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Joel Reyes Noche jrnoche@adnu.edu.ph Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences College of Arts and Sciences, Ateneo de Naga University June 17, 2008

Based on the talk The Role of Mathematics in the Total Development of the Human Person given during the College of Arts and Sciences Panel Discussion last February 9, 2008

Abstract

Mathematics has applications not only in the mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, but also in areas such as literature, art, and the social sciences. Mathematics is a tool for solving problems. It is also a search for truth and beauty. Knowledge of mathematical concepts and proﬁciency in mathematical skills greatly beneﬁt people regardless of their interests or ﬁelds of specialty.

1

**The capture-recapture method
**

(Glencoe, 1994)

How many ﬁsh are in a lake? Let us call this estimate P . Capture some ﬁsh, count them, mark them in some way, then put them back in the lake. Some time later, capture some more ﬁsh (call them recaptured ﬁsh), count them, count how many have your mark, then put them back in the lake. number of captured ﬁsh number of recaptured marked ﬁsh = P number of recaptured ﬁsh

2

**Proof-reading an article for typographical errors
**

(Barrow, 1998)

Alice and Bob independently read an article. Alice ﬁnds A typing errors, Bob ﬁnds B typing errors. They compare copies and ﬁnd that they both found the same error C times. How many errors are most likely to remain unfound? Let E be the total number of errors. The number that are unfound is U = E − A − B + C. If the probability that Alice ﬁnds an error is p, and the probability that Bob ﬁnds an error is q, then A = pE, B = qE, and C = pqE. Thus, AB = CE and E = AB/C. The number of unfound errors is U = (AB/C) − A − B + C = (AB − AC − BC + C 2)/C = (A − C)(B − C)/C, that is, U = (no. found only by Alice) × (no. found only by Bob) no. found by both Alice and Bob

3

**Who wrote The Royal Book of Oz?
**

(Binongo, 2003)

L. Frank Baum wrote The Wonderful Wizard of Oz in 1900. He died in 1919 while writing the 14th Oz book Glinda of Oz. The 15th Oz book The Royal Book of Oz, was supposedly written by Baum and ‘enlarged and edited’ by Ruth Thompson. By 1939, Thompson had published the 33rd Oz book.

4

**Who wrote The Royal Book of Oz? (continued)
**

(Binongo, 2003)

5

**Who wrote The Royal Book of Oz? (continued)
**

(Binongo, 2003)

Fifty stylometric variables (word, average rate of occurence in %) the 6.7 with 0.7 up 0.3 into 0.2 just 0.2 and 3.7 but 0.7 no 0.3 now 0.2 very 0.2 to 2.6 for 0.7 out 0.3 down 0.2 where 0.2 a/an 2.3 at 0.6 what 0.3 over 0.2 before 0.2 of 2.1 this/these 0.5 then 0.3 back 0.2 upon 0.1 in 1.3 so 0.5 if 0.3 or 0.2 about 0.1 that/those 1.0 all 0.5 there 0.3 well 0.2 after 0.1 it 1.0 on 0.5 by 0.3 which 0.2 more 0.1 not 0.9 from 0.4 who 0.3 how 0.2 why 0.1 as 0.7 one/ones 0.3 when 0.2 here 0.2 some 0.1

Function words (and not content words) were chosen. Auxiliary verbs and personal pronouns were not included. Misspellings were corrected and contractions were expanded.

6

**Who wrote The Royal Book of Oz? (continued)
**

(Binongo, 2003)

Each book was partitioned into blocks of 5 000 words. This yielded a matrix of 223 text blocks and 50 words. To help us visualize this, the multivariate statistical technique of principal component analysis was used. The best two-dimensional approximation is found by rotating the original 50 axes to new axes so that the latter represent directions of decreasing variability. The 50 principal component (PC) scores are approximated by the ﬁrst two PC scores.

7

**Who wrote The Royal Book of Oz? (continued)
**

(Binongo, 2003)

8

**Who wrote The Royal Book of Oz? (continued)
**

(Binongo, 2003)

Component loadings

9

**Who wrote The Royal Book of Oz? (continued)
**

(Binongo, 2003)

Baum’s non-canonical works (Oz-related)

10

**Who wrote The Royal Book of Oz? (continued)
**

(Binongo, 2003)

Baum’s non-canonical works (not Oz-related)

11

**Who wrote The Royal Book of Oz? (continued)
**

(Binongo, 2003)

Baum’s and Thompson’s short stories

12

**Who wrote The Royal Book of Oz? (continued)
**

(Binongo, 2003)

Glinda of Oz (1920), The Royal Book of Oz (1921)

13

**Who wrote The Royal Book of Oz? (continued)
**

(Binongo, 2003)

Visitors from Oz by Gardner (1998)

14

**Who wrote The Royal Book of Oz? (continued)
**

(Binongo, 2003)

**Visitors from Oz by Gardner (1998)
**

15

**No. 5, 1948 by Jackson Pollock
**

(New York Times, 2006)

In 2006, this painting was reportedly sold for about $140 million, the highest sum ever known to have been paid for a painting.

