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Plot Structure of Kanthapura

1 Aims and Objectives

1) To show the influence of plot on the construction and aesthetic of the novel Kanthapura. 2) To show the interrelationship between plot and character in the novel Kanthapura. 3) To anal se how !aja !ao has mana"ed to maintain the unit of plot b dealin" with the subject. #) To point out the shortcomin"s of !aja !ao$s art of plot construction in Kanthapura.

2 % pothesis
&lot of Kanthapura is well constructed which hides the minor blemishes

3 'ethodolo"
1) (ibrar wor). 2) &rimar source 3) *econdar sources #) + usin" the useful references, boo)s- research articles and websites.

# .ntroduction

Kanthapura is a novel written b !aja !ao who was born in 1/0/ in the villa"e of %assoner- in 'a sore. Kanthapura is the first novel of !aja !ao and his most perfect and satisf in" wor). .t was written in 1rance thousands of miles awa from .ndia and et it "ives a most "raphic- vivid and realistic account of the 2andhian freedom stru""le in the 1/30$s and its impact on the masses of .ndia.

Kanthapura is entitled after the home of a small villa"e in the south of .ndia in the 1/30$s. !aja !ao has depicted the influence of 2andism 'ovement on the people of the villa"e Kanthapura. .t is depicted as a "reat classic of the .ndian freedom stru""le. .t "ives us more essential truth about the 2andism era than an official records or boo)s of histor .

'oorth is the central fi"ure in the novel. %e represents the 2andhian- he can be called the 3'inor 2andhi4. %e follows the principles of 2andhi. %e is a +rahmin bo becomes the leader of the freedom movement of Kanthapura. 'oorth "ets several supporters li)e !atna- !an"amma and others from the +rahmins and !an"a 2owda from the &ariahs.

'oorth is elected as a &resident of the local 5on"ress 5ommittee and !an"amma is declared as the 5hief &atron.

Then the local con"ress committee decides to launch the 3no ta64 campai"nand 'oorth start practicin" the &rinciple of 2andhi. %e ma)es successful plans, non7 violent- the three da s fast of self purification and nobod has to pa the land revenue and other ta6es.

(ater- The sufferin" of the fellow villa"ers touches the heart of the wor)ers of the *)effin"ton 5offee 8state and the too join their sufferin". 8ven lar"e numbers are arrested. 'oorth is also arrested and sentenced to a lon" term of imprisonment. 'an leaves the villa"e- man people are shot dead- women are seduced and even raped. The have been defeated- but in their ver defeat lies their victor . Their "reat resistance has "iven a shoc) to the "overnment and as such volts were bein" administrated all over the countr - the +ritish "overnment was bound to be sha)en and overthrown in course of time. .t was so over7thrown in 1/#9 and the +ritish were forced to withdraw. The heroic stru""le of the people of Kanthapura is thus milestone in .ndia$s march towards independence.

%owever our stud is the plot and structure of Kanthapura. &lot is an important aspect in the construction of the novel- because plot is associated with all the aspects of the construction of the novel as of characters- action and the stor of the novel. *o the writer has to build his novel effectivel in order to reduce the shortcomin"s in the plot of his novel. 1ew critics have pointed out some shortcomin"s in the art of plot construction of !aja !ao$s novel- Kanthapura. :avid 'c5uthion is one of such critics- he calls Kanthapura 3no novel at all4 for in it 3all the central concerns of the western novel are absent4.

Thus this stud will focus on the plot construction of the novel- Kanthapura. The merits and the blemishes of the plot construction in the novel- Kanthapura.

; &lot and *tructure of Kanthapura

<arious &eculiarities of the plot and structure of the novel can be "iven in details as follows=

; 1 5onventional 8lements
&lot is one of the important elements of the novel. &lot is the content of the novel. 8.'. 1oster differentiates it from stor . +oth are narratives of events but in plot the emphasis is on causalit . 3The Kin" died and then >ueen died of "rief4 is a plot.

As Aristotle has pointed out that the unified plot is a continuous se?uence of be"innin"- middle and end. The be"innin" initiates the main action in a wa which ma)es us loo) forward to somethin" more, the middle presumes what has "one before and re?uires somethin" to follow, and the end follows from what has "one before but re?uires nothin" more, we feel satisfied that the plot is complete.

%owever- the novel Kanthapura has some conventional element which are, 86position- development of the plot- 5lima6- denouement and the endin". The followin" stud will reveal the truth of the fact.

; 1 1 86position
As a conventional element the plot has be"innin"- a middle and an end. .t be"ins with an account of the small south .ndian called Kanthapura- its location- its crops- its povert and the i"norant and superstitions nature of the people. .n spite of the fact that Kanthapura is a small villa"e- but is divided into four ?uarters, sudra ?uarter and the pariah ?uarter. The societ of the villa"e is dominated b casteism.

