18952 E. Fisher Rd.
Armand Cerbone, Ph.D., 2006-2008 E-Mail: jbray@bcm.tmc.edu St. Mary’s City, MD 20686
3625 North Paulina Ofc: 240- 895-4467 Fax: 240-895-4436
Chicago IL 60613 Irene Deitch, Ph.D., 2006-2008 E-Mail: enwilliams@smcm.edu
Ofc: 773-755-0833 Fax: 773-755-0834 Ocean View-14B
E-Mail: arcerbone@aol.com 31 Hylan Blvd APA Council Representatives
Staten Island, NY 10305-2079 Norine G. Johnson, Ph.D., 2005-2007
Treasurer Ofc: 718-273-1441 13 Ashfield St.,
Steve Sobelman, Ph.D., 2007-2009 E-Mail: ProfID@AOL.COM Roslindale, MA 02131
Department of Psychology Ofc: 617-471-2268 Fax: 617-325-0225
Loyola College in Maryland Jennifer Kelly, Ph.D., 2007-2009 E-Mail: NorineJ@aol.com
Baltimore, MD 21210 Atlanta Center for Behavioral Medicine
Ofc: 410-617-2461 3280 Howell Mill Rd. #100 John C. Norcross, Ph.D., 2005-2007
E-Mail: sobelman@loyola.edu Atlanta, GA 30327 Department of Psychology
Ofc: 404-351-6789 University of Scranton
Past President E-Mail: jfkphd@aol.com Scranton, PA 18510-4596
Abraham W. Wolf, Ph.D. Ofc: 570-941-7638 Fax: 570-941-7899
MetroHealth Medical Center E-Mail: norcross@uofs.edu
2500 Metro Health Drive
Cleveland, OH 44109-1998
Ofc: 216-778-4637 Fax: 216-778-8412
E-Mail: axw7@cwru.edu

COMMITTEES AND TASK FORCES


COMMITTEES Finance Program
Chair: Bonnie Markham, Ph.D., Psy.D. Chair: Jeffrey J. Magnavita, Ph.D.
Fellows
52 Pearl Street Glastonbury Psychological
Vacant
Metuchen NJ 08840 Associates PC
Ofc: 732-494-5471 300 Hebron Ave., Ste. 215
Membership
Fax 206-338-6212 Glastonbury , CT 06033
Chair: Annie Judge, Ph.D.
E-Mail: Ofc: 860-659-1202
2440 M St., NW, Suite 411
drbonniemarkham@hotmail.com Fax: 860-657-1535
Washington, DC 20037
E-Mail: magnapsych@aol.com
Ofc: 202-905-7721
Education & Training
E-Mail: Anniejudge@aol.com
Chair: Jean M. Birbilis, Ph.D., L.P. Psychotherapy Research
University of St. Thomas Chair: William B. Stiles, Ph.D.
Student Development Chair
1000 LaSalle Ave., TMH 455E Department of Psychology
Michael Garfinkle, 2007
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55403 Miami University
Derner Institute for Advanced
Ofc: 651-962-4654 Oxford, OH 45056
Psychological Studies
E-Mail: jmbirbilis@stthomas.edu Voice: 513-529-2405
Adelphi University
Fax: 513-529-2420
1 South Avenue
Continuing Education Email: stileswb@muohio.edu
Garden City, NY 11530
Michael J. Constantino, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
Nominations and Elections
612 Tobin Hall - 135 Hicks Way
Chair: Jeffrey Barnett, Psy.D,
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, MA 01003-9271
Professional Awards
Ofc: 413-545-1388
Chair: Abe Wolf, Ph.D.
Fax: 413-545-0996

Diversity
Chair: Jennifer F. Kelly, Ph.D.
PUBLICATIONS BOARD EDITORS
Raymond A. DiGiuseppe, Ph.D., 2003-2008 Psychotherapy Journal Editor
Psychology Department Charles Gelso, Ph.D., 2005-2009
St John’s University University of Maryland
8000 Utopia Pkwy Dept of Psychology
Jamaica , NY 11439 Biology-Psychology Building
Ofc: 718-990-1955 College Park, MD 20742-4411
DiGiuser@STJOHNS.edu Ofc: 301-405-5909 Fax: 301-314-9566
Gelso@psyc.umd.edu
John C. Norcross, Ph.D., 2002-2008
Department of Psychology Psychotherapy Bulletin Editor
University of Scranton Craig N. Shealy, Ph.D., 2007-2009
Scranton, PA 18510-4596 International Beliefs and Values Institute (IBAVI)
Ofc: 570-941-7638 Fax: 570-941-7899 James Madison University
E-mail: norcross@scranton.edu MSC 2802, 1241 Paul Street
Harrisonburg, VA 22807
Lillian Comas-Diaz, Ph.D., 2002-2007 Phone: 540-568-6835 Fax: 540-568-4232
Transcultural Mental Health Institute E-Mail: shealycn@jmu.edu
908 New Hampshire Ave. N.W., #700
Washington, D.C. 20037 Psychotherapy Bulletin Associate Editor
cultura@erols.com Harriet C. Cobb, Ed.D.
Combined-Integrated Doctoral Program in
Nadine Kaslow, Ph.D., 2006-2011 Clinical/School Psychology
Grady Hospital MSC 7401
Emory Dept. of Psychiatry James Madison University
80 Jesse Hill Jr. Dr. Harrisonburg, VA 22807
Atlanta, GA 30303 Ofc: 540-568-6834
Ofc: 404-616-4757 Fax: 404-616-2898 cobbhc@jmu.edu
Email: nkaslow@emory.edu
Internet Editor
George Stricker, Ph.D., 2003-2008 Bryan S. K. Kim, Ph.D. 2005-2007
Institute for Advanced Psychol Studies Department of Psychology
Adelphi University University of Hawaii at Hilo
Garden City, NY 11530 200 W. Kawili Street
Ofc: 516-877-4803 Fax: 516-877-4805 Hilo, Hawaii 96720-4091
stricker@adelphi.edu Ofc: 808-974-7460 Fax: 808-974-7737
E-mail: bryankim@hawaii.edu
Beverly Greene, Ph.D., 2007-2012
Psychology Student Website Coordinator
St John’s Univ Nisha Nayak
8000 Utopia Pkwy University of Houston
Jamaica , NY 11439 Dept of Psychology (MS 5022)
Ofc: 718-638-6451 126 Heyne Building
E-mail: bgreene203@aol.com Houston, TX 77204-5022
Ofc: 713-743-8600 or -8611 Fax: 713-743-8633
nnayak@uh.edu

PSYCHOTHERAPY BULLETIN
Psychotherapy Bulletin is the official newsletter of Division 29 (Psychotherapy) of the American Psychological
Association. Published four times each year (spring, summer, fall, winter), Psychotherapy Bulletin is designed to:
1) inform the membership of Division 29 about relevant events, awards, and professional opportunities; 2) provide
articles and commentary regarding the range of issues that are of interest to psychotherapy theorists, researchers,
practitioners, and trainers; 3) establish a forum for students and new members to offer their contributions; and,
4) facilitate opportunities for dialogue and collaboration among the diverse members of our association.

Contributors are invited to send articles (up to 4,000 words), interviews, commentaries, letters to the editor,
and announcements to Craig N. Shealy, Ph.D., Editor, Psychotherapy Bulletin. Please note that Psychotherapy
Bulletin does not publish book reviews (these are published in Psychotherapy, the official journal of Division
29). All submissions for Psychotherapy Bulletin should be sent electronically to assnmgmt1@cox.net; with the
subject header line Psychotherapy Bulletin; please ensure that articles conform to APA style. Deadlines for sub-
mission are as follows: February 1 (spring); May 1 (summer); July 1 (fall); November 1 (winter). Past issues of
Psychotherapy Bulletin may be viewed at our website: www.divisionofpsychotherapy.org. Other inquiries
regarding Psychotherapy Bulletin (e.g., advertising) or Division 29 should be directed to Tracey Martin at the
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PSYCHOTHERAPY BULLETIN Official Publication of Division 29 of the
Published by the American Psychological Association
DIVISION OF
PSYCHOTHERAPY 2007 Volume 42, Number 1
American Psychological Association

6557 E. Riverdale
Mesa, AZ 85215 CONTENTS
602-363-9211
e-mail: assnmgmt1@cox.net President’s Column ................................................2

Alexithymia: Considerations for Psychotherapists ....4


EDITOR
Craig N. Shealy, Ph.D.
Washington Scene ....................................................8
New Directions—A Time For Change
ASSOCIATE EDITOR
Harriet C. Cobb, Ed.D. Psychotherapy Education and Training ............13
Gatekeeping in Admisssions Procedures:
CONTRIBUTING EDITORS The Step Before Education and Training
in Competencies
Washington Scene
Patrick DeLeon, Ph.D. Perspectives on Psychotherapy Integration ......17
Principles of Change in Psychotherapy
Practitioner Report
Ronald F. Levant, Ed.D. Integration: A Theme That Can Unite Us All

Education and Training Bylaws Ballot ..........................................................21


Jean M. Birbilis, Ph.D. Editor’s Note ..........................................................29
Psychotherapy Research Council Report ......................................................33
William Stiles, Ph.D.
Council of Representatives Meeting
Perspectives on
Candidate Statements ..........................................35
Psychotherapy Integration
George Stricker, Ph.D. The Division of Psychotherapy On-line
Student Feature Academy..............................................................43
Michael Garfinkle
Membership Application......................................44

STAFF
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Tracey Martin

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PRESIDENT’S COLUMN Jean Carter, Ph.D.

Making Changes and Moving Forward


This is my first column committees to meet the needs of mem-
as President of this bers and
wonderful Division. 2) how to better attend to issues of diver-
I’m looking forward to sity in a world that is increasingly mul-
this year and to the ticultural and cognizant of the range of
opportunities we will individuals within our community.
have to move the inter-
ests of the Division We came up with the following recommen-
and of psychotherapy dations, that we then translated into rec-
forward. The Board of Directors has just had ommended Bylaws changes which would
a retreat and winter meeting. You should be allow us to move forward with implement-
proud of your Board of Directors; I am hon- ing them. [See the Bylaws votes later in this
ored to be among them. This is a group of issue.]
thoughtful, dedicated individuals who
worked very hard throughout the meeting First, we would like to increase the
to strengthen the ability of the Division to number of member-at-large positions
attend to the needs of members and the by two and change them to “Domain
enhancement and protection of psychother- Representatives,” with each Representative
apy. After you read about the retreat, and responsible for attending to and making
plans for the year to come, please take the recommendations regarding Division ini-
time to read and vote on recommended tiatives and working with the relevant
Bylaws changes later in this Bulletin. committees for the following domains: a)
Education and Training, b) Psychotherapy
We began the retreat on a positive, energiz- Practice, c) Science and Scholarship, d)
ing note by each of us sharing what Public Interest and Social Justice, e)
engages our passion for psychotherapy. We Membership, f) Early Career Psychologists,
talked about our fascination with people, and g) two Representatives for Diversity,
our wish to help people’s lives go better, with the Board maintaining responsibility
our curiosity about how psychotherapy for using these positions to bring valued
works and how and why people change, perspectives and sources of knowledge to
and our wish to make the world a better the Board. The Student Representative, who
place through changing lives. It was clear also chairs the Student Development
that we choose to be engaged with psy- Committee, would continue to serve on the
chotherapy as teachers, practitioners, and Board, but with a two year (rather than one
scholars for reasons that are positive and year) term, allowing him/her to bring
very alive. We used that strong energy to stronger representation through having
begin developing a vision and purpose for greater continuity. Importantly, our current
the Division to guide us in bringing new members-at-large and committee chairs
vigor to the Division, its activities and its look forward to this reorganization as a way
members. We then considered two areas of to bring greater vibrancy to the Division.
interest:
Second, we want to improve the structure of
1) how to more effectively utilize the
members-at-large of the Board and the continued on page 3
2
the committees by developing a rotating international interests in psychotherapy,
chair and member structure and standard joining the Divisions for Social Justice, con-
terms, which increases opportunities for tinuing our collaboration with Society for
member participation. Psychotherapy Research, and strengthen-
ing and expanding our On-Line Academy
The other Bylaws changes that you have CE offerings. Keep watching for more
the opportunity to vote on are primarily developments as the year proceeds!
“housekeeping”—implementing policies
that have already been passed and cleaning As always, if you have comments, ideas,
up language. questions, wish to volunteer, or yes, even
have complaints, please contact me at
Some of the other plans we’re working on: jcarterphd@aol.com or 202 244-3505. I am
developing a domain for the Division on eager for your feedback!

