TRIGONOMETRY

Name: ___________________________________ Period: _________

Unit 6: Sequences & Series

Flipped Classroom
In your final unit of trigonometry, you will learn the material in a slightly different manner, on your own and at home. One day, you’ll come across a class where perhaps you have to do this merely because you do not understand your professor or perhaps you prefer not to make the trek to campus in the frigid arctic temperatures. To prepare you for this, you will complete the final unit of trigonometry by learning at home (your homework) and practicing at school in front of your teacher. How will you be graded during this unit? Well, of course you will have a test at the end of the unit (per usual) but to ensure that you are taking notes and completing the requirements of your “at home” classroom, you will be graded when you arrive to class each day based upon the following: ! Quality of the notes from the Lesson Videos ! Quality of the guided note pages (show your work on the practice problems!) ! Quality of any other requirements of the “at home” lesson ! Quality and Quantity of Comments/Questions/Answers made in Unit 6 Discussion Forum ! Effort put forth to Comprehend/Learn/Understand the material **The Flipped Classroom Unit will count as your “project” for the unit**

Total: 50 points

Learning Target: I can… 1. Find the nth term of an arithmetic or geometric sequence 2. Find the position of a given term of an arithmetic or geometric sequence 3. Find sums of a finite arithmetic or geometric series 4. Use sequences and series to solve real-world problems 5. Use sigma notation to express sums

Resources:
! ! ! !

Guided Notes (Arithmetic Sequences/Series & Geometric Sequences/Series) Lecture Notes & Solutions (on taskstream) ASSISTment Lessons (containing instructional videos) ACT Quality Core Formula Sheet

Important Links:
LT1/2 #1: http://screencast.com/t/l5nPmLtOVi LT1/2 #2: http://screencast.com/t/HTGVvCTMx LT1/2 #3: http://screencast.com/t/JbbA6TZDT LT3/5 #1:http://screencast.com/t/1M1Zob1Hfp LT3/5 #2: http://screencast.com/t/3sFFWGU9au LT3/5 #3: http://screencast.com/t/Sgc4Py0Qcgue

Unit 6 Instructional Plan:

Learning Targets 1 & 2 1. Lesson at home 5/13 ! Watch the three lesson videos (Complete Lecture Note Examples throughout and Check Answers on Taskstream) ! Complete Guided Notes Pages 631 / 635 / 643 / 647 ! Make at least 2 Comments on discussion board. Your comments can be a detailed explanation of what you learned / a new method of solving a specific problem / a question about a specific problem / an answer to someone’s’ question 2. Practice at school 5/14 ! Speed Dating / Sequences Taskcards ! P. 634 / 646 ! Sequences Skillbuilder Learning Targets 3 & 5 1. Lesson at home 5/14 ! Watch the three lesson videos (Complete Lecture Note Examples throughout and Check Answers on Taskstream) ! Complete Guided Notes Pages 637 / 638 / 641 / 649 / 650 / 653 ! Make at least 2 Comments on discussion board. Your comments can be a detailed explanation of what you learned / a new method of solving a specific problem / a question about a specific problem / an answer to someone’s’ question 2. Practice at school 5/15 ! Speed Dating / Series Taskcards ! P. 640 / 652 ! ASSISTment LT3/5 Learning Target 4 1. Lesson/Research at home 5/15 ! Read through (and take notes) the LT4 Lecture Notes [on Taskstream] ! Make at least 2 Comments on discussion board. Your comments can be a detailed explanation of what you learned / a new method of solving a specific problem / a question about a specific problem / an answer to someone’s’ question ! Develop 2 of your own Real World Problems. You must do a problem of both an arithmetic and a geometric sequence or series (one problem should be a sequence, one should be a series). Clearly and concisely phrase your question and write your question in bold letters on two separate sheets of paper. You may use the example problems in the notes to help you model your question. 2. Practice at school 5/16 ! Showing all your work, solve the 2 problems that you created. ! Post your 2 questions in the room. Solve 4 other problems on a post it note. Post your solution next to the question. ! Check the work of your classmates and provide feedback (think about the types of questions that Miss Rudolph asks you – never tells you exactly how!) ! ASSISTment LT4

Review – 5/19

Unit 6 Test – 5/21

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

____________ PERIOD _____

11-1 Study Guide and Intervention
Arithmetic Sequences
Arithmetic Sequences
n th Term of an Arithmetic Sequence

An arithmetic sequence is a sequence of numbers in which each term after the first term is found by adding the common difference to the preceding term.
an ϭ a1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1)d, where a1 is the first term, d is the common difference, and n is any positive integer

11 Ϫ 7 ϭ 4 and 15 Ϫ 11 ϭ 4, so d ϭ 4. Now add 4 to the third term of the sequence, and then continue adding 4 until the four terms are found. The next four terms of the sequence are 19, 23, 27, and 31.

Use the formula for the nth term of an arithmetic sequence with a1 ϭ 21, n ϭ 13, and d ϭ Ϫ6. an ϭ a1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1) d a13 ϭ 21 ϩ (13 Ϫ 1)(Ϫ6) a13 ϭ Ϫ51
Formula for nth term n ϭ 13, a1 ϭ 21, d ϭ Ϫ6 Simplify.

The thirteenth term is Ϫ51.

Write an equation for the nth term of the arithmetic sequence Ϫ14, Ϫ5, 4, 13, … . In this sequence a1 ϭ Ϫ14 and d ϭ 9. Use the formula for an to write an equation. an ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ a1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1) d Ϫ14 ϩ (n Ϫ 1)9 Ϫ14 ϩ 9n Ϫ 9 9n Ϫ 23
Formula for the nth term a1 ϭ Ϫ14, d ϭ 9 Distributive Property Simplify.

Example 3

Exercises
Find the next four terms of each arithmetic sequence. 1. 106, 111, 116, … 2. Ϫ28, Ϫ31, Ϫ34, … 3. 207, 194, 181, …

121, 126, 131, 136
4. a1 ϭ 101, d ϭ 9

Ϫ37, Ϫ40, Ϫ43, Ϫ46
5. a1 ϭ Ϫ60, d ϭ 4

168, 155, 142, 129
6. a1 ϭ 210, d ϭ Ϫ40

Find the first five terms of each arithmetic sequence described.

101, 110, 119, 128, 137 Ϫ60, Ϫ56, Ϫ52, Ϫ48, Ϫ44

210, 170, 130, 90, 50

Find the indicated term of each arithmetic sequence. 7. a1 ϭ 4, d ϭ 6, n ϭ 14 82 9. a1 ϭ 80, d ϭ Ϫ8, n ϭ 21 Ϫ80 8. a1 ϭ Ϫ4, d ϭ Ϫ2, n ϭ 12 Ϫ26 10. a10 for 0, Ϫ3, Ϫ6, Ϫ9, … Ϫ27

Write an equation for the nth term of each arithmetic sequence. 11. 18, 25, 32, 39, … 12. Ϫ110, Ϫ85, Ϫ60, Ϫ35, … 13. 6.2, 8.1, 10.0, 11.9, …

7n ϩ 11
©

25n Ϫ 135
631

1.9n ϩ 4.3
Glencoe Algebra 2

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Lesson 11-1

Find the next four terms of the arithmetic sequence 7, 11, 15, … . Find the common difference by subtracting two consecutive terms.

Example 1

Find the thirteenth term of the arithmetic sequence with a1 ϭ 21 and d ϭ Ϫ6.

Example 2

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

____________ PERIOD _____

11-1 Practice

(Average)

Arithmetic Sequences
Find the next four terms of each arithmetic sequence. 1. 5, 8, 11, … 14, 17, 20, 23 3. 100, 93, 86, … 79, 72, 65, 58 5. ᎏ , 6, ᎏ , 11, … ᎏ , 16, ᎏ , 21
7 2 17 2

2. Ϫ4, Ϫ6, Ϫ8, … Ϫ10, Ϫ12, Ϫ14, Ϫ16 4. Ϫ24, Ϫ19, Ϫ14, … Ϫ9, Ϫ4, 1, 6 6. 4.8, 4.1, 3.4, … 2.7, 2, 1.3, 0.6

27

37

Find the first five terms of each arithmetic sequence described. 7. a1 ϭ 7, d ϭ 7 8. a1 ϭ Ϫ8, d ϭ 2

7, 14, 21, 28, 35
9. a1 ϭ Ϫ12, d ϭ Ϫ4

Ϫ8, Ϫ6, Ϫ4, Ϫ2, 0
10. a1 ϭ ᎏ , d ϭ ᎏ
1 2 1 2

Ϫ12, Ϫ16, Ϫ20, Ϫ24, Ϫ28
11. a1 ϭ Ϫ ᎏ , d ϭ Ϫ ᎏ
5 6 1 3

1 3 5 ᎏ , 1, ᎏ , 2, ᎏ
12. a1 ϭ 10.2, d ϭ Ϫ5.8

Ϫᎏ, Ϫᎏ, Ϫᎏ, Ϫᎏ, Ϫᎏ

5

7

3

11

13

10.2, 4.4, Ϫ1.4, Ϫ7.2, Ϫ13

Find the indicated term of each arithmetic sequence. 13. a1 ϭ 5, d ϭ 3, n ϭ 10 32 15. a18 for Ϫ6, Ϫ7, Ϫ8, … . Ϫ23 17. a1 ϭ ᎏ , d ϭ Ϫ ᎏ , n ϭ 10 Ϫ ᎏ
9 5 3 5

14. a1 ϭ 9, d ϭ 3, n ϭ 29 93 16. a37 for 124, 119, 114, … . Ϫ56 18. a1 ϭ 14.25, d ϭ 0.15, n ϭ 31 18.75

18

Complete the statement for each arithmetic sequence. 19. 166 is the ? th term of 30, 34, 38, … 35 20. 2 is the ? th term of ᎏ , ᎏ , 1, … 8 Write an equation for the nth term of each arithmetic sequence. 21. Ϫ5, Ϫ3, Ϫ1, 1, … an ϭ 2n Ϫ 7 23. 1, Ϫ1, Ϫ3, Ϫ5, … an ϭ Ϫ2n ϩ 3 22. Ϫ8, Ϫ11, Ϫ14, Ϫ17, … an ϭ Ϫ3n Ϫ 5 24. Ϫ5, 3, 11, 19, … an ϭ 8n Ϫ 13
3 4 5 5

Find the arithmetic means in each sequence. 25. Ϫ5, ? , ? , ? , 11 Ϫ1, 3, 7 26. 82, ? , ? , ? , 18 66, 50, 34 27. EDUCATION Trevor Koba has opened an English Language School in Isehara, Japan. He began with 26 students. If he enrolls 3 new students each week, in how many weeks will he have 101 students? 26 wk 28. SALARIES Yolanda interviewed for a job that promised her a starting salary of $32,000 with a $1250 raise at the end of each year. What will her salary be during her sixth year if she accepts the job? $38,250
©

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

634

Glencoe Algebra 2

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

____________ PERIOD _____

11-1 Reading to Learn Mathematics
Arithmetic Sequences
Pre-Activity
How are arithmetic sequences related to roofing? Read the introduction to Lesson 11-1 at the top of page 578 in your textbook. Describe how you would find the number of shingles needed for the fifteenth row. (Do not actually calculate this number.) Explain why your method will give the correct answer. Sample answer: Add 3 times 14 to 2. This

works because the first row has 2 shingles and 3 more are added 14 times to go from the first row to the fifteenth row.

Reading the Lesson
1. Consider the formula an ϭ a1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1)d. a. What is this formula used to find?

a particular term of an arithmetic sequence
b. What do each of the following represent? an: the nth term a1: the first term n: d:

a positive integer that indicates which term you are finding the common difference

2. Consider the equation an ϭ Ϫ3n ϩ 5. a. What does this equation represent? Sample answer: It gives the nth term of

an arithmetic sequence with first term 2 and common difference Ϫ3. b. Is the graph of this equation a straight line? Explain your answer. Sample answer: No; the graph is a set of points that fall on a line, but the points do not fill the line.
c. The functions represented by the equations an ϭ Ϫ3n ϩ 5 and f (x) ϭ Ϫ3x ϩ 5 are alike in that they have the same formula. How are they different? Sample

answer: They have different domains. The domain of the first function is the set of positive integers. The domain of the second function is the set of all real numbers.

Helping You Remember
3. A good way to remember something is to explain it to someone else. Suppose that your classmate Shala has trouble remembering the formula an ϭ a1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1)d correctly. She thinks that the formula should be an ϭ a1 ϩ nd. How would you explain to her that she should use (n Ϫ 1)d rather than nd in the formula? Sample answer: Each term

after the first in an arithmetic sequence is found by adding d to the previous term. You would add d once to get to the second term, twice to get to the third term, and so on. So d is added n Ϫ 1 times, not n times, to get the n th term.
©

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

635

Glencoe Algebra 2

Lesson 11-1

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

____________ PERIOD _____

11-2 Study Guide and Intervention
Arithmetic Series
Arithmetic Series
arithmetic sequence.
Sum of an Arithmetic Series

An arithmetic series is the sum of consecutive terms of an

The sum Sn of the first n terms of an arithmetic series is given by the formula n n Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ[2a1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1)d ] or Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ(a1 ϩ an)
2 2

Find Sn for the arithmetic series with a1 ϭ 14, an ϭ 101, and n ϭ 30. Use the sum formula for an arithmetic series.
n 2 30 S30 ϭ ᎏ (14 ϩ 101) 2

Example 1

Find the sum of all positive odd integers less than 180. The series is 1 ϩ 3 ϩ 5 ϩ … ϩ 179. Find n using the formula for the nth term of an arithmetic sequence. an 179 179 180 n ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ a1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1) d 1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1)2 2n Ϫ 1 2n 90
Formula for nth term an ϭ 179, a1 ϭ 1, d ϭ 2 Simplify. Add 1 to each side. Divide each side by 2.