16

**Fractal analysis of Pollock’s drip paintings
**

(Taylor, Micolich, & Jonas, 1999; Taylor, 2002)

Scientiﬁc objectivity proves to be an essential tool for determining the fundamental content of the abstract paintings produced by Jackson Pollock in the late 1940s. Pollock dripped paint from a can onto vast canvases rolled out across the ﬂoor of his barn. Although this unorthodox technique has been recognized as a crucial advancement in the evolution of modern art, the precise quality and signiﬁcance of the patterns created are controversial. Here we describe an analysis of Pollock’s patterns which shows, ﬁrst, that they are fractal, reﬂecting the ﬁngerprint of nature, and, second, that the fractal dimensions increased during Pollock’s career.

17

Fractals are self-similar

(Taylor, 2002)

18

**The fractal character of Pollock’s paintings
**

(Taylor, 2002)

The painting is scanned into a computer. It is separated into its diﬀerent colored patterns, then covered with a computergenerated mesh of identical squares. The computer analyzes which squares are occupied and which are empty. This is done for diﬀerent mesh sizes. The patterns were found to be fractal over the entire size range.

19

**The fractal character of Pollock’s paintings (continued)
**

(Taylor, 2002)

Studying the paintings chronologically showed that the complexity of the fractal patterns, D, increased as Pollock reﬁned his technique. One D value is clearly an outlier—1.9 in 1950, a work that Pollock later destroyed. He may have thought this image was too dense or too complex and subsequently scaled back.

20

Admissions discrimination?

(COMAP, 1997, pp. 329–331)

A certain university had several limited-enrollment courses that admit only some of the students who apply. There were complaints about discrimination in the admissions process. Eighty men applied to limited-enrollment courses and 35 were admitted. But only 20 of the 60 women who applied were accepted. Almost half the men (44%), but only one-third of the women (33%), were admitted. Inferential statistics can show that this diﬀerence is much larger than could reasonably be expected to occur simply by chance. Can we thus safely conclude that in this case men were being favored over women?

21

**Admissions discrimination? (continued)
**

(COMAP, 1997, pp. 329–331)

There were only two limited-enrollment courses: organic chemistry, and history and sociology of the TV sitcom. Organic Chemistry Men Women Admit 5 10 Deny 15 30 Total 20 40 TV Sitcom Men Women Admit 30 10 Deny 30 10 Total 60 20

In the organic chemistry course, one-fourth of the men and onefourth of the women were admitted. In the TV sitcom course, one-half of each group got in. In all cases, women and men were treated exactly alike.

22

**Admissions discrimination? (continued)
**

(COMAP, 1997, pp. 329–331)

Most women signed up for the course that was hard to get into, and most men applied for the easier course. That is why fewer women than men were admitted. The percentages of men and of women admitted were not just a function of the admissions process, but also of which course a student applied for. We were misled by an inaccurate mathematical model.

23

References

Barrow, J. (1998). Impossibility: The limits of science and the science of limits. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Binongo, J. (2003). Who wrote the 15th book of Oz? An application of multivariate analysis to authorship attribution. Chance, 16(2), 9–17. Consortium for Mathematics and Its Applications. (1997). For all practical purposes: Introduction to contemporary mathematics (4th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. Glencoe. (1994). Involving parents and the community in the mathematics classroom. New York: Macmillan/McGraw-Hill. New York Times, The. (2006, November 2). A Pollock is sold, possibly for a record price. Retrieved February 3, 2008 from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/ 11/02/arts/design/02drip.html?_r=1&adxnnl=1&ref=arts&adxnnlx=1163031599 -revbGMuaIhdTP4qLonq8BA&oref=slogin Taylor, R. (2002). Order in Pollock’s chaos. Scientiﬁc American, 287(6), 116–121. Taylor, R., Micolich, A., & Jonas, D. (1999). Fractal analysis of Pollock’s drip paintings. Nature, 399, 422.

24

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UsefulNot usefulPresented at the College of Arts and Sciences Lecture Series held at the Ateneo de Naga University, Naga City, Camarines Sur, Philippines, on June 17, 2008

Presented at the College of Arts and Sciences Lecture Series held at the Ateneo de Naga University, Naga City, Camarines Sur, Philippines, on June 17, 2008

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