The same as an .ndian villa"e- Kanthapura has its own le"ends. Kanchamma the "oddess in the villa"e. (e"ends which are connected with the )ind "oddess. Then man actions ta)e place in the villa"e and a few competitions and jealousies os the villa"e societ come to surface.

%ence- one of the conventional elements laid down b !aja !ao is his novelKanthapura- which is e6position.

; 1 2 :evelopment
After the e6position of actions in the villa"e Kanthapura then comes the development of these actions- because ever small action- of course will not be stable for a lon" time where there is human bein"s accompanied b motivations and aims to develop their lives. @ith the arrival of 'oorth - the actions developed. 'oorth is the central fi"ure of Kanthapura. 'oorth differs from other oun" in the villa"e in bein" an educated man. %e is indifferent of that thou"hts of his a"e. %e is reli"ious oun" man. @hen he finds a 3half sun)enlin"a4 directl he cleaned it and wishes to *anctif it.

*o a tremendous reli"ious activit started- the invocation to Kenchamma- "oddess beni"s- and it is seemed that reli"ion sustain the spirits of the people of Kanthapura. .t is the s mbolic of the "rowth of reli"ion from the da the primitive man worshipped stoc) and stones- *an" and danced round it in ecstas . The people of Kanthapura especiall the bo s had a "rand feast to celebrate the occasion. These actions developed and developed and these reli"ious actions became as the first bric) of social re"eneration in Kanthapura in the true tradition of .ndia. The truth of this fact proved to be true when 'oorth has as)ed them to offer a dinner for each da of the month- these was a "reat response from all.

Then the actions developed and 'oorth is inspired b 'ahatma 2andhi. %e burns the forei"n clothes and boo)s- he starts thrillin" the emotions hearts of the villa"ers- he "ives them 5har)has and arn free of char"e. %e min"les amon" the &ariahs and so is e6communicated b the *wami. 'oorth "ets several supporters li)e !atna!an"amma and others from the +rahmins and !an"a 2owda from the &ariahs. %ere 'oorth tries to unite the villa"ers- to stand a"ainst the unjusts and also uprise them to be one hand and prevent the separation.

Thereupon 'oorth forms the local 5on"ress 5ommittee and becomes the &resident of it and !an"amma as the 5hief &atron.

; 1 3 5lima6
After the formation of the local con"ress committee- the real stru""le has been started. The con"ress starts uprisin" the people b readin" the news in the news papers and charit their ri"hts. *o several real actions appear in the villa"e- first the 3no ta64 campai"n which is )nown as 3:on$t touch the 2overnment 5ampai"n4- the three da s fast of self purification- and the will not pa the revenue of land and other ta6es.

The portrait of 2andhi is present in the sense of the villa"ers actions in spite of the absence of 2andhi. 8ven women join the men in their stru""le. A women$s volunteer corps is also or"aniAed. Then the patriots arouse the people to ma)e a political- social and economic revival. *o there are several arrests- 'oorth is also arrested. %e is sentenced to a lon" term imprisonment. .n his absence- !atna ta)es up the wor) of the con"ress and becomes the leader of the movement. 5oolies from other places are brou"ht. *o a sat a"rah is arran"ed. 'an people are shot dead. @oman are seduced and even raped. +hatta$s house is burnt out. 'an of the people of Kanthapura leave the villa"e. 'an of the survivors of the massacre settle at a place in one of the villa"es near Kanthapura- the people of that villa"e welcomed them and called them 3the soldiers of 'ahatma 2andhi4.

; 1 # :enouement
After all that crucial da s in that small villa"e- some of the arrested people have released. Kanthapura has paid alot of valuable thin"s- the people have suffered terribl but the e6perience a sense of fulfillment. One ear and two months passed b - and the thirt refu"ees from Kanthapura never settled in that villa"e- Kashipur. The were sittin" to"ether as the were in their villa"e Kanthapura- but the remembered the past. *o the feel sad for man of their friends were missin".

The 'ahatma had to terms with the <icero and the freedom stru""le had been suspended. There was peace for the time bein". +ut thin"s could never be as the were before- for the had suffered terribl - and lost their near and dear ones.

:ue to the treat with the <icero - 'oorth was also released from jail. The oun" patriots be"in to believe in the *ocialistic principles of Bawaharlal Cehru. The were sure that he will ma)e a chan"e. %e will ma)e them all e?uals. .n this sense- the novelist has "iven us an idea how Cehru was risin" on the political scene of .ndia- and alread attractin" the masses of .ndia. %e was with 2andhi- he also believed in non violence- but also he had his individualit and his own views.

%ence- Kanthapura stands for an villa"e in which the patriots stru""led for the independence of .ndia. *o the writer has made use of all the conventional elements in his novel- Kanthapura, the be"innin"- the middle and the end.

; 2 The 5ompliance of the three Dnities

As we have previousl mentioned- plot is one of the important elements of the novel- the observance of the three unities is also one of the *ub division of the plot. *o the compliance of the three unities in the novel is also an important to build the novel e6cellentl .