Example 2

Sn ϭ ᎏ (a1 ϩ an)

Sum formula n ϭ 30, a1 ϭ 14, an ϭ 101 Simplify. Multiply.

The sum of the series is 1725.

Then use the sum formula for an arithmetic series.
n 2 90 S90 ϭ ᎏ (1 ϩ 179) 2

Sn ϭ ᎏ (a1 ϩ an)

Sum formula n ϭ 90, a1 ϭ 1, an ϭ 179 Simplify. Multiply.

ϭ 45(180) ϭ 8100

The sum of all positive odd integers less than 180 is 8100.

Exercises
Find Sn for each arithmetic series described. 1. a1 ϭ 12, an ϭ 100, n ϭ 12 672 4. a1 ϭ 20, d ϭ 4, an ϭ 112 1584 7. a1 ϭ 42, n ϭ 8, d ϭ 6 2. a1 ϭ 50, an ϭ Ϫ50, n ϭ 15 0 5. a1 ϭ 180, d ϭ Ϫ8, an ϭ 68 1860 8. a1 ϭ 4, n ϭ 20, d ϭ 2 ᎏ
1 2

3. a1 ϭ 60, an ϭ Ϫ136, n ϭ 50 Ϫ1900 6. a1 ϭ Ϫ8, d ϭ Ϫ7, an ϭ Ϫ71 Ϫ395 9. a1 ϭ 32, n ϭ 27, d ϭ 3

504
10. 8 ϩ 6 ϩ 4 ϩ … ϩ Ϫ10 Ϫ10

555

1917
11. 16 ϩ 22 ϩ 28 ϩ … ϩ 112 1088

Find the sum of each arithmetic series. 12. Ϫ45 ϩ (Ϫ41) ϩ (Ϫ37) ϩ … ϩ 35 Ϫ105 Find the first three terms of each arithmetic series described. 13. a1 ϭ 12, an ϭ 174, Sn ϭ 1767 12, 21, 30
©

14. a1 ϭ 80, an ϭ Ϫ115, Sn ϭ Ϫ245 80, 65, 50

15. a1 ϭ 6.2, an ϭ 12.6, Sn ϭ 84.6 6.2, 7.0, 7.8
Glencoe Algebra 2

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

637

Lesson 11-2

ϭ 15(115) ϭ 1725

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

____________ PERIOD _____

11-2 Study Guide and Intervention
Arithmetic Series

(continued)

Sigma Notation A shorthand notation for representing a series makes use of the Greek 5 letter !. The sigma notation for the series 6 ϩ 12 ϩ 18 ϩ 24 ϩ 30 is Α 6n.
nϭ1

Example

Evaluate

kϭ1

Α (3k ϩ 4).

18

The sum is an arithmetic series with common difference 3. Substituting k ϭ 1 and k ϭ 18 into the expression 3k ϩ 4 gives a1 ϭ 3(1) ϩ 4 ϭ 7 and a18 ϭ 3(18) ϩ 4 ϭ 58. There are 18 terms in the series, so n ϭ 18. Use the formula for the sum of an arithmetic series.
n 2 18 S18 ϭ ᎏ (7 ϩ 58) 2

Sn ϭ ᎏ (a1 ϩ an)

Sum formula n ϭ 18, a1 ϭ 7, an ϭ 58 Simplify. Multiply.

ϭ 9(65) ϭ 585 So
18 kϭ1

Α (3k ϩ 4) ϭ 585.

Exercises
Find the sum of each arithmetic series. 1.

Α (2n ϩ 1) nϭ1
440
75

20

2.

Α (x Ϫ 1) nϭ5
294
15

25

3.

Α (2k Ϫ 7) kϭ1
216
50

18

4.

Α (2r Ϫ 200) rϭ10
Ϫ7590
80

5.

Α (6x ϩ 3) xϭ1
765
85

6.

Α (500 Ϫ 6t) tϭ1
17,350
200

7.

kϭ1

Α (100 Ϫ k)

8.

nϭ20

Α

(n Ϫ 100)

9.

sϭ1

Α 3s

4760
10.

Ϫ3135
11.

60,300
12.

mϭ14

Α

28

(2m Ϫ 50)

pϭ1

Α (5p Ϫ 20)

36

jϭ12

Α (25 Ϫ 2j)

32

Ϫ120
13.

2610
14.

Ϫ399
15.

Α (4n Ϫ 9) nϭ18
2775

42

Α (3n ϩ 4) nϭ20
3379
638

50

Α (7j Ϫ 3) jϭ5
6740
Glencoe Algebra 2

44

©

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

____________ PERIOD _____

11-2 Practice

(Average)

Arithmetic Series
Find Sn for each arithmetic series described. 1. a1 ϭ 16, an ϭ 98, n ϭ 13 741 3. a1 ϭ Ϫ5, an ϭ Ϫ26, n ϭ 8 Ϫ124 5. a1 ϭ 6, n ϭ 15, an ϭ Ϫ22 Ϫ120 7. a1 ϭ 13, d ϭ Ϫ6, n ϭ 21 Ϫ987 9. a1 ϭ 5, d ϭ 2, an ϭ 33 285 11. d ϭ 0.4, n ϭ 10, an ϭ 3.8 20 Find the sum of each arithmetic series. 13. 5 ϩ 7 ϩ 9 ϩ 11 ϩ … ϩ 27 192 15. 13 ϩ 20 ϩ 27 ϩ … ϩ 272 5415 17. Α (1 Ϫ 2n) Ϫ16
nϭ1 10 4 6

2. a1 ϭ 3, an ϭ 36, n ϭ 12 234 4. a1 ϭ 5, n ϭ 10, an ϭ Ϫ13 Ϫ40 6. a1 ϭ Ϫ20, n ϭ 25, an ϭ 148 1600 8. a1 ϭ 5, d ϭ 4, n ϭ 11 275 10. a1 ϭ Ϫ121, d ϭ 3, an ϭ 5 Ϫ2494 12. d ϭ Ϫ ᎏ , n ϭ 16, an ϭ 44 784
2 3

14. Ϫ4 ϩ 1 ϩ 6 ϩ 11 ϩ … ϩ 91 870 16. 89 ϩ 86 ϩ 83 ϩ 80 ϩ … ϩ 20 1308 19. Α (9 Ϫ 4n) Ϫ15
nϭ1 101 5

18. Α (5 ϩ 3n) 93
jϭ1 8

20. Α (2k ϩ 1) 105
kϭ4

21. Α (5n Ϫ 10) 105
nϭ3

22. Α (4 Ϫ 4n) Ϫ20,200
nϭ1

Find the first three terms of each arithmetic series described. 23. a1 ϭ 14, an ϭ Ϫ85, Sn ϭ Ϫ1207 24. a1 ϭ 1, an ϭ 19, Sn ϭ 100

14, 11, 8
25. n ϭ 16, an ϭ 15, Sn ϭ Ϫ120

1, 3, 5
26. n ϭ 15, an ϭ 5 ᎏ , Sn ϭ 45
4 5

Ϫ30, Ϫ27, Ϫ24

1 3 ᎏ, ᎏ, 1

27. STACKING A health club rolls its towels and stacks them in layers on a shelf. Each layer of towels has one less towel than the layer below it. If there are 20 towels on the bottom layer and one towel on the top layer, how many towels are stacked on the shelf?

210 towels
28. BUSINESS A merchant places $1 in a jackpot on August 1, then draws the name of a regular customer. If the customer is present, he or she wins the $1 in the jackpot. If the customer is not present, the merchant adds $2 to the jackpot on August 2 and draws another name. Each day the merchant adds an amount equal to the day of the month. If the first person to win the jackpot wins $496, on what day of the month was her or his name drawn? August 31
©

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

640

Glencoe Algebra 2

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

____________ PERIOD _____

11-2 Reading to Learn Mathematics
Arithmetic Series
Pre-Activity
How do arithmetic series apply to amphitheaters? Read the introduction to Lesson 11-2 at the top of page 583 in your textbook. Suppose that an amphitheater can seat 50 people in the first row and that each row thereafter can seat 9 more people than the previous row. Using the vocabulary of arithmetic sequences, describe how you would find the number of people who could be seated in the first 10 rows. (Do not actually calculate the sum.) Sample answer: Find the first 10 terms of an

arithmetic sequence with first term 50 and common difference 9. Then add these 10 terms.

Reading the Lesson
1. What is the relationship between an arithmetic sequence and the corresponding arithmetic series? Sample answer: An arithmetic sequence is a list of terms

2. Consider the formula Sn ϭ ᎏ (a1 ϩ an). Explain the meaning of this formula in words.

n 2

Sample answer: To find the sum of the first n terms of an arithmetic sequence, find half the number of terms you are adding. Multiply this number by the sum of the first term and the nth term.
3. a. What is the purpose of sigma notation?

Sample answer: to write a series in a concise form
b. Consider the expression This form of writing a sum is called The variable i is called the The first value of i is The last value of i is
iϭ2

Α (4i Ϫ 2).
sigma notation
.

12

index of summation . 2
. .

12

How would you read this expression? The sum of 4i Ϫ2 as i goes from 2 to 12.

Helping You Remember
4. A good way to remember something is to relate it to something you already know. How can your knowledge of how to find the average of two numbers help you remember the formula Sn ϭ ᎏ (a1 ϩ an)? Sample answer: Rewrite the formula as
1 n Sn ϭ n и ᎏ . The average of the first and last terms is given by the

n 2

a ϩa 2 a1 ϩ an expression ᎏ . The sum of the first n terms is the average of the 2 first

©

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

641

Glencoe Algebra 2

Lesson 11-2

with a common difference between successive terms. The corresponding arithmetic series is the sum of the terms of the sequence.

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

____________ PERIOD _____

11-3 Study Guide and Intervention
Geometric Sequences
Geometric Sequences
n th Term of a Geometric Sequence

A geometric sequence is a sequence in which each term after the first is the product of the previous term and a constant called the constant ratio.
an ϭ a1 и r n Ϫ 1, where a1 is the first term, r is the common ratio, and n is any positive integer

Find the next two terms of the geometric sequence 1200, 480, 192, … . Since ᎏ ϭ 0.4 and ᎏ ϭ 0.4, the sequence has a common ratio of 0.4. The next two terms in the sequence are 192(0.4) ϭ 76.8 and 76.8(0.4) ϭ 30.72.
480 1200 192 480

Example 1

Write an equation for the nth term of the geometric sequence 3.6, 10.8, 32.4, … . In this sequence a1 ϭ 3.6 and r ϭ 3. Use the nth term formula to write an equation. an ϭ a1 и r n Ϫ 1 ϭ 3.6 и 3n Ϫ 1
Formula for nth term a1 ϭ 3.6, r ϭ 3

Example 2

An equation for the nth term is an ϭ 3.6 и 3n Ϫ 1.

Exercises
Find the next two terms of each geometric sequence. 1. 6, 12, 24, … 2. 180, 60, 20, … 3. 2000, Ϫ1000, 500, …

48, 96
4. 0.8, Ϫ2.4, 7.2, …

20 20 ᎏ, ᎏ
5. 80, 60, 45, …

Ϫ250, 125

Ϫ21.6, 64.8
7. a1 ϭ ᎏ , r ϭ 3
1 9

33.75, 25.3125
8. a1 ϭ 240, r ϭ Ϫ ᎏ
3 4

499.125, 2745.1875
9. a1 ϭ 10, r ϭ ᎏ
5 2

Find the first five terms of each geometric sequence described.

