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The South Atlantic Quarterly 111:1, Winter 2012 DOI 10.1215/003828 !"1# 2!

3$ %n&li'h tran'lation ( 2012 Du)e *ni+er'ity ,re'' -ro. /o' 0e'a1io' 0e la' e.anci2acion en un conte3to .ilitari4a0o, e0. Ana %'ther 5ece6a 78ueno' Aire': 5/A5SO, 200!9: u'e0 ;ith 2er.i''ion The' o1 2olitical e.anci2ation are e+i0ent at once in the 1act that the 'tate can 1ree it'el1 1ro. a re'triction ;ithout .an <ein& really 1ree 1ro. thi' re'triction, that the 'tate can <e a 1ree 'tate ;ithout .an <ein& a 1ree .an. The 2er1ect 2olitical 'tate i', <y it' nature, .an=' '2ecie'"li1e, a' o22o'e0 to hi' .aterial li1e. All the 2recon0ition' o1 thi' e&oi'tic li1e continue to e3i't in ci+il 'ociety out'i0e the '2here o1 the 'tate, <ut a' >ualitie' o1 ci+il 'ociety. Where the 2olitical 'tate ha' attaine0 it' true 0e+elo2.ent, .an?not only in thou&ht, in con'ciou'ne'', <ut in reality, in li1e?lea0' a t;o1ol0 li1e, a hea+enly an0 an earthly li1e: li1e in the 2olitical co..unity, in ;hich he con'i0er' hi.'el1 a co..unal <ein&, an0 li1e in ci+il 'ociety, in ;hich he act' a' a 2ri+ate in0i+i0ual, re&ar0' other .en a' a .ean', 0e&ra0e' hi.'el1 into a .ean', an0 <eco.e' the 2laythin& o1 alien 2o;er'. ?@arl Aar3, On the Be;i'h Que'tion Ci'tory ;ill not <e )in0 to ri&i0 certaintie': ;e

2ro2o'e thi' a' the 'tartin& 2oint to a22roach the 0i'cu''ion o1 counterhe&e.ony an0 e.anci2ation. There are 1e; i0ea' a' 0ee2ly roote0 in critical thou&ht a' tho'e re&ar0in& ;hat 1or. 'ocial tran'1or.ation 'houl0 ta)e. Thi' .a)e' it 0i11i" DaEl Ornela' 5ounterhe&e.onie' an0 %.anci2ation': Fote' 1or a De<ate 1#! The South Atlantic Quarterly G Winter 2012 cult to en&a&e any 0e<ate on the to2ic, a' the 2o'ition' at 'ta)e are 2re'ente0 a' irre0uci<le or at lea't .utually e3clu'i+e. The Dele+ance o1 the De<ate The 0i'cu''ion o1 the hori4on' o1 'ocial 'tru&&le i' neither an aca0e.ic i''ue nor, in the en0, a theoretical one. The hi'torical e32erience o1 'ocial 'tru&&le, an0 e'2ecially the hi'tory o1 re+olutionary 2roce''e', 0e.on'trate' that the 2oint' o1 re1erence that 2ro+i0e the 'tren&th an0 i0ea' that orient 'tru&&le an0 'ocial tran'1or.ation are o1 2ri.ary i.2ortance. While it i' the ;or)er' an0 their or&ani4ation' that throu&h 'tru&&le con'titute the 'u<Hect o1 'ocial tran'1or.ation, ;hat ;e call 2oint' o1 re1erence 7or&ani4ation', <ut al'o ne;'2a2er', clu<', an0 .ore recently, &rou2' o1 intellectual'9 ha+e <een a<le to .a)e i.2ortant contri<ution' in 1or.ulatin& analy'i' an0 'trate&ie' a0e>uate to the hi'torical .o.ent in'o1ar a' they ta)e into account the realitie' o1 the tran'1or.ational 'u<Hect. In thi' 'en'e, ;e thin) it i' +ery i.2ortant to inten'i1y the 0e<ate concernin& the hori4on' o1 'ocial 'tru&&le. Thi' <eco.e' e+en .ore rele+ant i1, 1ollo;in& ,erry An0er'on=' characteri4ation o1 the /atin A.erican

'ocial reality, ICere an0 only here, the re'i'tance to neoli<erali'. an0 to neo"i.2eriali'. conHu&ate' the cultural ;ith the 'ocial an0 national. That i' to 'ay, it entail' an +i'ion o1 another ty2e o1 or&ani4ation o1 'ociety an0 another .o0el o1 relation' a.on& 'tate' on the <a'i' o1 the'e three 0i11erent 0i.en'ion'.J1 The ri'e o1 'ocial 'tru&&le' an0 the e32erience o1 &o+ern.ent' 'el1"i0enti1yin& a' Ile1tJ 2ro+i0e a 0i+er'e an0 contra0ictory reality that in+ite' u' to inno+ate in our re1lection' an0 to i.a&ine, al<eit .o0e'tly, ne; 2ath' o1 'ocial tran'1or.ation in our countrie'. Such a tran'1or.ation e.<o0ie' the 'tate0 0e'ire o1 .o+e.ent' an0 citi4en' throu&hout /atin A.erica, <ut it al'o 'ee.' to <e cau&ht in a cycle in ;hich?.o+in& 1ro. the ri'e o1 'ocial .o<ili4ation' to a chan&e in the 1orce' o1 &o+ern.ent?e+erythin& re.ain' .ore or le'' the 'a.e. 8ac)&roun0 With re'2ect to the relation'hi2 <et;een counterhe&e.ony an0 e.anci2ation, it i' nece''ary to a00re'' t;o .i'conce2tion'. -ir't, ;e .u't reco&ni4e that in <oth line' o1 thin)in& the 'tate i' 2re'ente0 a' the e.<o0i.ent o1 he&e.ony. Thu', rather than a')in& ;hether to ta)e the 'tate into Ornela' G 5ounterhe&e.onie' an0 %.anci2ation' 1# account, counterhe&e.ony an0 e.anci2ation 2o'e 0i'tinct ;ay' o1 con1rontin& an0 relatin& to the 'tate. Secon0, ;e ;oul0 li)e to e.2ha'i4e the hy<ri0 nature o1 /atin A.erican 'ocial e32erience'. So.e author' ha+e atte.2te0 to e'ta<li'h an e3clu'i+e ty2olo&y ;here<y 2articular actor' e.<o0y one i0ea or another 7counterhe&e.ony or e.anci2ation9. Thi' i' the ca'e e'2ecially re&ar0in& Ka2ati'.o, ;hich 'o.e are 0eter.ine0

to re2re'ent a' a .o+e.ent that 0oe' not ta)e the 0o.inant 2o;er into account. In reality, in .o't o1 the .aHor 'ocial 'tru&&le' currently 0e+elo2in&, ;e can 'ee <oth ten0encie'. Within the Ao+i.ento Se. Terra 7AST: the /an0le'' Wor)er'= Ao+e.ent9 in 8ra4il, the in0i&enou' .o+e.ent' in 8oli+ia an0 %cua0or, an0 the Ka2ati'ta' in Ae3ico, ;e 'ee the o1 2ro2o'al', line' o1 thin)in&, an0 initiati+e' that 'ee) to 0e+elo2 <oth counterhe&e.onic an0 e.anci2atory 2roce''e'. In thi' 'en'e, it i' i.2ortant to e.2ha'i4e that ;hile their 1or.' o1 0oin& 2olitic' are 0i11erent than the 2re+ailin& one' 7in in'titutional 2olitic'9, the character o1 the current .o+e.ent' i' <oth 'ocial an0 2olitical. 8ecau'e thi' analy'i' atte.2t' to co.2are the ter.' an0 2ractice' o1 'ocial actor', ;e .u't <e attenti+e to the 0an&er o1 1allin& into a ta3ono.y o1 'ocial 'tru&&le in ;hich the characteri'tic' o1 0i11erent 2roce''e' are i'olate0 1ro. their hi'torical conte3t, an0 the contra0iction' inherent in the con'truction o1 conte'tatory 'ocial 'u<Hect' are con+erte0 into cla''i1ication' throu&h ;hich they can <e >uali1ie0 or 0i'>uali1ie0. We 'houl0 <e care1ul to a+oi0, 1ro. the +ery <e&innin& o1 our analy'i', the ten0ency to e''entiali4e the 0e<ate un0erlyin& i0ea' o1 counterhe&e.ony an0 e.anci2ation. The challen&e ;e 1ace i' to o+erco.e 2o'ition' that ten0 to <e .erely 0i'.i''i+e an0 to <e&in to en&a&e in a real 0e<ate that ;ill allo; u' to contri<ute to the ela<oration o1 ne; 2ath' 1or /atin A.erican 'ocial 'tru&&le'. Thi' contri<ution <e&in' ;ith the i0ea that counterhe&e.ony an0 e.anci2ation 'hare co..on ele.ent', an0 it 'ee)' to a22roach, ;ith clarity, the' o1 <oth, inclu0in& their inherent contra0iction' an0 ten0encie'. In &eneral ter.', it a22ear' that ca2itali't 0o.ination ha' reache0 an e3tre.ely hi&h le+el o1 0e+elo2.ent, e32re''e0 <oth in it' ten0ency to