3
FEATURE
Alexithymia: Considerations for the Psychotherapist
John S. Ogrodniczuk, Ph.D., Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia

Most psychotherapeutic approaches uncomfortable emotions, interpreting


assume that individuals have some access unconscious conflicts, using the transfer-
to their emotions. Thus, patients who are ence as a therapeutic mechanism, and
unable to identify, differentiate, and articu- emphasizing the patient’s role in the devel-
late their emotions present therapists with opment and resolution of problems. The
a difficult challenge. Such patients may objective of supportive therapy was to
suffer from alexithymia. Alexithymia con- improve the patient’s immediate adapta-
stricts a person’s ability to elaborate on tion to his or her life situation. The sup-
inner feelings, to engage in abstract portive therapist focused on guiding the
thought, and to empathise (Sifneos, 1973). patient toward more adaptive modes of
They have difficulty presenting material behaviour by using guidance, advice, and
spontaneously, somatize emotional dis- problem solving, directed blame for the
tress, and fixate on minute details of exter- patient’s problems on external circum-
nal events. Patients with high levels of stances, and did not emphasize affect
alexithymia know that they don’t feel exploration.
good, but don’t know how to say or
describe what they’re feeling. We assessed alexithymia using the Toronto
Alexithymia Scale-20 (Bagby, Parker, &
Despite much attention in the clinical liter- Taylor, 1994). It measures the three core fea-
ature, research on alexithymia in the treat- tures of alexithymia: difficulty identifying
ment setting has been negligible. Most feelings, difficulty communicating feelings,
research has focused on etiological factors and externally oriented thinking. Outcome
and associated pathologies. Thus, many of in the individual therapy study was repre-
the assumptions about psychotherapeutic sented by three outcome factors: general
treatment of an alexithymic patient remain symptoms, social-sexual maladjustment,
untested. and personalized target objectives.
Outcome in the group therapy study was
Does Alexithymia Affect the Outcome also represented by three factors: general
of Psychotherapy? symptoms, grief symptoms, and personal-
A widely held assumption is that alex- ized target objectives. There were 144 treat-
ithymic individuals are ill-suited for ment completers in the individual therapy
dynamic psychotherapy and that support- study, and 107 in the group therapy study.
ive psychotherapy is more appropriate
(Sifneos, 1996). We used data from two In the individual therapy study, difficulty
clinical trials of individual and group psy- identifying feelings was related to less
chotherapies to test this assumption improvement in general symptoms and
(McCallum, Piper, Ogrodniczuk, & Joyce, social-sexual functioning. Externally orient-
2003). Each trial involved randomly ed thinking was also associated with less
assigning patients to either interpretive or improvement in social-sexual functioning.
supportive psychotherapy. Briefly, the The negative influence of these alexithymia
objective of interpretive therapy was to traits was evident across both forms of ther-
enhance the patient’s insight about repeti- apy. Only one interaction between type of
tive intrapsychic and interpersonal con- therapy and alexithymia was found. In sup-
flicts that served to underlie and sustain portive therapy, greater difficulty communi-
the patient’s problems. The interpretive
therapist focused on exploring continued on page 5
4
cating feelings was associated with less medication, and pre-therapy levels of
improvement in general symptoms, but was depression and anxiety.
unrelated to change in general symptoms in
interpretive therapy. This provides further evidence suggesting
that alexithymia impedes one’s ability to
In the group therapy study, difficulty com- fully benefit from some forms of psy-
municating feelings was associated with chotherapy. It may also suggest that alex-
less improvement in general symptoms ithymia, especially difficulty identifying
and personalized target objectives. feelings, may predispose patients to expe-
Externally oriented thinking was associat- rience residual depressive symptoms. This
ed with less improvement on all three out- finding is important considering that resid-
come factors. Again, the negative effect of ual symptom scores at post-therapy were
alexithymia was evident in both interpre- predictive of relapse and psychosocial
tive and supportive therapies. functioning 6 months later (Ogrodniczuk,
Piper, & Joyce, 2004b).
Overall, we found that alexithymia
adversely affected the outcome of interpre- What Might Account for the Poor
tive and supportive forms of individual Outcome of Alexithymic Patients?
and group psychotherapies. The inability We began to wonder how alexithymia pro-
to convey the experiential nature of one’s duces this negative effect on the outcome
problems can impair the patient’s capacity of psychotherapy. There have been several
to effectively communicate problems to the suggestions about possible mechanisms.
therapist. The therapist would be confront- One concerns the therapists’ negative reac-
ed with vague complaints (often of a tion to alexithymic patients (Taylor, 1984).
somatic nature), thus making it difficult to In other words, alexithymia may exert
develop an appropriate treatment plan. some of its negative effect through the ther-
apist. Patients with high levels of alex-
Is There Other Evidence of the Clinical ithymia are often perceived as dull, boring,
Relevance of Alexithymia? and frustrating for therapists. In response,
We further investigated the clinical rele- therapists may behave in ways that com-
vance of alexithymia by looking at whether municate dislike, contempt, or frustration
it was predictive of residual symptoms of with the patient. We used our group thera-
depression following psychotherapy. py data to examine whether therapist reac-
Residual symptoms of depression refer to tions to the patient mediated the effect of
symptoms that persist despite apparent alexithymia on treatment outcome
response or remission, and appear to (Ogrodniczuk, Piper, & Joyce, 2005).
increase the risk of relapse (Judd, Schettler,
& Akiskal, 2002). Because alexithymic peo- We assessed therapists’ reaction to patients
ple have a poor capacity to regulate and by asking the therapists to rate their patients
resolve negative emotions, they may be on three features: positive qualities, personal
susceptible to residual symptoms. compatibility, and significance as a group
member. Then, using Baron and Kenney’s
We examined the relationship between (1986) 4-step procedure for identifying
alexithymia and residual symptoms for 33 mediation, we found four significant rela-
patients with major depression who had tionships. The therapist’s reaction to the
successfully responded to individual ther- patient partially mediated the effects of diffi-
apy (Ogrodniczuk, Piper, & Joyce, 2004a). culty communicating feelings and externally
We found that alexithymia, measured oriented thinking on general symptoms and
before therapy, was associated with resid- target objectives, accounting for 30% to 47%
ual symptom scores at post-therapy, even of the effect of these alexithymia features on
after taking into account the effects of type
of therapy received, use of antidepressant continued on page 6
5
outcome. That is, alexithymic patients may prise for patients with high levels of alex-
have poorer outcomes in part because their ithymia.
therapists perceive them as having fewer
positive qualities, as being less compatible, References
and as having little significance as a group Bagby, R. M., Parker, J. D. A., & Taylor, G.
member. Therapists may inadvertently J. (1994). The twenty-item Toronto
express these feelings in ways that adverse- Alexithymia Scale: I. Item selection and
ly affect the patient’s experience of therapy, cross validation of the factor structure.
ultimately contributing to poor outcome. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38,
23-32.
Summary Baron, R. M., Kenny, D. A. (1986). The
Alexithymia was associated with poor out- moderator-mediator variable distinction
come in interpretive and supportive forms in social psychological research: concep-
of individual and group psychotherapies. tual, strategic, and statistical considera-
Difficulty identifying and communicating tions. Journal of Personality and Social
one’s feelings, as well as a propensity to Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.
focus on external events rather than inter- Beresnevaite, M. (2000). Exploring the bene-
nal ones, appears to constrain a person’s fits of group psychotherapy in reducing
ability to effectively utilize some types of alexithymia in coronary heart disease
psychotherapy. We also found that alex- patients: A preliminary study. Psycho-
ithymia was related to severity of residual therapy and Psychosomatics, 69, 117-122.
symptoms among patients who responded Judd, L. J., Schettler, P. J., & Akiskal, H. S.
to psychotherapy, which provides further (2002). The prevalence, clinical rele-
evidence of the negative effect of alex- vance, and public health significance of
ithymia on the outcome of therapy. It may subthreshold depressions. Psychiatric
also suggest that alexithymia can predis- Clinics of North America, 25, 685-698.
pose one to experience a persistent dys- McCallum, M., Piper, W. E., Ogrodniczuk,
phoric state. Finally, we found that higher J. S., & Joyce, A. S. (2003). Relationships
levels of alexithymic features elicit nega- among psychological mindedness, alex-
tive reactions from one’s therapist, which ithymia, and outcome in four forms of
may partially contribute to the poor out- short-term psychotherapy. Psychology
come experienced by such patients, at least and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and
in group therapy. Practice, 76, 133-144.
Ogrodniczuk, J. S., Piper, W. E., & Joyce,
Despite the ubiquitous negative impact of A. S. (2004a). Alexithymia as a predictor
alexithymia on the psychotherapeutic of residual symptoms in depressed
process implied by our findings, all is not patients who respond to short-term
lost. Several reports of success in the psy- psychotherapy. American Journal of
chotherapeutic treatment of patients with Psychotherapy, 58, 150-161.
high levels of alexithymia give reason for Ogrodniczuk, J. S., Piper, W. E., & Joyce,
optimism (e.g., Beresnevaite, 2000; Swiller, A. S. (2004b). Residual symptoms in
1988). We believe that our findings pro- depressed patients who respond to
vide reasonable evidence for continuing to short-term psychotherapy. Journal of
study alexithymia to gain a better under- Affective Disorders, 82, 469-473.
standing of the circumstances that con- Ogrodniczuk, J. S., Piper, W. E., & Joyce,
tribute to an alexithymic patient’s difficul- A. S. (2005). The negative effect of alex-
ties in some types of therapy and success- ithymia on the outcome of group thera-
es in others. It is important to identify py for complicated grief: What role
techniques that can be used to effectively might the therapist play? Comprehensive
reduce alexithymic characteristics or Psychiatry, 46, 206-213.
accommodate to them in order to make
psychotherapy a more successful enter- continued on page 7
6
Sifneos, P. E. (1973). The prevalence of British Columbia, and is a CIHR New
alexithymic characteristics in psychoso- Investigator. His research program exam-
matic patients. Psychotherapy and ines relationships among pre-therapy
Psychosomatics, 22, 255-262. characteristics of patients, therapy process
Sifneos, P. E. (1996). Alexithymia: Past and patterns believed to mediate change, and
present. American Journal of Psychiatry, multivariate outcomes. His research has
153 (Supplement), 137-142. involved a variety of psychotherapies and
Swiller, H. I. (1988). Alexithymia: patient populations, however, he has a par-
Treatment utilizing combined individ- ticular interest in studying group thera-
ual and group psychotherapy. pies. John is a recent recipient of the Early
International Journal of Group Career Award that is presented annually
Psychotherapy, 38, 47-61. by the Society for Psychotherapy Research.
Taylor, G. J. (1984). Alexithymia: Concept,
measurement, and implications for Address for Correspondence:
treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, John S. Ogrodniczuk, Ph.D.
141, 725-732. Department of Psychiatry
University of British Columbia
Brief Bio Suite 420 – 5950 University Boulevard
Dr. John Ogrodniczuk is an Assistant Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3 Canada
Professor and Associate Director (Research) Tel: 604-822-8034
of the Psychotherapy Program in the Fax: 604-827-4106
Department of Psychiatry, University of E-mail: ogrodnic@interchange.ubc.ca

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7
WASHINGTON SCENE
New Directions — A Time For Change
Pat DeLeon, Ph.D., former APA President

The November elections are finally over the Association of Counseling Center
and the nation has spoken. The time has Training Agencies, the Council of
come for us to collectively establish a new Counseling Psychology Training Directors,
sense of direction and focus for the future. and the Association of Psychology
I recently had the exciting opportunity, in Postdoctoral and Internship Centers. Nina
my capacity as former APA President, of Levitt and I speak to related issues at near-
visiting with two university training pro- ly every meeting we attend, since grassroots
grams. The enthusiasm and sense of pur- participation is essential to our work. We
pose which existed among the students started our Federal Education Advocacy
was very impressive. I begin to wonder, Coordinators network on a 10 region basis,
however, if our educational institutions and now have Campus Training
truly appreciate the magnitude of change Representatives at well over 200 academic
that they are facing in preparing our next institutions and training sites across the
generation of colleagues for the education country. This year we were successful in
and healthcare environment of the 21st establishing the Education Advocacy Trust
century, as well as the critical importance to permit the full range of activities funda-
of instilling a sense of social responsibility. mental to the advocacy process.
Cynthia Belar, Executive Director of the
APA Education Directorate, understands “In September, as part of the ELC, more
that “bigger picture” and in my judgment, that 60 leaders went to Capitol Hill to
has very nicely begun to systematically advocate for two items on the Education
provide the necessary foundation. Directorate’s appropriations agenda: the
Institutional change is always surprisingly APA initiated Graduate Psychology
unsettling for many. Education (GPE) program and the Garrett
Lee Smith Memorial Act, of which APA
“The APA Education Directorate has been and its members drafted key provisions.
very active in encouraging advocacy on Since the inception of these two programs
the part of faculty, supervisors and stu- just a few years ago, over $24 million has
dents. Under the auspices of the Board of gone to more than 108 institutions of high-
Educational Affairs, a Sample Curriculum er education (counseling centers or psy-
for Advocacy Training was developed that chology training clinics) or psychology
can be adapted to local program needs doctoral, internship or postdoctoral pro-
(http://www.apa.org/ed/sample_home- grams to train health service psychologists
.html). Education Directorate public policy to work with underserved populations or
staff have also conducted numerous to facilitate behavioral health services on
advocacy training workshops at APA con- campus. These programs have benefitted
ventions and Education Leadership not only the education community, but
Conferences (ELC). In addition, a number practitioners and related research efforts as
of focused workshops have been provided well. Both programs also highlight how
for members of the American Psycho- APA and its members can make a real dif-
logical Association of Graduate Students ference in national policy, and how we
(APAGS), the Council of Chairs of Training need the involvement of our community in
Councils, the National Council of Schools
and Programs in Professional Psychology, continued on page 9
8
order to be successful. In the words of one with knowledge about emerging issues in
ELC attendee: ‘I thought the (advocacy) psychology such as the use of technology,
training was hokey... until I got up on prescription privileges, and globalization. *
Capitol Hill.’” Advocate for our collective needs as gradu-
ate students within APA and on the state
Over the years, it has been evident to those and federal levels, with respect to issues
of us who have worked on Capitol Hill that such as licensure requirements, research
many of our colleagues are simply not funding, internship availability, and gradu-
comfortable in viewing themselves as ate school funding. [And] * Promote diver-
“social change agents” and, in all candor, sity among APAGS members and through-
do not feel that they know how to become out graduate training.” By becoming
effectively involved. The world of politics involved in the public policy process our
(with its own language and rules) has not future will hopefully begin to understand
been an integral component of our training their societal responsibility, as members of a
experiences. Accordingly, we were partic- “learned profession,” to provide proactive
ularly pleased that Nadia Hasan of the and visionary leadership, rather than
University of Akron will Chair APAGS passively respond to agendas established
during the coming year. Nadia’s platform by those who simply do not understand
called for the increased involvement of our psychology’s potential contributions to
next generation in the public policy society’s pressing needs.
process—thereby, controlling their own
destiny. And as a result, obtaining that all Former APA Practice Directorate State
important “hands on” experience that will Advocate Mike Sullivan has often noted
give them a personal sense of the “art of that our prescriptive authority agenda
the possible.” During her campaign for the (RxP) has the most political traction in
APA Presidency, Katherine Nordal talked those areas of the nation that are truly
about the need for APA publishing a public underserved and possess the least desir-
policy textbook targeted towards our next able health, education, and social-econom-
generation. As APAGS and our education- ic statistics. In our judgment by seeking to
al leadership become more intimately serve society, in the long run professional
involved, Katherine’s vision will undoubt- psychology will be well served by our
edly become reality. nation’s elected officials. In New Orleans,
I urged those looking to establish “hands
Nadia: “One of my initiatives is to empow- on” RxP practica to explore developing
er graduate students with knowledge about relationships with their own community
emerging issues in psychology such as the health centers. Hawaii’s RxP efforts are
use of technology, prescription privileges based upon practicing within health cen-
(RxP), and globalization. I feel it is impor- ters and has the enthusiastic support of
tant for graduate students to know more each of their medical directors. One of the
about RxP. I hope that we can educate stu- issues raised during my university visits
dents and perhaps motivate them to advo- was the perceived shortage of internship
cate for this clinical authority within their sites for senior graduate students. Thus,
state psychological associations. Psych- the e-mail which former Hawaii
ology graduate students are the future of Psychological Association President Kate
psychology! Currently, there are over Brown recently shared with her colleagues
40,000 student members making us a large made me wonder:
constituency within APA. As students we
have unique needs and perspectives.... I “Funding Opportunity for Mental Health
shall: * Listen to the diverse and unique Providers Committed to Working with
voices of graduate students regarding train-
ing issues. * Empower graduate students continued on page 10
9
Underserved Populations—Vacancies in qualifying for repayment include govern-
the National Health Service Corps Loan ment (Federal, State, or local) and commer-
Repayment Program (NHSC LRP). The cial loans obtained by the participant to
NHSC LRP continually seeks clinicians pay for school tuition, required fees, and
dedicated to working with our nation’s other reasonable educational and living
underserved. There are currently over 150 expenses incurred by the participant for
vacancies listed for clinical psychologists undergraduate or graduate education
across the country. For additional infor- leading to a health professions degree....
mation on this NHSC vacancy and other
opportunities, visit http://nhsc.bhpr.hrsa- “Another way the NHSC works to
.gov/\jobs/search_form.cfm. Approxi- improve the health of the nation’s under-
mately 50 million people live in communi- served is through the Ambassador Program.
ties without access to primary health care. The NHSC Ambassador Program is a mem-
The National Health Service Corps (NHSC) bership organization comprised of volun-
is working to change this by helping med- teers, representing the NHSC eligible
ically underserved communities recruit and health professions, on campuses and
retain primary care clinicians, including in communities across the nation.
mental and behavioral health professionals, Ambassador activities focus on four areas:
to serve in their community. In the 30 years recruitment/retention, preparation/train-
of the NHSC’s existence, over 24,500 clini- ing, mentoring, and advocacy. The NHSC
cians have been recruited to serve medical- is currently recruiting Campus and
ly underserved populations through their Community Ambassadors in the areas of
programs. Currently, there are over 3,900 clinical or counseling psychologists. The
clinicians serving commitments to the Ambassador program provides a unique
NHSC. However, the NHSC seeks addi- opportunity for psychologists committed
tional clinicians committed to working with to working with underserved populations
underserved populations. by extending their roles to guiding future
practitioners in this area and gaining advo-
“The NHSC Loan Repayment Program cacy skills to highlight the importance of
(LRP) is one way the NHSC works to unite this work. For additional information... on
communities in need with caring health becoming an Ambassador, visit http://
professionals. This federal program makes nhsc.bhpr.hrsa.gov/ambassadors/index.a
contract awards to clinicians that agree to sp.” We would rhetorically ask: What bet-
serve full time for two-years at approved ter contribution (or role) could our State
sites in designated health professional Associations have as we enter the 21st cen-
shortage areas (HPSAs) of greatest need. tury? We understand that each of the
In return for this service, NHSC LRP par- Armed Services are also having difficulty
ticipants receive money to repay qualify- in filling their psychology slots. Shouldn’t
ing educational loans that are still owed. our profession’s educational institutions
Maximum repayment during the required have a significantly greater presence in
initial 2-year contract is $25,000 each year developing training locations; especially,
with the possibility of extension of service for example, within those 3400+ communi-
and loan repayment at $35,000 per year. In ty health centers, initiated during
addition to loan repayment, clinicians President Johnson’s War on Poverty?
receive a competitive salary and a chance
to have a significant impact on a commu- During his New Orleans Presidential
nity. To be eligible for the Loan Repayment Address, long time RxP advocate Gerry
Program (LRP), you must be a fully trained Koocher cautioned our future generation:
mental or behavioral health professional
(e.g., health service psychologist). Loans continued on page 11