1 1 ᎏ , ᎏ , 1, 3, 9

240, Ϫ180, 135, Ϫ101 ᎏ , 75 ᎏ
1 15

10, 25, 62 ᎏ , 156 ᎏ , 390 ᎏ
12. a3 ϭ 9, r ϭ Ϫ3, n ϭ 7

1

1

5

Find the indicated term of each geometric sequence. 10. a1 ϭ Ϫ10, r ϭ 4, n ϭ 2 11. a1 ϭ Ϫ6, r ϭ Ϫ ᎏ , n ϭ 8
1 2

Ϫ40
13. a4 ϭ 16, r ϭ 2, n ϭ 10

3 ᎏ
14. a4 ϭ Ϫ54, r ϭ Ϫ3, n ϭ 6

729
15. a1 ϭ 8, r ϭ ᎏ , n ϭ 5
2 3

1024
16. 500, 350, 245, …

Ϫ486
17. 8, 32, 128, …

128 ᎏ

Write an equation for the nth term of each geometric sequence. 18. 11, Ϫ24.2, 53.24, …

500 и
©

0.7nϪ1

4nϪ 1
643

11 и (Ϫ2.2)n Ϫ 1
Glencoe Algebra 2

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Lesson 11-3

6. 3, 16.5, 90.75, …

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

____________ PERIOD _____

11-3 Practice

(Average)

Geometric Sequences
Find the next two terms of each geometric sequence. 1. Ϫ15, Ϫ30, Ϫ60, … Ϫ120, Ϫ240 3. 90, 30, 10, … ᎏ , ᎏ 5. ᎏ , ᎏ , ᎏ , … ᎏ , ᎏ
1 3 9 4 8 16

2. 80, 40, 20, … 10, 5 4. Ϫ1458, 486, Ϫ162, … 54, Ϫ18 6. 216, 144, 96, … 64, ᎏ

10 10

27 81

128

Find the first five terms of each geometric sequence described. 7. a1 ϭ Ϫ1, r ϭ Ϫ3 8. a1 ϭ 7, r ϭ Ϫ4

Ϫ1, 3, Ϫ9, 27, Ϫ81
9. a1 ϭ Ϫ ᎏ , r ϭ 2
1 3

7, Ϫ28, 112, Ϫ448, 1792
10. a1 ϭ 12, r ϭ ᎏ
2 3

Ϫᎏ, Ϫᎏ, Ϫᎏ, Ϫᎏ, Ϫᎏ

1

2

4

8

16

12, 8, ᎏ , ᎏ , ᎏ

16 32 64

Find the indicated term of each geometric sequence. 11. a1 ϭ 5, r ϭ 3, n ϭ 6 1215 13. a1 ϭ Ϫ4, r ϭ Ϫ2, n ϭ 10 2048 15. a12 for 96, 48, 24, … ᎏ 17. a1 ϭ Ϫ3125, r ϭ Ϫ ᎏ , n ϭ 9 Ϫ ᎏ
1 5

12. a1 ϭ 20, r ϭ Ϫ3, n ϭ 6 Ϫ4860 14. a8 for Ϫ ᎏ , Ϫ ᎏ , Ϫ ᎏ , … Ϫ ᎏ 16. a1 ϭ 8, r ϭ ᎏ , n ϭ 9 ᎏ
1 2 1 250 1 50 1 10

625

3

1

1 125

18. a1 ϭ 3, r ϭ ᎏ , n ϭ 8 ᎏᎏ

1 10

3

Write an equation for the nth term of each geometric sequence. 19. 1, 4, 16, … an ϭ (4)n Ϫ 1 21. 1, ᎏ , ᎏ , … an ϭ ᎏ
1 1 2 4

΂1΃

nϪ1

20. Ϫ1, Ϫ5, Ϫ25, … an ϭ Ϫ1(5)n Ϫ 1 22. Ϫ3, Ϫ6, Ϫ12, … an ϭ Ϫ3(2)n Ϫ 1 24. Ϫ5, Ϫ30, Ϫ180, … an ϭ Ϫ5(6)n Ϫ 1

23. 7, Ϫ14, 28, … an ϭ 7(Ϫ2)n Ϫ 1

Find the geometric means in each sequence. 25. 3, ? , ? , ? , 768 12, 48, 192 27. 144, ? , ? , ? , 9 26. 5, ? , ? , ? , 1280 Ϯ20, 80, Ϯ320 28. 37,500, ? , ? , ? , ? , Ϫ12

Ϯ72, 36, Ϯ18

Ϫ7500, 1500, Ϫ300, 60

29. BIOLOGY A culture initially contains 200 bacteria. If the number of bacteria doubles every 2 hours, how many bacteria will be in the culture at the end of 12 hours? 12,800 30. LIGHT If each foot of water in a lake screens out 60% of the light above, what percent of the light passes through 5 feet of water? 1.024% 31. INVESTING Raul invests $1000 in a savings account that earns 5% interest compounded annually. How much money will he have in the account at the end of 5 years? $1276.28
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646

Glencoe Algebra 2

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

____________ PERIOD _____

11-3 Reading to Learn Mathematics
Geometric Sequences
Pre-Activity
How do geometric sequences apply to a bouncing ball? Read the introduction to Lesson 11-3 at the top of page 588 in your textbook. Suppose that you drop a ball from a height of 4 feet, and that each time it falls, it bounces back to 74% of the height from which it fell. Describe how would you find the height of the third bounce. (Do not actually calculate the height of the bounce.)

Sample answer: Multiply 4 by 0.74 three times.

Reading the Lesson
1. Explain the difference between an arithmetic sequence and a geometric sequence.

Sample answer: In an arithmetic sequence, each term after the first is found by adding the common difference to the previous term. In a geometric sequence, each term after the first is found by multiplying the previous term by the common ratio.
2. Consider the formula an ϭ a1 и rn Ϫ 1. a. What is this formula used to find? a particular term of a geometric sequence b. What do each of the following represent? an: the nth term a1: the first term r: n:

the common ratio a positive integer that indicates which term you are finding arithmetic means
between 5 and 20.
4 3 4 9

3. a. In the sequence 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, the numbers 8, 11, 14, and 17 are b. In the sequence 12, 4, ᎏ , ᎏ , ᎏ , the numbers 4, ᎏ , and ᎏ are
4 4 4 3 9 27

geometric means

between 12 and ᎏ .

4 27

Helping You Remember
4. Suppose that your classmate Ricardo has trouble remembering the formula an ϭ a1 и r n Ϫ 1 correctly. He thinks that the formula should be an ϭ a1 и r n. How would you explain to him that he should use rn Ϫ 1 rather than rn in the formula?

Sample answer: Each term after the first in a geometric sequence is found by multiplying the previous term by r. There are n Ϫ 1 terms before the nth term, so you would need to multiply by r a total of n Ϫ 1 times, not n times, to get the nth term.
©

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

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Glencoe Algebra 2

Lesson 11-3

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

____________ PERIOD _____

11-4 Study Guide and Intervention
Geometric Series
geometric sequence.
Sum of a Geometric Series

Geometric Series

A geometric series is the indicated sum of consecutive terms of a

The sum Sn of the first n terms of a geometric series is given by
1 1 1 Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ or Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ , where r

a (1 Ϫ r n ) 1Ϫr

a Ϫ a rn 1Ϫr

1.

Find the sum of the first four terms of the geometric sequence
1 for which a1 ϭ 120 and r ϭ ᎏ . 3 a1(1 Ϫ r n) Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ Sum formula 1Ϫr

Example 1

Example 2

Find the sum of the 4 и 3 j Ϫ 2. Α jϭ1
7

geometric series

Since the sum is a geometric series, you can use the sum formula.
1 Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ

S4 ϭ

Ϸ 177.78

1 4 120 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ 3 ᎏᎏ 1 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ 3

΂

΂ ΃΃

1 n ϭ 4, a1 ϭ 120, r ϭ ᎏᎏ 3

a (1 Ϫ r n) 1Ϫr
4 ᎏᎏ(1 Ϫ 37) 3

Sum formula

Use a calculator.

S7 ϭ ᎏ
1Ϫ3

n ϭ 7, a1 ϭ ᎏᎏ, r ϭ 3 Use a calculator.

4 3

The sum of the series is 177.78.

Ϸ 1457.33

The sum of the series is 1457.33.

Exercises
Find Sn for each geometric series described. 1. a1 ϭ 2, an ϭ 486, r ϭ 3 2. a1 ϭ 1200, an ϭ 75, r ϭ ᎏ
1 2

3. a1 ϭ ᎏ , an ϭ 125, r ϭ 5

1 25

728
4. a1 ϭ 3, r ϭ ᎏ , n ϭ 4
1 3

2325
5. a1 ϭ 2, r ϭ 6, n ϭ 4

156.24
6. a1 ϭ 2, r ϭ 4, n ϭ 6

4.44
7. a1 ϭ 100, r ϭ Ϫ ᎏ , n ϭ 5
1 2

518
8. a3 ϭ 20, a6 ϭ 160, nϭ 8

2730
9. a4 ϭ 16, a7 ϭ 1024, n ϭ 10

68.75

1275

87,381.25

Find the sum of each geometric series. 10. 6 ϩ 18 ϩ 54 ϩ … to 6 terms

11. ᎏ ϩ ᎏ ϩ 1 ϩ … to 10 terms

1 4

1 2

2184
12. Α 2 j
jϭ4 8

255.75
13. Α 3 и 2k Ϫ 1
kϭ1 7

496
649

381
Glencoe Algebra 2

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Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Lesson 11-4

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

____________ PERIOD _____

11-4 Study Guide and Intervention
Geometric Series

(continued)

Specific Terms You can use one of the formulas for the sum of a geometric series to help find a particular term of the series.
Find a1 in a geometric series for which S6 ϭ 441 and r ϭ 2.
1 Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ

Example 1

441 ϭ ᎏᎏ
1Ϫ2 Ϫ63a1 441 ϭ ᎏ Ϫ1 441 a1 ϭ ᎏ 63

a (1 Ϫ r n) 1Ϫr a1(1 Ϫ 26)

Sum formula S6 ϭ 441, r ϭ 2, n ϭ 6 Subtract. Divide. Simplify.

Find a1 in a geometric series for which Sn ϭ 244, an ϭ 324, and r ϭ Ϫ3. Since you do not know the value of n, use the alternate sum formula.
a Ϫar 1Ϫr a1 Ϫ (324)(Ϫ3) 244 ϭ ᎏᎏ 1 Ϫ (Ϫ3) a1 ϩ 972 244 ϭ ᎏᎏ 4
1 n Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ

Example 2

Alternate sum formula Sn ϭ 244, an ϭ 324, r ϭ Ϫ3 Simplify. Multiply each side by 4. Subtract 972 from each side.

a1 ϭ 7

The first term of the series is 7.

976 ϭ a1 ϩ 972 a1 ϭ 4

The first term of the series is 4. Find a4 in a geometric series for which Sn ϭ 796.875, r ϭ ᎏ , and n ϭ 8. 2 First use the sum formula to find a1.
1 Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ

Example 3

1

a (1 Ϫ r n) 1Ϫr

Sum formula
8

a1 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ 2 796.875 ϭ ᎏᎏ 1 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ
2

΂

΂1΃ ΃

S8 ϭ 796.875, r ϭ ᎏ , n ϭ 8

1 2

796.875 ϭ ᎏᎏ
0.5

0.99609375a1

Use a calculator.

a1 ϭ 400

Since a4 ϭ a1 и r3, a4 ϭ 400 ᎏᎏ

΂1 2΃

3

ϭ 50. The fourth term of the series is 50.

Exercises
Find the indicated term for each geometric series described. 1. Sn ϭ 726, an ϭ 486, r ϭ 3; a1 6 3. Sn ϭ 1023.75, an ϭ 512, r ϭ 2; a1 ᎏ 5. Sn ϭ 183, r ϭ Ϫ3, n ϭ 5; a1 3 7. Sn ϭ 52,084, r ϭ Ϫ5, n ϭ 7; a1 4 9. Sn ϭ 381, r ϭ 2, n ϭ 7; a4 24
©

2. Sn ϭ 850, an ϭ 1280, r ϭ Ϫ2; a1 Ϫ10

1

4. Sn ϭ 118.125, an ϭ Ϫ5.625, r ϭ Ϫ ᎏ ; a1 180 6. Sn ϭ 1705, r ϭ 4, n ϭ 5; a1 5 8. Sn ϭ 43,690, r ϭ ᎏ , n ϭ 8; a1 32, 768
1 4

1 2

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650

Glencoe Algebra 2

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

____________ PERIOD _____

11-4 Practice

(Average)

Geometric Series
Find Sn for each geometric series described. 1. a1 ϭ 2, a6 ϭ 64, r ϭ 2 126 3. a1 ϭ Ϫ3, an ϭ Ϫ192, r ϭ Ϫ2 Ϫ129 5. a1 ϭ Ϫ3, an ϭ 3072, r ϭ Ϫ4 2457 7. a1 ϭ 5, r ϭ 3, n ϭ 9 49,205 9. a1 ϭ Ϫ6, r ϭ Ϫ3, n ϭ 7 Ϫ3282 11. a1 ϭ ᎏ , r ϭ 3, n ϭ 10 ᎏ Find the sum of each geometric series. 13. 162 ϩ 54 ϩ 18 ϩ … to 6 terms ᎏ 15. 64 Ϫ 96 ϩ 144 Ϫ … to 7 terms 463 17. Α (Ϫ3) n Ϫ 1 Ϫ1640
nϭ1 6 8 9

2. a1 ϭ 160, a6 ϭ 5, r ϭ ᎏ 315 4. a1 ϭ Ϫ81, an ϭ Ϫ16, r ϭ Ϫ ᎏ Ϫ55 6. a1 ϭ 54, a6 ϭ ᎏ , r ϭ ᎏ ᎏ 8. a1 ϭ Ϫ6, r ϭ Ϫ1, n ϭ 21 Ϫ6 10. a1 ϭ Ϫ9, r ϭ ᎏ , n ϭ 4 Ϫ ᎏ 12. a1 ϭ 16, r ϭ Ϫ1.5, n ϭ 6 Ϫ66.5
2 3 2 9 1 728 3 2 3

1 2

65

1 3

29,524

728

14. 2 ϩ 4 ϩ 8 ϩ … to 8 terms 510 16. ᎏ Ϫ ᎏ ϩ 1 Ϫ … to 6 terms Ϫ ᎏ 19. Α Ϫ1(4) n Ϫ 1 Ϫ341
nϭ1 4 5

1 9

1 3

182

18. Α 5(Ϫ2) n Ϫ 1 855
nϭ1 10

20. Α ᎏ
nϭ1

΂ ΃

1 n Ϫ 1 63 ᎏ 2

21. Α 2560 ᎏ
nϭ1

΂ ΃

1 nϪ1 2

5115

22. Α 9 ᎏ
nϭ1

΂2 3΃

nϪ1

65 ᎏ

Find the indicated term for each geometric series described. 23. Sn ϭ 1023, an ϭ 768, r ϭ 4; a1 3 25. Sn ϭ Ϫ1365, n ϭ 12, r ϭ Ϫ2; a1 1 24. Sn ϭ 10,160, an ϭ 5120, r ϭ 2; a1 80 26. Sn ϭ 665, n ϭ 6, r ϭ 1.5; a1 32

27. CONSTRUCTION A pile driver drives a post 27 inches into the ground on its first hit. Each additional hit drives the post ᎏ the distance of the prior hit. Find the total distance the post has been driven after 5 hits.
2 3

70 ᎏ in.

