Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Water Management 160 December 2007 Issue WM4 Pages 203–206 doi

: 10.1680/wama.2007.160.4.203 Paper 14245 Received 19/03/2007 Accepted 06/04/2007 Keywords: dams, barrages & reservoirs/models (physical) Arun Goel Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India

Experiments on stilling basins for dam outlets
A. Goel
BTech, MTech, PhD vertex angle 1508 having cut-back on the sides at 908 were used as the splitter blocks in this study (Fig. 2). 3. EXPERIMENTAL ARRANGEMENT Stilling basins are generally designed on the basis of inflow Froude number Fr ¼ ½Q2 =ðgd5 ފ1=2 where Q is the discharge, d is the diameter of outlet and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The experiments were performed in an 8 m long, 0.6 m wide and 0.4 m deep rectangular fixed bed flume in the Hydraulics Laboratory of the National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India. A masonry tank of height 140 cm was constructed upstream of the flume to supply discharge through the outlet. A pipe model of d ¼ 10.5 cm and 45 cm length (for flow development) was fixed in the tank whose downstream face was flush with the vertical wall. A smooth entry for the outlet was provided to avoid friction and entry losses. The width of the basin was kept equal to 5.72d. A wooden board was used to facilitate fixing of stilling basin appurtenances. A 30 cm thick erodible sand bed of particle size passing a 4.75 mm IS sieve and retained on a 2.36 mm IS sieve was used to study scour (specific gravity ¼ 2.68, d50 ¼ 3.6 mm). A tailgate was used to control the downstream water level. The running time was 1 h for each model with a normal depth of flow over the end sill. 4. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE A stilling basin model was fixed downstream of the outlet. The sand bed surface downstream of the stilling basin model was levelled up to the top of the end sill. A centrifugal pump of maximum flow capacity 0.03 m3/s was switched on and a small amount of water was allowed to flow so that disturbances on the sand bed were kept to a minimum. The flume was filled nearly equal to the desired downstream depth while keeping the tailgate closed. The flow to the flume was increased up to the required Froude number while manometer readings of a precalibrated orifice meter installed in the pipeline were recorded. The tailgate was gradually opened to achieve the desired steady flow conditions. After 1 h, the motor was switched off and the tailgate was closed again. The water in the flume was allowed to drain out slowly without disturbing the scour pattern. The maximum depth of scour (dm) and its location after the end sill (ds) were noted, as shown in Fig. 3. 5. DESIGN AND TESTING OF STILLING BASIN MODELS A stilling basin model as suggested by Garde6 was designed for Fr ¼ 3.44. The model has a curved splitter block placed at 1d, a Goel 203

A series of experiments was performed with the aim of developing shorter and more efficient stilling basins for dam outlets (in comparison with Garde’s stilling basin), keeping the floor of the basin at the invert level (lowest level of outlet) of the outlet. The experiments were conducted for a pipe outlet diameter d ¼ 58 mm, inflow Froude number Fr ¼ 3.44 and basin lengths of 12d, 10d, 8d and 7d. New models were developed by conducting systematic experimentation on stilling basin models using different types of appurtenances such as wedge-shaped blocks, a grid, an intermediate sill and an end step. It was found that the newly developed stilling basin models are not only shorter in length but also show superior performance in terms of maximum depth of scour and its location when compared to Garde’s model. 1. INTRODUCTION Stilling basins are constructed downstream of spillways, chutes, sluices, dam outlets, etc. to dissipate kinetic energy of the flow. Recommended stilling basin designs for outlets include the USBR impact type VI stilling basin,1 the manifold stilling basin,2 contra costa energy dissipater,3 USU energy dissipater,4 counter current energy dissipater,5 Garde’s energy dissipater,6 Smith’s energy dissipater7 and systems developed by Goel and Verma.8–11 This study suggests improvements in the performance of Garde’s stilling basin,6 which has a basin length equal to 12d, where d is the diameter of the outlet, for a Froude number Fr ¼ 3.44. 2. DEVELOPMENT OF WEDGE-SHAPED BLOCKS A rectangular baffle block offers maximum drag but its analysis does not take into consideration non-uniform, turbulent and 3D flow around the block. Furthermore, reattachment of flow on the sides of the rectangular block, which reduces the wake area and therefore the drag (Fig. 1), presents a problem. Experiments conducted by Pillai and Unny12 showed that a wedge-shaped baffle block of vertex angle 1208 cut back at 908 at the downstream offered more drag owing to an increase in the wake area as mentioned by Goel and Verma.9 A strong roller with vertical axis is formed on either side of the block in the cut-back portion, thus causing the jet to diverge away from the block. The chances of cavitation of the blocks are minimised because the development of very low pressure in the fixed eddies is avoided in this shape.13 A wedge-shaped block of vertex angle 1508 has been adopted in the past for the development of stilling basins for spillways having Fr ¼ 2.5–4.5.14 Wedge-shaped blocks8–11 with Water Management 160 Issue WM4