10
“Advances in psychopharmacology and ing the needs of migrant farm workers, the
the demonstrated effectiveness of prescrib- uninsured and underinsured, and home-
ing psychologists, with appropriate post- less individuals. During the first decade of
doctoral training, signal the end to any the program, 2,500 HealthCorps members
claims of uniqueness or incremental quali- provided: * over 411,150 outreach and case
ty by medical providers trained in the tra- management encounters; * over 321,230
ditional psychiatric model.... As psycholo- patient encounters to improve utilization
gists with post-doctoral credentials in psy- of health care services through education
chopharmacology grow in numbers, and and self-management efforts; and, * over
the aging population of baby-bloomer psy- 170,500 patient encounters to link patients
chiatrists retire, psychiatry will disappear with other health and social services (e.g.,
as a medical specialty. The hazard facing housing, employment, and child care) pro-
us will involve avoiding the pitfalls that vided by other agencies and organizations
20th century psychiatry ignored. We must in the community.
guard against potential loss of competence
in the skills that have traditionally offered HealthCorps members (generally serving
our clients incremental value: our scientific in teams of 8-15) are part of the
foundations in assessment, psychotherapy, AmeriCorps network of community and
and other non-medical interventions. national service programs engaging more
Reaching for a prescription pad is easier than 75,000 Americans annually in inten-
than conducting a well founded assess- sive service to meet critical needs in health
ment and expert psychotherapy. The and human needs, education, public safety,
demands of the marketplace may make it homeland security, and the environment.
more lucrative to prescribe than to talk.” These dedicated citizens receive a living
allowance, health insurance; and if eligible,
In all candor, I keep wondering whether child care benefits. One of my daughter’s
our next generation of colleagues (and colleagues remarked after receiving her
more importantly, today’s teaching institu- first paycheck: “Now I know what volun-
tions) truly appreciate the importance of teering really is!” After completing their
addressing society’s pressing needs. Why term of service, each full-time participant
don’t we more often hear about initiatives receives an educational award of $4,725 to
established by our professional schools be used towards student loans or future
which are expressly designed to reach out education costs. Over 80 percent of
to the community health center popula- HealthCorps members express interest in
tion? As the proud father of two pursuing careers in the health professions.
AmeriCorps participants, I was intrigued We would rhetorically ask: Would not a
to learn that the National Association of program like HealthCorps be an excellent
Community Health Centers, Inc. vehicle for our educational institutions to
(NACHC) launched a Community provide meaningful mentoring services
HealthCorps initiative in 1995 to bring and from which to actively recruit our
national service resources to community future generations?
health centers, primary care associations,
and clinic consortia that provide primary A New Direction For Psychology?
health care to residents of medically under- One of the underlying tenants of the 21st
served areas. Today over 600 Community century will be individually focused, scien-
HealthCorps members serve in 33 partner tifically based, “gold standard” care. On
organizations at over 100 delivery sites December 1, 1999, then-First Lady Hillary
across 18 states, Washington, DC, and Rodham Clinton stated: “Ask any young
Puerto Rico. These HealthCorps members
serve both in rural and urban areas, meet- continued on page 12

11
parent whom they turn to first with ques- “Earlier this year, I invited a group of senior
tions and concerns about their children, children’s hospital administrators to the
and they’re likely to answer, ‘The pediatri- White House to discuss the burdensome
cian.’ When our children are young, many costs of graduate medical education. A typ-
of us call the pediatrician at the first sign of ical independent children’s teaching hospi-
a sniffle. We rely on them to calm our anx- tal receives less than 1/200th, or .005 per-
ieties about the full range of complaints— cent, of the Medicare graduate medical edu-
from colic to chicken pox, bronchitis to cation support that other teaching hospitals
boyfriends. Last month, with overwhelm- receive. This inequity is only exacerbated by
ing bipartisan support, Congress passed the fact that these centers face the additional
the Children’s Hospitals Education and costs of serving the poorest, sickest and most
Research Act... (which) will provide long vulnerable children, as well as conducting
overdue financial support to the very insti- research that benefits all children.
tutions—the children’s medical centers
and teaching hospitals—that are the most “That day, I was pleased to announce that, in
important training facilities for our chil- order to address this issue, the President
dren’s doctors. would earmark $40 million in his FY2000
budget plan to provide federal financing of
“In an increasingly competitive health- graduate medical education for freestanding
care market, dominated by managed care, children’s hospitals. On average, hospitals
teaching hospitals struggle to cover the could receive nearly $10,000 per resident, or
significant costs associated with training almost $700,000 for each facility. We worked
and research. While other teaching tirelessly to win these funds, and were
hospitals receive support for these costs extremely pleased that Congress authorized
through Medicare [GME], children’s them in the budget agreement. When the
hospitals receive virtually no federal President signs the Children’s Hospitals
funds, even though they train 30 percent Education and Research Act, we will have
of the nation’s pediatricians and nearly 50 taken an important first step towards
percent of all pediatric specialists. In putting children’s teaching hospitals on an
many cases, they provide the regional even footing with other medical education
safety net for children, regardless of centers—a critical investment in a healthy
medical or economic need, and they are future for all our children” [Now, Public
the major centers of research on chil- Law 106-310]. Today the annual funding for
dren’s health problems. Millions of this program approximates $300 million.
American children each year are treated Will psychology’s educational institutions
by physicians affiliated with or trained seek recognition under this important initia-
in one of 60 independent children’s tive? Shouldn’t we seek to ensure that our
hospitals across the country. As I have nation’s Children’s Hospitals have access to
traveled around the country over the past pediatric psychologists? Aloha,
25 years, I have had the opportunity to
become acquainted with the valuable Pat DeLeon, former APA President –
services many of them provide.... Division 29

12
PSYCHOTHERAPY EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Gatekeeping in Admissions Procedures:
The Step Before Education and Training in Competencies
Jean M. Birbilis, Ph.D. and Mary M. Brant, Ph.D.

Ironically, educators and trainers of psy- the profession as well as clients, there are
chotherapists appear to be less concerned arguably more compelling reasons for
with assessment of character and fitness assessing the character and fitness of appli-
for practice than educators and trainers in cants to professional psychology programs
many other professions, such as law and than of applicants to programs associated
medicine. There is sparse attention to this with other professions. The heavy current
issue for psychotherapists in the psycho- emphasis of many professional psychology
logical literature, while screening for char- programs’ admissions processes on cogni-
acter and fitness by educators in other pro- tive qualities of applicants (e.g., emphasiz-
fessions is well-documented (e.g., Anfang, ing GPA and standardized test scores) and
Faulkner, Fromson, & Gendel, 2005; the potential for abdication of the role of
Johnson & Campbell, 2002). For example, gatekeeper regarding character and fitness
Johnson and Campbell (2002) note that by the profession is particularly difficult to
“…nearly every state has carefully understand, given the focus of the field of
screened bar applicants on the basis of psychology on affect and behavior as well
character and fitness for at least 50 years” as cognitions. Furthermore, potential
(p. 46). In contrast, Johnson, Porter, clients’ expectations regarding psycholo-
Campbell, and Kupko (2005) indicate that gists’ caring in addition to their competen-
an “…examination of psychology licensure cy (Bremer, 2001) is a critical factor that the
application materials from all 50 states and profession must give greater consideration
the District of Columbia reveals wide het- during the screening process.
erogeneity with respect to explicit screen-
ing for moral character and psychological The Guidelines and Principles for
fitness” (p. 659). Another example can be Accreditation of Programs in Professional
found in The American Psychiatric Psychology (G & P) (American Psych-
Association’s Resource Document on ological Association, 2005) do not overtly
Guidelines for Psychiatric Fitness-for-Duty address criteria regarding applicants’ and
Evaluations of Physicians (Anfang et al., students’ character and fitness for practice
2005), which describes homogenous, of the profession of psychology. The G & P
explicit screening criteria for physicians. does address the process of admissions,
but not the content of admissions’ require-
The relative lack of consistent attention to ments. For example, Domain A, Section 6,
criteria for character and fitness screening, of the G & P states:
particularly of applicants to programs The program adheres to and makes
training psychotherapists, is perplexing available to all interested parties formal
given the widespread understanding of the written policies and procedures that
centrality of the relationship as a therapeu- govern: academic admissions and degree
tic factor in psychotherapy (e.g., Norcross, requirements; administrative and finan-
2002) and the role that psychologists are cial assistance; student performance
given to be gatekeepers of the profession evaluation, feedback, advisement, reten-
(Bernard & Goodyear, 2004). With the cen- tion and termination decisions; and due
trality of the person of the therapist as a process and grievance procedures for
curative factor and the mandate to protect continued on page 14
13
students and faculty. It has policies and Johnson and Campbell (2004) surveyed
procedures that are consistent with those training directors and concluded that
of its sponsor institution that pertain to although they are concerned about charac-
faculty and student rights, responsibili- ter and fitness issues “…and attempt to
ties, and personal development (p. 6). consider them during admission and prior
and Domain E, Section 4, of the G & P to graduation, we are aware of no well-
states: At the time of admission, the pro- developed model or exemplar for character
gram provides the students with written and fitness screening, nor are we aware of
policies and procedures regarding pro- any empirically validated tool or proce-
gram and institution requirements and dure for such screening” (p. 409). Problems
expectations regarding students’ perfor- identified by training directors include:
mance and continuance in the program inadequate clinical skills, defensiveness in
and procedures for the termination of supervision, and inadequate interpersonal
students. Students receive, at least annu- skills (Vache-Haase, Davenport, &
ally, written feedback on the extent to Kerewsky, 2004 ). Dismissals and prompt-
which they are meeting the program’s ed resignations most commonly involve
requirements and performance expecta- clinical competency issues, ethical viola-
tions... (p. 11). tions, or academic concerns (Busseri et al.,
2005). Training directors and programs
Nowhere in the G & P are the contents of typically spend inordinate amounts of time
such policies, procedures, rights, responsi- on a few “impaired students” with consis-
bilities, requirements, or expectations either tent themes of personality or emotional
defined or described in association with disturbances and unethical behavior
character or fitness. Granted, allowing pro- (Forrest, Elman, Gizara, & Vache-Haase,
grams wide latitude in admissions’ criteria 1999). The APA Ethics Committee Report
acknowledges academic freedom and the (2006) lists sexual boundary violations as
diversity of missions, goals, and cultures of the most frequent cause of ethics com-
the institutions within which programs plaints; thus, gatekeeping procedures
reside. However, it also potentially dilutes appear to have evolved into a “passing of
the screening potential of programs as gate- the buck,” from programs to the practicum
keepers at the door of the profession. sites, to the internship selection process,
and finally, to licensure boards—with the
Furthermore, at the beginning of the pro- same types of “character and fitness”
fessional life of psychotherapists, overt issues apparent at every level (Johnson, &
attention by graduate programs in profes- Campbell, 2002; Johnson, & Campbell,
sional psychology to character and fitness 2004; Johnson et al., 2005).
gives potential applicants advance notice
that provides the opportunity for remedia- With professional psychology currently
tion prior to applying, underscores a pro- graduating the bulk of doctoral-level prac-
gram’s commitment to development of the titioners, it is important to revisit the
person of the therapist, and signals the dimensions of personality and fitness
incorporation of personal characteristics issues and a standardized admissions
into education and training. Given the process. As noted earlier, the Bar and the
move within the profession to insure that American Medical Association both
students receive informed consent regard- require extensive evaluation of fitness and
ing personal disclosures (Ethical Principle character, with attention to concerns with-
7.04, American Psychological Association, in the professions, legal issues and sub-
2002), such overt attention to character and stance abuse, respectively. With the ADA
fitness can also prevent misunderstandings and the APA Ethical Code (2002) authoriz-
and miscommunication. continued on page 15

