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THEME

: MATTER AROUND US

Learning Area: 5. Chemical Bonds Learning O !ec"i#es 5.1 Understanding formation of compounds 5.2 Synthesising ideas on formation of ionic bond 5.3 Synthesising ideas on formation of covalent bond Learning O$"comes: A student is able to:

explain the stability of inert gases explain conditions for the formation of chemical bonds state types of chemical bonds. explain formation of ions !rite electron arrangements for the ions formed explain formation of ionic bond illustrate electron arrangement of an ionic bond illustrate formation of ionic bond. State the meaning of covalent bond explain formation of covalent bond illustrate formation of a covalent bond by dra!ing electron arrangement illustrate formation of covalent bond compare and contrast formation of ionic and covalent bonds.

%n"eres"ing &a' "o s"ar" a lesson Teacher "As# 2 students to come to the front of the class.$ Ahmad and Muhammad, please come forward and stand beside each other. %hen each student is as#ed to stand on one leg side by side "but not in contact$ and the rest of the class !atch. Both of you, please stand on one leg while the rest, please observe what happens. %eacher as# the students: +.Are 'o$r "&o ,riends s"a le.. Can 'o$ s$gges" ho& "he' can ecome s"a le &hile s"anding on one leg-

S"$den"s( e)*ec"ed correc" ans&er

No"es

After a !hile !hen the t!o students start to !obble& lose their balance.

+. No/"he' are no" s"a le .. The' can hold each o"her(s hands "o e more s"a le. 'f the students could not give the teacher the expected correct ans!er then as# another leading (uestion"s$ to the expected correct ans!er. e.g. Can "he' hold each o"her(s hands-

Teacher Ahmad and Muhammad/ le"(s "r'. Are 'o$ more s"a le no&After Ahmad and )uhammad have confirmed that they are more stable the teacher as#s the class to reaffirm 1h' do "he' need "o hold each o"her(s hands%eacher reaffirms: 0es/ 'o$r "&o ,riends ecome s"a le a,"er "he' hold each o"her hands. %n "his si"$a"ion "hese "&o ,riends are $ns"a le &hen s"anding on one leg $" "he' can ecome s"a le &hen "he' are BONDED "oge"her. O3/ Than3 'o$/ Ahmad and Muhammad. Bo"h o, 'o$ can go ac3 "o 'o$r sea"s.

S"$den"s( e)*ec"ed correc" ans&er Ahmad and Muhammad: 0es/ &e are more s"a le no&.

No"es

So "ha" "he' can e s"a le2do no" sha3e2do no" &o le

4$es"ioning Techni5$e in Deli#ering Con"en" Teacher S"$den"(s e)*ec"ed correc" ans&er 1e ha#e learn" a o$" 6ro$* +7 elemen"s. Are 6ro$* +7 elemen"s s"a le1h' do 'o$ "hin3 "he' are s"a le*es. +roup 1, elements are stable +roup 1, elements are stable because the atoms have achieved a stable duplet "-e$ or an octet electron arrangement.

No"es To recall cer"ain learning o$"comes ac5$ired in "o*ic 8 9Anal'sing 6ro$* +7 elemen"s:

%eacher reaffirms: 0es/ a"oms o, 6ro$* +7 elemen"s ha#e achie#ed a s"a le d$*le" or oc"e" elec"ron arrangemen" . The' do no" need "o recei#e/ dona"e or share an' more elec"rons ,rom a"oms o, o"her elemen"s "o ma3e "hem s"a le. Th$s "he' do no" reac" &i"h o"her elemen"s or com*o$nds. No& % gi#e 'o$ "hree min$"es "o re,er "o "he ;eriodic Ta le on *age << and &ri"e do&n "he elec"ron arrangemen" o, sodi$m a"om/ and chlorine a"om. ;ro"on n$m er = n$m er o, elec"rons