1

28. COMMUNICATIONS Hugh Moore e-mails a joke to 5 friends on Sunday morning. Each of these friends e-mails the joke to 5 of her or his friends on Monday morning, and so on. Assuming no duplication, how many people will have heard the joke by the end of Saturday, not including Hugh? 97,655 people
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Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

652

Glencoe Algebra 2

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

____________ PERIOD _____

11-4 Reading to Learn Mathematics
Geometric Series
Pre-Activity
How is e-mailing a joke like a geometric series? Read the introduction to Lesson 11-4 at the top of page 594 in your textbook. • Suppose that you e-mail the joke on Monday to five friends, rather than three, and that each of those friends e-mails it to five friends on Tuesday, and so on. Write a sum that shows that total number of people, including yourself, who will have read the joke by Thursday. (Write out the sum using plus signs rather than sigma notation. Do not actually find the sum.)

1 ϩ 5 ϩ 25 ϩ 125

• Use exponents to rewrite the sum you found above. (Use an exponent in each term, and use the same base for all terms.)

50 ϩ 51 ϩ 52 ϩ 53

Reading the Lesson
1 1. Consider the formula Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ .

a (1 Ϫ r n) 1Ϫr

a. What is this formula used to find? the sum of the first n terms of a

geometric series
b. What do each of the following represent? Sn: the sum of the first n terms a1: the first term r:

the common ratio
1 3 1 9 1 27

c. Suppose that you want to use the formula to evaluate 3 Ϫ 1 ϩ ᎏ Ϫ ᎏ ϩ ᎏ . Indicate the values you would substitute into the formula in order to find Sn. (Do not actually calculate the sum.) nϭ

5

a1 ϭ

3

Ϫᎏᎏ

1 3

rn

ϭ

ᎏ ΂Ϫᎏ1 3΃

5

or Ϫ ᎏᎏ

1 243

the values you would substitute into the formula in order to find Sn. (Do not actually calculate the sum.) nϭ

6

a1 ϭ

8

Ϫ2

rn ϭ

(Ϫ2)6 or 64

Helping You Remember
2. This lesson includes three formulas for the sum of the first n terms of a geometric series. All of these formulas have the same denominator and have the restriction r 1. How can this restriction help you to remember the denominator in the formulas?

Sample answer: If r ϭ 1, then r Ϫ 1 ϭ 0. Because division by 0 is undefined, a formula with r Ϫ 1 in the denominator will not apply when r ϭ 1.
653

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Glencoe Algebra 2

Lesson 11-4

d. Suppose that you want to use the formula to evaluate the sum

Α 8(Ϫ2)n Ϫ 1. Indicate nϭ1

6

n ϭ 13, a1 ϭ 21, d ϭ Ϫ6 a1 ϭ 37, a7 ϭ 121, n ϭ 7 Simplify.

Now add 4 to the third term of the sequence, and then continue adding 4 until the four terms are found. The next four terms of the sequence are 19, 23, 27, and 31.
Formula for the nth term

an ϭ a1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1) d a13 ϭ 21 ϩ (13 Ϫ 1)(Ϫ6) a13 ϭ Ϫ51
Formula for nth term

The thirteenth term is Ϫ51.

Lesson 11-1

©
____________ PERIOD _____ NAME ______________________________________________ DATE ____________ PERIOD _____

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

11-1 Study Guide and Intervention
(continued)

11-1 Study Guide and Intervention
Arithmetic Sequences
The arithmetic means of an arithmetic sequence are the terms between any two nonsuccessive terms of the sequence. To find the k arithmetic means between two terms of a sequence, use the following steps.
Step 1 Let the two terms given be a1 and an , where n ϭ k ϩ 2. Step 2 Substitute in the formula an ϭ a1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1)d. Step 3 Solve for d, and use that value to find the k arithmetic means: a1 ϩ d, a1 ϩ 2d, … , a1 ϩ kd.

Arithmetic Sequences
Arithmetic Means

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
Example 2 Find the thirteenth term of the arithmetic sequence with a1 ϭ 21 and d ϭ Ϫ6.
Use the formula for the nth term of an arithmetic sequence with a1 ϭ 21, n ϭ 13, and d ϭ Ϫ6.

Arithmetic Sequences

An arithmetic sequence is a sequence of numbers in which each term after the first term is found by adding the common difference to the preceding term.

n th Term of an Arithmetic Sequence

an ϭ a1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1)d, where a1 is the first term, d is the common difference, and n is any positive integer

Example 1 Find the next four terms of the arithmetic sequence 7, 11, 15, … . Find the common difference by subtracting two consecutive terms.

11 Ϫ 7 ϭ 4 and 15 Ϫ 11 ϭ 4, so d ϭ 4.

Example Find the five arithmetic means between 37 and 121. You can use the nth term formula to find the common difference. In the sequence, 37, ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , 121, …, a1 is 37 and a7 is 121.
an ϭ a1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1)d 121 ϭ 37 ϩ (7 Ϫ 1)d 121 ϭ 37 ϩ 6d 84 ϭ 6d d ϭ 14
Simplify. Subtract 37 from each side. Divide each side by 6.

Answers

Write an equation for the nth term of the arithmetic sequence Ϫ14, Ϫ5, 4, 13, … .

Example 3

Now use the value of d to find the five arithmetic means. 37 51 65 79 93 107 121 ϩ 14 ϩ 14 ϩ 14 ϩ 14 ϩ 14 ϩ 14 The arithmetic means are 51, 65, 79, 93, and 107.

A2
Exercises
1. 5, ? , ? , ? , Ϫ3

In this sequence a1 ϭ Ϫ14 and d ϭ 9. Use the formula for an to write an equation.

‫ۍ ۍ ۍ ۍ ۍ‬

‫ۍ‬

Formula for the nth term

a1 ϭ Ϫ14, d ϭ 9

Distributive Property

an ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ

a1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1) d Ϫ14 ϩ (n Ϫ 1)9 Ϫ14 ϩ 9n Ϫ 9 9n Ϫ 23

Simplify.

Find the arithmetic means in each sequence. 2. 18, ? , ? , ? , Ϫ2 3. 16, ? , ? , 37

Exercises
2. Ϫ28, Ϫ31, Ϫ34, … 3. 207, 194, 181, …

3, 1, Ϫ1
4. 108, ? , ? , ? , ? , 48

13, 8, 3
5. Ϫ14, ? , ? , ? , Ϫ30

23, 30
6. 29, ? , ? , ? , 89

(Lesson 11-1)

Find the next four terms of each arithmetic sequence.

1. 106, 111, 116, …

96, 84, 72, 60
7. 61, ? , ? , ? , ? , 116

Ϫ18, Ϫ22, Ϫ26 72, 83, 94, 105
9. Ϫ18, ? , ? , ? , 14

44, 59, 74
8. 45, ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , 81

121, 126, 131, 136
5. a1 ϭ Ϫ60, d ϭ 4 6. a1 ϭ 210, d ϭ Ϫ40

Ϫ37, Ϫ40, Ϫ43, Ϫ46 168, 155, 142, 129

Find the first five terms of each arithmetic sequence described.

51, 57, 63, 69, 75
10. Ϫ40, ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , Ϫ82

4. a1 ϭ 101, d ϭ 9

101, 110, 119, 128, 137

Ϫ60, Ϫ56, Ϫ52, Ϫ48, Ϫ44 210, 170, 130, 90, 50

Ϫ10, Ϫ2, 6
11. 100, ? , ? , 235

Ϫ47, Ϫ54, Ϫ61, Ϫ68, Ϫ75
12. 80, ? , ? , ? , ? , Ϫ30

Find the indicated term of each arithmetic sequence. 8. a1 ϭ Ϫ4, d ϭ Ϫ2, n ϭ 12 Ϫ26 10. a10 for 0, Ϫ3, Ϫ6, Ϫ9, … Ϫ27

145, 190
13. 450, ? , ? , ? , 570

58, 36, 14, Ϫ8
14. 27, ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , 57

7. a1 ϭ 4, d ϭ 6, n ϭ 14 82

9. a1 ϭ 80, d ϭ Ϫ8, n ϭ 21 Ϫ80

480, 510, 540
15. 125, ? , ? , ? , 185

32, 37, 42, 47, 52
16. 230, ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , 128

Write an equation for the nth term of each arithmetic sequence. 12. Ϫ110, Ϫ85, Ϫ60, Ϫ35, … 13. 6.2, 8.1, 10.0, 11.9, …

140, 155, 170
17. Ϫ20, ? , ? , ? , ? , 370

213, 196, 179, 162, 145
18. 48, ? , ? , ? , 100

11. 18, 25, 32, 39, …

7n ϩ 11
631

25n Ϫ 135

1.9n ϩ 4.3
Glencoe Algebra 2

58, 136, 214, 292
©

61, 74, 87
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Glencoe Algebra 2

©

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

632

Glencoe Algebra 2

Lesson 11-1

©
____________ PERIOD _____ NAME ______________________________________________ DATE ____________ PERIOD _____

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

11-1 Skills Practice
(Average)

11-1 Practice
Arithmetic Sequences
Find the next four terms of each arithmetic sequence. 1. 5, 8, 11, … 14, 17, 20, 23 3. 100, 93, 86, … 79, 72, 65, 58 2. Ϫ10, Ϫ5, 0, … 5, 10, 15, 20 4. 15, 7, Ϫ1, … Ϫ9, Ϫ17, Ϫ25, Ϫ33 6. Ϫ12, Ϫ15, Ϫ18, …

Arithmetic Sequences

Find the next four terms of each arithmetic sequence.

1. 7, 11, 15, … 19, 23, 27, 31

2. Ϫ4, Ϫ6, Ϫ8, … Ϫ10, Ϫ12, Ϫ14, Ϫ16 4. Ϫ24, Ϫ19, Ϫ14, … Ϫ9, Ϫ4, 1, 6 6. 4.8, 4.1, 3.4, … 2.7, 2, 1.3, 0.6

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
27 7 17 5. ᎏ , 6, ᎏ , 11, … ᎏ , 2 2 2 37 16, ᎏ , 21 2

3. 101, 202, 303, … 404, 505, 606, 707

5. Ϫ67, Ϫ60, Ϫ53, …

Ϫ46, Ϫ39, Ϫ32, Ϫ25
7. a1 ϭ 7, d ϭ 7

Ϫ21, Ϫ24, Ϫ27, Ϫ30 7, 14, 21, 28, 35
9. a1 ϭ Ϫ12, d ϭ Ϫ4

Find the first five terms of each arithmetic sequence described. 8. a1 ϭ Ϫ8, d ϭ 2

Find the first five terms of each arithmetic sequence described. 8. a1 ϭ 27, d ϭ 4 27, 31, 35, 39, 43 10. a1 ϭ 93, d ϭ Ϫ15 93, 78, 63, 48, 33 12. a1 ϭ Ϫ47, d ϭ Ϫ20 11. a1 ϭ Ϫ ᎏ , d ϭ Ϫ ᎏ
5 6 1 3

Ϫ8, Ϫ6, Ϫ4, Ϫ2, 0
10. a1 ϭ ᎏ , d ϭ ᎏ
1 2 1 2

7. a1 ϭ 6, d ϭ 9 6, 15, 24, 33, 42

9. a1 ϭ Ϫ12, d ϭ 5 Ϫ12, Ϫ7, Ϫ2, 3, 8

Ϫ12, Ϫ16, Ϫ20, Ϫ24, Ϫ28

1 3 5 ᎏ , 1, ᎏ , 2, ᎏ 2 2 2
12. a1 ϭ 10.2, d ϭ Ϫ5.8

Answers

11. a1 ϭ Ϫ64, d ϭ 11

Ϫ64, Ϫ53, Ϫ42, Ϫ31, Ϫ20

Ϫ47, Ϫ67, Ϫ87, Ϫ107, Ϫ127

5 7 3 11 13 Ϫᎏ, Ϫᎏ, Ϫᎏ, Ϫᎏ, Ϫᎏ 6 6 2 6 6

10.2, 4.4, Ϫ1.4, Ϫ7.2, Ϫ13

A3
14. a1 ϭ 18, d ϭ 2, n ϭ 8 32 16. a1 ϭ 15, d ϭ Ϫ1, n ϭ 25 Ϫ9 18. a42 for 27, 30, 33, … 150 20. 163 is the ? th term of Ϫ5, 2, 9, … . 25 22. Ϫ1, 1, 3, 5, … an ϭ 2n Ϫ 3 24. 7, 2, Ϫ3, Ϫ8, … an ϭ Ϫ5n ϩ 12 26. 63, ? , ? , ? , 147 84, 105, 126

Find the indicated term of each arithmetic sequence.