14
ing the use of personal material in applica- Bernard, J., & Goodyear, R. (2004).
tions as long as there is informed consent, Fundamentals of clinical supervision (3rd
a variety of assessment procedures are rec- ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
ommended here for use in standardized Bremer, B. A. (2001). Potential clients’
admissions processes by graduate pro- beliefs about the relative competency
grams in professional psychology: a crimi- and caring of psychologists: Implications
nal background check, pertinent questions for the profession. Journal of Clinical
that psychology licensing boards often ask Psychology, 57(12), 1479-1488.
about prior dismissals from programs, Busseri, M. A., Tyler, J.D., & King, A. R.
alcohol and drug treatment, psychiatric (2005). An exploratory examination of
hospitalizations, and/or criminal history; student dismissals and prompted resig-
use of a standard, evidence-based inter- nations from clinical psychology Ph.D.
view process that attends to personality training programs: Does clinical compe-
disorders (Widiger & Samuel, 2005), a tency matter? Professional Psychology:
return to the use of standardized measures Research and Practice, 36, 441-445.
that address potential fitness diagnoses of Committee on Accreditation, American
concern (MMPI-2 or MCMI-III), develop- Psychological Association. (2005).
ment and standardization of a selection Guidelines and principles for accreditation of
exam that addresses typical character and programs in professional psychology (G & P)
fitness dimensions, and use of standard- and Accreditation operating procedures
ized clinical judgment assessment such as (AOP). Washington, D.C.: Author.
one employed in medical school admis- Forrest, L., Elman, N., Gizara, S., & Vache-
sions (Lievens, Buyse, & Sackett, 2005). Haase, T. (1999). Trainee impairment: A
review of identification, remediation,
Taking a firmer and consistent stance about dismissal, and legal issues. Counseling
the necessity of gatekeeping during the Psychology, 27, 627-686.
initial stages of education and training of Johnson, W. B., & Campbell, C. D. (2002).
psychotherapists, beginning with admis- Character and fitness requirementsfor
sions, is essential for ethical and responsi- professional psychologists: Are there
ble training practices. Division 29 has the any? Professional Psychology: Research and
opportunity to take the lead in the devel- Practice, 33(1), 46-53.
opment and promotion of principles, Johnson, W. B., & Campbell, C. D. (2004).
guidelines, and procedures for assessing Character and fitness requirements for
the character and fitness of applicants to professional psychologists: Training
professional psychology programs as one directors’ perspectives. Professional
aspect of psychologists’ roles as gatekeep- Psychology: Research and Practice, 35(4),
ers of the profession. 405-411.
Johnson, W. B., Porter, K., Campbell, C. D.,
References & Kupko, E. N. (2005). Character and fit-
American Psychological Association. ness requirements for professional psy-
(2002). Ethical principles of psycholo- chologists: An examination of state
gists and code of conduct. American licensing application forms. Professional
Psychologist, 57, 1060-1073. Psychology: Research and Practice, 36(6),
Anfang, S. A., Faulkner, L. R., Fromson, J. 654-662.
A., & Gendel, M. H. (2005). The American Lievens, F., Buyse, T., & Sackett, P. R.
Psychiatric Association’s resource docu- (2005). The operational validity of a
ment on guidelines for psychiatric fitness- video-based situational judgment test
for-duty evaluations of physicians. for medical college admissions:
Journal of the American Academy of
Psychiatry and the Law, 33(1), 85-88. continued on page 16

15
Illustrating the importance of matching Report of the Ethics Committee. (2006).
predictor and criterion construct American Psychologist. 61(5), 522-529.
domains. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vache-Haase, T., Davenport, D. S., &
90, 442-452. Kerewsky, S. D. (2004). Problematic stu-
Norcross, J. C. (Ed.). (2002). Psychotherapy dents: Gatekeeping practices of academ-
relationships that work. New York: Oxford ic, professional psychology programs.
University Press. Professional Psychology: Research and
Rem, R. J., Oren, E. M., & Childrey, G. Practice, 35, 115-122.
(1987). Selection of graduate students in Widiger, T. A. & Samuel, D. B. (2005).
clinical psychology: Use of cutoff scores Evidence-based assessment of personali-
and interviews. Professional Psychology: ty disorders. Psychological Assessment, 17,
Research and Practice, 18, 485-488. 278-287.

Find Division 29 on the Internet. Visit our site at


www.divisionofpsychotherapy.org

16
PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION
Principles of Change in Psychotherapy Integration:
A Theme That Can Unite Us All
Marvin R. Goldfried, Ph.D. and Bethany A. Burum, Stony Brook University

After reviewing the empirical support for of therapeutic techniques (Goldfried,


integrative therapies as part of this series 1980). These principles of change include,
on psychotherapy integration written by for example, 1) promoting client motiva-
members of SEPI’s Steering Committee, tion to change and belief that therapy can
Arknoff, Glass, and Schottenbauer (2006) help; 2) establishing an optimal therapeutic
emphasize the promise of studying princi- alliance; 3) facilitating client awareness of
ples of change that operate within different the factors associated with his or her diffi-
therapies in addition to therapies’ effec- culties; 4) encouraging the client to engage
tiveness as a whole. They note that this in corrective experiences; and 5) emphasiz-
may be especially essential to researching ing ongoing reality testing in the client’s
psychotherapy integration as practiced, as life. These general principles may underlie
“eclectic” or “integrative” clinicians use a the effectiveness of the many different
virtually infinite number of different forms techniques that vary largely as a function
of integrative therapy, but may draw on of therapist theoretical orientation.
the same general principles of effective
change. This article, taken from a chapter The first principle, promoting client belief
by Pachankis and Goldfried in The Art and in the fact that therapy can help, is essential
Science of Psychotherapy (2007), continues to all approaches and can be implemented
the series by focusing on the role that prin- using a variety of means. Prochaska and
ciples of change could play in the future of DiClemente (2005) demonstrated that
psychotherapy integration. clients who have not yet contemplated the
necessity of change are unlikely to respond
Principles of Change well to therapy. Thus, successful therapists
Despite increasing awareness of the of all orientations, using a variety of tech-
promise of psychotherapy integration, niques, recognize the importance of first
many therapists continue to operate from increasing precontemplative clients’ moti-
circumscribed theoretical orientations. vation for change and, later, offering thera-
These orientations, whether psychoanaly- py to produce such change (Miller &
tic, cognitive-behavioral, experiential, or Rollnick, 2002).
any other, offer a framework from which to
consider the origin and maintenance of Likewise, a strong therapeutic alliance is
problematic behavior. The means through essential for optimal change to occur
which therapists reduce such clinical prob- across orientations. Clinicians can
lems take the form of clinical procedures or encourage a strong alliance by focusing
techniques. Techniques—such as analysis on a variety of factors, many of which are
of transference, between-session home- outlined by Safran and Muran (2000).
work, or two-chair—are usually unique to Such factors include attuning to a client’s
each orientation. However, somewhere own experience of interventions, accept-
between the abstract level of theory and ing one’s contributions to therapeutic
the more concrete level of technique we interactions, and identifying markers of
may be able to identify common principles problematic interpersonal functioning.
of change—shared by all theoretical orien- Bordin (1979) has suggested that a
tations—that account for the effectiveness continued on page 18
17
successful alliance adequately addresses until a critical mass of corrective experi-
three factors: 1) the establishment of a ences is encountered to allow for more sta-
personal bond between therapist and ble and long-lasting changes in expecta-
client, in which the client accepts the ther- tions, feelings, and behavior.
apist as competent and understanding, 2)
an agreement on the goals of the thera- Increased Interest in Principles
peutic work, and 3) an agreement on the Renewed interest in principles of change
tasks or methods in which the client-ther- has resulted from a series of developments
apist dyad will engage in order to reach within the field. The first of these was the
their goals. According to Bordin, the pres- ambitious process of identifying treat-
ence of these factors is essential to all ments for which enough empirical support
therapeutic approaches, regardless of the exists to support their effectiveness. This
theory from which a particular therapist task was carried out by the Society for
works or the techniques that she or he Clinical Psychology (Division 12) of the
subsequently employs. APA (Chambless, Baker, et al., 1998) and
resulted in the publication of A Guide to
The facilitation of client awareness is also a Treatments that Work (Nathan & Gorman,
principle of change common to all theoret- 1998; 2002), a voluminous compendium
ical orientations, even though the actual outlining efficacious treatments and the
therapeutic technique used to encourage empirical evidence supporting them.
such insight likely differs across therapists Criticisms of this endeavor, such as dissat-
from various theoretical backgrounds. For isfaction with the over-emphasis on cogni-
example, providing feedback regarding the tive-behavioral and other treatments that
interpersonal effectiveness of a role-play are most able to meet the assumptions of
performance, as well as making an inter- randomized clinical trials (RCT) method-
pretation about the cyclical themes that ology, prompted the Division of
guide clients’ relationships, both facilitate Psychotherapy (Division 29) to convene
client awareness of possible factors that another task force to identify client, thera-
may be maintaining their unsatisfactory pist, and client-therapist relationship fac-
relationships, despite the fact that a distinct tors that research has shown to influence
theory informs each technique. client change. The resulting volume,
Psychotherapy Relationships that Work
Alexander and French (1946) first suggested (Norcross, 2002), was an important
the importance of facilitating “corrective advance, but was also limited in that it
emotional experiences,” those therapeutic focused solely on relationship factors
experiences that serve to disconfirm previ- without considering other components
ously held negative expectations. Therapists that have been shown lead to client
can facilitate a corrective experience, for exam- change, such as other treatment approach-
ple, by encouraging clients to behave more es and models.
assertively in situations that they have
heretofore perceived as risky, or by respond- The dissatisfaction that resulted from these
ing in session in a manner that serves to related attempts to delineate effective treat-
challenge clients’ previous expectations of ment approaches to client problems led to
others’ reactions. Both instances promote a the formation of yet another task force spon-
corrective experience in that they can sored jointly by the Society for Clinical
update original expectations that have pre- Psychology and the North American Society
vented clients from behaving in ways more for Psychotherapy Research (NASPR) to
conducive to adaptive functioning. Because identify therapeutic principles that have
one such experience is unlikely to lead to been shown to lead to client change
long-lasting change, therapists can encour-
age clients to engage in ongoing reality testing continued on page 19
18
(Castonguay & Beutler, 2006). The members tionship conditions, therapist behaviors,
of the task force, as well as others (e.g., and classes of intervention that are likely to
Goldfried & Davila, 2006), noted that pitting lead to change in psychotherapy”
technique and relationship factors against (Castonguay & Beutler, 2006, p. 5)—clearly
each other in the quest to account for the calls for researchers to identify the corre-
“best” agents of therapeutic change seemed lates, mediators, and moderators of change
a less-than-ideal approach to identifying facilitated by principles such as those noted
how therapy works. Instead, some have earlier (e.g., increasing client expectation
pointed out that the client-therapist relation- that therapy can help).
ship and therapy techniques can both pro-
duce change, and, in fact, at times the provi- Castonguay and Beutler (2006) summarize
sion of a supportive, corrective relationship the attempts of their Task Force to identify
is the technique accounting for this change additional principles that guide client
(Arkowitz, 1992; Castonguay & Beutler, change. They categorize these principles
2005; Gelso & Hayes, 1998; Goldfried & using three general domains (i.e., relation-
Davila, 2006). Instead of focusing on either ship, treatment, and participant character-
the relationship or technique offered to istics). Suggested principles involving at
clients, it would seem more fruitful to focus least two of the four disorders covered in
on the higher-order principles of change, their book (i.e., dysphoric disorders, anxi-
such as encouraging client motivation to ety disorders, personality disorders, and
change and expectations that therapy will substance abuse disorders) include, for
help, which both the relationship and tech- example, that clients who experienced sig-
nique can facilitate. These principles, in turn, nificant interpersonal problems during
can flexibly guide therapists working from a early childhood may have difficulty
variety of modalities with a range of client responding to therapy. They also find that
characteristics and clinical issues. the provision of a structured treatment and
clear focus throughout therapy is associat-
Westen, Novotny, and Thompson-Brenner ed with beneficial change, as is addressing
(2004) argue for the clinical value of princi- clinically-relevant interpersonal issues,
ple-based research in their critique of the facilitating changes in clients’ cognitions,
randomized clinical trial approach to identi- and helping clients to accept, tolerate, and,
fying treatments that work. They suggest at times, fully experience their emotions.
that rather than using a research paradigm Keeping factors such as these in mind can
that produces potentially constraining man- greatly inform therapist’s work with
uals attempting to outline exactly what clients. Additionally, therapist familiarity
needs to be done in treating a client with a with so-called “matching” principles (e.g.,
particular problem, it might be more useful the principle that therapist directiveness
to attempt to identify principle-based inter- should inversely match client level of resis-
vention strategies that can be incorporated tance) can substantially guide therapists in
into therapists’ overall approach to treating implementing a particular intervention
clients. Such principle-driven interventions strategy when working with a client with
would attempt to determine what treatment particular personality characteristics and a
techniques provided to whom under which particular clinical disorder (Castonguay &
conditions work best (Paul, 1967). This Beutler, 2006).
endeavor is clearly consistent with the defi-
nition of principles that has been agreed An Integrative, Principle-Based
upon over the years (e.g., Castonguay & Approach to Training
Beutler, 2006; Goldfried, 1980). The defini- We suggest that training therapists to think
tion of principles that guided the recent task conceptually in terms of the integrative
force on that topic—“general statements principles of change noted above would be
that identify participant characteristics, rela- continued on page 20
19
an improvement over training that empha- Strupp, Butler, Schacht, & Binder, 1993),
sizes manual-based treatments. Manuals, training that aimed in part to address cer-
developed to specify therapy approaches tain interpersonal and clinical skills in ther-
as implemented in research that places one apists learning brief psychodynamic thera-
theory-based treatment in competition py seemed instead to diminish these skills.
with another, have now become the prima- The researchers hypothesized that
ry tools by which some professionals “attempts at changing or dictating specific
encourage all beginning therapists to be therapist behaviors may alter other thera-
trained (e.g., APA, 1996, Calhoun, Moras, peutic variables in unexpected and even
Pilkonis, & Rehm, 1998). However, the counterproductive ways” (Henry, et al; p.
implementation of such training may not 438). Revisiting their work a few years
be as widespread in training programs as later, the researchers note that manuals
many advocates of empirically-supported should not be expected to be of much help
therapy believe ideal (Crits-Christoph, except as a “useful beginning or a refer-
Frank, Chambless, Brody, & Karp, 1995). ence” (Strupp & Anderson, 1997; p. 80).
The resistance on the part of many training
programs may be due to the fact that facul- In light of findings such as these that warn
ty members see more benefit in training against strict conformity to manualized
beginning therapists to focus on under- therapy instructions, some have pointed
standing and implementing treatment out that therapy manuals afford greater
approaches that facilitate principles of flexibility than is often assumed (e.g.,
change such as those mentioned above Kendall, 1998; Wilson, 1998), and can
than in training them to implement any of include self-correcting features in response
the myriad manuals that currently exist. to patient progress (e.g., Jacobson &
Principle-based training encourages clini- Christensen, 1996; Westen et al., 2004), as
cians to think at a more abstract and effec- well as a greater focus on common factors
tive level about what treatment approach that account for client change (e.g., Addis,
would most likely lead to client change 1997). Still, we would maintain that knowl-
given the contextual factors relevant to the edge of the principles that underlie client
case at hand. change—such as ensuring the client’s posi-
tive motivation and expectation for
Process research has revealed that strict change, establishing a strong therapeutic
adherence to therapy manuals may con- alliance, increasing awareness, facilitating
tribute to poorer outcomes than allowing corrective experiences, and encouraging
greater flexibility. For instance, in a study ongoing reality testing—will prepare ther-
of the efficacy of cognitive therapy tech- apists to effectively implement such flexi-
niques in reducing depressive symptoms, bility, self-correction, and attention to
Castonguay, Goldfried, Wiser, Raue, and essential factors that can foster or impede
Hayes (1996) unexpectedly found that progress. Thus, training in the effective use
therapists’ focus on clients’ cognitive dis- of such manuals first requires a strong
tortions was negatively correlated with grounding in principles of change.
client outcome, seemingly because in ses-
sions where the alliance was rated as low Integrative, principle-based approaches to
therapists persisted in encouraging skepti- training could take a variety of forms.
cal clients to appreciate the benefit of Essential to any approach, however, is a
focusing on their cognitions. These subop- broad background in knowledge of psy-
timal outcomes may have been avoided if chopathology and intervention strategies.
the therapists in this study had been Whether or not the intervention back-
afforded more flexibility, especially to ground should be grounded in one prima-
focus on strengthening the therapeutic
alliance. In the Vanderbilt II study (Henry, continued on page 25
20
BYLAWS BALLOT
These changes to the Division’s bylaws were Annually the Nominations and Elections Committee
approved by the Board of Directors at its January shall recommend to the Executive Committee a compo-
2007 meeting. They are being presented to the sition of slates intended to ensure breadth of representa-
membership for adoption. tion on the Board by individuals representing diverse
backgrounds, interests, identities, cultures and nation-
1. Article V, Section H - Add the text in italics to alities. Domain Representatives will coordinate with
the current wording appropriate committees of the Division.
H. In the case of death, incapacity, or resignation of
any officer except the President or Past President, Pro: These changes would offer several advan-
the Executive Committee shall, with the approval tages. 1) This change in the structure of the Board
of the Board of Directors, appoint as a replacement would enhance the Division’s ability to track,
the individual who was the first eligible runner-up monitor and be connected to the central areas of its
in the most recent election for that office to serve areas of interest through the creation of domain
the remainder of the term. Should there be no eligible representatives who have responsibility for those
runner-up who is able or willing to serve, the Executive areas. This may include liaison activity, recom-
Committee will nominate and submit for approval by mendation of actions and policies, and tracking of
the Board of Directors an individual to serve the issues. 2) This change would foster greater respon-
remainder of the term. sibility and initiative on the part of the members-
at-large, who currently carry no portfolios, with
Pro: There has been no provision for filling an consequent greater investment and activity on
empty seat if there is no runner up who is available behalf of the Division. 3) The inclusion of
to serve, leaving the Board of Directors with an “Diversity” as one of the domains would encour-
open seat until the next election cycle, which could age the Division’s investment in diversity as an
be as much as 2 years. This would create a process area of expertise, as well as prepare us for the
for filling that seat. expanding multicultural and global perspectives
Con: No con statement. on psychotherapy that is occurring as a content
area, an essential component of psychotherapy
2. Article VI, Section A, Paragraph 3. Delete the practice, and a growing segment of our member-
text stricken out, add the text in italics: ship. Members at large support these changes.
The Division’s journal, newsletter, and Internet Con: These changes would put increased responsi-
editors Chair of the Division’s Publications Board, bility on members-at-large, and would add the
who shall be a members of the Board ex officio and expense of 2 additional individuals to meetings of
without vote. The editors Chair shall be chosen in the Board. The working relationship between the
the manner specified in Article XIV, Section E of professional committees and the Domain
these Bylaws. Representatives would require building and main-
Pro: The Chair of the Publications Board is respon- taining a collaborative model that does not cur-
sible for broad oversight of the Publications arm of rently exist in that form.
the Division, and thus can bring significant per-
NOTE: Should this change be adopted, it will
spective to the Board and creates a smoother work-
institute new wording in several other sections of
ing relationship between the Board of Directors
the bylaws to comply with the change.
and the Publications Board. The Publications
Board recommended this change.
4. Article VI, Section A, Paragraph 5. Delete the
Con: No con statement. text stricken out, add the text in italics:
The Student Representative, who shall be a Student
NOTE: Should this change be adopted, it will Affiliate of The Division, elected by the student
institute new wording in several other sections of members for a term of one (1) two (2) years. During
the bylaws to comply with the change. that term, the Student Representative shall be a
member of the Board of Directors with right to vote
3. Article VI, Section A, Paragraph 4. Delete the and shall serve as Chair of the Student
text stricken out, add the text in italics: Development Committee. Through the Student
Six (6) Members-at-large, two (2) of whom shall be Representative, Student Affiliates may request con-
elected each year for a three (3) year term. Eight (8) sideration of relevant items by the Board of
Domain Representatives, to be elected for staggered Directors or Division membership.
three (3) year terms. The Domains represented by these
positions shall be: a) Science and Scholarship; b) Pro: A one year term has been insufficient for stu-
Education and Training; c) Psychotherapy Practice; d) dents to acclimate to effective membership on the
Public Interest and Social Justice; e) Membership; f)
Early Career Psychologists; and g) two (2) Diversity. continued on page 22
21
Board, limiting the opportunity to bring creative bility of the Executive Committee and the Board in
vision to the Board’s initiatives and support for stu- developing appropriate slates.
dents. This was initiated by the student affiliates.
Con: This change puts additional responsibility on
Con: This would limit the number of students governance groups and individuals.
involved at the Board level.
NOTE: Should this change be adopted, it will
5. Article VI, Section D, add this section as num- effect changes in the numbering of the remainder
ber 3: of the Section
Monitoring, representing and recommending actions in
the various Domains to ensure appropriate attention 8 Article VII, Section C. Add this text as para-
and action by The Division; graph 6
Candidates for Domain Representatives shall have appro-
NOTE: Should this change be adopted, it will priate qualifications for the domain to be represented.
effect changes in the numbering of the remainder
of the Section. Pro: This change is part of effective implementa-
tion of Domain Representation.
Pro: This change would be part of implementing
Domain Representative positions. Con: No con statement.