con+ert the entire 2lanet 7nature an0 'ocial relation'9 into co..o0itie' an0 in the a<'ence o1 alternati+e' or +ia<le ru2ture' ;ith 'uch 0o.ination in the 2re'ent .o.ent. In ;hat 1ollo;', ;e outline tho'e ele.ent' o1 the conte.2orary conte3t that <ear 0irectly on the 2ur'uit o1 a+enue' 1or 'ocial tran'1or.ation.2 1#8 The South Atlantic Quarterly G Winter 2012 The 5haracteri4ation o1 Ce&e.ony So.e ar&ue 1or the +ali0ity an0 'tren&th o1 *S he&e.ony. A.on& tho'e ;ho conten0 that thi' he&e.ony i' in 0ecline, there are t;o o22o'in& ar&u.ent'. The 1ir't 2ertain' to the correlation o1 1orce': i1 *S he&e.ony i', in 1act, ;ea)enin&, it 'houl0 <e not con'i0ere0 relati+e to the 2lace that the *nite0 State' once occu2ie0 71or in'tance, at the en0 o1 Worl0 War II9, <ut rather it 'houl0 <e con'i0ere0 ;ith re'2ect to the actually e3i'tin& o22o'in& 1orce'. Thu', <ecau'e no ri+al ca2itali4e' on the he&e.on=' ;ea)ne'', ;e li+e in a 'tate o1 uni2olarity: IThe ;ea)enin& o1 Forth A.erica=' he&e.onic ca2acity corre'2on0' not to the 'tren&thenin& o1 the other 2ole, <ut to a ri'e in ;orl0;i0e 0i'or0er.J3 The 'econ0 ar&u.ent, <y contra't, re1er' to the .ulti0i.en'ional character o1 he&e.ony, 'uch that e+en i1 the *nite0 State' 'u11er' 'i&ni1icant rece''ion' in the econo.ic real., ;e .u't 'till ta)e into account it' a<'olute 0o.inance in the .ilitary '2here an0, e'2ecially, in the cultural arena. De&ar0in& the latter, the IA.erican ;ay o1 li1eJ i' the ;orl0 2ara0i&. o1 'ociality, ;ith no ri+al other than that o1 an unattracti+e I'la.ic 1un0a.entali'.. The Fe; Terrain o1 5la'' Stru&&le The le+el o1 0e+elo2.ent attaine0 <y ca2itali't he&e.ony, 2articularly ;hen ne; technolo&ie' co.<ine ;ith the a<'ence o1 a nonca2itali't alternati+e

to that he&e.ony, ha' .eant a 0i'location o1 the <oun0arie' o1 'ocial con1lict. A' ca2ital ha' ten0e0 to e3cee0 the' o1 nature 71or in'tance, throu&h &enetic en&ineerin&9 an0 e+en the' o1 the 2lanet 71or e3a.2le, throu&h '2ace e32loration9, the 'u<'tratu. o1 'ocial con1lict .o+e' throu&h the '2ace' o1 e32loitation 7the .ar)et, the 1actory9 to;ar0 a 2olitic' o1 territory a' 'uch?that i', 'ocial con1lict e32an0' to all '2here' o1 'ocial li1e an0 ten0' to e32re'' it'el1 .o't acutely in tho'e area' that con'titute the +ery <a'i' o1 li1e: co..unitie', their con0ition' o1 e3i'tence, an0 their &eo&ra2hical '2ace' an0 'y.<ol'.# The tran'1or.ation o1 ca2itali't he&e.ony 'i&nal' 2ro1oun0 chan&e' in 1or.' o1 'ocial 'tru&&le. In'titution' con'tructe0 throu&h cla'' 'tru&&le 'ince the In0u'trial De+olution ha+e ten0e0 to 0i'a22ear, e'2ecially tho'e relate0 to 'ocial 'tatu' an0 the 2o2ulation=' li+in& an0 ;or)in& con0ition'. To0ay, 1ro. the 2er'2ecti+e o1 2o;er an0 1ro. that o1 the 'u<Hect' ;ho re'i't it, con1lict' are 2re'ente0 a' irre0uci<le. Thu', a' the te.2orality o1 re'i'tance ta)e' on .ore ra0ical 1or.' an0 'trate&ie', re2re''ion increa'Ornela' G 5ounterhe&e.onie' an0 %.anci2ation' 1#$ in&ly <eco.e' the recour'e o1 2o;er. At the 'a.e ti.e, there i' a ten0ency to;ar0 increa'in& 2olitical 2olari4ation. In e11ect, ne; 1or.' o1 0o.ination lea+e 'cant roo. 1or tho'e 1or.' o1 o22o'ition that alon& the line' o1 'ocial 0e.ocracy, a 1or. o1 2olitic' that ;oul0 'ee) to rein+i&orate a 1or. o1 ca2itali'. that no lon&er e3i't'. In thi' conte3t Ana %'ther 5ece6a '2ea)' o1 the .ilitari4ation o1 'ocial li1e, 'y'te.atic counterin'ur&ency, an0 the 0i11u'ion o1 0i'ci2linary '2ace' throu&hout the ;hole o1 'ociety a' the ty2ical re'2on'e' o1 he&e.onic 'u<Hect'.5 I1 he&e.ony <eco.e' accentuate0, the le+el o1 e3clu'ion

create0 <y conte.2orary ca2itali'. ten0' to increa'e it' 1ra&ility: in truth, ;e are enterin& a 2erio0 o1 latent in'urrection. In a 0i'2ute that i' a' .uch 1or li1e a' it i' 1or territory, ne; 1or.' o1 'ocial con1lict &ra0ually ac>uire an antica2itali't hori4on a' the 1or. o1 re'i'tance. A00re''in& the 1ra&ility o1 he&e.ony re+eal' the 1orce o1 re'i'tance in 'ocial 'tru&&le'. -or author' 'uch a' Bohn Collo;ay an0 DaEl Ki<echi, the increa'in& a&&re''i+ene'' o1 ca2ital i' a 0e.on'tration o1 it' o;n ;ea)ne'' in the 1ace o1 the e3clu0e0 an0 o1 'ocial 'tru&&le.! Si.ilarly, 5ece6a ar&ue' that 'ocial 'tru&&le' are the 2ri.ary to ca2itali'., &i+en that 1ro. the technolo&ical 2oint o1 +ie; it alrea0y ha' the re'ource' to ac>uire .a''i+e 2ro1it' an0 to inten'i1y it' 0o.ination. Thi' 2er'2ecti+e 'u22ort' the +ie; o1 he&e.ony a' a 'ocial con'truction an0 'ocial relation. It i' i.2ortant to e.2ha'i4e thi' a'2ect 'o a' not to <eco.e tra22e0 <y 'ole con'i0eration 1or the 'tren&th an0 'oli0ity o1 conte.2orary he&e.ony. Si.ilarly, the 2roce''e' o1 'ocial in'urrection an0 in'ur&ency con'titute the 2o''i<ilitie' 1or ru2ture ;ith ca2itali'., 2o''i<ilitie' that, in the 'co2e o1 'tru&&le, cannot <e o<'er+e0.8 Let, there ;ill <e no e3it 1ro. the conte.2orary 1or. o1 0o.ination, re1erre0 to a' neoli<erali'., i1 there i' no real an0 2ro1oun0 ru2ture ;ith the 2re+ailin& 'ituation. Threa0' o1 Di'cu''ion Such i' the conte3t 1or the 1ollo;in& line' o1 0i'cu''ion an0 0e<ate re&ar0in& counterhe&e.ony an0 e.anci2ation. Sche.atically, counterhe&e.ony 'ee)' to create an alternati+e 2o;er, ;hile e.anci2ation 'ee)' to en0 the relation' o1 2o;er. Such characteri4ation' are clearly ina0e>uate 1or 0e'cri<in& the co.2le3ity o1 the 2roce''e' o1 'ocial 'tru&&le. The 1ir't line o1 0i'cu''ion concern' the characteri'tic' o1 the 'ocial

'u<Hect o1 tran'1or.ation. 5ounterhe&e.ony 'ee)' the creation o1 a 'ocial 150 The South Atlantic Quarterly G Winter 2012 'u<Hect that can 'ucce''1ully con1ront con'titute0 2o;er. A' 'uch, it 'ee)' a .ulti1acete0 'u<Hect ;ho ;oul0 con'truct a unitary 2olitical or&ani4ation an0 2ro2o'e &enerali4e0 alternati+e', <oth in ter.' o1 'u<'tanti+e the.e' 1or a national a&en0a an0 al'o at the territorial le+el, a'2irin& to create a 1orce o2eratin& at the national le+el. The 2roce'' 1or the con'truction o1 thi' 'u<Hect 1ollo;' the &eneral line' 2ro2o'e0 <y Antonio Mra.'ci re&ar0in& the 'tru&&le 1or he&e.ony.$ -ir't, the &oal i' not 'i.2ly to ta)e 'tate 2o;er 1ro. the 0o.inator' <ut rather to con'truct ;ithin ci+il 'ociety the 1oun0ation' 1or a ne; 'ociety an0 a ne; 'tate that 0e'troy' the he&e.ony o1 the <our&eoi'ie. Cere, the i0ea o1 ta)in& 2o;er i' not 'een a' a 2oint o1 0e2arture 1or 'ocial tran'1or.ation. 10 In the 2roce'' o1 'ocial 'tru&&le', 2artial an0 cor2orati't <attle' are 'ai0 to 1in0 a &eneral con0uit in the action o1 2olitical or&ani4ation. Accor0in&ly, the Mra.'cian lo&ic o1 a I;ar o1 2o'ition'J?that i', the &ra0ual creation o1 a ;orl0+ie; that ;oul0 &ain acce2tance a' a ne; un0er'tan0in& o1 truth?i' e''ential 1or the hori4on' an0 rhyth.' o1 the con'truction o1 the tran'1or.ati+e 'u<Hect. The author' ;ho 0e1en0 the nece''ity to <uil0 a counterhe&e.onic 2roHect 'ee continuity <et;een the ,ari' 5o..une, re+olutionary e32erience' 7Du''ia, 5hina, Nietna., 5u<a, an0 5entral A.erica9, an0 atte.2t' to 0e.ocrati4e ca2itali'. 71or e3a.2le, the ,o2ular *nity in 5hile9, to the 0e&ree that each o1 the'e atte.2te0 to create ne; +i'ion' o1 the ;orl0 that '2anne0 the ;hole o1 their 'ocietie'. -inally, there are +er'ion' o1 the ar&u.ent that in'i't on the +ali0ity o1 the /enini't i0ea o1 or&ani4ation?the con'truction o1 the 2arty a' a '2eciali4e0 or&an 1or

