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Capra, A., and Scicolone, B. ͑2004͒. “Emitter and ﬁlter test for wastewater reuse by drip irrigation.” Agric. Water Manage., 68͑2͒, 135– 149. Christiansen, J. E. ͑1942͒. “Hydraulics of sprinkler systems for irrigation.” Trans. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 107, 221–239. Duran-Ros, M., Puig-Barques, J., Arbat, G., Barragan, J., and de Cartagena, F. R. ͑2009͒. “Effect of ﬁlter, emitter and location on clogging when using efﬂuents.” Agric. Water Manage., 96͑1͒, 67–79. ISO. ͑2003͒. ISO/TC 23/SC 18/WG5 N4: Clogging test methods for emitters, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva. Li, G. Y., Wang, J. D., Alam, M., and Zhao, Y. F. ͑2006͒. “Inﬂuence of geometrical parameters of labyrinth ﬂow path of drip emitters on hydraulic and anticlogging performance.” Trans. ASABE, 49͑3͒, 637– 643. Nakayama, F. S., and Bucks, D. A. ͑1986͒. Trickle irrigation for crop production—Design, operation, and management developments in agricultural engineering, 9, Elsevier, New York. Wei, Q. S., et al. ͑2008a͒. “Evaluations of emitter clogging by two-phase ﬂow simulations and laboratorial experiments.” Comput. Electr. Eng., 63͑2͒, 294–303. Wei, Q. S., Shi, Y. S., Dong, W. C., and Huang, S. H. ͑2006a͒. “Advanced methods to develop drip emitters with new channel types.” Appl. Eng. Agric., 22͑2͒, 243–249. Wei, Q. S., Shi, Y. S., Dong, W. C., Lu, G., and Huang, S. H. ͑2006b͒. “Study on hydraulic performance of drip emitters by computational ﬂuid dynamics.” Agric. Water Manage., 84͑1–2͒, 130–136. Wei, Q. S., Shi, Y. S., Lu, G., Dong, W. C., and Huang, S. H. ͑2008b͒. “Rapid evaluations of anticlogging performance of drip emitters by laboratorial short-cycle tests.” J. Irrig. Drain. Eng., 134͑3͒, 298–304. Wu, I. P. ͑1997͒. “An assessment of hydraulic design of micro-irrigation systems.” Agric. Water Manage., 32͑3͒, 275–284. Wu, I. P., Lin, B. Y., and Lau, L. S. ͑1991͒. “Plugging evaluation in the reuse of sewage efﬂuent by drip irrigation.” Proc., ASCE National Conf., Honolulu.
The proposed iterative step method incorporates the variations along the side weir, of the speciﬁc energy due to the bottom and friction slope, of the weir coefﬁcient, and of the velocity distribution coefﬁcient. The results, in comparison with experimental data and with the solutions obtained assuming constant speciﬁc energy, are also presented. To improve the solution, the author incorporates the variations along the side weir for different parameters, but for achieving a direct integration of the spatially varied ﬂow equation, these parameters have been assumed constant for the computational weir segments ͑⌬x͒. In this case, the accuracy of the proposed analytical solution is inﬂuenced. Considering constant energy along the computational weir segment causes c1 = 0. Thus, this parameter can be omitted in the proposed analytical solution. In such a case, the solution reduced to the solution proposed by De Marchi ͑1934͒. Also since ⌬x 0 the application of Eq. ͑22͒ or Eq. ͑23͒ in the original paper requires a tedious trial and error procedure.
Suitable Governing Equation
For a short weir, the hypothesis of constant speciﬁc energy along the side weir is acceptable ͑S f = S0͒. Considering this assumption and assuming ␣ = 1, the nonlinear ordinary differential equation governing spatially varied ﬂow with decreasing discharge takes the form 4CW ͱE − yͱ͑y − p͒3 dy 3W = dx 3 y − 2E
Muslu ͑2001͒ derived the weir coefﬁcient for subcritical ﬂow conditions in the case of ⌬x = 0 CW = 0.611ͱ3͓1 − 0.036ͱ2͑E/y − 1͔͒͑ y /E͒ − 2 ͑2͒
Discussion of “Method of Solution of Nonuniform Flow with the Presence of Rectangular Side Weir” by Maurizio Venutelli
November/December 2008, Vol. 134, No. 6, pp. 840–846.