Experiments on stilling basins for dam outlets

2. 3. New stilling basin geometries (Table 1) were designed with basin lengths of 12d. The results were as follows. 10d. the performance of models G-B (PN ¼ 0. this model was called Garde model G-A (Fig. G-J (PN ¼ 2. Keeping the performance of model G-A in mind. 4). (b) wedge-shaped block basin B. (a) In the stilling basin model of length 12d.Reattachment 90º Flow Less wake area 150º 90º Enlarged wake area (a) (b) Fig. The performance of all models G-E to G-K was better than model G-A. maximum depth of scour dm and its location ds.49) and G-K (PN ¼ 2. By adopting newly designed grids B and D (as used by Goel and Verma8). Comparison of wake areas: (a) rectangular block. all the new models used grid D. ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Inspection of the results in Table 1 indicates that all the stilling basin models studied perform quite well compared with Garde’s base model G-A (Fig. Wedge-shaped splitter and baffle block grid A (used by Goel and Verma8) placed at 3d.43). an intermediate sill at 8d and a rounded step at 12d.88). 4). 8d and 7d by using different combinations of appurtenances and subsequently tested.74) and G-D (PN ¼ 1. 1.43) for the same length of basin 12d. The scour Froude number Fdm based on mean velocity of flow in the channel Vc and depth of maximum scour dm can be expressed as 1 5 Fdm ¼ V c =ðgdm Þ0 5 ¼ Q=ðBhg0 5 d 0 m Þ : : : Downstream slope (1V:4H) Flow 150º hb hb Elevation 90º 150º 90º 0·8d Plan 0·75d If the scour pattern is assumed to be parabolic (Fig. 6. the new models were tested. tail water depth of flow h. When a wedge-shaped splitter block was used instead of a curved splitter block (models G-I (PN ¼ 1. Scour profile 204 Water Management 160 Issue WM4 Experiments on stilling basins for dam outlets . PERFORMANCE EVALUATION The performance of a stilling basin is a function of Froude number Fr.50)). the performance was far superior to that of model G-A (PN ¼ 0. A stilling basin model resulting in a smaller depth of scour at larger distance is considered to have superior performance. 7. outlet diameter d. 3). Goel End step α Rigid apron dm Erodible sand bed Fig. the value of tan is the slope of the tangent drawn to the base parabola of the maximum scour downstream of the end sill 2 tan ¼ 2dm =ds 0·75d Isometric view wb = 1·0d The performance number is 3 PN ¼ Fdm = tan ¼ ðFdm Þds =2dm Fig. width of stilling tan α = 2dm/ds Parabolic scour profile (assumed) ds Actual scour profile 4 Fr ¼ V =ðgdÞ0 5 ¼ 4Q=ðd2 g0 5 d0 5 Þ : : : 5 PN ¼ Fr  : d ðd=dm Þ1 5 45:76h s A higher PN indicates better performance of the stilling basin model (Table 1).31) also improved significantly over model G-A (PN ¼ 0.

