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International Journal of Latest Trends in Computing (E-ISSN: 2045-5364) Volume 1, Issue 2, December 2010


Paper Currency Recognition System using Characteristics Extraction and Negatively Correlated NN Ensemble
A. Ms. Trupti Pathrabe and B. Dr. N. G. Bawane Department of Computer Science and Engineering G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur, India
forecasting and prediction in a rapidly changing environment, recognition and image processing applications etc. The currency recognition is one of the significant application domains of artificial neural networks. This paper discusses the ENN for currency recognition. NCL was used for the training of the network [7]. The use of NCL is to produce the diversity among the individual networks in ensemble. The final decision of the network is taken from voting among the individual NN. In voting each network gives a vote for a certain class and it is done by the winning neuron of that network. II. LITERATURE REVIEW Presently, there are a number of methods for paper currency recognition [1][2][3]. Using symmetrical masks has been used in [2] for recognizing paper currency in any direction. In this technique, the summation of non-masked pixel values in each banknote is evaluated and fed to a neural network for recognizing paper currency. In this technique, two sensors are used for recognition of the front and back of the paper currency, but the image of the front is the only criterion for decision. In another study for paper currency recognition [1], initially the edges of patterns on a paper currency are spotted. In the next step, paper currency is divided into N equal parts along vertical vector. Then, for each edge in these parts the number of pixels is added and fed to a three-layer, back propagation neural network. In this process, to conquer the problem of recognizing dirty worn banknotes, the following linear function is used as a preprocessor: f(x) = Fax + Fb By expansion of modern banking services, automatic schemes for paper currency recognition are significant in many applications. The requirements for an automatic banknote recognition system offered many researchers to build up a robust and dependable technique [1], [2], [3]. Speed and precision of processing are two vital factors in such systems. Of course, the precision may be much significant than the speed. Paper currency recognition systems should be clever to recognize banknotes from each side and each direction. Since banknotes may be faulty during circulation, the designed system should have an important precision in detecting torn or worn banknotes. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have been applied in various application domains for solving real world problems such as, feature extraction from complex data sets, direct and parallel implementation of matching and search algorithm, (1)

Abstract: - An efficient currency recognition system is vital for the automation in many sectors such as vending machine, rail way ticket counter, banking system, shopping mall, currency exchange service etc. The paper currency recognition is significant for a number of reasons. a) They become old early than coins; b) The possibility of joining broken currency is greater than that of coin currency; c) Coin currency is restricted to smaller range. This paper discusses a technique for paper currency recognition. Three characteristics of paper currencies are considered here including size, color and texture. By using image histogram, plenitude of different colors in a paper currency is calculated and compared with the one in the reference paper currency. The Markov chain concept has been considered to model texture of the paper currencies as a random process. The method discussed in this paper can be used for recognizing paper currencies from different countries. This paper also represents a currency recognition system using ensemble neural network (ENN). The individual neural networks in an ENN are skilled via negative correlation learning. The purpose of using negative correlation learning is to skill the individuals in an ensemble on different parts or portion of input patterns. The obtainable currencies in the market consist of new, old and noisy ones. It is sometime difficult for a system to identify these currencies; therefore a system that uses ENN to identify them is discussed. Ensemble network is much helpful for the categorization of different types of currency. It minimizes the chances of misclassification than a single network and ensemble network with independent training. I. INTRODUCTION

where x is the given (input) image in gray scale, f(x) is the resultant image; and Fa, Fb and N are selected 3, -128 and 50 respectively [1]. In this technique, the algorithm depends to the number of paper currency denominations. Here, complexity of the system increases by increasing the number of classes. Therefore, this technique can be used only for recognition of a small number of banknote denominations. The technique discussed in this paper is not dependent to the number of paper currency classes. The features presented in this paper are independent to the way that a paper currency is placed in front of the sensor. It needs to be known that the discussed technique may not be able to differentiate genuine notes from counterfeits. Indeed, methods such as [8] which use infrared or ultraviolet spectra may be used for discriminating between genuine and counterfeits notes.