Con: No con statement. 9. Article VIII. Delete Section C.


If a Mid-Winter Meeting is held by The Division, a
6. Article VI, Section E. Delete the text stricken second Open Mid-Winter Membership Meeting
out, add the text in italics: shall be held in conjunction with it, with the stipu-
The Board of Directors shall meet at least twice per lations as described in Article VIII Section B above.
year, at times and dates to be determined by the Board A Mid-Winter Meeting may be called for the pur-
and Officers. The annual meeting of the Board of poses of holding such a Mid-Winter Membership
Directors shall be held each summer in conjunc- Meeting and may also be structured to provide the
tion with the annual meeting of the APA. Another membership with the opportunity to design
meeting of the Board of Directors shall be held and/or participate in an array of scientific and pro-
during the winter. Additional meetings may be fessional programs in the fields of The
called by the President with the concurrence of a Division’s interests. The Mid-Winter Meeting may
majority of the Board of Directors. be held in conjunction with other applied divisions
Pro: This change would increase the Board’s flexi- of the American Psychological Association with
bility in scheduling of meetings to enhance effec- whom the Board of Directors may enter into coop-
tiveness and maximize productivity. Meetings of erative arrangements for said purpose.
the Board held in conjunction with convention are Pro: This is permission giving but unnecessary.
often inefficient and it is difficult to ensure full rep-
resentation by Board members. Although meetings Con: No con statement.
are open, few Division members attend.
Con: This change would eliminate the requirement 10. Article X, Section E.
that one of the Board meetings be held in conjunction The Board of Directors, on recommendation of the
with convention, which would make it more difficult Finance Committee and the Executive Committee,
for Division members to attend the meetings. shall adopt, for the following calendar year, an
annual balanced budget of anticipated income and
7. Article VII. Add this as Section B expenditures at its annual meeting. The Board of
B. Annually, the Committee on Nominations and Directors, on the recommendation of the Finance
Elections shall review the composition of the Board to Committee and the Treasurer, will establish policies to
determine available positions and to develop recommen- insure that the annual budget is balanced with regard to
dations for slates that would 1) ensure breadth of repre- income and expenses. The Board of Directors, on the rec-
sentation in the composition of the Board and 2) ensure ommendation of the Finance Committee and the
appropriate candidates for Domain representation, Treasurer, will establish policies for the management of the
attending particularly to diversity, as defined by the Division’s investments and the creation of a reserve fund
APA, and to areas of expertise as appropriate. The Pro: This change inserts sound financial policies
Committee on Nominations and Elections will submit into the Board’s responsibilities. These changes
the recommended slating to the Executive Committee were recommended by the Finance Committee
for approval and Treasurer.
Pro: This change locates responsibility for effective Con: No con statement.
Domain Representation with the Committee on
Nominations and Elections and increases responsi- continued on page 23
22
11. Article XI, Section D: Pro: This change standardizes committee structures
The President-elect shall appoint, with the advice across committees, increases both continuity and
and consent of the Board of Directors, in consulta- opportunities for member participation through
tion with the current chair, a chair designate who establishing rotation of membership, and creates a
shall serve as a member of the appropriate com- structure for drawing on the organizational history
mittee during the year preceding the one in which and experience that past chairs can provide.
he or she shall serve as chair and shall assume the
duties of the chair in the year in which the Con: This change imposes structure on committees
President-elect becomes President. The immediate that have been more flexible, sometimes working
Past Chair shall remain as a member of the committee well but often leading to disorganization and con-
during the year following his/her service as Chair. fusion about both membership and goals for the
Except as otherwise specified in these Bylaws, commit- committees.
tee membership shall include at least a chair, chair des-
ignate, past chair, and three (3) members, who shall NOTE: Should this change be adopted, it will
serve in staggered three year terms. Chairs may be effect changes in the text throughout Article XI,
reappointed for a subsequent term as chair. Section G

BYLAWS VOTING BALLOT


Please indicate your vote, sign the envelope portion of the ballot, fold where indicated, and return to
the Division 29 Central Office.

1. Article V, Section H  I accept the change  I reject the change

2. Article VI, Section A, Paragraph 3  I accept the change  I reject the change

NOTE: Should this change be adopted, it will institute new wording in several other sections of the
bylaws to comply with the change.

3. Article VI, Section A, Paragraph 4  I accept the change  I reject the change
NOTE: Should this change be adopted, it will institute new wording in several other sections of the
bylaws to comply with the change.

4. Article VI, Section A, Paragraph 5  I accept the change  I reject the change

5. Article VI, Section D  I accept the change  I reject the change


NOTE: Should this change be adopted, it will effect changes in the numbering of the remainder of the
Section.

6. Article VI, Section E  I accept the change  I reject the change

7. Article VII  I accept the change  I reject the change


NOTE: Should this change be adopted, it will effect changes in the numbering of the remainder of the
Section.

8 Article VII, Section C  I accept the change  I reject the change

9. Article VIII  I accept the change  I reject the change

10. Article X, Section E  I accept the change  I reject the change

11. Article XI, Section D  I accept the change  I reject the change
NOTE: Should this change be adopted, it will effect changes in the text throughout Article XI, Section G.

23
Name (Printed)
_____________________________________

Signature
_____________________________________

FOLD THIS FLAP IN.