'trate&y an0 2olitical 0irection?a' 1un0a.ental to the counterhe&e.onic 2roce''.11 -ro. the 2er'2ecti+e o1 e.anci2ation, the 'u<Hect to <e con'tructe0 i' al'o .ulti2le, thou&h characteri4e0 <y 0i+er'ity an0 roote0 .ore in ci+il 'ociety 7in 2o2ular 'tru&&le'9 than in the 2olitical '2here. It' e''ential 0i11erence ;ith the counterhe&e.onic 2roHect i' that e.anci2ation e.2ha'i4e' the i0ea o1 recu2eratin& control o+er the 2ro0uction o1 the tran'1or.ational 'u<Hect. A<o+e all other o<Hecti+e', the e.anci2atory 2roHect con1ront' the 0aily 0e2en0encie' an0 o22re''ion' li+e0 <y in0i+i0ual' an0 co..unitie'. -or that rea'on, it tac)le' an e''ential a'2ect o1 ca2itali't 0o.ination: the 0e'truction o1 co..unity. In e11ect, <uil0in& co..unity tie' or 0e1en0in& e3i'tin& co..unitie' i' a con'tituent 2roHect o1 the tran'1or.ati+e 'u<Hect: the co..unity i' the '2ace an0 the +ehicle o1 the e.anci2atory 2roHect. In thi' 'en'e, the a11ir.ation o1 0i11erence a' a con'tituent 2roHect o1 the 'u<Hect o1 e.anci2ation i' 2o'e0 a' the a'2iration to o+erco.e the 'e2aration' Ornela' G 5ounterhe&e.onie' an0 %.anci2ation' 151 that characteri4e 'ocial li1e un0er ca2itali'.. The 'tru&&le .u't there1ore co+er all 2ractice' an0 'ocial '2ace'.12 Turnin& in;ar0, in a00ition to their 2olitical ta')', the'e co..unitie' al'o un0erta)e a 'ur+i+al e11ort that 2rioriti4e' the occu2ation an0 re'i&ni1ication o1 a territory. The e11ort' o1 co..unitie' in 'tru&&le ai. to 'ati'1y their <a'ic nee0'?1oo0, health, e0ucation, an0 'el1"0e1en'e? a' ele.ental con0ition' o1 e3i'tence 1or 'u<Hect' re'i'tin& 2o;er. The e''ential 2olitical acti+ity ;ithin an e.anci2atory 2roHect i' the con'tant an0 0yna.ic 2roce'' o1 'el1"a11ir.ation.

A' a con'e>uence o1 e3clu'ion an0 increa'in& o+ere32loitation, the a11ir.ation o1 0i11erence <eco.e' the I'2ontaneou'J .o0e o1 'u<Hect con'truction. The e.anci2atory 2roHect ha' one o1 it' root' in the 0ilution an0 near"ine3i'tence o1 the tra0itional 2olitical '2here, an0 1or thi' rea'on it' i..e0iate conte3t i' 0e1ine0 <y a<an0on.ent <y the 'tate, the a<'ence o1 ca2ital, the lac) o1 e32ectation', an0 the e32erience o1 re2re''ion a' the 2rinci2al 'tate e32re''ion to;ar0 the .ar&inali4e0. Thu', in contra't to counterhe&e.onic 2roHect', rather than 2rioriti4in& the con'truction o1 totali4in& i0ea' that '2an the ;hole o1 'ociety, e.anci2atory 2roHect' 'ee) to 'u<+ert the 2re0o.inant 2olitical culture 7<oth o1 the 0o.inator' an0 o1 the /e1t9 in 1a+or o1 the 2ro2o'ition o1 unity in 0i+er'ity. The .any 1or.' that 'el1"a11ir.ation ta)e' 7loo)in& in;ar0, ;al)in& the '2ee0 o1 the 'lo;e't .e.<er, arri+in& late <ut to&ether9 re+eal one o1 the .o't no+el an0 contro+er'ial ele.ent' o1 the e.anci2atory 2roHect: uncertainty re&ar0in& the 0ile..a' 2o'e0 <y 2o;er an0 0o.ination. The 1ir't 0eci'ion to <rea) ;ith i..e0iate 0o.ination' an0 0e2en0encie' i' 0ra'tic an0 clear 7lar&ely <ecau'e it i' in 2rinci2le a &e'ture o1 'ur+i+al9, <ut the 1uture o1 the 'tru&&le a22ear' ran0o. an0 in0eter.inate, ;ith only +ery &eneral &ui0eline', 'uch a' the 'earch 1or tran'2arency ;ithin an0 <et;een or&ani4ation', coherence <et;een 0i'cour'e an0 2ractice, the 'earch 1or hori4ontality, an0 the reHection o1 the a22lication an0 .etho0 o1 tra0itional re2re'entation 72arlia.entary 0e.ocracy, hierarchical 'ocial or&ani4ation', an0 the lo&ic o1 e11iciency9.13 In other ;or0', e.anci2ation i' a .etho0 rather than a 2ro&ra. or a 2olicy 'trate&y.

A 'econ0 line o1 0i'cu''ion concern' the 2ro<le. o1 the 'tate. -or the counterhe&e.onic 2roHect, the 'tate 1unction' a' one o1 the 1un0a.ental '2ace' o1 any 2olitical 'trate&y. In )ee2in& ;ith the Aar3i't le&acie' 7/enini't an0 Mra.'cian, a' ;ell9, it 'u&&e't' that 0o.ination nece''arily in+ol+e' the 0e'truction o1 the 'tate an0 the con'truction o1 another one. A.on& the 2rinci2al ar&u.ent' .a0e 1or the centrality o1 the 'tate in 'ocial tran'1or.ation are the 1ollo;in&: 152 The South Atlantic Quarterly G Winter 2012 G Niolence i' the re'ult o1 the in'u<or0ination o1 the 'u<altern cla''e' an0 i' the recour'e 2ar e3cellence o1 the 0o.inator' to contain that in'u<or0ination. The 'tate i' a 1un0a.ental '2ace in ;hich the re2re''i+e recour'e' at the 0i'2o'ition o1 0o.inant &rou2' are concentrate0. Thu', the con'truction o1 another 'ocial or0er ;oul0 re>uire .ilitary action an0 re2re''ion on the 2art o1 the ne; 'tate, a&ain't <oth reactionary national 1orce' an0 1orei&n one'. G Mi+en the 'ocial ato.i4ation that characteri4e' ca2itali'., the 'tate 2lay' the crucial role o1 'ynthe'i4in& the 'ocial relation' in ;hich in0i+i0ual a&ent' are en&a&e0. A' .uch in the econo.ic a' in the 2olitical '2here 7an0 inclu0in& in the 'ocial '2here9, the 'tate or&ani4e' an0 .e0iate' 'ocial relation'. It i' the I1inal cohe'i+e 1actor o1 a 'ociety 'tructurally 0i+i0e0 into cla''e'.J1# In the counterhe&e.onic 2roHect, the con'truction o1 another 'ocial or0er can ha22en only throu&h the 'tate, <ecau'e only the 'tate connect' an0 unite' actor' ;ho ;oul0 other;i'e <e 0i'2er'e0. A' concentrate0 2o;er, the 'tate i' a 1un0a.ental '2ace 1or he&e.ony, an0 a' 'uch, it can <e a 1un0a.ental 1actor to 2ro.ote tran'1or.ation': IState' are i.2ortant to a11ir. the

ri&ht' that ha+e <een e32ro2riate0 1ro. the 2eo2le: ;ho coul0 re'cue the uni+er'al 2olicie' o1 e0ucation, health, health care, hou'in&, i1 not 'tate'O De.ocrati4e0 'tate', ;ith 2artici2atory <u0&et'.J15 In thi' 'en'e, it i' ar&ue0 that the ne; 'tate 2lay' a 1un0a.ental role in the 1or.ulation o1 ne; notion' o1 truth an0 o1 a ne; he&e.onic i.a&inary that e.<o0ie' the a'2iration' o1 tran'1or.ati+e 'u<Hect', a' in the 1or.ation o1 7le&al an0 in'titutional9 0i'2o'iti1' that 2ut into 2ractice the tran'1or.ation' re>uire0 1or 'u<Hect' < he&e.onic. G There i' al'o a 2ractical 0i.en'ion to thi' 0i'cu''ion, ;hich in+o)e' the 'ocial"2olitical realitie' o1 our countrie' in or0er to ar&ue 1or the i.2ortance o1 actin& in the 1iel0 o1 in'titutional 2olitic'.1! %+en a' it reco&ni4e' the .aHor contra0iction' 1acin& 2olitical 2artie' an0 1orce', thi' 2o'ition ar&ue' that in'titutional 2olitic' are crucial 1or o2enin& the roa0 to a counterhe&e.onic 2roHect ;ithin the lo&ic o1 I0e.ocrati4in& 0e.ocracy,J a' 2ro2o'e0 <y 8oa+entura 0e Sou'a Santo'.1 It i' li)e;i'e ar&ue0 that the creation o1 a ;orl0 ;ithout he&e.onie' 2a''e' throu&h the con'truction o1 a counterhe&e.onic 2roHect, ;hich o2en' the ;ay 1or the e32an'ion o1 a .ore ra0ical 0e.ocracy. Accor0in& to thi' lo&ic, counterhe&e.ony, 0urin& it' 2ha'e o1 actin& in 'tate '2ace', ena<le' the 2a''a&e 1ro. the accu.ulation o1 1orce' to the 2olitical lea0er'hi2 o1 'ociety. Ornela' G 5ounterhe&e.onie' an0 %.anci2ation' 153 8y contra't, the 2er'2ecti+e o1 e.anci2ation e.2ha'i4e' the role o1 the 'tate a' a 2illar o1 0o.ination. It i' not a >ue'tion o1 turnin& one=' <ac) on the 'tate, <ecau'e it i' clear that the 'tate i', in .any ;ay', an o.ni2re'ent