Find the indicated term of each arithmetic sequence. 13. a1 ϭ 5, d ϭ 3, n ϭ 10 32 15. a18 for Ϫ6, Ϫ7, Ϫ8, … . Ϫ23
9 3 17. a1 ϭ ᎏ , d ϭ Ϫ ᎏ , n ϭ 10 5 5

13. a1 ϭ 2, d ϭ 6, n ϭ 12 68

14. a1 ϭ 9, d ϭ 3, n ϭ 29 93 16. a37 for 124, 119, 114, … . Ϫ56

15. a1 ϭ 23, d ϭ 5, n ϭ 23 133

18 Ϫᎏ 5

18. a1 ϭ 14.25, d ϭ 0.15, n ϭ 31 18.75 Complete the statement for each arithmetic sequence. 19. 166 is the ? th term of 30, 34, 38, … 35 20. 2 is the ? th term of ᎏ , ᎏ , 1, … 8 Write an equation for the nth term of each arithmetic sequence. 21. Ϫ5, Ϫ3, Ϫ1, 1, … an ϭ 2n Ϫ 7 23. 1, Ϫ1, Ϫ3, Ϫ5, … an ϭ Ϫ2n ϩ 3 22. Ϫ8, Ϫ11, Ϫ14, Ϫ17, … an ϭ Ϫ3n Ϫ 5 24. Ϫ5, 3, 11, 19, … an ϭ 8n Ϫ 13 Find the arithmetic means in each sequence. 25. Ϫ5, ? , ? , ? , 11 Ϫ1, 3, 7 26. 82, ? , ? , ? , 18 66, 50, 34 27. EDUCATION Trevor Koba has opened an English Language School in Isehara, Japan. He began with 26 students. If he enrolls 3 new students each week, in how many weeks will he have 101 students? 26 wk 28. SALARIES Yolanda interviewed for a job that promised her a starting salary of $32,000 with a $1250 raise at the end of each year. What will her salary be during her sixth year if she accepts the job? $38,250
3 4 5 5

(Lesson 11-1)

17. a31 for 34, 38, 42, … 154

Complete the statement for each arithmetic sequence.

19. 55 is the ? th term of 4, 7, 10, … . 18

Write an equation for the nth term of each arithmetic sequence.

21. 4, 7, 10, 13, … an ϭ 3n ϩ 1

23. Ϫ1, 3, 7, 11, … an ϭ 4n Ϫ 5

Find the arithmetic means in each sequence.

25. 6, ? , ? , ? , 38 14, 22, 30

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a particular term of an arithmetic sequence

Lesson 11-1

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11-1 Reading to Learn Mathematics
Fibonacci Sequence
Leonardo Fibonacci first discovered the sequence of numbers named for him while studying rabbits. He wanted to know how many pairs of rabbits would be produced in n months, starting with a single pair of newborn rabbits. He made the following assumptions. 1. Newborn rabbits become adults in one month. 2. Each pair of rabbits produces one pair each month. 3. No rabbits die.

11-1 Enrichment

Arithmetic Sequences

Pre-Activity

How are arithmetic sequences related to roofing?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
Let Fn represent the number of pairs of rabbits at the end of n months. If you begin with one pair of newborn rabbits, F0 ϭ F1 ϭ 1. This pair of rabbits would produce one pair at the end of the second month, so F2 ϭ 1 ϩ 1, or 2. At the end of the third month, the first pair of rabbits would produce another pair. Thus, F3 ϭ 2 ϩ 1, or 3. The chart below shows the number of rabbits each month for several months.
Month F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 3 5 2 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 2 3 Adult Pairs Newborn Pairs Total 1 1 2 3 5 8

Read the introduction to Lesson 11-1 at the top of page 578 in your textbook.

Describe how you would find the number of shingles needed for the fifteenth row. (Do not actually calculate this number.) Explain why your method will give the correct answer. Sample answer: Add 3 times 14 to 2. This

works because the first row has 2 shingles and 3 more are added 14 times to go from the first row to the fifteenth row.

Reading the Lesson

1. Consider the formula an ϭ a1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1)d.

a. What is this formula used to find?

b. What do each of the following represent?

an: the nth term

Answers

a1: the first term

n:

a positive integer that indicates which term you are finding

A4
Solve.

d:

the common difference

2. Consider the equation an ϭ Ϫ3n ϩ 5.

(Lesson 11-1)

an arithmetic sequence with first term 2 and common difference Ϫ3. b. Is the graph of this equation a straight line? Explain your answer. Sample answer: No; the graph is a set of points that fall on a line, but the points do not fill the line.

a. What does this equation represent? Sample answer: It gives the nth term of

c. The functions represented by the equations an ϭ Ϫ3n ϩ 5 and f (x) ϭ Ϫ3x ϩ 5 are alike in that they have the same formula. How are they different? Sample

1. Starting with a single pair of newborn rabbits, how many pairs of rabbits would there be at the end of 12 months?

answer: They have different domains. The domain of the first function is the set of positive integers. The domain of the second function is the set of all real numbers.

233
2. Write the first 10 terms of the sequence for which F0 ϭ 3, F1 ϭ 4, and Fn ϭ Fn Ϫ 2 ϩ Fn Ϫ 1.

Helping You Remember

3. A good way to remember something is to explain it to someone else. Suppose that your classmate Shala has trouble remembering the formula an ϭ a1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1)d correctly. She thinks that the formula should be an ϭ a1 ϩ nd. How would you explain to her that she should use (n Ϫ 1)d rather than nd in the formula? Sample answer: Each term

3, 4, 7, 11, 18, 29, 47, 76, 123, 199, 322
3. Write the first 10 terms of the sequence for which F0 ϭ 1, F1 ϭ 5, Fn ϭ Fn Ϫ 2 ϩ Fn Ϫ 1.

after the first in an arithmetic sequence is found by adding d to the previous term. You would add d once to get to the second term, twice to get to the third term, and so on. So d is added n Ϫ 1 times, not n times, to get the n th term.
635
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1, 5, 6, 11, 17, 28, 45, 73, 118, 191, 309

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A5
n ϭ 90, a1 ϭ 1, an ϭ 179 Simplify. Multiply.

Lesson 11-2

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11-2 Study Guide and Intervention
Arithmetic Series
letter
2

11-2 Study Guide and Intervention

(continued)

Arithmetic Series

arithmetic sequence.

Arithmetic Series

An arithmetic series is the sum of consecutive terms of an

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
nϭ1

Sigma Notation A shorthand notation for representing a series makes use of the Greek 5 !. The sigma notation for the series 6 ϩ 12 ϩ 18 ϩ 24 ϩ 30 is Α 6n.
Evaluate
kϭ1

Sum of an Arithmetic Series

The sum Sn of the first n terms of an arithmetic series is given by the formula n n Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ[2a1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1)d ] or Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ(a1 ϩ an)

2

Example

Α (3k ϩ 4).

18

The sum is an arithmetic series with common difference 3. Substituting k ϭ 1 and k ϭ 18 into the expression 3k ϩ 4 gives a1 ϭ 3(1) ϩ 4 ϭ 7 and a18 ϭ 3(18) ϩ 4 ϭ 58. There are 18 terms in the series, so n ϭ 18. Use the formula for the sum of an arithmetic series. Sn ϭ ᎏ (a1 ϩ an)
Sum formula n ϭ 18, a1 ϭ 7, an ϭ 58 Simplify. Multiply.

Example 1 Find S for the n arithmetic series with a1 ϭ 14, an ϭ 101, and n ϭ 30. Use the sum formula for an arithmetic series.
Formula for nth term

Example 2 Find the sum of all positive odd integers less than 180. The series is 1 ϩ 3 ϩ 5 ϩ … ϩ 179. Find n using the formula for the nth term of an arithmetic sequence.
n 2 18 S18 ϭ ᎏ (7 ϩ 58) 2

Sum formula

n Sn ϭ ᎏ (a1 ϩ an) 2 30 S30 ϭ ᎏ (14 ϩ 101) 2

n ϭ 30, a1 ϭ 14, an ϭ 101

ϭ 9(65) ϭ 585 So
kϭ1

ϭ 15(115) ϭ 1725

Simplify. Multiply.

an 179 179 180 n ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ
an ϭ 179, a1 ϭ 1, d ϭ 2 Simplify. Add 1 to each side. Divide each side by 2.

a1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1) d 1 ϩ (n Ϫ 1)2 2n Ϫ 1 2n 90

Α (3k ϩ 4) ϭ 585.

18

The sum of the series is 1725. Sn ϭ ᎏ (a1 ϩ an)
Sum formula

Then use the sum formula for an arithmetic series.

Answers

Exercises
Find the sum of each arithmetic series. 1.
nϭ1 20 25 18

n 2 90 S90 ϭ ᎏ (1 ϩ 179) 2

ϭ 45(180) ϭ 8100 The sum of all positive odd integers less than 180 is 8100. 4. 3. a1 ϭ 60, an ϭ Ϫ136, n ϭ 50 Ϫ1900 6. a1 ϭ Ϫ8, d ϭ Ϫ7, an ϭ Ϫ71 Ϫ395 9. a1 ϭ 32, n ϭ 27, d ϭ 3 7.

Α (2n ϩ 1)
440

2.

nϭ5

Α (x Ϫ 1)
294

3.

kϭ1

Α (2k Ϫ 7)
216

Exercises
2. a1 ϭ 50, an ϭ Ϫ50, n ϭ 15 0 5. a1 ϭ 180, d ϭ Ϫ8, an ϭ 68 1860
1 8. a1 ϭ 4, n ϭ 20, d ϭ 2 ᎏ 2

(Lesson 11-2)

Find Sn for each arithmetic series described.

rϭ10

Α (2r Ϫ 200)
Ϫ7590

75

5.

xϭ1

Α (6x ϩ 3)
765

15

6.

tϭ1

Α (500 Ϫ 6t)
17,350

50

1. a1 ϭ 12, an ϭ 100, n ϭ 12 672

4. a1 ϭ 20, d ϭ 4, an ϭ 112 1584

Α (100 Ϫ k) kϭ1
4760
10.
28

80

8.

Α (n Ϫ 100) nϭ20
Ϫ3135
36 mϭ14

85

9.

200

sϭ1

Α 3s
60,300

7. a1 ϭ 42, n ϭ 8, d ϭ 6

504

555

1917
11. 16 ϩ 22 ϩ 28 ϩ … ϩ 112 1088

Find the sum of each arithmetic series.

10. 8 ϩ 6 ϩ 4 ϩ … ϩ Ϫ10 Ϫ10

Α

(2m Ϫ 50)

11.

pϭ1

Α (5p Ϫ 20)
Ϫ120
13.

12.

jϭ12

Α (25 Ϫ 2j)
2610 Ϫ399

32

12. Ϫ45 ϩ (Ϫ41) ϩ (Ϫ37) ϩ … ϩ 35 Ϫ105

Find the first three terms of each arithmetic series described. 14. a1 ϭ 80, an ϭ Ϫ115, Sn ϭ Ϫ245 80, 65, 50 15. a1 ϭ 6.2, an ϭ 12.6, Sn ϭ 84.6 6.2, 7.0, 7.8
Glencoe Algebra 2

nϭ18

Α (4n Ϫ 9)
2775
©

42

14.

nϭ20

Α (3n ϩ 4)
3379
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

50

15.

jϭ5

Α (7j Ϫ 3)
6740
638
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44

13. a1 ϭ 12, an ϭ 174, Sn ϭ 1767 12, 21, 30

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Lesson 11-2

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11-2 Skills Practice
(Average)

11-2 Practice
Arithmetic Series
Find Sn for each arithmetic series described. 1. a1 ϭ 16, an ϭ 98, n ϭ 13 741 3. a1 ϭ Ϫ5, an ϭ Ϫ26, n ϭ 8 Ϫ124 5. a1 ϭ 6, n ϭ 15, an ϭ Ϫ22 Ϫ120 7. a1 ϭ 13, d ϭ Ϫ6, n ϭ 21 Ϫ987 9. a1 ϭ 5, d ϭ 2, an ϭ 33 285 11. d ϭ 0.4, n ϭ 10, an ϭ 3.8 20 Find the sum of each arithmetic series. 13. 5 ϩ 7 ϩ 9 ϩ 11 ϩ … ϩ 27 192 15. 13 ϩ 20 ϩ 27 ϩ … ϩ 272 5415 17. Α (1 Ϫ 2n) Ϫ16
nϭ1 4 6

Arithmetic Series
2. a1 ϭ Ϫ5, an ϭ 13, n ϭ 7 28 4. a1 ϭ 7, n ϭ 11, an ϭ 67 407 6. a1 ϭ Ϫ4, n ϭ 10, an ϭ Ϫ22 Ϫ130 8. a1 ϭ 1, d ϭ 3, n ϭ 15 330 10. a1 ϭ Ϫ9, d ϭ 4, an ϭ 27 90 12. d ϭ Ϫ12, n ϭ 11, an ϭ Ϫ52 88 2. a1 ϭ 3, an ϭ 36, n ϭ 12 234 4. a1 ϭ 5, n ϭ 10, an ϭ Ϫ13 Ϫ40 6. a1 ϭ Ϫ20, n ϭ 25, an ϭ 148 1600 8. a1 ϭ 5, d ϭ 4, n ϭ 11 275 10. a1 ϭ Ϫ121, d ϭ 3, an ϭ 5 Ϫ2494 12. d ϭ Ϫ ᎏ , n ϭ 16, an ϭ 44 784
2 3

Find Sn for each arithmetic series described.