Teacher 9A,"er > min$"es: Cheng ?im/ &ha" is "he elec"ron arrangemen" o, sodi$m a"om@arhana/ &ha" is "he elec"ron arrangemen" o, chlorine a"om. Class/ do "his "&o a"oms ha#e 7 elec"rons in "heir o$"ermos" shellSo/ are "hese sodi$m and chlorine a"oms s"a le- 1h'Sodium atom has an electron arrangement of 2.,.1 -o! can it achieve a stable electron arrangement of 2.,0 1hlorine atom has an electron arrangement of 2.,.. -o! can it achieve a stable octet electron arrangement of 2.,.,0 +ood sodium atom can donate&release it2s one valence electron to chlorine atom and both particles !ill achieve stable octet electron arrangement.

S"$den"(s e)*ec"ed correc" ans&er 2.,.1 2.,.. /o they do not.

No"es

/o these atoms are not stable because the atoms do not have the duplet or octet electron arrangement.

Sodi$m a"om dona"es2releases one elec"ron ,rom i"s o$"ermos" shell Chlorine a"om acce*"s one elec"ron ,rom ano"her a"om.

Teacher %he teacher explains that since these elements are not stable the atoms of these elements can attain a stable duplet or octet electron arrangement by3 9i: releasing "he #alence elec"ron2 elec"rons "o ano"her a"om or/

S"$den"(s e)*ec"ed correc" ans&er

No"es

9ii: acce*"ing elec"rons ,rom ano"her a"om or 9iii: share elec"rons &i"h ano"her a"om.

Teacher can choose to teach Covalent Bonding or Ionic Bonding first depends on the students response to the above question(i,ii or iii) . If teacher chooses to teach covalent bonding first, then the teacher should choose two suitable non-metal atoms to illustrate sharing of electrons COAALENT BOND%N6 %ON%C BOND%N6 "i$ Share pairs of electrons !ith another atom to achieve the stable duplet & octet electron arrangement Teacher 45. 6et us see ho! t!o hydrogen atoms could share electrons to achieve a stable electron arrangement. Students can you please dra! the electron arrangement of the 2 hydrogen atoms in the space provided in 7igure 1 of 8or#sheet 1. "%eacher goes round to ma#e sure all students dra! the diagram for the electron arrangement of the 2 hydrogen atoms$ Ad:!a can you dra! and sho! your ans!er on the board. "%eacher and other students !atch$. "8hen Ad:!a is done$ S"$den"s "ii$ accept&release electrons from&to another atom to achieve the stable duplet or octet electron arrangement. Teacher 4#. 6et2s see ho! /a and 1l atoms can achieve the stable electron arrangement. Students can you please dra! the electron arrangement of /a and 1l atoms in the space provided in 7igure 1 and 7igure 2 of 8or#sheet 9 respectively0 "%eacher goes round to ma#e sure all students dra! the diagram for the electron arrangement of /a and 1l atoms$ ;ainon can you please dra! the electron arrangement of /a atom on the board and *usof please dra! the electron arrangement of 1l atom on the 7 S"$den"s

"All students must dra! the electron arrangement of the 2 hydrogen atoms in the space provided in 7igure 1 of 8or#sheet 1$

COAALENT BOND%N6 "i$ Share pairs of electrons !ith another atom to achieve the stable duplet & octet electron arrangement Teacher %han# you Ad:!a. 8hat do you thin# of Ad:!a2s ans!er0 "accept all comments from the students and if there is any mista#es in Ad:!a2s ans!er the teacher !ill discuss !ith the students and point out the mista#es and ma#e corrections. 'n this !ay. %he students can ma#e corrections on their o!n dra!ings. 'f it is correct give some praises such as very good good <ob good !or# nice !or# excellent brilliant clever bravo fantastic !onderful great terrific neat <ob superb ama:ing outstanding impressive$ S"$den"s

%ON%C BOND%N6 "ii$ accept&release electrons from&to another atom to achieve the stable duplet or octet electron arrangement. Teacher board. "8hen ;ainon and *usof are done teacher corrects the diagrams&as#s the students to evaluate !hether it is correct or not. =raise the students if they get it right$ S"$den"s

Ros from the diagram ho! many valence electrons does a sodium atom need to release to stable electron arrangement0

Ros: 4ne valence electron "=raise the student for his&her correct ans!er$

7rom your diagram ho! many valence electrons

4ne valence electron

>a:if ho! many electron"s$ does the chlorine atom need in

RaBi,: 4ne electron.