International Journal of Latest Trends in Computing (E-ISSN: 2045-5364) Volume 1, Issue 2, December 2010


Most of paper currency recognition techniques use a single multilayer feed-forward NN for the recognition [9][13]. The features are first extracted from the image then it applied to network for training. These uses edge detection technique for feature extraction [9] and it reduces the network size. For new notes feature extraction from edge detection is simple. But for the noisy notes it is very difficult. Furthermore the currency recognition system should be highly consistent. If a network takes a false classification it will be not practical. So a single network is not reliable enough. Therefore ENN [14] is presented in this paper to solve this problem. The negative correlation learning was to generate different individual NN in the ensemble, so that entire ensemble learns the input pattern completely. III. CHARACTERISTICS EXTRACTION

template, Markov chain [6] concept is used in representing random phenomenon. A random process {xk, k = 0, 1, 2,...} is called a Markov chain if the possibility value in state xn+1 depends on just the possible value in state xn , that is: P(xn+1 = | xn = , xn-1 = n-1 ,..,x0 = 0 ) = |xn = ) (3) = P(xn+1

This possibility can be shown by Pij. The state space of a Markov chain can be shown in a matrix that is:


where n is the number of states in the chain. In the discussed method characteristics of paper currencies are employed that are used by people for differentiating different banknote denominations. Basically, at first instance, people may not pay attention to the details and exact characteristics of banknotes for their recognition, rather they consider the common characteristics of banknotes such as the size, the background color (the basic color), and texture present on the banknotes. In this method, these characteristics are used in a decision tree to differentiate between different banknote denominations [4]. A. Size The first phase of recognition in the algorithm considers size of the banknote. The significant issue in considering this characteristic is that the edges of banknotes are generally worn and torn due to circulations. Hence, its size is reduced, or even is increased slightly in rejoining the torn banknotes. Hence, the size condition in the decision tree is presented as: | x x0 |< dx & | y y0 |< dy (2) IV. STEPS FOR RECOGNITION PAPER CURRENCY

Where x0 and y0 are size of the testing paper currency, and x and y are size of the reference paper currency. In eq (2) dx and dy represent alteration in the vertical and horizontal directions. B. Color Although a variety of colors are used in each paper currency, people normally use one or more dominant color for distinguishing between different paper currencies. In this paper, image of the banknote is transformed to an image in gray scale [5]. Then the gray scale level is reduced to have a significant judgment about the background color. In this paper the banknote images are quantized to 52 levels in gray scale. Then histogram of the image is calculated to find the plentitude of different color in the banknote. C. Texture In most of the countries, the size and color spectrum of some banknotes are very similar to each other. Hence, these characteristics of banknotes from different countries may be too close to each other. So, these characteristics may not be adequate to easily differentiate between different banknotes. Consequently, template of the banknotes is considered in addition to the forgoing characteristics. For recognizing the

The algorithm for the discussed paper currency recognition system is presented as follows: i) Banknote Size (number of pixels on horizontal and vertical axes) is calculated. If its size satisfies equation (2), it is considered as a possible true banknote. ii) The banknote image histogram is calculated using the bin number set as 52. iii) The transition matrices (Nx and Ny) are calculated for the banknote, then, the main diagonal elements of the matrices (namely Dx and Dy) are taken out as a feature for distinguishing between different denominations. iv) The paper currency under observation is assigned to a denomination class if the Euclidean distances between the main diagonal elements of its transition matrices (Dx and Dy) and the main diagonal elements of the corresponding matrices of the reference banknote (DRx and DRy ) are smaller than a predefined value. v) At the end, the computed histogram in stage ii is compared with the histogram of the winner class in stage iv. If the Euclidian distance between the two histograms is larger than the predefined value, the banknote is assigned to an unknown class. V. AN APPROACH USING NEGATIVE CORRELATION LEARNING After discussing three characteristics of paper currencies (including size, color and texture) for the paper currency recognition, paper also focuses on ENN [14] for the same purpose. ENN [14] is a learning paradigm where a set of finite number of neural networks is trained for the similar task. The resultant vectors are applied simultaneously in all the ensembles. The negative correlation learning is to generate the diversity among the individual networks using a penalty term. NCL is used for the training of the network [15]. The use of NCL is to produce the diversity among the individual networks in ensemble. The final decision of the network is taken from voting among the individual NN. In voting each network gives a vote for a certain class and it is done by the winning neuron of that network. The NCL can be found elsewhere [15] and in brief, can be described below.