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14. Ϫ4 ϩ 1 ϩ 6 ϩ 11 ϩ … ϩ 91 870 16. 89 ϩ 86 ϩ 83 ϩ 80 ϩ … ϩ 20 1308 18. Α (5 ϩ 3n) 93
jϭ1

1. a1 ϭ 1, an ϭ 19, n ϭ 10 100

3. a1 ϭ 12, an ϭ Ϫ23, n ϭ 8 Ϫ44

5. a1 ϭ 5, n ϭ 10, an ϭ 32 185

7. a1 ϭ Ϫ8, d ϭ Ϫ5, n ϭ 12 Ϫ426

9. a1 ϭ 100, d ϭ Ϫ7, an ϭ 37 685

11. d ϭ 2, n ϭ 26, an ϭ 42 442

Answers

A6
14. 5 ϩ 8 ϩ 11 ϩ 14 ϩ … ϩ 32 185
kϭ4

Find the sum of each arithmetic series. 20. Α (2k ϩ 1) 105
10

19. Α (9 Ϫ 4n) Ϫ15
nϭ1

5

13. 1 ϩ 4 ϩ 7 ϩ 10 ϩ … ϩ 43 330

21. Α (5n Ϫ 10) 105
nϭ3

8

22. Α (4 Ϫ 4n) Ϫ20,200
nϭ1

101

15. 3 ϩ 5 ϩ 7 ϩ 9 ϩ … ϩ 19 99
18

16. Ϫ2 ϩ (Ϫ5) ϩ (Ϫ8) ϩ … ϩ (Ϫ20) Ϫ77

Find the first three terms of each arithmetic series described. 23. a1 ϭ 14, an ϭ Ϫ85, Sn ϭ Ϫ1207 24. a1 ϭ 1, an ϭ 19, Sn ϭ 100

(Lesson 11-2)

5

17. Α (2n Ϫ 3) 15
nϭ1

nϭ1

18. Α (10 ϩ 3n) 693

14, 11, 8
25. n ϭ 16, an ϭ 15, Sn ϭ Ϫ120

1, 3, 5
26. n ϭ 15, an ϭ 5 ᎏ , Sn ϭ 45
4 5

19. Α (4n ϩ 1) 225
nϭ5

10

nϭ2

20. Α (4 Ϫ 3n) Ϫ172

12

Ϫ30, Ϫ27, Ϫ24

1 3 ᎏ, ᎏ, 1 5 5
27. STACKING A health club rolls its towels and stacks them in layers on a shelf. Each layer of towels has one less towel than the layer below it. If there are 20 towels on the bottom layer and one towel on the top layer, how many towels are stacked on the shelf?

Find the first three terms of each arithmetic series described. 22. a1 ϭ Ϫ3, an ϭ 41, Sn ϭ 228 Ϫ3, 1, 5 24. n ϭ 19, an ϭ 85, Sn ϭ 760 Ϫ5, 0, 5

210 towels

21. a1 ϭ 4, an ϭ 31, Sn ϭ 175 4, 7, 10

23. n ϭ 10, an ϭ 41, Sn ϭ 230 5, 9, 13

28. BUSINESS A merchant places $1 in a jackpot on August 1, then draws the name of a regular customer. If the customer is present, he or she wins the $1 in the jackpot. If the customer is not present, the merchant adds $2 to the jackpot on August 2 and draws another name. Each day the merchant adds an amount equal to the day of the month. If the first person to win the jackpot wins $496, on what day of the month was her or his name drawn? August 31
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11-2 Reading to Learn Mathematics
Geometric Puzzlers
For the problems on this page, you will need to use the Pythagorean Theorem and the formulas for the area of a triangle and a trapezoid. 1. A rectangle measures 5 by 12 units. The upper left corner is cut off as shown in the diagram.
2x 5

11-2 Enrichment

Arithmetic Series

Pre-Activity

How do arithmetic series apply to amphitheaters?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
x
12

Read the introduction to Lesson 11-2 at the top of page 583 in your textbook.

arithmetic sequence with first term 50 and common difference 9. Then add these 10 terms.

Suppose that an amphitheater can seat 50 people in the first row and that each row thereafter can seat 9 more people than the previous row. Using the vocabulary of arithmetic sequences, describe how you would find the number of people who could be seated in the first 10 rows. (Do not actually calculate the sum.) Sample answer: Find the first 10 terms of an

2. A triangle with sides of lengths a, a, and b is isosceles. Two triangles are cut off so that the remaining pentagon has five equal sides of length x. The value of x can be found using this equation. (2b Ϫ a)x2 ϩ (4a2 Ϫ b2)(2x Ϫ a) ϭ 0
x x x b x x a

Reading the Lesson

1. What is the relationship between an arithmetic sequence and the corresponding arithmetic series? Sample answer: An arithmetic sequence is a list of terms

a. Find the area A(x) of the shaded pentagon.

with a common difference between successive terms. The corresponding arithmetic series is the sum of the terms of the sequence.
n 2

A(x ) ϭ 60 Ϫ (5 Ϫ x)(6 Ϫ x)
b. Find x and 2x so that A(x) is a maximum. What happens to the cut-off triangle?

2. Consider the formula Sn ϭ ᎏ (a1 ϩ an). Explain the meaning of this formula in words.

a. Find x when a ϭ 10 and b ϭ 12.

x ഠ 4.46
b. Can a be equal to 2b?

Answers

Sample answer: To find the sum of the first n terms of an arithmetic sequence, find half the number of terms you are adding. Multiply this number by the sum of the first term and the nth term.

x ϭ 5 and 2x ϭ 10; the triangle will not exist.

A7
Α (4i Ϫ 2). iϭ2
sigma notation
.
12

3. a. What is the purpose of sigma notation?

Yes, but it would not be possible to have a pentagon of the type described.
4. Inside a square are five circles with the same radius.

Sample answer: to write a series in a concise form

b. Consider the expression

This form of writing a sum is called

3. The coordinates of the vertices of a triangle are A(0, 0), B(11, 0), and C(0, 11). A line x ϭ k cuts the triangle into two regions having equal area.
y

(Lesson 11-2)

The variable i is called the

index of summation . 2
. .

C D

a

r

The first value of i is

The last value of i is

12

How would you read this expression? The sum of 4i Ϫ2 as i goes from 2 to 12.
xϭk

a. Connect the center of the top left circle to the center of the bottom right circle. Express this length in terms of r.

Helping You Remember
A B x

4r
a. What are the coordinates of point D ?

4. A good way to remember something is to relate it to something you already know. How can your knowledge of how to find the average of two numbers help you remember the

formula Sn ϭ ᎏ (a1 ϩ an)? Sample answer: Rewrite the formula as

n 2

(k, 11 Ϫ k )
b. Write and solve an equation for finding the value of k.

b. Draw the square with vertices at the centers of the four outside circles. Express the diagonal of this square in terms of r and a.

1 n Sn ϭ n и ᎏ . The average of the first and last terms is given by the

(a Ϫ 2r )͙2 ෆ
1 ᎏᎏk (11 ϩ 11 Ϫ k ) ϭ 22; 2

a ϩa 2 a1 ϩ an expression ᎏ . The sum of the first n terms is the average of the first 2

and last terms multiplied by the number of terms.

ෆ k ϭ 11 Ϫ ͙77
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Lesson 11-3

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11-3 Study Guide and Intervention
(continued)

11-3 Study Guide and Intervention
Geometric Sequences
The geometric means of a geometric sequence are the terms between any two nonsuccessive terms of the sequence. To find the k geometric means between two terms of a sequence, use the following steps.
Step 1 Let the two terms given be a1 and an, where n ϭ k ϩ 2. Step 2 Substitute in the formula an ϭ a1 и r n Ϫ 1 (ϭ a1 и r k ϩ 1). Step 3 Solve for r, and use that value to find the k geometric means: a1 и r, a1 и r 2, … , a1 и r k

Geometric Sequences
Geometric Means

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
Example 2 Write an equation for the nth term of the geometric sequence 3.6, 10.8, 32.4, … . In this sequence a1 ϭ 3.6 and r ϭ 3. Use the nth term formula to write an equation.
an ϭ a1 и r n Ϫ 1 ϭ 3.6 и 3n Ϫ 1
Formula for nth term a1 ϭ 3.6, r ϭ 3

Geometric Sequences

A geometric sequence is a sequence in which each term after the first is the product of the previous term and a constant called the constant ratio.

n th Term of a Geometric Sequence

an ϭ a1 и r n Ϫ 1, where a1 is the first term, r is the common ratio, and n is any positive integer

Example 1 Find the next two terms of the geometric sequence 1200, 480, 192, … .

Since ᎏ ϭ 0.4 and ᎏ ϭ 0.4, the

480 1200

192 480

sequence has a common ratio of 0.4. The next two terms in the sequence are 192(0.4) ϭ 76.8 and 76.8(0.4) ϭ 30.72. An equation for the nth term is an ϭ 3.6 и 3n Ϫ 1.

Example Find the three geometric means between 8 and 40.5. Use the nth term formula to find the value of r. In the sequence 8, ? , ? , ? , 40.5, a1 is 8 and a5 is 40.5. an ϭ a1 и rn Ϫ 1 Formula for nth term 40.5 ϭ 8 и r5 Ϫ 1 n ϭ 5, a1 ϭ 8, a5 ϭ 40.5 4 5.0625 ϭ r Divide each side by 8. r ϭ Ϯ1.5 Take the fourth root of each side.
There are two possible common ratios, so there are two possible sets of geometric means. Use each value of r to find the geometric means.

Exercises
2. 180, 60, 20, … 3. 2000, Ϫ1000, 500, …

Answers

Find the next two terms of each geometric sequence.

1. 6, 12, 24, …

A8
20 20 ᎏ, ᎏ 3 9

48, 96
5. 80, 60, 45, … 6. 3, 16.5, 90.75, …

Ϫ250, 125

r a2 a3 a4 ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ ϭ

1.5 8(1.5) or 12 12(1.5) or 18 18(1.5) or 27 r a2 a3 a4

Ϫ1.5 8(Ϫ1.5) or Ϫ12 Ϫ12(Ϫ1.5) or 18 18(Ϫ1.5) or Ϫ27

4. 0.8, Ϫ2.4, 7.2, …

The geometric means are 12, 18, and 27, or Ϫ12, 18, and Ϫ27.

Ϫ21.6, 64.8 33.75, 25.3125
8. a1 ϭ 240, r ϭ Ϫ ᎏ
3 4

499.125, 2745.1875
9. a1 ϭ 10, r ϭ ᎏ
5 2

Exercises
Find the geometric means in each sequence. 1. 5, ? , ? , ? , 405 2. 5, ? , ? , 20.48

Find the first five terms of each geometric sequence described.

(Lesson 11-3)

7. a1 ϭ ᎏ , r ϭ 3

1 9

1 1 ᎏ , ᎏ , 1, 3, 9 9 3

240, Ϫ180, 135,
1 15 Ϫ101 ᎏ , 75 ᎏ 4 16
1 11. a1 ϭ Ϫ6, r ϭ Ϫ ᎏ , n ϭ 8 2

Ϯ15, 45, Ϯ135
3 3. ᎏ , ? , ? , ? , 375 5

8, 12.8
4. Ϫ24, ? , ? , ᎏ
1 9

1 1 10, 25, 62 ᎏ , 156 ᎏ , 2 4 5 ᎏ 390 8
12. a3 ϭ 9, r ϭ Ϫ3, n ϭ 7

Find the indicated term of each geometric sequence.

Ϯ3, 15, Ϯ75
5. 12, ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ᎏ
3 16

2 4, Ϫ ᎏ 3
6. 200, ? , ? , ? , 414.72

10. a1 ϭ Ϫ10, r ϭ 4, n ϭ 2

Ϫ40 729
2 15. a1 ϭ 8, r ϭ ᎏ , n ϭ 5 3

3 ᎏ 64
14. a4 ϭ Ϫ54, r ϭ Ϫ3, n ϭ 6

3 3 3 Ϯ6, 3, Ϯ ᎏ , ᎏ , Ϯ ᎏ 2 4 8
35 7. ᎏ , ? , ? , ? , ? , Ϫ12,005 49

Ϯ240, 288, Ϯ345.6
8. 4, ? , ? , ? , 156 ᎏ
1 4

13. a4 ϭ 16, r ϭ 2, n ϭ 10

1024
17. 8, 32, 128, …

Ϫ486

128 ᎏ 81

Ϫ ᎏ , 35, Ϫ245, 1715
9. Ϫ ᎏ , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , Ϫ9
1 81

35 7

Ϯ10, 25, Ϯ62 ᎏ
10. 100, ? , ? , ? , 384.16

1 2

Write an equation for the nth term of each geometric sequence. 18. 11, Ϫ24.2, 53.24, …

16. 500, 350, 245, …

500 и 0.7nϪ1
643

8 и 4nϪ 1

11 и (Ϫ2.2)n Ϫ 1
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1 1 1 Ϯ ᎏ , Ϫ ᎏ , Ϯ ᎏ , Ϫ1, Ϯ3 27 9 3
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Ϯ140, 196, Ϯ274.4
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Lesson 11-3

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____________ PERIOD _____ NAME ______________________________________________ DATE ____________ PERIOD _____

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

11-3 Skills Practice
(Average)

11-3 Practice
Geometric Sequences
Find the next two terms of each geometric sequence. 2. 6, 3, ᎏ , … ᎏ , ᎏ 4. 729, Ϫ243, 81 , … Ϫ27, 9 6. 64, 160, 400, … 1000, 2500 7. a1 ϭ Ϫ1, r ϭ Ϫ3 3. 90, 30, 10, … ᎏ , ᎏ
3 2

Geometric Sequences
3 4
1. Ϫ15, Ϫ30, Ϫ60, … Ϫ120, Ϫ240

Find the next two terms of each geometric sequence.