reality 1or all 'ocial 'u<Hect'. In'tea0, the 2er'2ecti+e o1 e.anci2ation 'u&&e't' an attitu0e o1 0etach.ent an0 e.2ha'i4e' the 0i'location o1 the 'tate 1ro. the center o1 thin)in& an0 acti+itie'. The 'tate i' a 1actor, <ut it i' neither the 1ir't, nor i' it the .o't i.2ortant, in the con'truction o1 a 2roHect 1or 'ocial e.anci2ation. The <e't")no;n ar&u.ent' 1or thi' 2o'ition 0ra; on tho'e hi'torical e32erience', 2articularly clear in the neoli<eral 2erio0, ;here 'tate .e0iation' ha+e <een 'o e.2tie0 o1 their content that they <eco.e illu'ory.18 The han0o+er o1 'o+erei&nty to &lo<al he&e.onic 2o;er' <y national &o+ern.ent' ha' re'ulte0 in the 'u<'e>uent lo'' o1 the .ean' o1 action on the 2art o1 /atin A.erican 'tate'. Thu', the 2er1or.ance o1 &o+ern.ent' 'uch a' that o1 /ui4 InPcio /ula 0a Sil+a in 8ra4il or o1 5ri'tina @irchner in Ar&entina 'ee.' 'hac)le0 to the neoli<eral a&en0a that the &o+ern.ent' continue to a22ly an0 in thi' re&ar0 un0er2in' the attitu0e o1 ')e2tici'. re&ar0in& /atin A.erican 'tate'. Thi' ar&u.ent i' not, ho;e+er, 'u11icient to e32lain the 2ro1oun0 re+er'al o1 2er'2ecti+e 2o'e0 <y the e.anci2atory 2roHect ;ith re'2ect to the 'tate. Thi' 2o'ition i' roote0, rather, in the ;or) an0 2ractice o1 reco&nition/ )no;in& Q7re9conoci.ientoR an0 the 'el1"re1lection that characteri4e' the con'truction o1 the 'u<Hect on the roa0 to e.anci2ation. It i' the 2er'onal an0 collecti+e 'ynthe'i' o1 ;hat the 'tate re2re'ent' in the li1e o1 the collecti+e' an0 the co..unitie' that 1or.' the <a'i' 1or 0e+elo2in& a 0i'tance 1ro. the 'tate. There are t;o no+el i''ue' re&ar0in& the 2olitical '2here o1 the 'tate

that characteri4e the 2roHect' o1 e.anci2ation: 1ir't, the ru2ture ;ith reali't 2ra&.ati'. at the center o1 the 2olitical 'y'te., an0 'econ0, the re2u0iation o1 the 0i+i0in& role o1 the 2artie'. The e32erience o1 2olitical culture roote0 in the e3erci'e o1 2o;er lea0' to the reHection o1 the tra0itional '2ace' an0 1or.' o1 2olitic', a' ;ell a' a reHection o1 'e2aration' in &eneral 7.ana&er' 1ro. .ana&e0, .anual ;or) +er'u' intellectual ;or), etc.9. A.on& other', the'e are the ar&u.ent' that rele&ate the >ue'tion o1 the 'tate to a le''er 'tatu': it i' e+ery0ay li1e that tran'1er' to the e3terior 1actor' that in 2olitical an0 'ocial 'tru&&le are in'i0e o1 the .o+e.ent' 7'uch a' the 2arty 1or. an0 the union 1or.9. Thi' 2o'ition re2re'ent' an a22arent 2ara0o3 ;ithin the i0ea o1 e.anci2ation. 5ritic' o1 thi' conce2tion ar&ue that <ecau'e it cannot <loc) it'el1 out 1ro. the action' o1 the 'tate, e.anci15# The South Atlantic Quarterly G Winter 2012 2ation run' the ri') o1 < 1unctional to 0o.ination. In re'2on'e to thi' criti>ue, ;e can a11ir. that the e.anci2atory 2roHect inclu0e' 0i+er'e 1or.' an0 0e&ree' o1 0ialo&ue ;ith the 'tate: 1ro. the ra&e o1 the 2i>uetero'1$ at <ein& 1orce0 to acce2t 'tate ;or) 2lan' to the Ka2ati'ta 'trate&y to con'truct a national con'en'u' on in0i&enou' ri&ht' an0 culture. There i' no i0eali'., un0er'too0 a' the lo'' o1 a 'en'e o1 reality, in the cour'e o1 e.anci2atory 2roHect'. The >ue'tion re'i0e' in the 'co2e an0 2o''i<ilitie' 1or e32an'ion o1 thi' .o0e o1 re'i'tance. Thi' >ue'tion 0oe' not 0e2en0 e3clu'i+ely on the 2o'ition' a0o2te0 <y the 'u<Hect' that e.<o0y e.anci2ation <ut in'tea0 on all 'ocial 1orce' in contention, e'2ecially tho'e conte'tin& the 2re+ailin& or0er. Thu', 1or 'tru&&le' in /atin A.erica, it i' crucial to un0er'tan0 ;hether 1or.' o1 'el1"&o+ern.ent

an0 'el1"or&ani4ation ;ill <e a<le to ari'e an0 0e+elo2 in the .ore co.2le3 conte3t' than they ha+e hitherto encountere0. The 2ro1oun0 'ocial, cultural, an0 econo.ic 'trati1ication o1 lar&e citie' 'tan0' a' an in'ur.ounta<le o<'tacle 1or 2ractice' <a'e0 in 1ace"to" 1ace encounter'. Fe+erthele'', the 1ir't 'te2' .a0e in thi' 0irection a22ear encoura&in&: 1or in'tance, the or&ani4ation o1 the city o1 %l Alto in 8oli+ia an0 the e32erience' o1 coor0ination <et;een nei&h<orhoo0' in Ar&entina an0 *ru&uay 0e.on'trate that inno+ati+e 1or.' o1 2olitic' can <e rein+ente0 in the ur<an area'. De&ar0in& the role o1 the 'tate, the 2er'2ecti+e o1 e.anci2atory 2roHect' o11er' three line' o1 in>uiry. -ir't, i' the 'tate actually an a0e>uate +ehicle 1or 'ecurin& the 0i'tri<ution o1 ;ealth an0 'ocial ri&ht'O20 On the one han0, the ero'ion o1 the 'tate a' re'ult o1 the tran'1or.ation' o1 ca2itali't 2ro0uction an0 neoli<eral 0ere&ulation 'tron&ly li.ite0 it' re&ulatory 2o''i<ilitie', ;ith the e11ect that the 2ro<le. reache' <eyon0 the 'co2e o1 the 0e2en0ent nation"'tate. On the other han0, it coinci0e' ;ith the 1act that 2o;er=' accu.ulation o1 .ilitary 1orce co.2licate' any 'trate&y that ha' +iolence a' it' 1ir't 1iel0 o1 con1rontation. There1ore, ;e enter into a 'et o1 2ara0o3ical 'ituation', ;here only initiati+e' o1 ru2ture allo; 1or the continuance an0 the a0+ance o1 'tru&&le, at the 'a.e ti.e that the le+el' o1 con1rontation inten'i1y. Secon0, ar.e0 'trate&ie' a' ;ell a' ci+il an0 2eace1ul re'i'tance 'e2arately a22ear co.2letely in'u11icient to con1ront 2o;er:

'o.e hi'torical e32erience' a22ear to .a)e 2ro&re'' <y co.<inin& the t;o 1or.', ;here the >ue'tion o1 or&ani4e0 +iolence a22ear' a' 'el1"0e1en'e, an0 o11en'i+e action i' ta)en only in e3ce2tional .o.ent'. The thir0 line o1 0i'cu''ion i' the orientation o1 alliance'. In thi' 1iel0, 0eri+e0 1ro. the a<o+e, the 0i11erence' <et;een the t;o are le'' clear. Ornela' G 5ounterhe&e.onie' an0 %.anci2ation' 155 -or counterhe&e.ony, alliance' are 0ictate0 <y a lo&ic o1 unity 1or the 2ur2o'e o1 action: it' hori4on i' the creation o1 a 'u<Hect ca2a<le o1 con1rontin& he&e.onic 1orce'. Thu', ;ithin counterhe&e.onic 2roHect' there i' an in0i+i0uali4ation o1 'u<Hect' ;ho act in the >ue't 1or a ne; he&e.onic 2roHect <a'e0 in their o;n conce2tion'. In thi' 'en'e, there i' a 'y..etry <et;een the t;o 2roce''e' 7he&e.onic an0 counterhe&e.onic9 in that they 'ee) to create 'ocially acce2ta<le +i'ion' o1 the ;orl0, ;ith the e11ect that e+en the tran'1or.ational 2roHect a''u.e' in 2art a lo&ic o1 2o;er, in thi' ca'e, the lo&ic o1 e11iciency. In 'u., the counterhe&e.onic 2o'ition ar&ue' 1or the nee0 to 2rioriti4e the 'tru&&le a&ain't a co..on ene.y o+er 0i11erence' <et;een 2otential allie'.21 One little"0i'cu''e0 a'2ect that i' crucial <ecau'e o1 it' i.2lication' 1or the 1iel0 o1 or&ani4ation i' that the 2olitical culture' o1 the /e1t ha+e a0o2te0 the i0ea o1 I2olitical nece''ityJ a' the 2rinci2al I.o0eJ o1 relation <et;een 'ocial actor'. Thi' nece''ity .a)e' o<tainin& re'ult' it' central i''ue an0 rele&ate' to a 'econ0 2lane the relation' con'tructe0 throu&h 'ocial action. The i0ea o1 e.anci2ation 'ee)' rather the con'truction o1 hori4ontal an0 tran'2arent tie', <a'e0 in a11inity, an0 thu' relation' ;ith 2olitical

in'titutional actor' <eco.e >uite co.2licate0. De'2ite thi' an0 on nu.erou' occa'ion', the nee0 to 'ur+i+e or the 2o''i<ility to achie+e 'o.e crucial a0+ance lea0' 2eo2le to enter into alliance' that <rea) ;ith the &eneral lo&ic o1 a11inity. -ro. the 2er'2ecti+e o1 e.anci2ation, thi' i' one o1 the .o't co.2le3 terrain', &i+en the inci2ient nature o1 the e32erience' that 'u'tain it.22 The 2ri.ary 0i11iculty 'te.' 1ro. the 1act that the'e alliance' o1 a11inity can re'ult in the i'olation 7an0 in the e3tre.e, annihilation9 o1 e.anci2atory 2roHect', a<o+e all in conHuncture' 7'uch a' the /ula or @irchner &o+ern.ent'9 ;here in'titutional 2olitic' o11er' certain o22ortunitie' 1or chan&e or at lea't the chance to recu2erate 'tren&th. The 1ourth line o1 0i'cu''ion i' the or&ani4ational 2roce''. The counterhe&e.onic 2roce'' 2ro2o'e' to con'truct 'u<Hect' <a'e0 in the 2olitical '2here: 2artie', con+ention', &o+ern.ent', an0 coalition' o1 'tate' to o22o'e *S he&e.ony. In the 1ra.e;or) o1 in1inite ;ar, the e.2ha'i' i' on the ur&ency to create I2olitical e32re''ion',J I+ia<le alternati+e'J that can cur< the 'a+a&ery o1 ;ar an0 o2en the roa0 to the Iother 2o''i<le ;orl0.J23 In thi' 1iel0, a crucial an0 contro+er'ial 2ro2o'al i' the con'truction o1 a 2olitical +an&uar0 in char&e o1 0elineatin& 'trate&ie', e0ucatin& the 2o2ulation, an0 Iarticulatin& 1orce',J 'o.ethin& that &enerally i.2lie' concentratin& e11ort' on the con'truction o1 a 2arty. Cere the '2eciali4ation 15! The South Atlantic Quarterly G Winter 2012 an0 0i'tinction <et;een 'trate&i't' an0 .ilitant' are thou&ht to allo; 1or inter+ention in 2olitical e+ent' in'o1ar a' the incor2oration o1 'ocial lea0er'hi2 into the 2olitical or&ani4ation rene;' 2olitical li1e an0 'ti.ulate' the accu.ulation o1 1orce 1or e11ecti+e inter+ention. In 2articular, the +an&uar0 'houl0 contri<ute 0eci'i+ely in the >ualitati+e lea2 to;ar0 the uni1ication