COAALENT BOND%N6 "i$ Share pairs of electrons !ith another atom to achieve the stable duplet & octet electron arrangement Teacher does a hydrogen atom has0 S"$den"s

%ON%C BOND%N6 "ii$ accept&release electrons from&to another atom to achieve the stable duplet or octet electron arrangement. Teacher order to achieve a stable electron arrangement0 'f sodium and chlorine react !hen mixed together one electron from sodium atom !ill be transferred to chlorine atom. 8hich one of the 11 electron in sodium atom !ill be transferred0 /o! !e dra! the electron arrangement of sodium ion and chloride ion. %hen sho! the product formed in the s(uare brac#ets after the arro!. %hen complete the diagram by putting the electron in the correct position. "%eacher goes round to ma#e sure all students dra! the diagram$ S"$den"s

%he valence electron & electron from the outermost shell&orbit. "=raise the student for his&her correct ans!er$

-o! many more electrons does this hydrogen atom need in order to achieve a stable electron arrangement0

4ne more electron

1an this hydrogen atom share electron !ith another hydrogen atom nearby0

*es.

%"a is sodium ion stable no!0 8hy0 9

%"a: 0es %" has achie#ed "he

COAALENT BOND%N6 "i$ Share pairs of electrons !ith another atom to achieve the stable duplet & octet electron arrangement Teacher -o! can this hydrogen atom share its electron !ith another hydrogen atom0 S"$den"s If student cannot answer, teacher provide answer. Each hydrogen atom contribute one electron and both atoms share the two electrons

%ON%C BOND%N6 "ii$ accept&release electrons from&to another atom to achieve the stable duplet or octet electron arrangement. Teacher 1ompare the number of electrons in sodium ion and sodium atom. 8hat is the charge of sodium ion0 8hat is this sodium particle called0 Students don2t forget to !rite its charge at the top right hand corner "as superscript$ of the brac#ets. S"$den"s s"a le oc"e" elec"ron arrangemen" 4ne electron less in sodium ion.

=ositive charge& ?1 't is called a cation& positive ion "=raise the student for his&her correct ans!er$

%ry to dra! the electron arrangement of these t!o hydrogen atoms to sho! ho! they share their valence electrons so that they become stable together. *ou can dra! them in the space provided in 7igure 2 of

"All students must dra! the electron arrangement of t!o hydrogen atoms sharing their valence electrons in the space provided in 7igure 2 of 8or#sheet 1$

1an you guess !hat happened to the electron released from sodium atom0 "Accept all ans!ers$

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COAALENT BOND%N6 "i$ Share pairs of electrons !ith another atom to achieve the stable duplet & octet electron arrangement Teacher 8or#sheet 1 "%eacher goes round to chec# students2 dra!ing$ 8ong can you please dra! and sho! it on the board. "%eacher and other students !atch$. "8hen 8ong is done$ %han# you 8ong. 8hat do you thin# of 8ong2s ans!er0 "Accept all comments from the students and if there is any mista#es in 8ong2s ans!er the teacher !ill discuss !ith students and point out the mista#es and ma#e corrections. 'n this !ay. %he students can ma#e corrections on their o!n dra!ings. 'f it is correct give some praises. S"$den"s

%ON%C BOND%N6 "ii$ accept&release electrons from&to another atom to achieve the stable duplet or octet electron arrangement. Teacher S"$den"s

