1
,
2
Domains in particular examples
1. Introduction
The Greensfunctionbased numerical approach to
boundaryvalue problems stated for partial differential
equations reveals high computational potential (see, for
example, [13, 58]). The Greens function
modification [3, 5, 912] of the method of boundary
integral equation has proven efficient in solving a
variety of boundaryvalue problems stated for elliptical
partial differential equations that arise in engineering
and science.
In the present study, we focus on the boundaryvalue
problem
( ) ( )
2
, u P F P P = (1)
( ) 0, M u P P S = (
(2)
stated for the twodimensional Poisson equation in a
closed simplyconnected region bounded with a
D
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A SemiAnal ytical Approach to Greens Functions for Problems in Multipl yConnected Regions on a
Spherical Surface
598
piecewise smooth counter S.
If there is available the Greens function for the
homogeneous problem corresponding to (1)(2), then
the solution to the problem in (1)(2) itself can be
expressed as
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ; u P G P Q F Q d Q
(3)
The above statement suggests a straightforward
approach to the construction of the Greens function
( ) ; G P Q
. Indeed, if one manages to obtain the solution
to the problem in (1)(2) in the form of (3), then the
latter provides an explicit expression for ( ) ; G P Q
.
2. Problems Stated on a Spherical Surface
In the rectangular shaped region
( ) {
, =
}
 , 0
outlined on a spherical surface
of radius a and bounded with two parallels and two
meridians, we consider the twodimensional Poisson
equation
( )
2
, 1
sin
sin
u
a
 
+

\ .
( )
( )
2
2 2 2
, 1
, , in
sin
u
f
a
+ =
(4)
written in geographical coordinates
and . The
boundary conditions are imposed on the pieces of the
boundary of in the form
( ) ( )
1 2
, 0, , 0 M u M u = = ( (
(5)
( ) ( ) ,0 0, , 0 u u = = (6)
This allows us to express the solution to the above
problem as the Fourier sine series
( ) ( )
n
n 1
, sin , / u u n
=
= =
(7)
Expending the righthand side function of (4) in the
series form
( ) ( )
n
n 1
, sin f f
=
=
(8)
and substituting the expressions from (7) and (8) into
(4)(6), we arrive at the boundaryvalue problem
( )
( ) ( )
2
n
n n 2 2 2
1
sin
sin sin
du d
u f
a d d a
 
=

\ .
( ) ( )
1 2
0, 0 M u M u = = ( (
in the coefficients ( )
n
u of the series from (7).
Applying the method of variation of parameters to
the above problem, its solution appears in the form
( ) ( ) ( )
n n n
, u g f d
Substituting this expression back into (7) and
expressing the Fourier coefficients ( )
n
f
of the
series in (8) in terms of the righthand side function
( ) , f of equation (4), we finally obtain the solution
to the problem in (1)(2) in the domain integral form
( ) ( ) ( )
n
n 1
0
2
, , sin sin , u g f d d
=
(
=
(
which reveals, in view of (3), the series expansion
( ) ( )
n
n 1
2
, ; , , sin sin G g
=
=
(9)
of the Greens function that we are looking for.
In the section that follows, we implement the
technique just briefly described to a particular
problem setting, and explore a possibility of the
summation of the series in (9) that represents the
Green's function.
3. Results and Discussion
To explore a particular problem of the type in (4)(6),
for which the series in (9) appears to be completely
summable, we consider the Dirichlet boundaryvalue
problem
( ) ( ) ,0 0, , 0 u u = =
(10)
( ) ( )
0
lim , , lim , u u
< < (11)
for the equation in (4), stated in the spherical biangle
( ) { }
, 0 , 0 =
, where 0 2 < < .
Reducing (4) to a selfadjoint form, we have
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
, , 1
sin ,
sin
u u
f
 
+ =

\ .
(12)
where ( ) , , and ( ) ( )
2
, , sin f a f =
.
The Fourier sine series expansion for ( ) , u shown
in (7) and
( ) ( )
n
n 1
, sin f f
=
=
A SemiAnal ytical Approach to Greens Functions for Problems in Multipl yConnected Regions on a
Spherical Surface
599
for ( ) , f
 
=

\ .
+ +
(15)
while the boundary conditions in (14) reveal for the
constants C
1
and C
2
the values
2
0 C = and
( ) ( )
1 n
0
1
cot / 2
2
C f d
=
transforming (15) to the compact form
( )
( )
( )
( )
n n
0
tan / 2 1
2 tan / 2
u f d
= +
( )
( )
( )
n
tan / 2
tan / 2
f d
(
+
(
(
which can further be reduced to the single integral
containing form
( ) ( ) ( )
n n n
0
, u g f d
(16)
whose kernelfunction is defined in two pieces as
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
n
tan / 2
, 0
tan / 2
1
,
2
tan / 2
,
tan / 2
g
(17)
Substituting the form of (16) into (7) and expressing
then the Fourier coefficients ( )
n
f
in terms of the
righthand side function ( ) , f
of equation (13), we
finally arrive at the solution to the problem in (10)(12)
in the form
( ) ( ) ( )
n
n 1
0
2
, , sin sin , u g f d d
=
(
=
(
which reveals the Greens function of the
homogeneous boundaryvalue problem corresponding
to (10)(12) in the series form shown in (9) whose
coefficient is shown in (17). It can be summed up. In
doing so, we transform the series as
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
n
n 1
n n
n 1 n 1
, sin sin
1
, cos , cos
2
g
g g
=
= =
(
= +
(
(18)
and use then the standard [4] summation formula
( )
2
n 1
1
cos ln 1 2 cos
2
n
x
n x x
n
=
= +
which reduces (18) ultimately to
( ) , ; , G =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2 cos 1
ln
4 2 cos
  + +

+
\ .
(19)
where
( ) ( ) tan / 2 =
, and ( ) / =
In the next section, the closed computerfriendly
representation (19) of the Greens function, as well as
another one, obtained earlier in [12], will be used to
accurately compute profiles of Greens functions for
some multiplyconnected regions.
4. Greens function for multiplyconnected
region
Let represent a doubleconnected region on a
spherical surface, bounded with piecewise smooth
closed contours S
1
(exterior) and S
2
(interior). On
we consider a wellposed boundaryvalue problem
( ) ( )
2
2
, , 1
sin 0, in
sin
u u
 
+ =

\ .
(20)
( )
1 1
, 0, on M u S = (
(21)
( )
2 2
, 0, on M u S = (
(22)
Let, also, ( )
0
, ; , G represent the Greens
function to the problem in (20)(21) which is also
assumed wellposed.
For a fixed location ( ) ,
of the source point,
the profile of the Greens function ( ) , ; , G
of
the problem setting in (20)(22) can be expressed as
( ) ( )
0
, ; , , ; ,
G G =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
0 2
, ; , , , , ,
S
G dS +
(23)
A SemiAnal ytical Approach to Greens Functions for Problems in Multipl yConnected Regions on a
Spherical Surface
600
where
2
S
(24)
in the density function ( ) , .
The regularity of (24) follows from the fact that the
curves S
2
and
2
S
can
appropriately be determined through a straightforward
numerical experiment conducted on a casebycase
basis. It appears, in particular, that the shape of
2
S
ought to somewhat resemble the shape of S
2
. It has
also to be located close enough to S
2
to provide a
required accuracy level. We determined also that the
distance between S
2
and
2
S