o1 'ocial 'tru&&le' ;ith 2olitical 'tru&&le', a' it i' char&e0 ;ith the ine'ca2a<le ta') Ito thin) 'trate&ically a<out the i''ue', analy4e the 'ocial reality, i.2le.ent 2roHect' o1 2olitical 1or.ation, all that concern' a +an&uar0.J2# In contra't, the i0ea o1 e.anci2ation clearly reHect' the 1or.ation o1 ne; +an&uar0'. The con'truction o1 ne; 1or.' o1 or&ani4ation ha' three a3e': a11inity, the >ue't 1or hori4ontality, an0 a''e.<lie' a' '2ace' 1or the reuni1ication o1 'ocial li1e. The'e ele.ent' 2ro+i0e the <a'i' 1or a co..unal 1or. o1 or&ani4ation that o22o'e' the lo&ic o1 2olitical e11icacy ;ith the 'tren&th o1 ti.e' internal to the rhyth. o1 the co..unity an0 an i0ea o1 chan&e roote0 in the e+ery0ay li1e o1 'ocial actor'.25 Within it' e32eri.ental character, thi' 2ro2o'al concern' the unity o1 a22roach an0 2artici2ation, &i+en that it i' only in 2ractice an0 ;ith the 2er.anent 2artici2ation o1 all actor' that another .o0e o1 or&ani4ation i' con'tructe0. On thi' terrain, Collo;ay 2ro2o'e' that the central 2rinci2le o1 thi' ne; 2olitical culture i' the re2u0iation o1 'u<'titution: IStren&thenin& the .o.entu. to;ar0 'el1"0eter.ination i.2lie' a reHection o1 the 2roce'' o1 'u<'titution, a reHection o1 the 2roce'' in ;hich ;e 'ay to 'o.eone, Syou .a)e the 0eci'ion 1or .e,= an0 there1ore a reHection o1 lea0er'hi2, an0 a reHection al'o o1 'tate 1or.'.J2! /o&ically, thi' .etho0 intro0uce' a la& <et;een the rhyth.' o1 the 2olitical in'titution' an0 the rhyth.' o1 or&ani4ation o1 tran'1or.ational 'u<Hect', &i+in& ri'e to 'e+ere 2re''ure' an0 0i'2ute', inclu0in& tho'e ;ith 2otential allie'. One o1 the .o't i.2ortant o2en >ue'tion' here i' ;hether the or&ani4ational 1or.' that characteri4e <oth i0ea' can <e co.2ati<le. Decent e32erience ha' 'ho;n that the hierarchical 1or.' o1 the 2artie' are o22o'e0

to the .ore hori4ontal an0 0irectly 0e.ocratic 1or.' 2ractice0 <y 'o.e .o+e.ent'. In thi' ;ay, ;e can cite the ca'e o1 the Ka2ati'ta' ;ho 0i0 7an0 continue to 0o9 2ractically e+erythin& 2o''i<le to achie+e a re'2ect1ul an0 2ro0ucti+e 0ialo&ue ;ith the in'titutional 2olitical 1orce' an0 2articularly ;ith the le1t"leanin& ,arti0o 0e la De+oluciTn De.ocrPtica 7,DD9. The'e atte.2t' ha+e re+eale0 that the lo&ic o1 re'i'tance an0 that o1 in'titutional 2olitic' en0 in o2en con1lict, clo'in& any 2o''i<ilitie' o1 unitary 'tru&&le. 8oli+ia 2ro+i0e' u' ;ith a 0i11erent 'cenario, ;here the ;ea)ne'' o1 the 'tate an0 the lon& 2erio0 o1 &enerali4e0 cri'i' ha+e <eco.e the terOrnela' G 5ounterhe&e.onie' an0 %.anci2ation' 15 rain 1or the 1or.ation o1 'ocio2olitical .o+e.ent'. That i', thi' <eco.e' the terrain o1 'u<Hect' 1or ;ho. there i' no 0i11erence <et;een 'ocial an0 2olitical .o+e.ent 'uch that it i' they ;ho act 0irectly in 0eter.inin& the national a&en0a an0 the 0i+er'e a'2ect' o1 national .ana&e.ent throu&h the action in Ithe entire terrain o1 'tru&&le: in'titutional, union"<a'e0, an0 in'urrectional.J2 8eyon0 the 0i+er'ity o1 e32erience', <oth the con'truction o1 the unity o1 'ocial 'tru&&le' an0 the re2re''i+e 1orce o1 the 'tate a' the la't 'tron&hol0 o1 the &o+ernin& 1action continue to <e o<'tacle' to o+erco.e, rai'in& 1un0a.ental >ue'tion' 1or 'ocial 'u<Hect' re&ar0in& ;hich 'trate&ie' to 1ollo;. On&oin& re1lection a<out the tan&i<le e3i'tence o1 ne; 1or.' o1 or&ani4in& i' al'o crucial. The e32erience o1 recent year' 0e.on'trate' that hierarchie' e3i't ;ithin .o+e.ent' an e.anci2atory hori4on, that to lea0 <y o<eyin& Q.an0ar o<e0ecien0oR an0 hori4ontality are a'2iration',

4i&4a&&in& ten0encie', rather than realitie' 'ituate0 in the co..unitie' that &i+e the. li1e.28 In the 1ace o1 the'e 2ro<le.', 'ocial 'u<Hect' +in0icate 2ractice a' the 0eter.inin& criterion, &i+en that the le&acie' o1 the ol0 2olitical culture are 'tron& an0 the ne; 2olitical culture run' the ri') o1 <ein& rele&ate0 to .ere 0i'cour'e. Thu' it i' i.2ortant to note the in'i'tence o1 the'e actor' on the nece''ity to 0e+elo2 a ne; 2olitical culture an0 ne; 2olitical 2ractice'. In0ee0, the %HUrcito Ka2ati'ta 0e /i<eraciTn Facional 7%K/F9 it'el1 ha' 2ro+i0e0 the .o't e3a.2le' in thi' re&ar0 ;hen '2ea)in& a<out the o<'tacle' that 2olitical".ilitary .o0el' o1 or&ani4ation 2o'e to the ci+il authoritie' re'2on'i<le 1or <uil0in& autono.y. The %K/F al'o ha' re2eate0ly 2re'ente0 the nece''ity 1or Ka2ati'ta co..unitie' to colla<orate ;ith other 'tru&&le' to 0e1eat the ar.e0 a22roach. Within the 'a.e line o1 0e<ate there i' an i.2ortant 0i'cu''ion a<out the 2roce'' o1 re2re'entation. Social re'i'tance ha' <rou&ht to li&ht 1or.' o1 re2re'entation 0i'tinct 1ro. tho'e 2re+ailin& in the in'titutional 2olitical '2here 72arlia.ent, 2artie', union'9 that e.2ha'i4e re'2on'i<ilitie' an0 'er+ice rather than 2o'ition' an0 re2re'entation. I1 ;e a&ree ;ith Ar.an0o 8artra that there are no or&ani4ation' ;ithout re2re'entati+e',2$ ;e .u't a''u.e the le&acy o1 the 2olitical hi'tory o1 our countrie', ;hich ha' a 0i'a'trou' recor0 in ter.' o1 the 0e&eneration o1 the 'ocial an0 2olitical lea0er'hi2.30 Thi' i' ;hy ;e a''i&n 'uch i.2ortance to the 'tru&&le' o1 the in0i&enou' 2eo2le o1 the continent, ;ho 2ut 1or;ar0 the i0ea that a re2re'entati+e 'houl0 <e thou&ht o1 a' a '2o)e'2er'on, a 0ele&ate ;ho 'houl0 con1or. to their .an0ate, an0 that accounta<ility i' e''ential 1or the health an0 2ro&re'' o1 the or&ani4ation. Aroun0 the'e a3e' o1 hori4on158

The South Atlantic Quarterly G Winter 2012 tality, the .an0ate o1 the a''e.<ly, accounta<ility, an0 the rotation o1 re2re'entati+e', alon& ;ith the ra0ical >ue'tionin& o1 the in0i+i0ual lea0er, they 0e+elo2 an or&ani4ational 'che.e in ;hich there are not re2re'entati+e' <ut rather re1erent' an0 ;here 2olitical lea0er'hi2 <eco.e', little <y little, 1acilitation. Their' i' a 2ro2o'al ;here the +an&uar0 ce0e' it' 2lace to collecti+e action, a 2ro2o'al that, it i' ;orth notin&, i' not unconnecte0 to re+olutionary 'ocial 'tru&&le. Co; 1ar i' it 2o''i<le to a0a2t thi' contri<ution an0 incor2orate it into the 2ractice' o1 2olitical or&ani4ation'O In 2rinci2le, the 2ro1e''ionali4ation o1 2olitic' 7the 2illar o1 the con'truction o1 the 2arty9 a22ear' to annul the 2o''i<ilitie' 1or ra0ical inno+ation' that ;oul0 allo; u' to thin) o1 2olitic' a' a >ue't 1or collecti+e ;ell"<ein& rather than a .ean' 1or ac>uirin& ;ealth. Other 2ractice' 'uch a' the rotation o1 re2re'entati+e', accounta<ility, an0 ter.' are 2ro2o'al' that 'lo;ly <eco.e +ia<le alternati+e' to the hierarchical 1or.' that characteri4e 2artie' an0 union'. A 1i1th line o1 0i'cu''ion ha' to 0o ;ith the 0yna.ic' o1 the 'tru&&le'. -or the counterhe&e.onic 2roHect, thi' i' .ani1e'te0 a' an ur&ent 0yna.ic in ;hich the te.2oralitie', econo.y, an0 allocation o1 acti+itie' an0 2rioritie' are 1ra.e0 <y the correlation o1 anta&oni'tic 1orce'. The'e are treate0 a' ur&ent 'che0ule' to ;hich tran'1or.ati+e 'u<Hect' 'houl0 a0a2t. The 'trate&ie', rhyth.', an0 alliance' o1 the counterhe&e.onic 2roHect 'houl0 'ati'1y re>uire.ent' that are al.o't inco.2ati<le: .aintain the 'trate&ic 0irection o1 the anti'y'te.ic 'tru&&le an0 at the 'a.e ti.e re'2on0 to the nee0' o1 the current conHuncture. In the'e 'ituation' ;hat ha' o1ten