8hat do you thin# !ill happen if a 1l atom is nearby0 "=ause and let the students thin# for a !hile$ )a:lan ho! many valence electrons does a chlorine atom has0 1lass can the chlorine atom receive the electron released from /a atom0 "=ause again$ 'f chlorine atom receives the electron !ill it be stable0 "=ause again$ 6et2s dra! and see. )a:lan: Seven valence electrons "=raise the student for his&her correct ans!er$ 0es

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COAALENT BOND%N6 "i$ Share pairs of electrons !ith another atom to achieve the stable duplet & octet electron arrangement Teacher 'f the ans!er on the board is correct teacher points out: 1hen a *air o, elec"rons are shared e"&een . a"oms/ "he ond ,ormed is called a co#alen" ond. S"$den"s

%ON%C BOND%N6 "ii$ accept&release electrons from&to another atom to achieve the stable duplet or octet electron arrangement. Teacher /o! !e dra! the electron arrangement of chloride ion. %hen sho! the product formed in the s(uare brac#ets after the arro!. %hen complete the diagram by putting the electron in the correct position. "%eacher goes round to ma#e sure all students dra! the diagram$ A:i: is chlorine stable no!0 8hy0 1ompare the number of electrons in chloride ion and chlorine atom 8hat is it called0 Students don2t forget to !rite its charge at the top right hand A:i:: *es it is stable 't has achieved the stable octet electron arrangement. 't has one extra electron. 't has a negative charge. 't is called an anion. "=raise the student for S"$den"s

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COAALENT BOND%N6 "i$ Share pairs of electrons !ith another atom to achieve the stable duplet & octet electron arrangement Teacher 6et2s have another example. @ra! and sho! ho! 2 chlorine atoms share their valence electrons to achieve octet electron arrangement. *ou can dra! them in the space provided in 7igure 3 of 8or#sheet 1. S"$den"s

%ON%C BOND%N6 "ii$ accept&release electrons from&to another atom to achieve the stable duplet or octet electron arrangement.

Teacher S"$den"s corner of the brac#ets. his&her correct ans!er$ "All students must dra! and /o! loo# at the positive sodium sho! ho! 2 chlorine atoms ion and negative chloride ion. share their valence electrons 8hat !ill happen if !e bring to achieve octet electron them nearer0 "=ause$ arrangement in the space provided in 7igure 3 of AliC !hat do you thin#0 Ali: %hey !ill attract each 8or#sheet 1$ other. %hen the teacher explains that "=raise the student for there is a force of attraction his&her correct ans!er$ bet!een the t!o ions and it is called the electrostatic force. %his type of strong electrostatic force is called an ionic bond. "Anand dra!s the diagram on the board.$ /o! dra! the diagram to sho! the formation of sodium chloride in the space provided in 7igure 3 of 8or#sheet 9. %hen the teacher points out that this bond bet!een the /a? and 1lA ions is #no!n as ionic bond.

Anand can you please dra! and sho! it on the board0 "%eacher and other students !atch$. "8hen Anand is done$ %han# you Anand. 8hat do you thin# of Anand2s ans!er0 "Accept all comments from the students and if there is any mista#es in Anand2s

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COAALENT BOND%N6 "i$ Share pairs of electrons !ith another atom to achieve the stable duplet & octet electron arrangement Teacher ans!er the teacher !ill discuss !ith students and point out the mista#es and ma#e corrections. 'n this !ay. %he students can ma#e corrections on their o!n dra!ings. 'f it is correct give some praises. 6et2s see if !e have understood !hat !e learnt today. @ra! and sho! ho! 2 oxygen atoms share their valence electrons to achieve the stable octet electron arrangement. *ou can dra! them on the space provided in 7igure 9 of 8or#sheet 1. Su:y can you please dra! and sho! it on the board. "%eacher and other students !atch$. "8hen Su:y is done$ %han# you Sue. S"$den"s