Ali R. Vatankhah1 and M. Bijankhan2
Asst. Prof., Irrigation and Reclamation Eng. Dept., Univ. College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Univ. of Tehran, P.O. Box 4111, Karaj, Iran 31587-77871. E-mail: email@example.com 2 M.Sc. Student, Irrigation and Reclamation Eng. Dept., Univ. College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Univ. of Tehran, P.O. Box 4111, Karaj, Iran 31587-77871. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
An analytical solution of Eq. ͑1͒ is not possible for variable weir coefﬁcient. In this case, Eq. ͑1͒ can be numerically integrated with the aid of any mathematical software such as MathCad, Maple, or Mathematica. To verify Eq. ͑1͒, it is referred to the experimental observations carried out by Hager ͑1982͒ and mentioned by the author. In current research, speciﬁc energy at the control section is considered a constant for numerical integration of Eq. ͑1͒. The computed and measured values are given in Table 1 together with computed values by Muslu ͑2001͒. In comparison with the author’s solution, the numerical integration method gives better results as indicated by the standard error values. Discharges and ﬂow depths calculated in the current study are also shown in Fig. 1. As seen, the predicted values are in good agreement with the measured ones.
Alternative Governing Equation
The discussers would like to thank the author for presenting an iterative step method for solving the spatially varied ﬂow equation with decreasing discharge. The discussers, however, would like to add a few points. Considering ␣ = 1, subcritical depth in a rectangular canal can be determined by the inversion of the speciﬁc energy equation as ͑Chanson 1999͒
812 / JOURNAL OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING © ASCE / NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2009
Downloaded 10 Nov 2010 to 22.214.171.124. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright. Visit http://www.ascelibrary.org
63 18. y can be calculated by Eq.0 Run F 0.69 24.8 1.06462 37.19 19.14 29.org .52 36.6 0.37 24.54316 17.69 ry = 0.46135 39.7 rQ = 1.45 30.76 25. and ␣ = 1͒ Using Data of Hager ͑1998͒ Depth of ﬂow ͑cm͒ Distance from upstream end of the weir ͑m͒ Run E 0.88 36. dx = 2CWͱ2g͑y − p͒3/2 dQ ͑4͒ Conclusion Considering a variable weir coefﬁcient.90 19.88 35.06 38.31 19. Substituting Eqs.0 0. ͑8͒ of the original paper weir.12 18.59 24.16 19. In this case.87 35.0 0.92 25.83 25.32 25. w and pϭconstant.52 rQ = 1.55 25. ͑4͒ yields dx = f ͑Q.22 34.0 17. there is not an analytical solution for the governing equation.21 38.86 34. and numerical integration methods can be used for solving the equation.1 33.218.88 20.8 1.28 21. Visit http://www.20 37.70 25.79 32.44634 40.2 0. Assuming constant speciﬁc energy along the side JOURNAL OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING © ASCE / NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2009 / 813 Downloaded 10 Nov 2010 to 217.44 24. w.0 Run G 0.23 19.18 19.49 25. p.43 18. S0 and S f does not appear in the differential equation. Experimental Veriﬁcation of Simple Numerical Solution ͑E = Cons.50 25.15 19.52 rQ = 0. E͒dQ ͑5͒ where f ϭfunction of Q.60 rQ = 0.91 20.01 34.49. in such a case.0 0.4 0.46 31.23 18. w.97 23.49 31.8 1.27 18.86 30.30 20.95 18. After determining Q.2 0.49 24.95 19.02 25.40 28.72656 19. ͑1͒. For a given problem.78 20. As seen.61 36. the classical hypothesis about constant speciﬁc energy is still acceptable for a short side weir and for subcritical ﬂow conditions.95 19. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright.98 20.36 24.8. p. ͑3͒ are the same as those by Eq.72 17. ͑2͒ and ͑3͒ in Eq.82 36.35 32.Table 1.29 25.13 26.40 34.64 19.6 0.11391 41.80 32.70 40.7 rQ = 1.36 27.36 18.27 25. Also predicted values ͑Table 1͒ show ␣ = 1 is acceptable in the computations.20 32.67 21. this nonlinear ordinary differential equation can be numerically solved for Q.2 0.6 0.12 37. S0 and S f can be omitted from the governing equation.48 24.30 19.54 26.53 18.4 0. As shown.93 34.54 19.46 18. and E.27 20.97 28. It should be noted that considering the term of S f -S0 in the governing equation reduces the accuracy of the predicted values in the case of constant speciﬁc energy.46381 Measured Computed by Muslu ͑2001͒ Computed by discussers Measured Rate of ﬂow ͑l/s͒ Computed by Muslu ͑2001͒ Computed by discussers y=E ͩ 1 2 1 27Q2 + cos cos−1 1 − 3 3 3 4gw2E3 ͭ ͫ −3 ͬͮͪ ͑3͒ Using Eq.92 29.60 39.50 20.20 19.19920 24.56786 24.61 18.84 19. It should be noted that predicted values by Eq.59 20.46 ry = 0.88 ry = 0.14926 39.46 ry = 0.88 ry = 0.12 21.4 0.38 31.69 ry = 0.60 rQ = 0.88 19. ͑3͒.ascelibrary.07 38.39 29.16994 38.06 25.19890 19.61 20.04 28.79 35.