__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________

Division29
Central Office
6557 E. Riverdale St.
Mesa, AZ 85215

Fold Here.
ry theory is subject to debate (e.g., factors, as outlined by Castonguay and
Norcross & Halgin, 2005). However, teach- Beutler’s (2006) volume on effective princi-
ers and supervisors should at least system- ples of change, and the treatment
atically and non-judgmentally expose stu- approaches that work best in conjunction
dents to the existing therapeutic approach- with them.
es (e.g., psychodynamic, experiential, cog-
nitive-behavioral). Although some stu- Fostering thinking in terms of principles
dents may initially become frustrated with can also occur during practica and supervi-
the lack of one solid framework within sion. Supervisors can have students bring
which to conceptualizing human behavior, in therapy tapes from particular sessions
as they subsequently approach integrative while encouraging them to think of princi-
thinking they will be able to appreciate the ples of change that may have been relevant
overarching, unifying nature of principles in that session. Further, supervisors could
of change. spend separate sessions of group supervi-
sion on each principle, having every stu-
At this point, intervention courses could dent present a case in which each of the
introduce and explicate core principles of core principles noted here might have been
change alongside approaches that ensure applicable. Fellow students could subse-
their effective implementation. Trainers quently offer feedback on each others’
could emphasize how each of these princi- attempts to guide treatment according to
ples cuts across theoretical orientations, the particular principle on which they were
albeit through a variety of techniques (e.g., focusing in that supervisory session. Such
corrective experiences often occur in the a principle-guided approach to supervi-
context of the therapy relationship in psy- sion allows students to witness, firsthand,
chodynamic therapy, but occur in between- the manner in which principles of change
session homework in cognitive-behavioral guide specific technical and theoretical
approaches). In this way, the training approaches to treatment.
approach advocated here seeks to integrate
various theoretical orientations by focus- Conclusion
ing on a framework at a mid-level of As attempts at psychotherapy integration
abstraction (i.e., between theory and tech- become increasingly common, the renewed
nique) that conceptually unifies the vari- interest in identifying principles of change
ous approaches. has the potential to further strengthen the
integration movement. In fact, this grow-
This training would include readings that ing trend is coming closer to producing the
encourage thinking in terms of principles types of changes for which Goldfried
of change. The work of Miller and Rollnick (1980) expressed hope over a quarter-cen-
(2002) can demonstrate how to activate tury ago, when he described a “textbook of
clients’ motivation and expectations that the future” that would not be divided into
therapy can help. Likewise, the work of separate sections for each theoretical
Safran and Muran (2000) provides a frame- approach, with a final chapter offering an
work from which to address ruptures and attempt at integrative therapy, but instead
strains in the therapeutic alliance while would present agreed-upon principles of
offering suggestions for using these occur- therapeutic change and an outline of the
rences in an optimally therapeutic manner. effectiveness of various techniques as used
In conjunction, students could read in the context of a variety of client, thera-
research articles that demonstrate the effec- pist, and relationship variables. The
tiveness of specific therapy techniques and attempts of the recent Task Force charged
interventions, with a particular focus on with identifying principles of change as
those approaches that address principles
related to client, therapist, and relationship continued on page 26
25
summarized by Beutler and Castonguay (2006). Principles of therapeutic change that
(2006) has produced a volume that comes work. New York: Oxford University
close to resembling this textbook. With Press.
more process-outcome research to back up Castonguay, L.G., Goldfried, M.R., Wiser,
the existence of these principles, subse- S., Raue, P.J., and Hayes, A.H. (1996).
quent editions of this book will come even Predicting outcome in cognitive therapy
closer to looking like the clinician-friendly, for depression: A comparison of unique
empirically-informed text described sever- and common factors. Journal of
al generations ago. Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64,
497-504.
Chambless, D.L., Baker, M.J., Baucom,
References D.H., Beutler, L.E., Calhoun, K.S., Crits-
Addis, M.E. (1997). Evaluating the treat- Christoph, P., Daiuto, A., DeRubeis, R.,
ment manual as a means of disseminat- Detweiler, J., Haaga, D.A.F., Johnson,
ing empirically validated psychothera- S.B., McCurry, S., Mueser, K.T., Pope,
pies. Clinical Psychology: Science and K.S., Sanderson, W.C., Shoham, V.,
Practice, 4, 1-11. Stickle, T., Williams, D.A., & Woody, S.R.
Alexander, F. & French, T. (1946) Update on empirically validated thera-
Psychoanalytic therapy: Principles and pies, II. The Clinical Psychologist, 51, 3-13.
applications. New York: Ronald Press. Crits-Christoph, P., Frank, E., Chambless,
American Psychological Association D. L., Brody, C., & Karp, J. F. (1995).
(1996). Guidelines and principles for accred- Training in empirically validated treat-
itation of programs in professional psycholo- ments: What are clinical psychology stu-
gy. Washington, DC: Author. dents learning? Professional Psychology:
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(2005). Report of the 2005 Presidential Task eation of therapeutic change principles.
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Washington, DC: Author. Goldfried, M.R., & Davila, J. (2006). The
Arkowitz H. (1992). Common factors ther- role of relationship and technique in
apy for depression. In J.C. Norcross & therapeutic change. Psychotherapy:
M.R. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of psy- Theory, Research, Practice, and Training.
chotherapy integration (pp. 402-433). New Henry, W.P., Strupp, H.H., Butler, S.F.,
York: Basic Books. Schacht, T.E., & Binder, J.L. (1993).
Arnkoff, D. B., Glass, C. R., & Effects of training in time-limited
Schottenbauer, M. A. (2006). Outcome dynamic psychotherapy: Changes in
research in psychotherapy integra- therapist behavior. Journal of Consulting
tion. Psychotherapy Bulletin, 41, 43-50. and Clinical Psychology, 61, 434–440.
Bordin, E. (1979). The generalizability of Jacobson, N.S., & Christensen, A. (1996).
the psychoanalytic concept of the work- Acceptance and change in couple therapy: A
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Research and Practice, 16, 252-260. ships. New York: Norton.
Calhoun, K. S., Moras, K., Pilkonis, P. A., & Kendall, P.C. (1998). Empirically supported
Rehm, L. P. (1998). Empirically support- psychological therapies. Journal of
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Psychology, 66, 151-162.
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Norcross, J.C., & Halgin, R.P. (2005). Strupp, H.H., & Anderson, T. (1997). On
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EDITOR’S NOTE
To highlight the importance of culture, race, and ethnicity to psychotherapy research, theory,
training, and practice, we are reprinting two editorials from the most recent issue of our journal,
Psychotherapy (43, 4, Winter 2006), which represents timely and innovative scholarship from
a range of distinguished contributors. It is our hope that these editorials will encourage our
membership to read this compelling issue from cover to cover, as we seek to apprehend and respond
to the needs and opportunities of our increasingly diverse society.

Psychotherapy Editorials:
Special Issue on Culture, Race, and Ethnicity

When guest editors Fred Leong and Steve contains conceptual and empirical pieces.
Lopez recommended to me two years ago As the articles for the Issue came together,
the development of a Special Issue of the it became clear that not all racial and ethnic
Journal on culture, race, and ethnicity in groups were written about and certainly
psychotherapy, the idea resonated with a many key topics were not present. I look
number of my own reflections on this forward to receiving submissions related to
topic. Not only did this seem like a vital groups and topics that do not appear in
topic for the field of psychotherapy, and a this Special Issue, and am always on the
topic that has been increasingly examined lookout for our readers’ recommendations
in recent years, but to my mind it appeared of special sections of the Journal devoted to
that the time was right for the field to move given multicultural topics.
beyond admonition, beyond the recom-
mendation that therapists be attentive and I want to take this opportunity to thank
responsive to culture, race, and ethnicity Guest Editors, Fred Leong and Steve Lopez
when doing psychotherapy. It seemed to who worked long, hard, and effectively in
me that what was most needed at this organizing the Special Issue. The two were
point in time were articles that probed how instrumental in planning an organizing
culture, race, and ethnicity actually dis- this Special Issue, and both of them served
played themselves in the process of psy- as action editors and reviewers for virtual-
chotherapy, as well as ways in which their ly all articles that were submitted. Both
doing so affected the process and outcome also wrote articles themselves. They
of treatment. In a word, what I hoped for deserve our gratitude.
were articles that probed the inner work-
ings of psychotherapy around culture, Have the articles in this issue fulfilled the
race, and ethnicity. Happily, Fred and Steve editors’ intentions to illuminate the inner
shared this viewpoint. With this view in workings of psychotherapy in terms of the
mind, a Call for Papers was placed in the ways in which culture, race, and ethnicity
first issue of Psychotherapy under my edi- manifest themselves in the process? I think
torship and all subsequent issues until the so, and as the editor I am proud to present
deadline for submission was reached. this series of articles. I expect this Special
Several authors whom we believed would Issue of Psychotherapy to have an impact on
effectively address the topic from various both signs and practice as related to the
racial and ethnic positions were also invit- topics of culture, race, and ethnicity in
ed to write conceptual pieces. psychotherapy.
—Charles J. Gelso, Editor
So, this Special Issue contains both invited
articles and articles that were submitted. It continued on page 30
29
GUEST EDITORS’ INTRODUCTION Wei-Ching Hwang presents a conceptual
The last issue of Psychotherapy that focused model of acculturative family distancing
on this topic was published over 20 years observed in immigrant families and draws
ago (1985). Since then, the field has wit- on two cases of Asian American families to
nessed considerable growth and develop- illustrate the key ideas of both the phe-
ment, and we intended the special issue to nomenon and its treatment. Frederick
reflect that growth. This special issue cele- Leong and Szu-Hui Lee describe a cultural
brates the study of culture, race, and eth- accommodation model of cross cultural
nicity in the context of psychotherapy. In psychotherapy and applied it in the case of
the call for papers, our goal was to identify an Asian American woman. Their
quality conceptual and empirical papers approach recommends adapting interven-
that are addressing how to integrate tions according to the cultural background
cultural, racial, and ethnic factors in psy- of the individual client, not unlike the
chotherapy. We were particularly interest- approaches described in the following
ed in articles that would move beyond the paragraph. Kimberly Lakes, Steven Lopez
admonishment of the field for greater cul- and Linda Garro argue that anthropologi-
tural sensitivity to actually advancing our cally informed conceptions of culture can
understanding of the process and outcome help advance our understanding of cultur-
of psychotherapy where culture, race, and al competence and illustrates the key
ethnicity play a central role. The response points in the case of a Latino family.
has been most encouraging. We were quite
pleased with not only the number of sub- In contrast to the issue-oriented or concep-
missions but also the range of conceptual tual model papers, six individual contribu-
perspectives, the levels of analyses, and the tions point out the value of adapting exist-
different grounds of the client/patients ing psychotherapy methods for culturally
under study. We believe that the diversity diverse groups. Four of these studies were
of approaches speaks well for this growing carried out as part of a treatment outcome
area of theory and research. study. Stanley Huey and David Pan exam-
ined the efficacy of incorporating key
There are many ways to describe the con- Asian values in the delivery of a one-ses-
tent of this special issue. We have chosen to sion exposure and modeling treatment for
categorize the collected papers with regard Asian American college students with pho-
to their major thrust or aim. A set of three bias. Martin La Roche and colleagues stud-
papers focuses on key issues in carrying ied whether modifying the imagery used
out psychotherapy with specific popula- in relaxation (being alone or being with
tions. Lillian Comas-Diaz, Alan Roland, significant others) was associated with
and Lewis Schlosser draw on relevant Latino clients’ level of allocentrism, treat-
research and clinical cases to point out the ment adherence, and reductions of anxiety
importance of specific aspects of culture, symptoms. Edward Shane and associates
race, and ethnicity in providing psy- described the modifications they made to
chotherapy to Latinos, Asian North cognitive-behavior therapy for depression
Americans (with particular reference to to render it culturally appropriate for the
psychoanalytic therapy), and Jewish treatment of Cantonese- speaking immi-
Americans, respectively. grants from Hong Kong now living in
Canada. Devon Hinton and colleagues
Another three papers address specific con- point out how they used ethnography to
ceptual models of culturally informed (a) understand the symptoms and local
practice that can apply across ethnic theories of post traumatic stress disorder of
groups; however, each one draws on case Cambodian refugees living in the United
material from clients from specific ethnic
groups to illustrate the particular model. continued on page 31
30
States, and, in turn, to (b) modify cogni- guide their interventions. Most important-
tive-behavioral methods in treating this ly, empirical tests of issues raised, concep-
population. Lydia Jackson and colleagues tual models, cultural adaptations, and the
examined the congruence between the correlates of therapists’ multicultural com-
principles of cognitive behavior therapy petence are needed. As this early develop-
and a community sample of American mental stage of research, it is important
Indians’ and European Americans’ values that we encourage many approaches to
and beliefs. Based on the findings, they addressing culture, race, and ethnicity.
identified some areas where CBT might Given the increasing diversity within our
best be adapted for this American Indian nation and through out the world, bold
group. Finally, Derek Griner and Timothy efforts are needed to advance the field. It is
Smith present a meta-analysis of 76 studies our hope that such efforts will not only
that examined the effects of a broad range improve psychotherapy for the under-
of culturally adapted interventions and served, but they will also serve to advance
report that there is a moderately strong the conceptual and empirical foundation of
benefit to such interventions. psychotherapy more generally.

The final pair of empirical papers exam- In closing, we would like to express our
ined aspects of the multicultural compe- gratitude to Charles Gelso, editor of
tence of therapists. In an effort to go Psychotherapy, for his tremendous support
beyond practitioners’ self-report measures for the idea and the execution of this spe-
of their multicultural competence, Susan cial issue.
Neufeldt and colleagues examined the cul-
tural, racial, and ethnic themes identified His wisdom and insights throughout this
in the case conceptualizations of psy- process are much appreciated. We also
chotherapists-in-training. Jairo Fuertes wanted to use this opportunity to acknowl-
complements their work by examining edge the significant contributions of two
therapists’ multicultural competence in the leading authorities in the field who have
context of on going therapy with particular recently passed away: Enrico E. Jones from
attention to its interrelations with impor- University of California at Berkeley and
tant therapist variables (e.g., attractiveness Samuel M. Turner from the University
and expertness) and process variables (e.g., Maryland at College Park. We dedicate this
working alliance). special issue to them for their pioneering
work, for their integration of research and
There is a significant need to bridge two practice, and for lighting the way for future
important directions in psychotherapy generations of researchers, scholars, and
research; cultural competence and empiri- clinicians dedicated to understanding the
cally supported treatment. The articles in role of culture, race, and ethnicity in
this special issue take significant steps in psychotherapy.
bringing together these two important
directions. Presentations of issues in treat- —Frederick T. L. Leong
ing culturally diverse communities can Michigan State University
serve as guideposts for clinicians in their and Steven Lopez
practice. It is important to translate these University of California at Los Angeles
important issues into systematic conceptu- Guest Editors
al models to train practitioners and to

31
32
COUNCIL REPORT
2007 Council of Representatives Meeting
John C. Norcross, Ph.D. & Norine G. Johnson, Ph.D.