!aja !ao has observed the three unities in his novel Kanthapura.

; 2 1 Dnit of place
Kanthapura observes the unit of place- as the novel opens with an account of the situation- the locale- of the villa"e- Kanthapura. All the events ta)e place in that small villa"e Kanthapura in 'a sore in the province of Kara. .t is situated in the valle of %imavath . And also some of the events occurs on the *)effin"ton 5offee 8state.

*o Kanthapura has observed the unit of place in bein" all the actions had happened within the area of Kanthapura and in the *)effin"ton 5offee 8state.

; 2 2 Dnit of Time
The Dnit of Time is also observed in the novel of !aja !ao- Kanthapura. The time of the novel is the time of the 2andhian 'ovement. .t is the time of the 2andhian 'ovement for freedom and .ndependence of .ndia. *o !aja !ao has ta)en a lon" time to detailed that actions of 2andhian 'ovement.

; 2 3 Dnit of Action
Dnit of Action is also observed in the novel of !aja !ao- Kanthapura. All the actions are about the stru""le of that small villa"e- Kanthapura. The stru""le of the people of Kanthapura represents the 2andhian 'ovement for freedom and .ndipendence of .ndia.

; 3 5ompound &lot
5ompound plot is one of the t pes of the plot of the novel. The compound plot has one main plot and one or more sub plots. %owever the sub plots are inter related with the main plot. Kanthapura has main and sub plot.

; 3 1 'ain &lot
The main plot of Kanthapura deals with the influence of the 2andhain 'ovement for freedom on the people of a small and distanced .ndian villa"e. The follows all the principles of the 2andhian 'ovement.

; 3 2 *ub &lot
The *ub plot of Kanthapura deals with the incidents that occur on the *)effin"ton 5offee 8state- where the coolies are e6ploited there.

; 3 3 1usion of the main and sub plot

The main plot and the sub plot of the novel Kanthapura are the two faces of the same coin which is about sava"er of the +ritish. The main plot is the affect of 2andhian 'ovement on the people of Kanthapura and the sub plot is about the events or incidents that happened in *)effin"ton 5offee 8state- the two plots are- in some senses- the samebecause the wor)ers of the 5offee 8state had also- in the 5lima6 of the actions of the villa"e- followed the stru""le of the &atriots for the freedom of .ndia.

; # ' thical Techni?ue

Kanthapura has a s mbolic relevant. Kanthapura has min"led two themes or subjects- Kanthapura the small villa"e where its people are en"a"ed with their e6ample of stru""le of its people a"ainst the +ritish for the freedom of .ndia. *o the political propa"anda is carried on in the "uise of reli"ion.

%owever- Kanthapura is a new )ind of le"endar wor) of art or 3*athala &urana4. .t is a microcosm of the macrocosm- as Kanthapura here represents .ndia as a whole. Also there is the len"endar of Kenchamma the local "oddess. .t is believed that she protects the villa"ers of the villa"e from harm. *he is the mother of %imavath . *he )illed the demon on the hill and so she is called the Kenchamma %ill and the hill is still red. *he is believed that she is helpin" for rain and the da s of famine.

.n that wa Kanthapura is full of that )inds of ' thical Techni?ue and it is a 3*athala &urana4 as well as a re"ional novel b itself.

; ; *hort comin"s of the plot of Kanthapura

An novel has its short comin"s. Kanthapura is also had its shortcomin"s. 1irstKanthapura is a superfluous novel- it is a breathless tale. The narrator consists of the stream of memor of its narrator- the old woman- and on the whole- the se?uence of events is chronolo"ical. The detailed and the e6trava"ance of the narration of some unimportant events can be )ept awa from bein" narrated.

*econdl - there is the lon" di"ression into the nature- )ind of sna)es coverin" over four pa"es- has no relevance whatsoever.

E 5onclusion

!aja !ao has ta)en in the consideration in writin" his novel- that he has to build his novel precisel . %e has depicted his characters in a wa that ma)es them in an inter relationship with the plot of the novel.

The !aja !ao has also demonstrated the impact of the plot on the well constructed of his novel and also on the mood of the reader of such novel.

There is no doubt that the novel which deals with one motif- will be accepted b readers.

Thus Kanthapura is a well constructed novel b !aja !ao in spite of its few minor blemishes. .f it is compared with its merits- the are not to be mentioned as blemishes of its plot structure.

1inall - Kanthapura has been described as the most satisf in" of all modern .ndian novels and reco"niAed as a major landmar) in .ndian fiction. .t is the stor of 2andhian stru""le for .ndependence came to one small villa"e in *outh .ndia.


1 Tila)- :r. !a"hu)ul. 200E. Kanthapura Fa critical stud G- !ama +rothers .ndia &vt. (td- Cew :elhi. 2 3 #