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Ch. 16!

- Scientic Revolution: the transition from non-secular to secular, rational, and materialistic - Ancient Authors like Galen, Ptolemy, Aristotle, and Archimedes inuenced the SR as well. People now believed that those views, although nice, could also be questioned and thus scientic observations were made in order to approve or disprove these intellectuals. ! There was also Renaissance artists that used imitations of nature, accurate renderings of life, and perspective as well as astronomy and geometry to create realistic portrayals of life and helped with scientic studies. ! proliferation of books on machines and technology! telescope and microscope was huge and math helped a lot especially rediscoveries of Plato.! Renaissance Magic: Hermetic ideas and elds of astrology and alchemy.! Astronomy was from synthesis of Plato and Aristotle: geocentric conception (belief in heavenly bodies around the Earth)! Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543): heliocentric conception! Tycho Brahe (1546-1601): compiled data on the positions and movements of the stars and planets! Johannes Kepler (1571-1630): Kepler's 3 Laws: 1. elliptical orbits, 2. speed of a planet is greater when it is closer to the sun and decreases as its distance from the sun increases. 3. the square of a planet's period of revolution is proportional to the cube of its avg. distance from the sun.! Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): made many awesome discoveries using the microscope such as 4 moons around Jupiter, phases of Venus, and sun spots. All of these things were published in the Starry Messenger. This led to the Inquisition condemning him unless he rejected Copernican ideas since it directly challenged church doctrine. Heavens were now a world of matter, not spiritual. Humans were not at the center, and God was not in a specic place. Galileo didn't really care and published the Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican. This also supported Copernican and he was placed on house arrest for the rest of his life where he made contributions to mechanics. Galileo was essentially the forerunner to Newton's 1st law of motion. ! Isaac Newton: He did alchemy, but also wrote the Principia: Newton's 3 Laws of Motion (1. any body will stay in its current state of motion unless acted by an outside force, 2. F=ma, 3. every force has an opposite, but equal force acting against it.), and Law of Universal Gravitation: (Gm1m2)/(r^2). He essentially believed that the entire world acted by using these laws and this was called the world-machine.! Another thought by the Greeks, medicine, also experienced a transformation. Late medieval medicine was dominated by the ideas of the ancient greek physician Galen. His inuence was in anatomy, physiology, and disease. He relied on animal instead of human dissection for human anatomy, which was inaccurate in many cases. He also believed that there were two separate blood systems: one controlled muscular activities up & down through arteries and was bright red blood, the other controlled digestive functions and contained dark red blood in veins. There was also 4 bodily humors: blood (warm and moist), yellow bile (warm and dry), phlegm (cold and moist), black bile (cold and dry). Disease was supposedly an imbalance of one or multiple humors and could be decided from the quantity and color of urine.! Philippus Aureolus von Hohenheim, 1493-1541, (Paracelsus): got a medical degree from university of Ferrara, appointed physician and professor of medicine at the city of Basel in perspective of the world.!

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1527. He had a quick temper and couldn't deal with universities or physicians that didn't agree with his ideas. ! He rejected both Aristotle and Galen and attacked the universities as centers of these philosophies. He and his followers were hoping to replace this system with a new chemical philosophy based on understanding nature derived from observation and experiment. This new philosophy was also connected to the view of the universe based on the macrocosmmicrocosm analogy.! All parts of the universe were represented in each person. Paracelsus essentially believed that the chemical reactions of the universe as a whole were reproduced in human beings on a smaller scale. Disease was not caused by an imbalance of the 4 humors but instead was because of chemical imbalances in specic organs, which could be treated by chemical remedies.! Other people had used remedies as well in the past, but Paracelsus differed in that he paid close attention to dosage. Galen believed that opposites cure each other, but Paracelsus believed that "like cures like". This means that a poison that could normally harm someone may also be used to heal someone as well if it is in the correct form and quantity. Paracelsus's idea worked and cured many patients, but opponents of his weren't too accepting and called him a homicide physician. It would take a long time until people viewed his ideas more favorably and his ideas became the forerunner of medicine in the postmodern era.! Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564): He studied in Paris with the works of Galen. Galen's written document, On Anatomical Procedures, led Vesalius to emphasize research as the way of understanding human anatomy. In 1543, he published, On the Fabric of the Human Body.! This book was based on his teachings of surgery at the University of Padua where he dissected a human body, which was unheard of. This book essentially presented a careful examination of the entire human anatomy. The book itself would not have been possible without the artistic advances of the Renaissance and the developments in printing, which provided excellent pictures. Vesalius departed from many of Galen's philosophies such as the blood vessels originating from the liver but instead originating from the heart. He still kept some ideas about blood ow which supposedly happens in the veins and arteries.! William Harvey (1578-1657): His book, On the Motion of the Heart and Blood (1628), showed that it was the heart and not the liver that was the starting point of the circulation of blood in the body and this same blood ows in both veins and arteries, and the blood makes a complete circuit as it passes through the body. His ideas were not accepted until the 1660s when it was found that capillaries are what carry blood from the arteries to the veins. His book laid the foundation for modern physiology. ! Paracelsus introduced some chemical philosophy, but it wasn't truly a science until the 17th and 18th centuries. Robert Boyle (1627-1691): He created Boyle's Law, PV=PV. Boyle also said that matter is composed of atoms, not the same components, and these would be known as elements. Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) invented a system of naming these elements and also is regarded by many as the founder of modern chemistry.!