1. Ϫ1, Ϫ2, Ϫ4, … Ϫ8, Ϫ16

3 8

2. 80, 40, 20, … 10, 5 4. Ϫ1458, 486, Ϫ162, … 54, Ϫ18 6. 216, 144, 96, … 64, ᎏ

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
10 3 27 1 3 9 5. ᎏ , ᎏ , ᎏ , … ᎏ , 4 8 16 32 10 9 81 ᎏ 64 128 3
Find the first five terms of each geometric sequence described. 8. a1 ϭ 7, r ϭ Ϫ4

3. Ϫ5, Ϫ15, Ϫ45, … Ϫ135, Ϫ405

5. 1536, 384, 96, … 24, 6

Find the first five terms of each geometric sequence described.

Ϫ1, 3, Ϫ9, 27, Ϫ81
9. a1 ϭ Ϫ ᎏ , r ϭ 2
1 3

7, Ϫ28, 112, Ϫ448, 1792
10. a1 ϭ 12, r ϭ ᎏ
2 3

7. a1 ϭ 6, r ϭ 2 8. a1 ϭ Ϫ27, r ϭ 3

6, 12, 24, 48, 96
10. a1 ϭ 3, r ϭ 4

Ϫ27, Ϫ81, Ϫ243, Ϫ729, Ϫ2187

1 2 4 8 16 Ϫᎏ, Ϫᎏ, Ϫᎏ, Ϫᎏ, Ϫᎏ 3 3 3 3 3

16 32 64 12, 8, ᎏ , ᎏ , ᎏ 3 9 27

9. a1 ϭ Ϫ15, r ϭ Ϫ1

Find the indicated term of each geometric sequence. 11. a1 ϭ 5, r ϭ 3, n ϭ 6 1215 13. a1 ϭ Ϫ4, r ϭ Ϫ2, n ϭ 10 2048 12. a1 ϭ 20, r ϭ Ϫ3, n ϭ 6 Ϫ4860 14. a8 for Ϫ ᎏ , Ϫ ᎏ , Ϫ ᎏ , … Ϫ ᎏ
1 250 1 50 1 10

Answers

Ϫ15, 15, Ϫ15, 15, Ϫ15 3, 12, 48, 192, 768
12. a1 ϭ 216, r ϭ Ϫ ᎏ
1 3

11. a1 ϭ 1, r ϭ ᎏ

1 2

625 2 3 64

A9
216, Ϫ72, 24, Ϫ8, ᎏ
8 3
14. a1 ϭ 18, r ϭ 3, n ϭ 6 4374 16. a1 ϭ Ϫ20, r ϭ Ϫ2, n ϭ 9 Ϫ5120

1, ᎏ , ᎏ , ᎏ , ᎏ

1 1 1 1 2 4 8 16

15. a12 for 96, 48, 24, … ᎏ 17. a1 ϭ Ϫ3125, r ϭ Ϫ ᎏ , n ϭ 9 Ϫ ᎏ
1 5

16. a1 ϭ 8, r ϭ ᎏ , n ϭ 9 ᎏ

1 2

1 32 1 125

18. a1 ϭ 3, r ϭ ᎏ , n ϭ 8 ᎏᎏ

1 10

3 10,000,000
19. 1, 4, 16, … an ϭ (4)n Ϫ 1
1 1 21. 1, ᎏ , ᎏ , … 2 4

Find the indicated term of each geometric sequence.

Write an equation for the nth term of each geometric sequence. 20. Ϫ1, Ϫ5, Ϫ25, … an ϭ Ϫ1(5)n Ϫ 1

(Lesson 11-3)

13. a1 ϭ 5, r ϭ 2, n ϭ 6 160

15. a1 ϭ Ϫ3, r ϭ Ϫ2, n ϭ 5 Ϫ48

1 nϪ1 an ϭ ᎏ 2
23. 7, Ϫ14, 28, … an ϭ 7(Ϫ2)n Ϫ 1

΂ ΃

22. Ϫ3, Ϫ6, Ϫ12, … an ϭ Ϫ3(2)n Ϫ 1 24. Ϫ5, Ϫ30, Ϫ180, … an ϭ Ϫ5(6)n Ϫ 1 Find the geometric means in each sequence. 25. 3, ? , ? , ? , 768 12, 48, 192 27. 144, ? , ? , ? , 9 26. 5, ? , ? , ? , 1280 Ϯ20, 80, Ϯ320 28. 37,500, ? , ? , ? , ? , Ϫ12

3 17. a8 for Ϫ12, Ϫ6, Ϫ3, … Ϫ ᎏ 32

80 80 80 18. a7 for 80, ᎏ , ᎏ , … ᎏ 3 9 729

Write an equation for the nth term of each geometric sequence. 20. Ϫ1, Ϫ3, Ϫ9, … an ϭ Ϫ1(3)n Ϫ 1 22. 5, 10, 20, … an ϭ 5(2)n Ϫ 1

19. 3, 9, 27, … an ϭ 3n

Ϯ72, 36, Ϯ18

Ϫ7500, 1500, Ϫ300, 60
29. BIOLOGY A culture initially contains 200 bacteria. If the number of bacteria doubles every 2 hours, how many bacteria will be in the culture at the end of 12 hours? 12,800 30. LIGHT If each foot of water in a lake screens out 60% of the light above, what percent of the light passes through 5 feet of water? 1.024% 31. INVESTING Raul invests $1000 in a savings account that earns 5% interest compounded annually. How much money will he have in the account at the end of 5 years? $1276.28
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21. 2, Ϫ6, 18, … an ϭ 2(Ϫ3)n Ϫ 1

Find the geometric means in each sequence. 24. 1, ? , ? , ? , 81 Ϯ3, 9, Ϯ27

23. 4, ? , ? , ? , 64 Ϯ8, 16, Ϯ32

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Answers

Lesson 11-3

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____________ PERIOD _____ NAME ______________________________________________ DATE ____________ PERIOD _____

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

11-3 Reading to Learn Mathematics
Half the Distance
Suppose you are 200 feet from a fixed point, P. Suppose that you are able to move to the halfway point in one minute, to the next halfway point one minute after that, and so on.
200 feet

11-3 Enrichment

Geometric Sequences

Pre-Activity

How do geometric sequences apply to a bouncing ball?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
100 1st minute 2nd minute 150 175 P 3rd minute

Read the introduction to Lesson 11-3 at the top of page 588 in your textbook.

Suppose that you drop a ball from a height of 4 feet, and that each time it falls, it bounces back to 74% of the height from which it fell. Describe how would you find the height of the third bounce. (Do not actually calculate the height of the bounce.)

Sample answer: Multiply 4 by 0.74 three times.

Reading the Lesson

1. Explain the difference between an arithmetic sequence and a geometric sequence.

Sample answer: In an arithmetic sequence, each term after the first is found by adding the common difference to the previous term. In a geometric sequence, each term after the first is found by multiplying the previous term by the common ratio.

An interesting sequence results because according to the problem, you never actually reach the point P, although you do get arbitrarily close to it. You can compute how long it will take to get within some specified small distance of the point. On a calculator, you enter the distance to be covered and then count the number of successive divisions by 2 necessary to get within the desired distance.

2. Consider the formula an ϭ a1 и rn Ϫ 1.

Answers

a. What is this formula used to find? a particular term of a geometric sequence

Example How many minutes are needed to get within 0.1 foot of a point 200 feet away?
Count the number of times you divide by 2. Enter: 200 Ϭ 2 ENTER Result: 0.0976562 You divided by 2 eleven times. The time needed is 11 minutes. Use the method illustrated above to solve each problem.
Ϭ 2 ENTER Ϭ 2 ENTER , and so on

A10
between 5 and 20.
4 3 4 9 4 between 12 and ᎏ . 27

b. What do each of the following represent?

an: the nth term

a1: the first term

r:

the common ratio

(Lesson 11-3)

n:

a positive integer that indicates which term you are finding

3. a. In the sequence 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, the numbers 8, 11, 14, and 17 are

arithmetic means

1. If it is about 2500 miles from Los Angeles to New York, how many minutes would it take to get within 0.1 mile of New York? How far from New York are you at that time? 15 minutes, 0.0762934 mile

b. In the sequence 12, 4, ᎏ , ᎏ , ᎏ , the numbers 4, ᎏ , and ᎏ are

4 4 4 3 9 27

geometric means

2. If it is 25,000 miles around Earth, how many minutes would it take to get within 0.5 mile of the full distance around Earth? How far short would you be? 16 minutes; 0.3814697 mile 3. If it is about 250,000 miles from Earth to the Moon, how many minutes would it take to get within 0.5 mile of the Moon? How far from the surface of the Moon would you be? 19 minutes, 0.4768372 mile 4. If it is about 30,000,000 feet from Honolulu to Miami, how many minutes would it take to get to within 1 foot of Miami? How far from Miami would you be at that time? 25 minutes, 0.8940697 foot 5. If it is about 93,000,000 miles to the sun, how many minutes would it take to get within 500 miles of the sun? How far from the sun would you be at that time? 18 minutes, 354.766846 miles
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Helping You Remember

4. Suppose that your classmate Ricardo has trouble remembering the formula an ϭ a1 и r n Ϫ 1 correctly. He thinks that the formula should be an ϭ a1 и r n. How would you explain to him that he should use rn Ϫ 1 rather than rn in the formula?

Sample answer: Each term after the first in a geometric sequence is found by multiplying the previous term by r. There are n Ϫ 1 terms before the nth term, so you would need to multiply by r a total of n Ϫ 1 times, not n times, to get the nth term.
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Find the sum of each geometric series.
1 4 1 2

Lesson 11-4

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NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

11-4 Study Guide and Intervention
Geometric Series

11-4 Study Guide and Intervention

(continued)

Geometric Series

geometric sequence.

Geometric Series

A geometric series is the indicated sum of consecutive terms of a

Specific Terms You can use one of the formulas for the sum of a geometric series to help find a particular term of the series. Example 1 Find a in a geometric 1 series for which S6 ϭ 441 and r ϭ 2.
1 Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
a Ϫ a rn 1Ϫr

The sum Sn of the first n terms of a geometric series is given by 1.
Sum formula S6 ϭ 441, r ϭ 2, n ϭ 6 Subtract. Divide. Simplify.

Sum of a Geometric Series

1 1 1 Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ or Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ , where r

a (1 Ϫ r n ) 1Ϫr

Example 1
Find the sum of the
7

Find the sum of the first four terms of the geometric sequence 441 ϭ ᎏᎏ geometric series Since the sum is a geometric series, you can use the sum formula.
1 Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ

Example 2

a (1 Ϫ r n) 1Ϫr a1(1 Ϫ 26)

Example 2 Find a in a geometric 1 series for which Sn ϭ 244, an ϭ 324, and r ϭ Ϫ3. Since you do not know the value of n, use the alternate sum formula.
1 n Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ

Α 4 и 3 j Ϫ 2. jϭ1
a1 ϭ 7 The first term of the series is 7.

Alternate sum formula Sn ϭ 244, an ϭ 324, r ϭ Ϫ3 Simplify. Multiply each side by 4. Subtract 972 from each side.

1 for which a1 ϭ 120 and r ϭ ᎏ . 3 a1(1 Ϫ r n) Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ Sum formula 1Ϫr a (1 Ϫ 1Ϫr
Sum formula n ϭ 7, a1 ϭ ᎏᎏ, r ϭ 3 Use a calculator.
4 3

120 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ
1 3

S4 ϭ ᎏᎏ 1 S7 ϭ ᎏ
1Ϫ3
4 ᎏᎏ(1 Ϫ 37) 3

΂
Ϸ 1457.33 The sum of the series is 1457.33.

΂1 3΃ ΃

4

r n)

1Ϫ2 Ϫ63a1 441 ϭ ᎏ Ϫ1 441 a1 ϭ ᎏ 63

a Ϫar 1Ϫr a1 Ϫ (324)(Ϫ3) 244 ϭ ᎏᎏ 1 Ϫ (Ϫ3) a1 ϩ 972 244 ϭ ᎏᎏ 4

1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ

n ϭ 4, a1 ϭ 120, r ϭ ᎏᎏ

3

Ϸ 177.78

Use a calculator.

976 ϭ a1 ϩ 972 a1 ϭ 4

The sum of the series is 177.78.

The first term of the series is 4.

Answers

Exercises
2. a1 ϭ 1200, an ϭ 75, r ϭ ᎏ 3. a1 ϭ ᎏ , an ϭ 125, r ϭ 5

Example 3 Find a in a geometric series for which S ϭ 796.875, r ϭ ᎏ, and n ϭ 8. 4 n 2 First use the sum formula to find a1.
1
1 Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ

A11
1 2 1 25

Find Sn for each geometric series described.

a (1 Ϫ r n) 1Ϫr

Sum formula

1. a1 ϭ 2, an ϭ 486, r ϭ 3

796.875 ϭ

728
5. a1 ϭ 2, r ϭ 6, n ϭ 4 6. a1 ϭ 2, r ϭ 4, n ϭ 6

2325

156.24

1 8 a1 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ 2 ᎏᎏ 1 1 Ϫ ᎏᎏ 2

΂

΂ ΃΃

S8 ϭ 796.875, r ϭ ᎏ , n ϭ 8

1 2

(Lesson 11-4)

1 4. a1 ϭ 3, r ϭ ᎏ , n ϭ 4 3

796.875 ϭ ᎏᎏ
0.5

0.99609375a1

Use a calculator.

a1 ϭ 400

4.44
8. a3 ϭ 20, a6 ϭ 160, nϭ 8 9. a4 ϭ 16, a7 ϭ 1024, n ϭ 10

518

2730

Since a4 ϭ a1 и r3, a4 ϭ 400 ᎏᎏ

΂1 2΃
Exercises

3

ϭ 50. The fourth term of the series is 50.