55–56. 814 / JOURNAL OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING © ASCE / NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2009 Downloaded 10 Nov 2010 to 217. ͑2001͒. “Numerical analysis for lateral weir ﬂow. 849–860 ͑in Italian͒. Visit http://www. Drain. Eng. ͑1982͒.. 246–253. “Saggio di teoria del funzionamento degli stramazzi laterali.218. Muslu.” Energ. 1.49.8.ascelibrary. ͑1999͒.Fig. 127͑4͒. 1st Ed. 11͑11͒. Elettr. H. Y. Edward Arnold. Depths of ﬂow and discharges computed and observed along the side weir using data of Hager ͑1998͒ References Chanson. De Marchi. Switzerland.” J. G. “Die hydraulik von verteilkanälen. ͑1934͒. The hydraulics of open channel ﬂows: An introduction.. Hydrologie und Glaziologie. No. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright. London. Irrig. Hager. W.” Teil 1–2. Mitteilungen der Versuchsanstalt für Wasserbau.. Zurich. H.org .
Austin. K. This aspects. I-56126 PISA. has proposed an method in which the weir coefﬁcient Cw and the velocity distribution coefﬁcient ␣ are assumed constant in the step weir segment ⌬x.. R. ͑2003͒. the validity of constant energy and of the coefﬁcient of velocity distribution equal to 1. for any weir segment an appropriate value of distribution velocity and weir coefﬁcients are take into account in the proposed model.it The author would like to thank the discussers for their interest in the paper.. 102͑9͒. for wholly subcritical and wholly supercritical ﬂow proﬁles. E. “Study of ﬂow over side weirs under supercritical conditions. In conclusion. H.. that for short side weir and for subcritical ﬂow conditions. for all test cases presented. V. from the numerical integration of the basic ordinary differential equation of the De Marchi’s theory. The writer is of an opinion that it is practically impossible incorporate all the parameters in the general integral of Eq.Closure to “Method of Solution of Nonuniform Flow with the Presence of Rectangular Side Weir” by Maurizio Venutelli November/December 2008.8. “Physical modeling for side-channel weirs. the friction gradient and. H. Manage. But if these hypotheses are not veriﬁed. 6 . W. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright. London. is evaluated in the paper by Hager’s model for rectangular channel of Eq. No. A. De Marchi’s theory show serious disagreement from the experimental results ͑Hager and Volkart 1986͒. in accordance with the recent study of Durga Rao and Pillai ͑2008͒ on several test cases.” CRWR Online Rep.6. P. produce proﬁles above the De Marchi’s solution and in good agreement with the observed values as shown in Fig.49. Gasowski. The effects of the variations of ␣ along the side weir are examined in details in the works of Lee and Holley ͑2002͒ and May et al. Therefore. the longitudinal variations of the bottom and energy slope. 6. Under this ﬂow conditions. ͑15͒.ascelibrary. and Pillai. Università di Pisa. Lee.” Water Resour.. Vol. Moreover. JOURNAL OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING © ASCE / NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2009 / 815 Downloaded 10 Nov 2010 to 217. 840–846. Hydr. on side weir with a length of 1 m. For a reasonable accuracy. as can be see from Fig. References Durga Rao. K. Energy losses. as it can be veriﬁed..org . as a consequence of the nonuniform velocity distribution. V. ͑2002͒. it is important to notice the better results obtained by the discussers with Cw variable. Via Gabba 22. 134.-L. C. pp. 22.. C. 131–143. The results obtained by the discussers conﬁrm. as been observed by El-Khashab and Smith ͑1976͒ for subcritical ﬂow the value of ␣.venutelli@ing. the bottom slope So and the energy slope S f are integrated explicitly. ͑22͒ or ͑23͒ allows to compute. R. becomes very high towards the end of the weir. in particular for supercritical ﬂow.218. ͑7͒. “Experimental investigations of ﬂow over side weirs.1061/͑ASCE͒0733-9437͑2008͒134:6͑840͒ Maurizio Venutelli1 1 Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile. Bromwich. Tex. K. Visit http://www. Univ. as indicate theoretically by De Marchi ͑1934͒ and experimentally by Gentilini ͑1938͒ and Collinge ͑1957͒. DOI: 10. and Holley. and the longitudinal variations of the weir coefﬁcient and of the velocity distribution coefﬁcient continuously and step by step. Hydraulic design of side weirs. we have a Froude number Fr Ͻ 0. El-Khashab. ͑2008͒. E. ͑1976͒. and Smith. and Rickard. C. E-mail: m.. Y. the values of the differences from the bottom and the energy slope ͑term c1 in the paper͒ are signiﬁcant. B.” J. At contrary. Div. the versatility of Eq. 4. On the other hand. Thomas Telford. However. Center for Research in Water Resources. of Texas. 02-2. May. S. R. 1255–1268.unipi. respectively. ͑2003͒..
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