The 2007 APA Council of Representatives Representatives—the ultimate governing


met in Washington, DC on February 16, 17, body of APA. The minutes of each Council
and 18. The Division of Psychotherapy was meeting are available on the APA webpage,
represented by your two Council mem- so below we highlight 12 actions that may
bers, Drs. Norine G. Johnson and John C. be of particular interest to members of
Norcross throughout the 2.5 day meeting. Division 29.
APA President Sharon Brehm welcomed  Advanced the Division 29 initiative to
the Council Reps and chaired the meeting. rewrite the APA Mission Statement in
APA CEO Norman Anderson spoke about order to highlight psychological prac-
the value of a strategic planning process tice. We did so by making a motion that
and the implementation of the diversity Council direct the APA CEO to revise
plan. He also updated us on the monu- the Mission Statement. Council voted
mental task of upgrading and consolidat- overwhelmingly to do so, and Norman
ing APA’s multitude of websites. Anderson welcomed the opportunity.
The chair of the APA Ethics Committee, Dr.
 Voted, on the recommendation of the
Olivia D. Moorehead-Slaughter, delivered
an impressive overview of the contentious Canadian Psychological Association and
debate surrounding APA’s positions on the the Canadian Council of Accreditation,
ethics of interrogation. She reviewed the to fade out concurrent APA accreditation
many documents that demonstrate APA’s of Canadian doctoral programs in pro-
strong, unwavering position that psycholo- fessional psychology.
gists are never to be involved in torture.
The APA Ethics Committee has joined  Approved the aspirational Guidelines
forces with the Social Justice Divisions to for Psychological Practice with Girls and
offer several programs at the APA annual Women. These are available at
convention in San Francisco on this and www.apa.org/ and will eventually
related topics. appear in the American Psychologist.

On a related note, the Division of  Approved the revised Record Keeping


Psychotherapy formally joined the Guidelines. These guidelines update the
Coalition of Social Justice. 1993 policy, which addressed neither
technological advances nor HIPAA
Money doesn’t simply talk; it screams. requirements.
Fortunately, APA finances are in excellent
shape: approximately $65 million in the  Accepted the Report of the Task Force in
long-term investment portfolio plus equity the Sexualizaton of Girls, a cutting-edge
in two downtown DC buildings. All told, summary of the research and an inspir-
APA is worth about $200 million. Council ing program of action.
passed a balanced budget, in fact, a budget
with a tiny surplus for 2007.  Learned that our Division 29 New
Business Item from 2006, entitled
At each meeting, literally dozens of actions
and decisions are made by the Council of continued on page 34
33
Reclaiming Recognition of Psychology, forming and pursuing APA’s major
is successfully moving through the APA goals.
review process. Our aim is for APA to
enhance brand recognition of psycholo-  Accepted the report of the Task Force on
gy and to reclaim the distinctiveness of Military Deployment Services for Youth,
the term psychology. Families and Service Members. APA will
establish a two-year task force to devel-
 Allocated Council discretionary funds op a long-term action plan regarding
to a number of worthy task forces and mental health services for members of
work groups. These include Cultural the armed forces and their families.
Competency in Geropsychology,
Evidence-Based Practice with Children  Passed a resolution rejecting intelligent
and Adolescents, Guidelines for design as scientific and reaffirming sup-
Assessment and Treatment of Persons port for evolutionary theory. This resolu-
with Disabilities, Center for Psychology tion has been erroneously construed in
Workforce Analysis Projects, Resiliency some corners as anti-religious; in actuali-
and Strength in Black Children and ty, the resolution specifically and solely
Adolescents, Appropriate Therapeutic condemns the teaching of intelligent
Responses to Sexual Orientation, and a design as part of a science curriculum.
Review of APA Psychopharmacology
Curricula. Lots of practice and educa-  Resolved that APA, as an organization,
tion initiatives are afoot! opposes discriminatory legislation and
initiatives aimed at lesbian, gay, and
 Funded a multiyear initiative to pur- bisexual persons. This resolution
sue international GOALS—Global responds to specific actions taken by cer-
Opportunities and Long-Term Strategies. tain state legislatures and supports our
APA is increasingly taking its interna- LGB members, clients, and communities.
tional responsibilities and relationships
to heart (and wallet). As always, please share your concerns
with us directly (Norcross@scranton.edu
 Established a new Strategic Planning and NorineJ@aol.com). We are on Council
Process for the Association. This process to give voice to the Division of
will create a more coordinated means of Psychotherapy and its membership.

34
CANDIDATE STATEMENTS President-elect
Nadine J. Kaslow, Ph.D., ABPP
I would be honored division, which helped me pay for new tires
to be elected as for my car. Since then, I have coordinated the
President of Division 29, Midwinter Conference, been a Member at
because I am passionate Large, and now serve on the Publications
about conducting psych- Committee. I would bring my experience with
otherapy and psycho- APA to the position: serving as President of
therapy research, train- two divisions (12, 43), participating on the
ing the next generation Board of Educational Affairs and the Council
of psychotherapists, of Representatives, and being involved in
and advocating at the countless taskforces and conferences. I have
state and national level for psychotherapy for been touched to receive a number of key
all persons. As a Professor at Emory School of awards from APA: Presidential Citation for
Medicine and Chief Psychologist at Grady my work with Katrina, Distinguished
Hospital, I conduct psychotherapy with ado- Contributions to Education and Training, and
lescents, adults, couples, and families and per- Heiser Award. If chosen as President, I would
form intervention research with abused and bring a collaborative and consensus building
suicidal African American women, medically leadership style to (1) advancing psychothera-
ill youth and their families, and families with a py training at all stages of professional devel-
history of violence. I provide psychotherapy opment; and (2) ensuring the developmental
supervision to interns and postdoctoral fel- sensitivity, gender relevance, and cultural com-
lows. My involvement with the Division dates petence of the psychotherapy we practice,
back to my graduate school days, when I research, and teach.
received a graduate research award from the

Jeffrey N. Younggren, Ph.D., ABPP


I truly appreciate having been nominated as a horizon designed to
candidate for the Presidency of Division 29. make the training
Having been a member and fellow of this divi- requirements of the
sion for many years, I see it as a vital group that profession more uni-
shares a common interest in the central func- fied by, for example,
tion of our profession, psychotherapy. doing away with post-
doctoral training
This division has demonstrated outstanding requirements for licen-
leadership in the past that has made it a vital sure. While all of this
player in the American Psychological change is quite excit-
Association. I hope to be able to continue that ing, it also poses signif-
type of able leadership as President Elect of icant challenge to the identity and future of
Division 29, because I believe psychology is our profession.
truly a profession in flux. For example, there
is movement underway to expand the scope I light of the above; I believe that the Division
of practice of the profession to include pre- of Psychotherapy should maintain an active
scriptive authority for psychologists, a move- role within APA and APA Governance to
ment that has been successful in a limited accomplish the following:
number of states. Other movements are To assure that broad and general training
underway designed to enhance and further in psychotherapy be a requirement of all
define specialization standards. In addition, approved training programs in profession-
there is significant pressure from both inside al psychology.
and outside of psychology to increase support the establishment of guidelines
accountability regarding what we do and that uphold the high standards of the
how well we do it. Further change is on the continued on page 36
35
Candidate Statements for President-elect, continued
profession, but not by placing the profes- those years have had an independent psy-
sion at risk by creating unrealistic expecta- chotherapy practice. In addition, I am a clini-
tions regarding professional performance. cal faculty member of the UCLA School of
To participate actively in APA governance medicine and also serve as a Risk
to assure that psychotherapy remains a Management Consultant to the American
core function of professional psychology. Psychological Association Insurance Trust.
To increase the membership of the Finally I have served as both a member and
Division through the inclusion of various chair of the APA Ethics Committee and I am
non-fee based programs designed to make finishing a six-year term on the APA
membership more attractive. Committee on Accreditation. I hope to use
the benefits of those experiences as the
I have been a professional psychologist for President Elect of the Division of
thirty-five years and during the majority of Psychotherapy.

CANDIDATE STATEMENTS Council Representative


Linda F. Campbell, Ph.D.
Each semester when prescription curriculum; each assumes a
the new psychology role for psychotherapy in the success of
doctoral students these missions.
begin their psy-
chotherapy training in When I was honored to be your president in
our departmental clin- 2004, Leon VandeCreek and I held over 20
ic, I begin the orienta- focus groups of practitioners, researchers,
tion by telling them trainers, early career, and student groups and
that no one else work- we asked them to identify obstacles to the
ing or training at the advancement and promotion of psychothera-
university is doing py in practice, training, research, and begin-
anything more important than they because ning careers. Our members know exactly
they are helping people change the course what the obstacles are and they are very
of their lives forever. Psychotherapy is the hopeful that our division will continue work-
heart and soul of psychology and our ing side by side with them in promoting their
Division of Psychotherapy is the only divi- important work in psychotherapy.
sion charted with the mission of integrating
training, research, and practice through My commitment to the division began when
psychotherapy. I became editor of the Psychotherapy Bulletin
ten years ago and continued when I was hon-
Our division has an exciting and crucial role ored to serve as your president. If elected as
to play in the future of our profession. your Council Representative, I will work
Consider the major pursuits of recent years with the same commitment, energy, and per-
including the findings of the evidence based severance to overcome these obstacles our
practice task force, the multicultural guide- members experience and to promote the
lines, the competencies initiative, and the advancement of psychotherapy.

36
Candidate Statements for Council Representative, continued
Norine G. Johnson, Ph.D.
I am pleased and hon- icy with an emphasis on psychotherapy.
ored to be nominated With my knowledge of the federal legislative
as a candidate for APA process, key players in health policy and the
Council Representative workings of APA, I would work hard to
of the Division of advocate for a national health system that
Psychotherapy. As expands appropriate funding for psychother-
President of the apy and doctoral-trained and licensed psy-
A m e r i c a n chologists and for increased funding for psy-
Psychological chology students.
Association, as a mem-
ber of the Division 29 As a practicing psychotherapist I know the
Board of Directors, and as a practicing psy- day-to-day challenges of helping those who
chotherapist and educator, I have had exten- come for our services. In Psychology Builds a
sive experience and documented success in Healthy World: Opportunities for Research and
actively advocating for psychology and psy- Practice (2003) and in over ninety publica-
chotherapy. I appreciate the opportunity you tions and presentations, I have written on the
gave me to represent our Division these past value of including strengths, diversity, and
three years and look forward to continuing life-span development in our work as psy-
the work that Dr. Norcross and I began. chologists and psychotherapists. These are
the values I would continue to bring to APA
With the change in leadership in Congress, Governance if elected to serve you and
the time is right for psychology to make Division 29 for another term.
major strides in advancing the Psychology
agenda for increased funding in health I appreciate the opportunity to be considered
research, education, practice, and public pol- for this important position.

Jeffrey J. Magnavita, Ph.D., ABPP


I am pleased to be nominated for, and hope to methods and tools
be able to serve as Council Representative for with which to better
Division 29, of which I am a Fellow and have understand the active
been a devoted member for over two decades. ingredients that make
Our Division has nurtured my development psychotherapy effec-
over the years and afforded me the opportuni- tive. We have also seen
ty to network, at mid-winter conventions and a great upsurge in the
annual meetings, with many of the devoted acceptance by the pub-
members who share a passion for psychother- lic of the benefit of psy-
apy. My professional credentials include being chotherapy in modern
the recipient of APA’s Distinguished society. We have seen
Contribution to Professional Practice Award in the constructs of psychological science enter
2006, having numerous publications, as well mainstream culture, many of which have
as being featured in the APA video series in become iconic. We have also survived the
psychotherapy. onslaught of managed care and have found
ways in which to survive and thrive as psy-
The field of psychotherapy has been exciting chotherapists in an often hostile economic cli-
to be involved in and has produced remark- mate. Although much has been accom-
able results over the first 100 years of devel- plished, we are faced with a number of chal-
opment. We have witnessed a number of the- lenges as well as a number of exciting possi-
oretical and technical advances that have bilities. We need to capitalize on the gains we
shown psychotherapy to be a robust treat- have made in advancing the art and science
ment for mental disorders. We have also seen of psychotherapy and continue to get the
the development of a variety of investigative continued on page 38

37
Candidate Statements for Council Representative, continued
word out to the public as to what we can ence. I currently serve as the Program Chair
offer to improve the quality of life, allevi- for the Division and will continue for an
ate suffering, and treat mental disorders. additional year. I previously ran for President
We also need to revitalize psychology’s of the Division and serve on the editorial
interest in the wide applicability and bene- board for our flagship Journal, Psychotherapy,
fit of psychotherapy, and especially make as well as contributing to the Psychotherapy
access to psychotherapy available for the Bulletin. I hope to be able to have the oppor-
severely mentally ill and disadvantaged. tunity to serve the members of Division 29 by
representing our values and beliefs as one of
My involvement with Division 29 has been the voices of psychotherapy to APA council
an important and exciting learning experi- over the next six years.

Lisa Porché-Burke, Ph.D.


It is an honor and priv- institution of higher learning which trains doc-
ilege to be nominated toral and master’s level students to practice in
for the position of APA the field of psychology, I am keenly aware of
Division 29 Council the many issues that face practitioners.
Representative. Serving
Division 29 in this cap- I am passionate and committed to issues
acity would enable me related to multiculturalism. As an architect
to further contribute and co-convener of the National
my time and experi- Multicultural Summits and Conferences, I
ence to pursue the ad- demonstrated support for the advancement
vancement of practice- of education, practice, training and research
related issues within the field of psychology. issues relevant to underserved populations. I
have also been committed to the develop-
In the past twenty years, I have had the plea- ment of educational models, research and
sure to serve APA as a Member of the Council training programs that incorporate attention
of Representatives representing Division 45, to issues of diversity in all of its forms.
President of Division 45, Member-at-Large of Making the practice of psychotherapy rele-
Division 29, Fellows Chair of Division 29, vant to all people regardless of their gender,
and Chair of the Task Force on Diversity in sexual orientation or cultural group is impor-
Course Content, Publication and Training. tant and necessary as we continue to refine
the practice of psychotherapy.
Recently, I have been elected to serve on the
Policy and Planning Board of APA. I appreciate your time and consideration on
my behalf for this most important nomination.
As President and CEO of an educational

William B. Stiles, Ph.D.