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- learning for women was hindered by tradition which believed that their proper role in society

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was as a daughter, wife, or mother. The Renaissance and humanism led men to encourage women to read and study classical and Christian texts. ! Learning for women was largely reserved for the rich who could give access to a multitude of resources and was especially important for science where a humanist education did not cover. Margaret Cavendish was one of the most prominent female scientists of the 17th century, came from aristocratic background. She did not try to make science popular for women but instead was a participant in crucial scientic debates. She wrote a number of works such as: Observations upon Experimental Philosophy and Grounds of Natural Philosophy. In these writings, she attacked the empiricist approach to scientic knowledge and was against the idea that humans would be masters of nature. ! Cavendish was an example of women in France and England. While in Germany, women interested in science came from a different background, participating in craft production and became involved in observational science (entomology, astronomy).! Maria Merian (1647-1717): came from the craft tradition and became an important entomologist by the 18th century. She learned the art of illustration from her father's workshop and this really helped her depict her exact observations of insects and plants. In 1699, she went to the Dutch colony of Surinam in South America to collect and draw samples of plants and insect life. In Metamorphosis of the Insects of Surinam, she used 60 illustrations to show the reproductive and developmental cycles of the insect life.! Maria Winkelmann (1670-1720): She was involved in the astronomy part of the craft tradition. She married Gottfried Kirch, Germany's best astronomer, became his assistant, and contributed greatly to astronomy. She discovered a comet, and was a great assistant also to Gottfried Leibniz, but was not accepted to the Berlin Academy because of being a woman. The academy feared that it would set a precedent if it hired its rst woman. This problem was faced by many women of the time because it was thought that science was only for men.! Querelles Des Femmes: a debate over the nature and value of women. Male opinions were not really favorable since they were the same as medieval times. Women were thought of as inferior beings, easily convinced, and always wanting sex and thus men needed to tame their needs and control them. Women who were educated were thought of as becoming more like men. ! Women argued that they also had rational minds and could grow from education. Most women were also pious, chaste, and temperate and no male authority was needed over them. The scientic revolution might be thought of as a method to depart from incorrect views about women, but it simply gave men another way to enforce their old views! Vesalius believed that the body of men and women were the same except for the external body form and the sexual organs. The skeletons of both appeared to be the same. Drawings of female skeletons between 1730-1790 varied, but they mainly had a larger pelvic area and sometimes females had smaller skulls. These 18th century studies provided "scientic evidence" to assert women inferiority. The larger pelvic area supposedly proved that women were meant for childbirth and the smaller skull meant they were supposed to be intellectually inferior to males.!

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Women also lost their sphere of inuence as being midwives. Men took over as being surgeons and also used the same techniques midwives used derived from their study of anatomy and replaced them. This occurred in all areas of science and life. It didn't help that books spread the scientic ideas about women everywhere. ! Ren Descartes: Discourse on Method: as you learn more, you notice the vast amount of ignorance that you have and then become entangled in doubt and uncertainty. Descartes came to the conclusion that although he was bound to doubt everything that existed, in order to doubt, you have to think and thus since he is able to think, he himself also exists since thinking things exist.! Cartesian Dualism: mind and body are both different since the mind cannot be doubted, but the body can and essentially the rest of matter can as well, but you can use mind or reason with mathematics to understand the material world since it is governed by physics. All of these ideas falls under what came to be known as rationalism. ! Francis Bacon thought that the science world had a magnicent structure but no foundation to be built upon, basically science was advanced but there was no standard for it. He expressed his desire to set this foundation in The Great Instauration. He believed that this new scientic method would further the goal of science, which was to give new power and discoveries to human life. Bacon believed that humanity should use this new found power to conquer nature. This was known as empiricism.!