ha22ene0 i' that the conHuncture en0' u2 ta)in& 2rece0ence, un0oin& the lon&"ter. 2roHect. -ro. the 2er'2ecti+e o1 e.anci2ation, ;hat i' re1erence0 i' another te.2orality, another +i'ion o1 the 2rioritie' in the 'tru&&le ;here e.2ha'i' i' 2lace0 on the internal 2roce'' o1 the 'u<Hect'. Or&ani4ation' an0 .o+e.ent' ;ith in0i&enou' an0 2ea'ant root' ha+e a0+ocate0 'tron&ly 1or thi' +ie;, 2o'in& it in 0irect o22o'ition to a ca2itali't +i'ion o1 te.2orality. Alon& the 'a.e line', in 0i11erent &eo&ra2hie' an0 1or.', other 'u<Hect' ha+e <e&un to 1or.ulate 'i.ilar a22roache', ;here the co'.olo&y o1 ori&inary 2eo2le' i' 'u<'titute0 <y the nece''ity to re&ain control o+er i..e0iate nee0': ;hat the 0i'cour'e o1 2o;er call' 0i'illu'ion.ent ;ith 2olitic' i' actually a concern 1or internal te.2orality, an0 i1 ;hat a22ear' a' 2olitic' 0oe' not ta)e the. into account, 2eo2le'= +i'ion an0 action turn to;ar0 their o;n '2ace', ;here they can con'truct the .ean' 1or collecti+e action. Thi' i' one o1 the a'2ect' ;here the t;o 2er'2ecti+e' cla'h 1orceOrnela' G 5ounterhe&e.onie' an0 %.anci2ation' 15$ 1ully. 5ounterhe&e.onic 2o'ition' in'i'tently re2roach tho'e 'u<Hect' ;ho 0o not re'2on0 to the Inee0' o1 the conHunctureJ an0, in e11ect, 'u'tain the 2o;er' that <e. The Ka2ati'ta', the AST, an0 'ector' o1 the 2i>uetero' ha+e <een cla''i1ie0 a' e3tre.i't', 0elu'ional, 2ri.iti+e, re1or.i't', 1unctional to the 'y'te., an0 .any other thin&' <ecau'e they 0i0 not con1or. to the lo&ic o1 the in'titutional '2ace' o1 2olitic'. In 'u..ary, ;e 1in0 that counterhe&e.onic an0 e.anci2atory thin)in& con+er&e in the nece''ity to ru2ture the he&e.ony o1 ca2ital an0 it' locali4e0 a&ent', a' ;ell a' in the a'2iration to con'truct a <roa0 unity

aroun0 thi' 'trate&ic 0e1inition. In contra't, the 0yna.ic' o1 or&ani4ation an0 the con'truction o1 the tran'1or.ational 'u<Hect i.2ly 'tar) 0i11erence'. An0 in .any 2articular terrain', 'uch a' the +an&uar0, 2artici2ation in 2olitical in'titution', an0 tactical choice', the'e 0i11erence' ten0 to <eco.e o2enly contra0ictory, clo'in& roa0' to uni1ie0 action. Ta)in& into account the con+er&ence' an0 0i+er&ence', the counterhe&e.onic 2roHect 2ri+ile&e' 2olitical 'tru&&le, ;herea' the con'truction o1 autono.y con'titute' the central a3i' o1 the e.anci2atory 2roHect. 8y Way o1 5onclu'ion: A -uture Scenario A' i' clear 1ro. thi' e32o'ition, the 0i'cu''ion a<out counterhe&e.ony an0 e.anci2ation i' in it' initial 'ta&e'. The 1all o1 the 'ociali't <loc an0 the triu.2h o1 neoli<erali'. on a ;orl0 'cale 0i0 a;ay ;ith the theoretical an0 2olitical re1erence' o1 the /e1t, ;ith the con'e>uence that ;e are no; reo2enin& an0 initiatin& ne; 0i'cu''ion'. Ay a''e''.ent i' that the e11ort' currently un0er ;ay in <oth 0irection' are enclo'e0 in i.2a''e' ;ithout i..e0iate a22arent e3it. With re'2ect to the counterhe&e.onic 2roHect, to the lon& li't o1 2a't re+olutionary e32erience' 7;hether nationali't, 'ociali't, co..uni't, or li<eratory, their outco.e ;a' the re'toration o1 ca2itali't 0o.ination9 an0 o1 0e.ocratic &o+ern.ent' 7e'2ecially the ,o2ular *nity in 5hile9, ;e 'houl0 a00 the co.2lete 0i'a22oint.ent' o1 MutiUrre4 in %cua0or, /ula in 8ra4il, the ,DD in the +ariou' 'tate &o+ern.ent' in Ae3ico, a' ;ell a' the 1alterin& 2er1or.ance o1 5ri'tina @irchner in Ar&entina. /oo)in& <ac) on the'e 0i+er'e e32erience' allo;' u' to con'i0er, at lea't a' a hy2othe'i', that the con'truction o1 a counter2o;er ;a' not enou&h to carry out the con'truction o1 another ;orl0.

-ro. the counterhe&e.onic 2er'2ecti+e, it a22ear' that the unity o1 the 1orce' conte'tin& he&e.ony ha' <een e3hau'te0 in electoral triu.2h' 1!0 The South Atlantic Quarterly G Winter 2012 or in the re.o+al o1 the &o+ern.ent'. The neoli<eral 0i'2o'iti1' characteri4e0 <y control o1 the 1inancial circuit that ena<le' other' to <lac).ail a&ain't the currencie' an0 1inancial .ar)et' o1 our countrie', the 0ein0u'triali4ation o1 the 2ro0ucti+e 'tructure acco.2anie0 <y the 0o.ination o1 the .ultinational cor2oration', an0 the e3tre.ely hi&h inco.e concentration that create' 'ocially 2ri+ile&e0 &rou2' ;ith +a't 'ocial 2o;er o<+iate the content o1 the electoral +ictorie' o1 the counterhe&e.onic alliance'. In the a<'ence o1 a ru2ture ;ith neoli<eral 2o;er', the &o+ern.ent' o1 the /e1t continue to i.2le.ent neoli<eral 2olicie' an0 1a+or in'tea0 the ru2ture o1 unity, 2u'hin& 1or ne; 0i+i'ion' that ;ea)en the counterhe&e.onic <loc in the 1ace o1 0o.inant 2o;er. -ro. the 2er'2ecti+e o1 e.anci2ation, the a0+ance' attaine0 <y the autono.ou' 2roHect' 0o not yet allo; u' to 0i'cern a 'olution 1or ru2ture ;ith ca2itali't he&e.ony. Mi+en the relati+e 1ra&ility o1 the'e e32erience' 71ra&ile in the 1ace o1 he&e.onic 2o;er9, their e32an'ion 0e2en0' on 'ocial 2roce''e' ;ho'e occurrence a22ear' unli)ely. One o1 the'e i' the &ra0ual e32an'ion o1 autono.y: thi' 2roce'' con1ront' the' o1 'cant 'u22ort 1ro. the inte&rate0 'ocial 'trata o1 'ociety an0 increa'in& re2re''ion on the 2art o1 the 'tate an0 the 0o.inator'. Co;e+er i.2ortant they .ay <e, the'e 2roHect' continue0 to <e li.ite0 to '2eci1ic 'ector' o1 our 'ocietie': their con0ition' o1 2o''i<ility an0 their 0yna.ic are alien to the .o't inte&rate0 'ector' o1 our 'ocietie'. The atte.2t to con'truct an alliance only ;ith the .ar&inali4e0 7;hich, it i' true, are the .aHority o1 'ociety9 can lea0

to the 0ea0 en0' o1 the 2a't. In thi' 'en'e, ;e '2ea) .ore o1 a heuri'tic 1or the tran'1or.ation o1 'ociety than o1 a re+olutionary theory. Nenturin& a heuri'tic o1 'ocial chan&e, ;e 2ro2o'e that the ;a&er o1 the e.anci2atory 2roHect i' the .o't +ia<le in that it attac)' ;hat con'titute' the <a'e o1 ca2itali't 0o.ination: 'ocial 'trati1ication. The triu.2h o1 ca2itali'. 'houl0 <e un0er'too0 a' the 0e'truction o1 any other 'en'e o1 truth an0 any other co..on intere't that i' not that o1 the he&e.onic 2roHect: hence the 'trate&ic 2lace occu2ie0 <y the co..unity a' the +ital '2ace o1 re'i'tance an0 the con'truction o1 alternati+e'. In the 1ra.e;or) o1 the e.anci2atory 2roHect, 'ocial tran'1or.ation ten0' to 2lace the con'truction o1 co..unitie' an0 co..unity tie' a' it' hori4on an0 2rinci2al ai., atten0in& a' 1ar a' 2o''i<le to the other o<Hecti+e' an0 ur&encie' o1 the conHuncture. Thi' i' <ecau'e ca2itali't relation' 0e.an0' 'ocial 2ractice' an0 con'truction' that 2ro&re''i+ely eli.inate 'ocial 'trati1ication ;ith the &oal o1 creatin& '2ace' o1 action to counterhe&e.onic 'u<Hect'. It re>uire' the con'truction o1 autono.ou' Ornela' G 5ounterhe&e.onie' an0 %.anci2ation' 1!1 '2ace' that 'er+e a' a re1erence 1or 'ocial 'tru&&le an0, e'2ecially, that 'er+e a' an alternati+e to ca2itali'. 1or 'ector' o1 ;or)er' inte&rate0 into the 'y'te.. Thi' con'truction re'2on0' to three e''ential nece''itie' o1 the 'tru&&le: the creation o1 <a'e' o1 'ur+i+al that are relati+ely autono.ou' ;ith re'2ect to 2o;er: the e32eri.entation ;ith ne; alternati+e 'ocial realitie': an0 the 2ro&re''i+e creation o1 a co..on terrain o1 encounter an0 reco&nition in ter.' o1 e>uality ;ith the inte&rate0 ;or)er'. An0 'o the 2ro<le. i' not 'o .uch the .ar&inality o1 autono.ou' e32erience' a' the 0i11iculty ;ith ;hich other 'ocial 'ector' .ay un0erta)e 'i.ilar 2ractice'?