%ON%C BOND%N6 "ii$ accept&release electrons from&to another atom to achieve the stable duplet or octet electron arrangement. Teacher S"$den"s

"All students must dra! and sho! ho! 2 oxygen atoms share their valence electrons to achieve the stable octet electron arrangement in the space provided in 7igure 9 of 8or#sheet 1$

6et2s have another example. %eacher: 8hat is the electronic arrangement of magnesium atom and chlorine atom0 @ra! and sho! ho! a magnesium atom and oxygen atom release and receive electrons in order to be stable. *ou can dra! them in the space provided in 7igure 9 of 8or#sheet 9. 6et2s have another example. %eacher: 8hat is the electronic arrangement& electron arrangement of chlorine atom0 @ra! and sho! ho! a magnesium atom and t!o 14

Mg a"om: ..7.. Cl a"om: ..D

Cl a"om: ..7.E

COAALENT BOND%N6 "i$ Share pairs of electrons !ith another atom to achieve the stable duplet & octet electron arrangement Teacher 8hat do you thin# of Su:y2s ans!er0 "Accept all comments from the students and if there is any mista#es in Su:y2s ans!er the teacher !ill discuss !ith students and point out the mista#es and ma#e corrections. 'n this !ay. %he students can ma#e corrections on their o!n dra!ings. 'f it is correct give some praises. 8hat type of atoms are involved in the formation of these covalent bonds that !e have discussed0 /o! ans!er the last (uestion in 8or#sheet 1. "%hen teacher can as# a student for the correct ans!er or teacher can <ust S"$den"s

%ON%C BOND%N6 "ii$ accept&release electrons from&to another atom to achieve the stable duplet or octet electron arrangement. Teacher chlorine atoms release and receive electrons in order to be stable. *ou can dra! them on the space provided in 7igure 5 of 8or#sheet 9. S"$den"s

"All students must !rite the meaning of a covalent bond in 8or#sheet 1.$

"Before ending the lesson on ionic bond$ 8e can no! organise !hat !e have studied about ionic bonding. 1omplete the graphic organiser in 8or#sheet 5. "%eacher can create the graphic organiser !ith his&her students$

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COAALENT BOND%N6 "i$ Share pairs of electrons !ith another atom to achieve the stable duplet & octet electron arrangement Teacher give the ans!er and as# students to chec# their ans!ers$ S"$den"s

%ON%C BOND%N6 "ii$ accept&release electrons from&to another atom to achieve the stable duplet or octet electron arrangement. Teacher S"$den"s

"Before ending the lesson on covalent bond$ 8e can no! organise !hat !e have studied about covalent bonding. 1omplete the graphic organiser in 8or#sheet 2. "%eacher can create the graphic organiser !ith his&her students$

"All students must complete their graphic organiser on the space provided in 8or#sheet 2$

"+ive a short similar exercise or home!or# preferably a !or#sheet for the students to enhance their #no!ledge and s#ills in covalent bonding$

"All students must complete the short similar exercise or home!or#. Some examples on 8or#sheet 3$

+ive a (uic# similar exercise "preferably a !or#sheet$ for the students to enhance their #no!ledge and s#ills in ionic bonding.

"All students must complete the short similar exercise or home!or#. Some examples on 8or#sheet C$

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COAALENT BOND%N6 "i$ Share pairs of electrons !ith another atom to achieve the stable duplet & octet electron arrangement

%ON%C BOND%N6 "ii$ accept&release electrons from&to another atom to achieve the stable duplet or octet electron arrangement.

Teacher S"$den"s Teacher S"$den"s 'f the teacher can complete the lesson on covalent & ionic bonding in one lesson then this ta#e home tas# can be given to the students. "8or#sheet $ D if teacher is not able to teach either one of the bonding please set it on another date and start !ith an interesting !ay. "refer examples of set induction in Attachment 1$

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