7. a1 ϭ 100, r ϭ Ϫ ᎏ , n ϭ 5

1 2

68.75

1275

87,381.25

Find the indicated term for each geometric series described. 1. Sn ϭ 726, an ϭ 486, r ϭ 3; a1 6 2. Sn ϭ 850, an ϭ 1280, r ϭ Ϫ2; a1 Ϫ10

10. 6 ϩ 18 ϩ 54 ϩ … to 6 terms

11. ᎏ ϩ ᎏ ϩ 1 ϩ … to 10 terms

1 3. Sn ϭ 1023.75, an ϭ 512, r ϭ 2; a1 ᎏ 4
5. Sn ϭ 183, r ϭ Ϫ3, n ϭ 5; a1 3 7. Sn ϭ 52,084, r ϭ Ϫ5, n ϭ 7; a1 4 9. Sn ϭ 381, r ϭ 2, n ϭ 7; a4 24
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4. Sn ϭ 118.125, an ϭ Ϫ5.625, r ϭ Ϫ ᎏ ; a1 180 6. Sn ϭ 1705, r ϭ 4, n ϭ 5; a1 5 8. Sn ϭ 43,690, r ϭ ᎏ , n ϭ 8; a1 32, 768
1 4

1 2

2184
13. Α 3 и 2k Ϫ 1
kϭ1 7

255.75

12. Α 2 j

8

jϭ4

496
649

381

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Answers

Lesson 11-4

©
____________ PERIOD _____ NAME ______________________________________________ DATE ____________ PERIOD _____

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

11-4 Skills Practice
(Average)

11-4 Practice
Geometric Series
Find Sn for each geometric series described. 1. a1 ϭ 2, a6 ϭ 64, r ϭ 2 126 3. a1 ϭ Ϫ3, an ϭ Ϫ192, r ϭ Ϫ2 Ϫ129 5. a1 ϭ Ϫ3, an ϭ 3072, r ϭ Ϫ4 2457 6. a1 ϭ 2, r ϭ Ϫ4, n ϭ 5 410 7. a1 ϭ 5, r ϭ 3, n ϭ 9 49,205 9. a1 ϭ Ϫ6, r ϭ Ϫ3, n ϭ 7 Ϫ3282 11. a1 ϭ ᎏ , r ϭ 3, n ϭ 10 ᎏ Find the sum of each geometric series. 13. 162 ϩ 54 ϩ 18 ϩ … to 6 terms ᎏ 15. 64 Ϫ 96 ϩ 144 Ϫ … to 7 terms 463 14. Ϫ1 Ϫ 3 Ϫ 9 Ϫ … to 6 terms Ϫ364
nϭ1 6

Geometric Series
2. a1 ϭ 4, a6 ϭ 12,500, r ϭ 5 15,624 4. a1 ϭ 4, an ϭ 256, r ϭ Ϫ2 172
2 9

Find Sn for each geometric series described. 2. a1 ϭ 160, a6 ϭ 5, r ϭ ᎏ 315
1 2

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4. a1 ϭ Ϫ81, an ϭ Ϫ16, r ϭ Ϫ ᎏ Ϫ55 6. a1 ϭ 54, a6 ϭ ᎏ , r ϭ ᎏ ᎏ 8. a1 ϭ Ϫ6, r ϭ Ϫ1, n ϭ 21 Ϫ6 10. a1 ϭ Ϫ9, r ϭ ᎏ , n ϭ 4 Ϫ ᎏ 12. a1 ϭ 16, r ϭ Ϫ1.5, n ϭ 6 Ϫ66.5
2 3 1 728 3 9 2 3

1. a1 ϭ 2, a5 ϭ 162, r ϭ 3 242

3. a1 ϭ 1, a8 ϭ Ϫ1, r ϭ Ϫ1 0

5. a1 ϭ 1, an ϭ 729, r ϭ Ϫ3 547 8. a1 ϭ 3, r ϭ Ϫ2, n ϭ 12 Ϫ4095 10. a1 ϭ 6, an ϭ ᎏ , r ϭ ᎏ ᎏ 12. a1 ϭ 2, r ϭ Ϫ ᎏ , n ϭ 6 ᎏ
1 2 3 8 1 93 2 8 1 3

7. a1 ϭ Ϫ8, r ϭ 2, n ϭ 4 Ϫ120

65 3

9. a1 ϭ 8, r ϭ 3, n ϭ 5 968

29,524 3

Answers

11. a1 ϭ 8, r ϭ ᎏ , n ϭ 7 ᎏ

1 2

127 8

21 16

728 3

14. 2 ϩ 4 ϩ 8 ϩ … to 8 terms 510 16. ᎏ Ϫ ᎏ ϩ 1 Ϫ … to 6 terms Ϫ ᎏ 18. Α 5(Ϫ2) n Ϫ 1 855
nϭ1 10 9

A12
17. Α (Ϫ3) n Ϫ 1 Ϫ1640 20. Α ᎏ
nϭ1 8

Find the sum of each geometric series.

1 9

1 3

182 9

13. 4 ϩ 8 ϩ 16 ϩ … to 5 terms 124
nϪ1

19. Α Ϫ1(4) n Ϫ 1 Ϫ341
nϭ1

5

15. 3 ϩ 6 ϩ 12 ϩ … to 5 terms 93
5

16. Ϫ15 ϩ 30 Ϫ 60 ϩ … to 7 terms Ϫ645

΂1 2΃

63 ᎏ 32

21. Α 2560 ᎏ
nϭ1

1 ΂2 ΃

nϪ1

4

5115

22. Α 9 ᎏ
nϭ1

΂2 3΃

nϪ1

65 ᎏ 3

(Lesson 11-4)

17. Α 3n Ϫ 1 40
nϭ1 9

4

nϭ1

18. Α (Ϫ2)n Ϫ 1 11

Find the indicated term for each geometric series described. 23. Sn ϭ 1023, an ϭ 768, r ϭ 4; a1 3 25. Sn ϭ Ϫ1365, n ϭ 12, r ϭ Ϫ2; a1 1 24. Sn ϭ 10,160, an ϭ 5120, r ϭ 2; a1 80 26. Sn ϭ 665, n ϭ 6, r ϭ 1.5; a1 32 27. CONSTRUCTION A pile driver drives a post 27 inches into the ground on its first hit. Each additional hit drives the post ᎏ the distance of the prior hit. Find the total distance the post has been driven after 5 hits.
2 3

19. Α
nϭ1

4

nϭ1

΂ ΃
20. Α 2(Ϫ3)n Ϫ 1 9842

1 n Ϫ 1 40 ᎏ ᎏ 3 27

Find the indicated term for each geometric series described. 22. Sn ϭ Ϫ40, an ϭ Ϫ54, r ϭ Ϫ3; a1 2 24. Sn ϭ 39,360, n ϭ 8, r ϭ 3; a1 12

21. Sn ϭ 1275, an ϭ 640, r ϭ 2; a1 5

70 ᎏ in.
28. COMMUNICATIONS Hugh Moore e-mails a joke to 5 friends on Sunday morning. Each of these friends e-mails the joke to 5 of her or his friends on Monday morning, and so on. Assuming no duplication, how many people will have heard the joke by the end of Saturday, not including Hugh? 97,655 people

1 3

23. Sn ϭ 99, n ϭ 5, r ϭ Ϫ ᎏ ; a1 144

1 2

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Lesson 11-4

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____________ PERIOD _____ NAME ______________________________________________ DATE ____________ PERIOD _____

NAME ______________________________________________ DATE

11-4 Reading to Learn Mathematics
Annuities
An annuity is a fixed amount of money payable at given intervals. For example, suppose you wanted to set up a trust fund so that $30,000 could be withdrawn each year for 14 years before the money ran out. Assume the money can be invested at 9%. You must find the amount of money that needs to be invested. Call this amount A. After the third payment, the amount left is

11-4 Enrichment

Geometric Series

Pre-Activity

How is e-mailing a joke like a geometric series?

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
1.09[1.09A Ϫ 30,000(1 ϩ 1.09)] Ϫ 30,000 ϭ 1.092A Ϫ 30,000(1 ϩ 1.09 ϩ 1.092). The results are summarized in the table below.
Payment Number 1 2 3 Number of Dollars Left After Payment A Ϫ 30,000 1.09A Ϫ 30,000(1 ϩ 1.09) 1.092A Ϫ 30,000(1 ϩ 1.09 ϩ 1.092)

Read the introduction to Lesson 11-4 at the top of page 594 in your textbook.

• Suppose that you e-mail the joke on Monday to five friends, rather than three, and that each of those friends e-mails it to five friends on Tuesday, and so on. Write a sum that shows that total number of people, including yourself, who will have read the joke by Thursday. (Write out the sum using plus signs rather than sigma notation. Do not actually find the sum.)

1 ϩ 5 ϩ 25 ϩ 125

• Use exponents to rewrite the sum you found above. (Use an exponent in each term, and use the same base for all terms.)

50 ϩ 51 ϩ 52 ϩ 53

Reading the Lesson
a (1 Ϫ r n) 1Ϫr

1 1. Consider the formula Sn ϭ ᎏᎏ .

a. What is this formula used to find? the sum of the first n terms of a

geometric series

1. Use the pattern shown in the table to find the number of dollars left after the fourth payment. 1.093A Ϫ 30,000(1 ϩ 1.09 ϩ 1.092 ϩ 1.093) 2. Find the amount left after the tenth payment.

Answers

b. What do each of the following represent?

A13
1 3 1 9 1 27

Sn: the sum of the first n terms

1.099A Ϫ 30,000(1 ϩ 1.09 ϩ 1.092 ϩ 1.093 ϩ … ϩ 1.099)
The amount left after the 14th payment is 1.0913A Ϫ 30,000(1 ϩ 1.09 ϩ 1.092 ϩ … ϩ 1.0913). However, there should be no money left after the 14th and final payment. 1.0913A Ϫ 30,000(1 ϩ 1.09 ϩ 1.092 ϩ … ϩ 1.0913) ϭ 0 Notice that 1 ϩ 1.09 ϩ 1.092 ϩ … ϩ 1.0913 is a geometric series where a1 ϭ 1, an ϭ 1.0913, n ϭ 14 and r ϭ 1.09. Using the formula for Sn, 1 ϩ 1.09 ϩ 1.092 ϩ … ϩ 1.0913 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ.
1Ϫr a1 Ϫ a1rn

a1: the first term

r:

the common ratio

c. Suppose that you want to use the formula to evaluate 3 Ϫ 1 ϩ ᎏ Ϫ ᎏ ϩ ᎏ . Indicate
5

(Lesson 11-4)

the values you would substitute into the formula in order to find Sn. (Do not actually calculate the sum.)

nϭ rϭ

5
nϭ1

a1 ϭ

3

Ϫᎏᎏ
rn ϭ

1 3

ᎏ ΂Ϫᎏ1 3΃

or Ϫ ᎏᎏ
Indicate

1 243

d. Suppose that you want to use the formula to evaluate the sum

Α
(Ϫ2)6 or 64

6

8(Ϫ2)n Ϫ 1.

1 Ϫ 1.0914 1 Ϫ 1.09

1 Ϫ 1.0914 Ϫ0.09

3. Show that when you solve for A you get A ϭ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ . 13

the values you would substitute into the formula in order to find Sn. (Do not actually calculate the sum.)

1.0913A Ϫ 30,000 ᎏᎏ ϭ 0 results in stated expression for A.
Therefore, to provide $30,000 for 14 years where the annual interest rate is 9%, dollars. you need ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ 13 4. Use a calculator to find the value of A in problem 3. $254,607 In general, if you wish to provide P dollars for each of n years at an annual rate of r%, you need A dollars where
r ᎏ ΂1 ϩ ᎏ 100 ΃
nϪ1

΂1 Ϫ Ϫ0.09 ΃

1.0914

30,000 1.0914 Ϫ 1 0.09 1.09

΂

΃

nϭ rϭ

6

a1 ϭ

8

Ϫ2
rn ϭ

Helping You Remember

30,000 1.0914 Ϫ 1 0.09 1.09

΂

΃

2. This lesson includes three formulas for the sum of the first n terms of a geometric series. All of these formulas have the same denominator and have the restriction r 1. How can this restriction help you to remember the denominator in the formulas?

Sample answer: If r ϭ 1, then r Ϫ 1 ϭ 0. Because division by 0 is undefined, a formula with r Ϫ 1 in the denominator will not apply when r ϭ 1.

A Ϫ P 1 ϩ 1 ϩ ᎏᎏ ϩ 1 ϩ ᎏᎏ

΄
Glencoe Algebra 2
©

΂

r 100

΃ ΂

r 2 r nϪ1 ϩ … ϩ 1 ϩ ᎏᎏ ϭ 0. 100 100

΃
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

΂

΃

΅

You can solve this equation for A, given P, n, and r.

Glencoe Algebra 2
653

©

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

654

Glencoe Algebra 2

Answers