'i.ilar in .etho0 <ut 0i11erent in content, o1 cour'e?that in or0er to 0e+elo2 .u't corre'2on0 to the 'ituation o1 each one o1 the 'ector' an0 'ocial &rou2' in+ol+e0. A00re''in& thi' challen&e al'o rai'e' the >ue'tion o1 the )no;le0&e' o1 the /e1t: the centrality o1 the 'tate, the nee0 to ta)e 2o;er, an0 the nece''ity o1 con'tructin& the 2arty are >ue'tione0 in'i'tently in the 1ra.e;or)' o1 the e.anci2atory 2roHect. In 2articular, autono.y a''ert' that he&e.ony cannot e3i't ;ithout 0o.ination <ecau'e he&e.ony i' a 1or. o1 ho.o&enou' 2o;er. Thu', rather than con'tructin& ne; i0ea' o1 truth, it 2ro2o'e' the nece''ity to inno+ate in the 1iel0 o1 the 1or.', in the .etho0' o1 'tru&&le, an0 in the con'truction o1 another ;orl0 that, 0ra;in& on <oth hi'torical le''on' an0 recent e32erience', 'houl0 .a)e '2ace 1or 0i+er'ity, re'2ect 1or the other, an0 the o1 +alue' alternati+e to tho'e o1 ca2itali't 'ociety. ?Tran'late0 <y 8ren0a 8aletti Fote' Thi' e''ay i' an a<ri0&e0 +er'ion o1 I5ontrahe&e.onia' y e.anci2acione': Fota' 2ara un 0e<ateJ 7I5ounterhe&e.onie' an0 %.anci2ation': Fote' 1or a De<ateJ9 in /o' 0e'a1io' 0e la' e.anci2acion en un conte3to .ilitari4a0o 7The 5hallen&e' o1 %.anci2ation' in a Ailitari4e0 5onte3t9, e0. Ana %'ther 5ece6a 78ueno' Aire': 5/A5SO, 200!9, $5V121. 1 ,erry An0er'on, IThe Dole o1 I0ea' in the 5on'truction o1 Alternati+e',J in Fe; Worl0 Ce&e.ony: Alternati+e' 1or 5han&e an0 Social Ao+e.ent', e0. Atilio 8oron 78ueno' Aire': 5/A5SO, 200#9, 35V50. *nle'' other;i'e note0, all tran'lation' 1ro. S2ani'h to %n&li'h ;ere .a0e <y the tran'lator o1 the e''ay. 2 The'e ar&u.ent' are <a'e0 on Sa0er an0 Ana %'ther 5ece6a, 2re'entation' 70urin& the I/atin A.erica in Ao+e.entJ 'e.inar, Fational Autono.ou' *ni+er'ity o1

Ae3ico, In'titute 1or %cono.ic De'earch, Ae3ico 5ity, Aay 13VBune 2, 200#9: 'ee al'o Sa0er, ICe&e.onia e contra"he&e.oniaJ 7ICe&e.ony an0 5ounterhe&e.onyJ9, in Ce&e.onWa' y e.anci2acione' en el 'i&lo XXI 7Ce&e.ony an0 %.anci2ation in the 21't 5entury9, e0. Ana %'ther 5ece6a an0 Sa0er 78ueno' Aire': 5/A5SO, 200#9. 1!2 The South Atlantic Quarterly G Winter 2012 3 Sa0er, ICe&e.onia e contra"he&e.onia,J 20. # See Ana %'ther 5ece6a, I%l 4a2ati'.o: De la inclu'iTn en la naciTn al .un0o en el >ue >ue2an to0o' lo' .un0o'J 7IKa2ati'.o: -ro. Inclu'ion in the Fation to the Worl0 Where All Worl0' -itJ9, in A.Urica /atina y el 70e'9or0en &lo<al neoli<eral: Ce&e.onWa, contrahe&e.onWa, 2er'2ecti+a' 7/atin A.erica an0 Mlo<al Feoli<eral 7Di'9or0er: Ce&e.ony, 5ounterhe&e.ony, ,er'2ecti+e'9, e0. Bo'U AarWa Mo.e' an0 Aarie"5lau0e S.out' 78ueno' Aire': 5/A5SO, 200#9, 301V20. 5 Ana %'ther 5ece6a, ISuHeti4an0o el O<Hecto 0e %tu0io, o 0e la 'u<+er'ion e2i'te.olo&ical co.o e.anci2aciTnJ 7ISu<Hecti+i4in& the O<Hect o1 Stu0y, or, On the Su<+er'ion o1 %2i'te.olo&y a' %.anci2ationJ9, in /o' 0e'a1io' 0e la' e.anci2acion en un conte3to .ilitari4a0o 7The 5hallen&e' o1 %.anci2ation' in a Ailitari4e0 5onte3t9 78ueno' Aire': 5/A5SO, 200!9, 13V3#. ! See, 1or e3a.2le, Bohn Collo;ay, 5han&e the Worl0 ;ithout Ta)in& ,o;er: The Aeanin& o1 De+olution To0ay 7/on0on: ,luto ,re'', 20059, 1#0V5#: an0 DaEl Ki<echi, Autono.Wa' e e.anci2acione': A.erica /atina en .o+i.iento' an0 %.anci2ation': /atin A.erica in Ao+e.ent9 7/i.a: *ni+er'i0a0 0e San Aarco', 200 9, 21V!!. 5ece6a, ISuHeti4an0o el O<Hecto 0e %tu0io.J 8 -ranci'co ,ine0a, 2re'entation 7in the I/atin A.erica in Ao+e.entJ 'e.inar9.

$ Antonio Mra.'ci, IState an0 5i+il Society,J in Selection' 1ro. the ,ri'on Fote<oo)', e0. an0 tran'. Quintin Coare an0 Meo11rey Fo;ell S.ith 7Fe; Lor): International, 1$ 19, 20!V .

10 In thi' re'2ect, ;e 'houl0 <e ;ary o1 the inter2retation' that Atilio 8oron 7ICe&e.ony an0 I.2eriali'. in the International Sy'te.,J in Fe; Worl0 Ce&e.ony, 131V529 ha' calle0 caricature' o1 Mra.'ci an0 /enin, ;hich re0uce0 theori4ation' o1 re+olutionary chan&e to a tactic o1 cou2 0=Utat, thin)in& that 2o;er i' a thin& an0 the 'tate i' it' in'tru.ent. 11 5ece6a 0i'cu''e' the .o't ortho0o3 a22roache' to un0er'tan0in& the re+olutionary 'u<Hect, ;hich con'i0er cla'' a' a 2o'ition in 2ro0uction an0 ;hich the con'truction o1 the 'u<Hect to relation' o1 e32loitation. 5ece6a, I%l 4a2ati'.o,J 303V5. 12 Bohn Collo;ay ;rite', IThe '2eci1ic con1or.ation o1 the 2roletariat, un0er'too0 a' a 0i+er'e collecti+e anta&oni'tic to ca2ital,J an0 there1ore o1 the '2ace' o1 the con'truction o1 re+olutionary alternati+e' i' locate0 in the hi'torical con1luence o1 all the 0i.en'ion' that li1e 0e+elo2' in 'ociety in a 2articular ti.e an0 2lace. Bohn Collo;ay, IDi&nity=' De+olt,J in Ka2ati'ta'Y Dein+entin& De+olution in Ae3ico, e0. Bohn Collo;ay an0 %loWna ,elPe4 7/on0on: ,luto, 1$$ 9. 13 In the ;or0' o1 a .e.<er o1 the Ao+i.iento 0e Tra<aHa0ore' De'ocu2a0o'VSolano 7*ne.2loye0 Wor)er' Ao+e.entVSolano9, IWe 0on=t theori4e a<out ho; ;e ;ill 0o thi' or that to.orro;. . . . Fo, ;hat ;e 'ay i' that i1 to0ay ;e 0o not <e&in to chan&e thi' reality an0 2ro0uce a 2er'on <a'e0 in 'oli0arity, ca2a<le o1 &i+in& hi' or her li1e an0 <ein& a 2art o1 the co..unity, then ;e ;ill 'tay ;here ;e are. We 0o not nee0 2olitical 0ocu.ent' or theoretical 2re0iction' a<out 2o''i<le chan&e. -or u', the 2ro<le. i' to0ay. To.orro;, ;e ;ill 'ee. It i' to0ay that ;e nee0 to ;ea+e the 'ocial la;' that ;ill 0e'troy ca2itali'.. The challen&e i' thi', to ;or) ;ith tho'e at your 'i0e. An0 there i' no li<rary ;ith Aar3, Aao, or -oucault that can 'a+e u' ;ithout ha+in& 0one thi' ;or).J