wb ¼ 0. rounded step at 12d New models with basin length ¼ 10d G-L Wedge-shaped splitter block (hb ¼ 0.70 1.42d) at 6d. intermediate sill (25 mm  35 mm) at 10d.5d. row of wedge-shaped baffle blocks (hb ¼ 0.5d. sloping sill (height ¼ 25 mm. wb ¼ 0. intermediate sill (height ¼ 25. row of wedge-shaped baffle blocks (hb ¼ 0. row of wedgeshaped baffle blocks (hb ¼ 0.33d.33d. grid D with bottom gap 0. Fr ¼ 3. grid D with gap less than 0. Scheme of experimentation for d ¼ 10. wb ¼ 0.42d) at 1d.42d) at 6d.31). rounded step at 12d G-H Curved splitter block at 1d. rounded step at 7d Table 1.5d. wb ¼ 0. Model G-O incorporated a wedge-shaped splitter block of downstream slope and gave the highest PN (6. row of wedge-shaped baffle blocks (hb ¼ 0. W ¼ 5.42d) at 4.56 6. intermediate sill (25 mm  25 mm) at 6d. the PN of model G-Q reduced to 0. 4.4 mm.157d at 3d. row of wedge-shaped baffle blocks (hb ¼ 0.5d. intermediate sill (25 mm  35 mm) at 8d.314d at 3d.5d.5d. slope 1V : 1H) at 8d.50d. wb ¼ 0. intermediate sill (height ¼ 25. model G-P shows better performance (PN ¼ 1.5d. slope 1V : 1H) at 8d. wb ¼ 0. hb ¼ 0. grid D at 3d.38 0.42d) at 6d. wb ¼ 0. rounded step at 7d G-R Wedge-shaped splitter block (hb ¼ 0.5d.42d) at 1d.37). step at 10d G-N Wedge-shaped splitter block (upstream slope 4H : 1V. wb ¼ 0.0·75d R = d/2 Erodible bed 2d d/8 d/16 d 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 d/4 × d/4 0·87d 11 12d End step Curved splitter block Grid A Intermediate sill Fig. wb ¼ 0.5d. row of wedge-shaped baffle blocks (hb ¼ 0. grid D at 3d. grid D with gap less than 0.06) perform better due to the introduction of a wedge-shaped splitter block and grid D.5d.5d.5d.42d) at 4.42d) at 1d. wb ¼ 0.157d at 3d.42d) at 6d. wb ¼ 0. models G-L (PN ¼ 1.42d) at 6d. grid D at 3d. rounded step at 10d G-O Wedge-shaped splitter block (downstream slope 4H : 1V. rounded step at 12d G-F Curved splitter block at 1d. grid D with gap less than 0. wb ¼ 0. grid D* with gap less than 0.06 1.44. Model G-A G-B G-D Description Garde’s model with grid A Model with grid B Model with grid D PN 0.49 2. intermediate sill (25 mm  35 mm) at 8d. downstream slope 4H : 1V) at 1d.81 due to the smaller basin length.42d) at 6d. row of wedge-shaped baffle blocks (hb ¼ 0. downstream slope 4H : 1V) at 1d. (d) In the stilling basin model of length 7d. wb ¼ 0. slope 1V : 2H) at 8d. rounded step at 12d G-J Wedge-shaped splitter block (hb ¼ 0.42d.38) than model G-A due to the use of a wedge-shaped splitter block and grid D.42d) at 1d. intermediate sill (height ¼ 25. grid D at 3d with a gap 0.42d.5d.42d. 5) the PN increased to 1. wb ¼ 0.42d) at 8d. wb ¼ 0. wb ¼ 0.4 mm. row of wedge-shaped baffle blocks (hb ¼ 0.31 1. hb ¼ 0. wb ¼ 0.5d. rounded step at 10d New model with basin length ¼ 8d G-P Wedge-shaped splitter block (hb ¼ 0.46 Water Management 160 Issue WM4 Experiments on stilling basins for dam outlets Goel 205 .5d. grid D at 3d.5d. row of wedge-shaped baffle blocks (hb ¼ 0. downstream slope 4H : 1V) at 1d.5d. grid D at 3d. in model G-R (Fig.5d. rounded step at 10d G-M Wedge-shaped splitter block (hb ¼ 0. slope 1V : 1H) at 8d.42d) at 8d.74 1.4 mm.06).5d.37 2.42d) at 6d.50 New models with basin length ¼ 12d G-E Curved splitter block at 1d. row of wedge-shaped baffle blocks (hb ¼ 0. intermediate sill (25 mm  35 mm).81 1. row of wedge-shaped baffle blocks (hb ¼ 0.157d at 3d.157d at 3d.42d) at 1d.46 due to the addition of another row of wedge-shaped baffle blocks.5 cm.43 0. rounded step at 8d New models with basin length ¼ 7d G-Q Wedge-shaped splitter block (hb ¼ 0. intermediate sill (height ¼ 25. row of wedge-shaped baffle blocks (hb ¼ 0. wb ¼ 0. wb ¼ 0.5d. G-M (PN ¼ 1. rounded step at 12d G-I Wedge-shaped splitter block (hb ¼ 0. However. grid D at 3d.42d) at 1d.56) and G-O (PN ¼ 6. slope 1V : 1H) at 8d. row of wedge-shaped baffle blocks (hb ¼ 0.31 1. Stilling basin model G-A (b) For a 10d length. (c) For 8d length. grid D at 3d.42d) at 1d. wb ¼ 0.88 2. wb ¼ 0.42d) at 6d.157d. wb ¼ 0.42d) at 6d.5d. G-N (PN ¼ 2.06 1.4 mm.5d and another at 5d.22 1. rounded step at 12d G-K Wedge-shaped splitter block (hb ¼ 0.72d 1. wb ¼ 0.