Descartes proposed a different approach to science. He emphasized deduction and mathematical logic. He believed that every step in an argument should be like a proof. He essentially believed that humanity could arrive at answer if they continued to believe that something is false and kept trying to proceed in a mathematical order to prove that something is not false and through various deductions, there will eventually be a conclusion. ! Isaac Newton eventually combined both rationalism and empiricism to form the scientic method where you would begin with observations to arrive at general concepts and then new deductions could be derived from these general concepts and then tested and veried by precise experiments.! English Royal Society evolved out of informal gatherings of scientists in the 1640s and was recognized by Charles II in 1662. It received little gov support and its members chose new ones to join. ! French Royal Academy of Sciences evolved much the same way as in England in the 1650s and was recognized but Louis XIV in 1666. They received a lot of gov support and was controlled by gov as well and received lots of funding. Members were chosen by the state.! Both nations started out with wanting to utilize the practical benets of science for the greater good of their respective nation such as technological improvements for the industry. Afterwards, there was a shift to the theoretical side with mechanics and astronomy. Observatories were built in Paris and Greenwich, England, but since the French Royal

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Academy of Sciences was controlled by the gov, there was still a heavy push on using science to benet the nation economically.! German princes and city governments followed the French example building up societies for the same purpose. ! The French Journal des Savants and the English Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society both were scientic journals that were published for the general public and other scientists to spread scientic knowledge and were important for spreading information on certain scientic or academic advances and would be used quite frequently for many years to come. ! Science was accepted because of elites who found that it could be used for new ways of exploiting resources for prot. Science could be used to advance technology, industry, transportation, etc.! Science was also accepted in a political sense since rulers and high class people could use this as a means of raising their status. During the English Revolution, the Puritans used science as a way to reform and renew their society while the ones who opposed them (levellers, diggers, ranters) believed in Paracelsus and Hermeticism. The Royal Society wanted to be completely separated from both Church and State. Newtonian science was greatly accepted by the 18th century and would be used by the elite to improve their own wealth and also improving humanity.! Theology used to be the queen of the sciences until modern science emerged to question religion. Scientists like Galileo believed that there was no reason to put religion against science since religion will always be open to a vast amount of interpretations while nature itself has only one true answer. The Church opposed Galileo and many other scientists and as science itself was winning all the battles against religion, intellectuals came to view life much more secularly. ! Many intellectuals also were both religious and scientic and thus thought that such a split was devastating while others thought of combining the two into a new philosophical discipline. ! Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677): He rejected Judaism and was excommunicated from the synagogue at Amsterdam. He worked independently by grinding optical lenses. He was greatly inuenced by Descartes, but he was unwilling to accept that mind and matter were separated and the separation of God from matter. He believed that God was not just the creator of the universe, but he is the universe. Everything is God basically. Pantheism was expressed in his book Ethics Demonstrated in the Geometrical Manner. Human beings are just a part of God, nature, and the universe as every other object.! Some believed that nature had only one use, for gaining natural possessions like food from animals, sh, etc, sun for light, eyes of seeing, and all those other things.! People also tried to nd reasons for the existence of nature and found it in God who they must worship. If nature appeared angry in the form of storms, earthquakes, or diseases, it meant that God was angry. !

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Humans also condemn others because they do not that human emotions come from nature. In order to explain emotions you have to analyze them like the movement of planets.! Essentially everything has a rational explanation and humans are capable of nding it. With reason, humans can nd true happiness and true freedom comes from understanding nature and detaching themselves from certain interests.! Blaise Pascal (1623-1662): He believed in keeping religion and science united. He was excellent and science and math and one day had a mystical vision on Nov. 23, 1654, which assured him that God cared for the human soul. He devoted the rest of his life to religion. He tried to write an apology to the Christian religion, but died before doing so, but he had a larger set of notes, which would be published as Penses (Thoughts).! In this work, Pascal believed that humans were frail creatures that are easily deceived by their senses, reason, and crumbled by their emotions. Yet, their very nature involves thinking. He wanted to show that Christianity was not contrary to reason because then religion would be absurd. He felt that this religion was the only one that recognized human beings as vulnerable and great, which would t into both religion and science. He also answered those skeptics who opposed him by saying that if you believe in God, you have everything to win, but if you don't, then there is nothing to lose. Pascal also did not want religion to be primarily on reason because it loses its mystery and supernatural element. Pascal believed that the nite man was lost in the innite world since the world of nature could never reveal God. Pascal came to rely on faith because he believed that reason had a limit. Faith on the other hand, did not. You could go to innite places with just faith. Essentially, reason has an ending while faith does not and also the nal step of Christianity is faith and the reasons through the heart (emotion) cannot be judged by simple deductions since the heart has unexplainable reasons.