AarWa %'ther Milio, IBor&e Bara y An0rU' -ernPn0e4, 2i>uetero' 0el ATD: %l 2o0er 'e Ornela' G 5ounterhe&e.onie' an0 %.anci2ation' 1!3 con'truyeJ 7IBor&e Bara an0 An0rU' -ernPn0e4, ,ic)eter' o1 the ATD: ,o;er I' 5on'tructe0J9, ,P&ina/12, Octo<er 1#, 2002. 1# Atilio 8oron, ISo<re el 2o0er y el e'ta0oJ 7IOn ,o;er an0 the StateJ9, 7in I/atin A.erica in Ao+e.entJ 'e.inar9. 15 Sa0er, 2re'entation 70urin& the I/atin A.erica in Ao+e.entJ 'e.inar, Fational Autono.ou' *ni+er'ity o1 Ae3ico, In'titute 1or %cono.ic De'earch, Ae3ico 5ity, Aay 13VBune 2, 200#9. 1! See Ar.an0o 8artra, IA6oran4a' y uto2Wa': /a i4>uier0a Ae3icana en el tercer .ilenioJ 7IFo'tal&ia an0 *to2ia: The Ae3ican /e1t in the Thir0 Aillenniu.J9 72a2er 2re'ente0 at the I/atin A.erica in Ao+e.entJ 'e.inar9: Sa0er, inter+ention. 1 8oa+entura 0e Sou'a Santo', IIntro0uction: O2enin& u2 the 5anon o1 De.ocracy,J in De.ocrati4in& De.ocracy: <eyon0 the /i<eral De.ocratic 5anon 7Fe; Lor): Ner'o, 200 9. 18 -or e3a.2le, the Ka2ati'ta' a11ir., IThere i' a ti.e to a'), a ti.e to 0e.an0, an0 a ti.e to act.J Mloria Au6o4 Da.ire4, IInter+ie; ;ith Su<co.an0ante Aarco': A Ti.e to A'), a Ti.e to De.an0, an0 a Ti.e to Act,J A.erica' ,ro&ra. 7;e< ne;'letter9, Banuary 1!, 200#, ;;;.ci2a.erica'.or&/archi+e'/1120. They al'o 0eclare that all o1 the 0oor' o1 the 2olitical 'y'te. are clo'e0, lea0in& the 'tru&&le to another 1iel0, the con'truction o1 autono.y: ITo turn to the tra0itional 2olitical cla'' a' an Sally= in the 'tru&&le o1 re'i'tance i' a &oo0 e3erci'e . . . in no'tal&ia. To turn to the neo2olitician' i' a 'y.2to. o1 'chi4o2hrenia. *2 there, there i' nothin& to 0o, e3ce2t to act a' i1 nothin& can <e 0one. The 'ocial 'hi2 i' a0ri1t, an0 the 2ro<le. i' not that ;e lac) a ca2tain. It 'o ha22en' that the ru00er it'el1 ha' <een 'tolen, an0 it i' not &oin& to turn u2 any;here. There are tho'e ;ho are 0e+ote0 to i.a&inin& that the ru00er 'till e3i't' an0

1i&ht 1or it' 2o''e''ion. An0 there are tho'e ;ho .a)e o1 an i'lan0, not a re1u&e 1or 'el1" 'ati'1action <ut a 'hi2 1or 1in0in& another i'lan0 an0 another an0 another.J Su<co.an0ante In'ur&ente Aarco', ISe+en Thou&ht' in Aay,J De+i'ta De<el0Wa, no. 720039.

1$ ,i>uetero' i' a ter. u'e0 to 0e'cri<e Ar&entinean 2ic)eter' .o't o1ten a''ociate0 ;ith the .ilitant' o1 the ATD'. 20 See Bohn Collo;ay, co..ent 7.a0e in the o2en 0e<ate on IThe Ta)in& o1 ,o;er, It' Nali0ity 1or an %.anci2atory ,roHectJ 'e.inar, 5olle&e o1 ,hilo'o2hy, Fational Autono.ou' *ni+er'ity o1 Ae3ico, 200#9. 21 -or Ar.an0o 8artra, autono.ou' 0yna.ic' .u't <e lin)e0 ;ith counterhe&e.ony in or0er to achie+e real tran'1or.ation. 8artra, IZ5aracole'Y De'ci1ran0o la tecea+a e'telaJ 7I5aracole'Y Deci2herin& the Thirteenth TrailJ9, Ae.oria, no. 1 ! 720039: 10. 22 One coul0 e32lain thi' a'2ect, 1or e3a.2le, <y e3a.inin& the Ka2ati'ta' an0 their national an0 international alliance', .any o1 ;hich ha+e <een ;ea) or ha+e 1aile0 to <e con'i'tent <et;een 0i'cour'e an0 2ractice. In 'o.e o1 the Ka2ati'ta initiati+e', there ha' <een a 0e2en0ence on 2eo2le ;ho are not 2art o1 the 'ocial 'tru&&le <ut ;ho are )ey 1i&ure' in the 'y'te. o1 2o;er ;ithin their o;n countrie'. In &eneral ter.', it i' i.2ortant to analy4e the 0i11icultie' o1 the 2eo2le in all our countrie' to act in a uni1ie0 1a'hion. 23 See Atilio 8oron, Inter+ention 7in IThe Ta)in& o1 ,o;er, It' Nali0ity 1or an %.anci2atory ,roHectJ 'e.inar9: an0 Sa0er, e'2ecially in re1erence to .o<ili4ation' a&ain't the *nite0 State'= in+a'ion o1 Ira>. Ce ar&ue', IThat e3traor0inary .o+e.ent ;a'n=t 1!# The South Atlantic Quarterly G Winter 2012 a<le to 'to2 the ;ar, <ut that ;oul0 <e a')in& too .uch o1 it. 8ut the 2ro<le. i' that 1orce ;a' not con+erte0 into a 2olitical or&ani4ational 1orce. So ;e ha+e the 2ro&re''i+e 2u<lic o2inion an0 con'er+ati+e &o+ern.ent. . . . A' lon& a' ;e 0o not 'ol+e thi' i''ue o1 the relation <et;een 'ocial 1orce an0 2olitic' in a ne; ;ay, the accu.ulation

o1 1orce' ;ill <e lo't an0 <eco.e u'ele''.J Sa0er, ICe&e.onia e contra"he&e.onia,J 33. 2# Sa0er, inter+ention. 25 Accor0in& to a .e.<er o1 the Solano ATD, ITo u', it i' .ore 0i11icult to 0e+elo2 the .o+e.ent in thi' hori4ontal ;ay <ut it ;ill al'o <e a lot .ore 0i11icult to 0e'troy. Thi' 'tan0' in o22o'ition to the cla''ical conce2tion' ;here con'ciou'ne'' co.e' 1ro. out'i0e o1 the 2eo2le, ;here a &rou2 o1 .ilitant' ha' the real con'ciou'ne'' an0 thi' con'ciou'ne'' i' <rou&ht to the 2eo2le an0 allo;' 1or tran'1or.ation. I ar&ue, on a 2er'onal le+el, QthatR a' .e''e0 u2 a' that conce2tion o1 the ;orl0 ;a' in ortho0o3 2olitic', 'o.ethin& ne; a22eare0 an0 I a. not 'ayin& that thi' ne; thin& i' &oo0, 'i.2ly that it i' ne;.J %l To2o, I%ntre+i'ta al ATD Solano, tra<aHa0ore' 2or la autono.ia y la 0i&ni0a0J 7IInter+ie; o1 ATD Solano, Wor)er' 1or Autono.y an0 Di&nityJ9, De0 0e Soli0ari0a0e' De<el0e', Bune 10, 200#, ;;;.'oli0ari0a0e're<el0e'.)ol&a0o''2i2 .2h2Oarticle 1. 2! Collo;ay, inter+ention. The e32erience o1 the une.2loye0 ;or)er' in Solano &i+e' u' another 2er'2ecti+e on thi' 2roce'': IWel1ari'. . . . ha' .ar)e0 u' +ery 0ee2ly a' a 2eo2le, an0 <rea)in& ;ith thi' ;a' one o1 the .o't 0arin& ru2ture' that ;e atte.2te0. . . . It i' e3actly that 2a''i+e 'u<Hect that nee0' an or&ani4er, a lea0er . . . to 'ol+e it' 2ro<le.. . . . %+en i1 our 2rinci2le' are tho'e o1 autono.y, hori4ontality, an0 0irect 0e.ocracy, o1ten there i' 'till an e32ectation that ;e atte.2t to recon'truct a lea0er, a .ana&er on ;ho. ;e 2lace our ho2e'. . . . I1 ;e 'ay that ;ithin the .o+e.ent there are no re1erent', ;e ;oul0 <e lyin& <ecau'e there are 2eo2le ;ho 0ue to their role' <eco.e +ery 'tron& re1erent', an0 our challen&e i' to un0er'tan0 ;hat to 0o ;ith the'e re1erent', ho; ;e can . . . ha+e other .e.<er' .ature into 0i11erent role', an0 in thi' ;ay con'truct 'o.ethin& truly collecti+e.J IDe2ortaHe a Fe)a Bara: ATD 0e SolanoJ 7IInter+ie; ;ith Fe)a Bara: Solano ATDJ9, /a -o&ata, Banuary 200#.

2 [l+aro MarcWa /inera, inter+ention 7at the I/atin A.erica in Ao+e.entJ 'e.inar9. 28 Ki<echi 0e'cri<e' ho; a<o+e an0 <elo; the 'ocial 'u<Hect' that are not Taylori4e0 con1or. an0 act in 0i11erent ;ay' ;ith re'2ect to 0o.inant current' in 2olitical in'titution', <ut that ;ithin the'e e3i't '2eciali4ation' an0 role' that re2ro0uce hierarchie'. To co.2licate the 0i'cu''ion e+en .ore, ;e .u't note that the'e hierarchie' a.on& the 'u<Hect' ;ho 'ee) e.anci2ation can al'o <e 'een a' <arrier', a' 0e1en'e' a&ain't the e3ternal that .a)e 2o''i<le e32eri.entation ;ith nonca2itali't relation'hi2' ;ithin co..unitie'. In 'hort, ;hat ;e ;i'h to hi&hli&ht i' the con'truction o1 a ne; ty2e o1 or&ani4ation that i' hi&hly contra0ictory. DaEl Ki<echi, 2re'entation 7at the I/atin A.erica in Ao+e.entJ 'e.inar9. 2$ Ar.an0o 8artra, >ue'tion to Ki<echi 0urin& hi' 2re'entation 7at the I/atin A.erica in Ao+e.entJ 'e.inar9. 30 Thi' i' an a'2ect that 'houl0 <e e.2ha'i4e0, 'ince .e.<er'hi2 in a 'ocial .o+e.ent 0oe' not 2rotect one a&ain't the ten'ion' o1 clienteli'., <ureaucratic action, or corru2tion 2ure an0 'i.2le: a clear an0 0ra.atic e3a.2le i' that o1 the corru2t lea0er' ;ho 1or .ore than thirty year' ;ere re'2on'i<le 1or control o+er the Ae3ican ;or)er' an0 2ro1ite0 1ro. it.