VERMA D.1d R = d/2 d/2 d 0·314d 0 1d 2d 3d 4d 5d 2d 2 rows of baffle blocks 0·87d 6d 7d End step Erodible bed Wedge-shaped splitter block Grid D* Fig. D. N. L. 81–91. E.org. 3. Contra costa energy dissipator. 1971. 9. Counter current energy dissipator for conduit outlets. with adequate illustrations and references. 1961. pp. 107–110. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering ASCE. S. and GOEL A. which absorbs a considerable amount of energy. Stilling basins for pipe outlets using wedge shaped splitter block. 1967. The jets of water also entrain part of the surrounding fluid after expansion and in doing so distribute energy throughout a greater mass. PILLAI N. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering ASCE. 3. Outlet structure design for conduits and tunnel. 13. GARDE R. eddy currents are thus produced by impact action. 7. 5. 505–513. FLAMMER G. D. Grid hoods prevent splashing and assist in energy dissipation. R. 4. Coastal & Ocean Engineering ASCE. No. 5. and SARAF P. Papers should be 2000–5000 words long. 2. J. 115.com/journals for author guidelines and further details. V. 83. No. J. Please visit www. 1989. academics and students.. and PETERKA A. No. Port. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering ASCE. 1–10. No. and JAYARAMAN V. 6. REFERENCES 1. and RASHEED H.. International Journal of Water & Power. 96. CONCLUSIONS The experimental study produced encouraging results for the evolution of new designs of stilling basins for dam outlets that are not only more efficient but are also smaller in length. 2003. What do you think? To comment on this paper. N. 194–200. No. 1970. and ALBERTSON M. S. 1999. SMITH C. 14. N. 313–320. 15. 179–184. 87. After passing the splitter block. No. Hydraulic design of stilling basins. Development of efficient stilling basins for pipe outlets. KEIM S. 10. and UNNY T. 4. VOLLMER E. 8. 126. part of the flow impinges on the grid. 2001. 114. 206 Water Management 160 Issue WM4 Experiments on stilling basins for dam outlets Goel . H. 23. 145–154. A large number of openings in the grid allow most of the flow to pass through. 4. This was achieved through the use of wedge-shaped blocks and new grid configurations. H. 7. GOEL A. N. 1986. 7. S. Manifold stilling basin. No. and VERMA D. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Systems. and KHADER M. 9. 1–21. 3. 55–81. No. S. PILLAI N. 88. 11. V. 13. 90. No. FIALA J. 115. 12. 4. V. 2. This special shape of the splitter block assists in the lateral spreading of 3D jets of water over the whole width of basin. Cavitation on baffle piers in stilling basins. 7.thomastelford. which would lead to significant savings in construction costs. No. V. 2000. A wedge-shaped baffle block offers higher drag and produces a large number of sharp discontinuity layers with small-grained eddies. 3. Stilling basin model G-R 8. V. 109–122.uk Proceedings journals rely entirely on contributions sent in by civil engineers and related professionals. 41. No. WEI C. Model studies on stilling basins for pipe outlets. V. 1988. PILLAI N. Y. 1. SKOGERBOE G. 1962. 1401–1406. VERMA D. and GOEL A. Journal of Waterway. GOEL A. Shapes of appurtenances in stilling basins. which creates sufficient horizontal/vertical shear and ultimately produces energy dissipation by turbulence. No. 260–263. Journal of Irrigation and Power. A rounded end step lifts flow from the bottom of the channel and creates a strong back current in the form of a reverse roller. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering ASCE. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering ASCE. R. Evolution of design of energy dissipator for pipe outlets. 1. and GOEL A. 1964. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering ASCE. Improved design of energy dissipators for pipe outlets. please email up to 500 words to the editor at journals@ice. A second row of staggered wedge-shaped baffle blocks face the spaces between the blocks of the first row. DISCUSSION A sloping wedge-shaped splitter block is able to accomplish energy dissipation in a shorter basin length. No. 5. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering ASCE. Bangalore. 1957. The study suggests that the length of new stilling basins for dam outlets could be reduced by more than 40%. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Systems. 989–994. and VERMA D. Proceedings of Symposium on High Velocity Flow. BRADELY J. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering ASCE. Hydraulic jump type stilling basins for low inflow Froude numbers. causing loss of energy. Closed conduit to open channel-stilling basins.

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