I feel honored to be nominated to be a Previously, I taught at
Council Representative. I have been a mem- the University of North
ber of Division 29 since 1979, and for several Carolina at Chapel Hill,
years, I have been chair of its Research and I have held visiting
Committee. I would be proud to represent positions at the
the members and interests of Division 29 Universities of
within APA. Sheffield and Leeds in
England, at Massey
My day job is as Professor of Psychology at University in New
Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, where I Zealand, and at the
teach in our doctoral program in clinical psy- University of Joensuu
chology. I have been at Miami for 28 years. continued on page 39

38
Candidate Statements for Council Representative, continued
in Finland. I am licensed to practice in Ohio practice, and training.
and North Carolina. I have been President
of the Society for Psychotherapy Research I think the main purposes of professional
and North American Editor of its journal, societies are communication and advocacy.
Psychotherapy Research. I am currently Co- As Council Representative, I would work to
Editor of Person-Centered and Experiential enhance communication among Division
Psycho therapies and Associate Editor of members, with the rest of APA, and with
British Journal of Clinical Psychology. I have external decision makers and the public. I
published one book and over 200 journal would listen to identify and understand
articles and book chapters, mostly dealing Division 29’s interests and act to advance
with psychotherapy theory, research, them within APA and beyond.

Abraham Wolf, Ph.D.


I am honored to be al on psychotherapy for continuing educa-
nominated as Council tion. I encourage you to visit the APA contin-
Representative for the uing education web site at
Division of psy- http://www.apa.org/ce for more informa-
chotherapy. I am tion on this program.
deeply committed to
the field of psy- For over 10 years, I served the division in
chotherapy and will many other positions. I was elected twice as
work to give our field Division Secretary, served as Chair of the
a strong voice in a Student Development Committee,
body that represents Publication Board member, Member-at-
the entire field of psychology. Large, Mid-Winter Convention coordinator,
Internet editor, editorial consultant to the
For over 25 years, I have worked as a psy- journal Psychotherapy and Publication
chologist practicing psychotherapy at Coordinator for the Division 29 Brochure
MetroHealth Medical Center, the county hos- Project. In 1996, I was honored by the
pital of Cleveland, Ohio. I am an Associate Division with the Jack Krasner Early Career
Professor of Psychology at the Case Western Award. In 2003, I edited a special issue of
Reserve University School of Medicine, and Psychotherapy on the technology of psy-
have published over 50 articles in the area of chotherapy that focused on the impact of
health psychology. computers and the Internet on the practice of
psychotherapy.
As Division 29 President in 2006, I worked to
establish the Online Psychotherapy Academy, a The field of psychotherapy needs strong rep-
collaborative effort with the APA Education resentation. I will strive to provide that rep-
Directorate to provide Internet based materi- resentation on the APA Council.

39
CANDIDATE STATEMENTS Member-At-Large
GENERAL SEAT
Norman Abeles, Ph.D.
I am pleased to be a We need to be active in showing that
nominee for member psychotherapy can be helpful to multi-
at large of our great cultural clients (see the current issue of
Division of Psycho- Psychotherapy, co-edited by my colleague
therapy. For years I Fred Leong). I encourage students to read
served as Director of such books as Ethics in Psychotherapy and
our Psychological Counseling by Ken Pope and Melba Vasquez
Clinic at Michigan as well as Evidence Based Practices in Mental
State University Health by John Norcross, Larry Beutler and
where I supervised Ron Levant. I also think it is important to be
our clinical students familiar with the new Psychodynamic
in the practice of psychotherapy and selected Diagnostic Manual that was published in 2006.
outside supervisors from the community to
help our clinical trainees. achieve a range of I am a past president of the Division and past
competencies. I established a psychotherapy president of APA. I will work hard at increas-
research program in our clinic and have pub- ing the membership of our Division. Please
lished papers with my students. Vote for me. E mail me at abeles@msu.edu

Lynn P. Rehm, Ph.D.


I am pleased to be running for Member-at- Association of
Large for the Board of Directors of Division Applied Psychology.
29. I am a fellow of the Division and a psy-
chotherapy researcher. Two of my students in For 10 years I chaired
recent years have been the Student the licensing examina-
Development Chairs on the Board. I believe I tion committee for the
can serve the Division well. The Division has Association of State
the potential and is moving in the direction of and Provincial
playing major roles in APA, and in advancing Psychology Boards
psychotherapy and psychotherapy research overseeing the EPPP.
in the US. I have a broad perspective based I am an academic who
on wide experience in APA and in profes- has been on NIMH research review groups. I
sional psychology in general. I have been have been the recipient of psychotherapy
president of The Society for the Science of research grants from NIMH, the VA, and
Clinical Psychology, President of Division 12, other sources to study my Self-Management
chair of the Council of University Directors of Therapy Program for depression. I have been
Clinical Psychology, chair of the Board of the Director of two Clinical Psychology grad-
Educational Affairs, President of the uate programs. I am also a practicum super-
International Society of Clinical Psychology, visor and have had a private practice for
and I am currently President of the Clinical most of the last 35 years.
and Community Division of the International

40
Member-At-Large — GENERAL SEAT, continued
Elizabeth (Libby) Nutt Williams, Ph.D.
I received my doctor- I have greatly enjoyed my first term as a
ate in Counseling Member-at-large for Division 29 and hope to
Psychology in 1997 be elected for another term. In particular, I
from the University of have been very enthusiastic about the
Maryland, and I am changes we have been making in Division
currently Chair of the 29—specifically, being more deliberate with
P s y c h o l o g y our focus on diversity, on collaboration
Department at St. between science and practice, and on bring-
Mary’s College of ing our newest members into active roles
Maryland, a public within the division. As I said in my candi-
honors college, where date statement three years ago, “I would like
I teach courses on psychotherapy theory, to be a voice for the membership.” I feel that
strategy, and research. I have always empha- statement is more true now than ever before.
sized the importance of clinically relevant I have been working hard to support our
research and conduct the majority of my efforts to recruit and retain members. Most
research on therapist self-awareness. In 2006, recently, I am organizing the Division 29 lun-
I was thrilled to be awarded both the Jack D. cheon at APA for graduate students and new
Krasner Early Career Award from Division 29 professionals. I would like to continue my
and the Outstanding Early Career work to support the vision of Division 29 and
Achievement Award from Society for be a voice for our diverse membership.
Psychotherapy Research. Thank you so much for your consideration.

CANDIDATE STATEMENTS Member-At-Large


EARLY CAREER PSYCHOLOGIST SEAT
Natasha Agent, Psy.D.
My name is Natasha Agent. I am running for ly changing the levels of
the position of Member-At-Large of Division support and guidance
29. Although new to this Division, I am not provided to these often
new to professional activities within the field underrepresented
of psychology. Since 2003, I have been a stu- groups. If elected, this
dent member of the Maryland Psychological position will afford me
Association, the American Psychological the opportunity to facil-
Association, and Division 31, where I served itate this exchange of
as the Student Representative to the Board of ideas between those
Directors. I have attended a State Leadership new to and well estab-
Conference and a few National Conventions. lished within the field,
However, those experiences do not necessar- along with the ability to suggest/create
ily set me apart. desired and focused programming.

While a graduate student at Loyola College in Early career psychologists and graduate stu-
Maryland, I helped bring about much needed dents are the future of this field, but often are
awareness to varying issues affecting psychol- poorly educated in the professional responsi-
ogy graduate students, early career psycholo- bilities of psychology. As an early career psy-
gists, and minorities within psychology. The chologist with a diverse background, I will
amalgamation of the experiences of graduate help Division 29 become a model of effective
students, early career psychologists, and mentorship, support, programming, dialogue,
minorities will present suggestions to be uti- diversity, and leadership, so the many facets of
lized by those more established; thus positive- psychology will flourish into the future.
41
Member-At-Large — Early Career Psychologist Seat, continued
Michael J. Constantino, Ph.D.
I am honored to be Despite my position in academia, there are
nominated for multiple reasons why I am highly invested in
Member-at-Large for the mission and development of Division 29.
Division 29. I received First, I conduct psychotherapy research.
my Clinical Psych- Second, I approach my work from an integra-
ology doctorate in tive perspective, which is the most common-
2002 from Penn State, ly endorsed practitioner perspective. Third, I
and I am currently an am devoted to quality psychotherapy train-
Assistant Professor at ing, which is a central Division goal. Finally, I
the University of see patients and supervise clinicians-in-train-
Massachusetts. As a ing. Thus, my background is commensurate
clinical scientist, instructor/mentor, supervi- with the philosophy and scope of the
sor, and practitioner, I am deeply committed Division and I would welcome the opportu-
to integrating quality clinical practice and nity to serve in a Board role. I would bring
rigorous science. This commitment is exem- energy and enthusiasm in the same way that
plified by my involvement in both Division I have in my current Divisional roles as the
29 and the Society for Psychotherapy CE Committee Chair and Editorial
Research (SPR). For some tasks I have served Consultant for Psychotherapy. I would also
as a formal liaison between these organiza- provide a voice for young investigators and
tions. For example, I coordinated the advocate for increased student involvement
Continuing Education (CE) Program (spon- in Divisional matters. I am excited about the
sored by Division 29) for the 2006 meeting of prospect of being your Member-at-Large, and
the North American SPR. I appreciate your consideration.

Heather Lyons
As the Division grows to attend to the chang- segment of the field. As
ing needs of its members and those who ben- ECP Member-at-Large
efit from the science and practice of psychol- I would seek to contin-
ogy, an emphasis is placed on the specific ue my role as advocate
concerns of early career psychologists through the following
(ECPs). ECPs are poised to uniquely con- two goals: 1. Increase
tribute to the Division and the field with the membership of ECPs
diversity of talents and interests that they by surveying ECPs and
bring. However, in order for us to benefit students about the sup-
from these contributions it is important that ports and barriers to
as a Division, we attend to the sometimes Division membership.
unique needs of ECPs as well as offer an Increasing membership provides a greater
effective way of voicing these needs. To date, voice for ECPs and benefits the Division and
I have attempted to do this by organizing 2. Because ECPs are a more diverse group in
ECP presentations at annual conventions and terms of race and ethnicity, sexual orienta-
acting as an advocate for and educator of stu- tion, ability status and other aspects of iden-
dents and ECPs in my role as assistant pro- tity, I would seek to meet the needs and wel-
fessor. As an ECP myself I personally under- come the contributions of ECPs of diverse
stand the needs and talents of this growing backgrounds.

42
THE DIVISION OF PSYCHOTHERAPY ON-LINE ACADEMY

The Division of Psychotherapy is at the forefront in offering on-line continuing education.


The following programs were recorded at the 2005 APA Convention in Washington D.C.,
and are now available on-line in audio format with accompanying PowerPoint presenta-
tions. These programs brings together leading practitioners and researchers to discuss
major topics in contemporary psychotherapy The online program provides four continu-
ing education credits at a cost of $80.00. To register, go to www.apa.org/ce.

THE PROPER FOCUS OF EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE


Steven D. Hollon, Ph.D.
Treatment Method as Focus for Evidence-Based Practice

Bruce E. Wampold, Ph.D.


It is the Therapist who Makes the Difference

Michael J. Lambert, Ph.D.


The Importance of the Patient-Therapist Relationship

Arthur C. Bohart, Ph.D.


The Client as Active Self-Healer

Larry E. Beutler, Ph.D.


The “Proper” Focus of Evidence-Based Practice - A Principle-Based Treatment

John C. Norcross, Ph.D.


Discussant

TAKING CARE OF THE HATED AND HATEFUL PATIENT


Power Plays, Negotiation and Mutual Recognition in the Therapeutic Alliance
J. Christopher Muran, Ph.D.

The Vicissitudes of Race-Based Hatred


Dorothy Evans Holmes, Ph.D.

Embracing Hate in the Therapeutic Moment


Jean A. Carter, Ph.D.

Countertransference Anger And Hatred: The Last Frontier?


Karen J. Maroda, Ph.D.

43
N O F P S Y C H O THE
O
THE DIVISION OF PSYCHOTHERAPY

RA P Y
D I V I SI
29 The only APA division solely dedicated to advancing psychotherapy

ASSN.
AMER I

M E M B E R S H I P APPLICATION
C
A
N PSYCHOLOGI C

AL
Division 29 meets the unique needs of psychologists interested in psychotherapy.
By joining the Division of Psychotherapy, you become part of a family of practitioners, scholars, and students who exchange ideas in order to advance psychotherapy.
Division 29 is comprised of psychologists and students who are interested in psychotherapy. Although Division 29 is a division of the American Psychological
Association (APA), APA membership is not required for membership in the Division.
JOIN DIVISION 29 AND GET THESE BENEFITS!
FREE SUBSCRIPTIONS TO: DIVISION 29 INITIATIVES
Psychotherapy Profit from Division 29 initiatives such as the
This quarterly journal features up-to-date APA Psychotherapy Videotape Series, History
articles on psychotherapy. Contributors of Psychotherapy book, and Psychotherapy
include researchers, practitioners, and Relationships that Work.
educators with diverse approaches.
Psychotherapy Bulletin NETWORKING & REFERRAL SOURCES
Quarterly newsletter contains the latest news Connect with other psychotherapists so that
about division activities, helpful articles on you may network, make or receive referrals,
training, research, and practice. Available to and hear the latest important information that
members only. affects the profession.

EARN CE CREDITS OPPORTUNITIES FOR LEADERSHIP


Journal Learning Expand your influence and contributions.
You can earn Continuing Education (CE) cred- Join us in helping to shape the direction of our
it from the comfort of your home or office — chosen field. There are many opportunities to
at your own pace — when it’s convenient for serve on a wide range of Division committees
you. Members earn CE credit by reading and task forces.
specific articles published in Psychotherapy
and completing quizzes. DIVISION 29 LISTSERV
As a member, you have access to our Division
DIVISION 29 PROGRAMS listserv, where you can exchange information
We offer exceptional programs at the APA with other professionals.
convention featuring leaders in the field of
psychotherapy. Learn from the experts in
personal settings and earn CE credits at VISIT OUR WEBSITE
reduced rates. www.divisionofpsychotherapy.org

MEMBERSHIP REQUIREMENTS: Doctorate in psychology • Payment of dues • Interest in advancing psychotherapy

Name _________________________________________________ Degree ______________________


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If APA member, please
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Please return the completed application along with payment of $40 by credit card or check to:
Division 29 Central Office, 6557 E. Riverdale St., Mesa, AZ 85215
You can also join the Division online at: www.divisionofpsychotherapy.org