International Journal of Latest Trends in Computing (E-ISSN: 2045-5364) Volume 1, Issue 2, December 2010


Assume a training set S of size N. S = {(x (l), d(l), x(2), d(2)),..(x(N), d(N))} Where x is the input vector and d is the desired result. Consider approximating d by forming an ensemble whose result F(n) is the average in the component NN result Fi(n) (5) Where M and n refer to the number of NN in ensemble and training pattern, respectively. The error function Ei of the network i in NCL is given by the following eq (6). (6)

VII. CONCLUSIONS This paper discussed a technique for recognizing paper currencies of different countries. The technique uses three characteristics of paper currencies including size, color, and template. In this method the system can be trained for a new denomination banknote by just introducing one intact example of the banknote to it. In addition the system may recognize the banknote on each side or any direction. Paper also focuses recognition system using negatively correlated ensemble neural network. The Ensemble network has better performance for recognition than single network. For training the negative correlation learning is used. In negative correlation the entire networks are negatively correlated through the strength of penalty term. The entire ensembles interact with each other and each network has specialized for a particular portion of input vector. So when a noisy pattern is applied the network will be able to recognize as a whole. REFERENCES [1] E. H. Zhang, B. Jiang, J. H. Duan, Z. Z. Bian, Research on Paper Currency Reconition by Neural Networks, Proceedings of the 2nd Int. Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, 2003. [2] F. Takeda and T. Nishikage, Multiple Kinds of Paper Currency Recognition using Neural Network and application for Euro Currency, IEEE Int. Joint Conf. on Neural Networks, pp: 143-147, 2000. [3] F. Takeda, T. Nishikage and Y. Vatsuwato, Characteristics Extraction of Paper Currency using Symmetrical Masks Optimized by GA and Neurorecognition of Multi-national paper currency, World congress on computational Intelligence, vol. 1, pp: 634-639, 1998. [4] Rafael C. Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods, Steven L. Eddins "Digital image processing using Matlab" .Printed in 2008. [5] C. H. Gladwin, Ethnographic Decision Tree Modeling, Sage Publications,1989. [6] M. Iosifescu, Finite Markov Processes and Their Applications, Wiley, New York, NY, 1980. [7] M. Kim, D. Kim and S. Lee, Face recognition using the embedded HMM with second-order blockspecific observations Pattern Recognition, vol. 36,no. 11, pp. 2723273, 2003. [8] A. Vila a, N. Ferrer b, J. Mantecon c, D. Breton c, J.F. Garca Development of a fast and nondestructive procedure for characterizing and distinguishing original and fake euro notes, Analytica Chimica Act,. no. 559, pp. 257263, 2006. [9] D. A. K. S. Gunaratna, N. D. Kodikara and H. L. Premaratne, "ANN Based Currency Recognition System using Compressed Gray Scale and Application for Sri Lankan Currency Notes", Proceedings of world academy of


Where Ei(n) is the value of the error function of the network i for the nth training pattern. The first term of (7) is the empirical risk function of the network i. In the second term, Pi is a correlation penalty function is given by eq (8). (8) The partial derivative of Ei(n) with respective to the output network i on the nth training pattern is



The NCL is a simple extension to the standard Backpropagation algorithm [8]. In fact, the only alteration that is needed is to compute an extra term of the form for the ith network. During the training process, the entire ensemble interacts with each other through their penalty terms in the error functions. Each network i minimizes not only the difference between Fi(n) and d(n) , but also the difference between F(n) & d(n). That is, negative correlation learning considers errors what all other networks have learned while training a network. VI. IMAGE PREPROCESSING

To give an image to the network an image needs to be preprocessed. In the discussed system, the gray scale image is used. The RGB image is converted into gray scale (BlackWhite) image by scanner. To reduce the network size the gray scale image is compressed. Each pixel of the compressed image is applied as an input to the network. The pixel values are kept in the range of 0-1.

International Journal of Latest Trends in Computing (E-ISSN: 2045-5364) Volume 1, Issue 2, December 2010


science,engineering and technology, vol. 35, Nov. 2008, ISSN 2070-3740, pp.235-240. [10] E. Zhang, B. Jiang, J. Duan and Z. Bian, "Research on paper currency recognition by neural networks" in Proc. 2nd International Conf. Machine Learning and Cybernetics, Xi'an, 2003, pp2193-2196. [11] S. Omatu, T. Fujinaka, T. Kosaka, H. Yanagimoto, and M. Yoshioka. "Italian lira classification by lvq". In Proc. International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IJCNN, pp 2947-2951, 2001, [12] F. Takeda and T. Nishikage, "Multiple kinds of paper currency recognition using neural Network and application for euro currency". In Proc. IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, 2000, pp 143-147. [13] M. Gori, A. Frosini and P. Priami. "A neural networkbased model for paper currency recognition and verification", IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, Nov.1996, ppI482-1490. [14] L.K Hansel and P. Salamon, "Neural networks ensemble", IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol.12, no.l0, 1990, pp.993-1001. [15] Yong Liu and Xin Yao "Ensemble Learning via Negative Correlation" Neural Networks Vol. 12, pp 13991404, 1999.