u

=
= = = =
=
}
}
MMF : magnetomotive force
Applying Ampere`s circuital law to the toroidal core
m m
c
l
Ni
r
Ni
H
Ni dl H
=
H
=
=
}
2
S
l
R
m
B
H
b)
BS = u
Ni Hl =
m l
S
p
=
c)
u = N
i
P L
N
2
=
990102chn04
Change from material properties (a) to device properties involves scaling of the
coordinates by geometrical factors (crosssection, magnetic path length ) (b)
and turns ratios c)
II. Magnetic circuit with AirGap
1. The reluctance of the airgap
N
i
lm
lg
Ni
R m
R g
a)
b)
990102chn06
(a)Magnetic circuits with airgap (b) its linear reluctance model
S
l
R
m
m
=
: Reluctance of the core
S
l
R
o
g
g
=
: Reluctance of the gap
g m R R
Ni
+
= 
or
) (
1 1
2
2 2
P P N
P P
N
R R
N
g m
g m
g m
i
i i
N =
+
=
+
= = 
) (
2
P
g
P
m
N
i
Leff = =
3
In practice, the reluctance of the airgap is often much larger than that of the
magnetic path even though
l l g m
>>
, since the permeability of airgap is so much
smaller, that is,
((
o
r o
or
1 (( = =
r
g
m
o
g
r o
m
g
m
l
l
l
l
R
R
S
S
R
m
<<
R
g
P
m
>>
P
g
L=
N
2
(
P
m
P
g
)
N
2
P
g
l
N
l
g
o
g
S
L
2
) ( =
2. Device or Inductance Model
P N L
P N L
g g
m m
=
=
2
2
R
m
<<
R
g
P
m
>>
P
g
Leff
=
L
m
L
g
L
g
3.Effects of Airgap on the device characteristics
i
N o a i r  g a p
( l a r g e L )
W i t h a i r  g a p
( s m a l l L )
sat
sat
s l o p e = L
IL I' L
V
Lg Lm
4
The saturation is independent of the air gap.
The airgap decreases the inductance but it enhances the current
handing capacity of the inductor.
Note. If Airgap exists (Airgap is increased) ,
1. increase the number of turns (N) to sustain the same value of
L.
2. L is decreased but the range of current that can carry is
increased.
III. Periodic Waveform
To avoid Saturation ,
V Ts
N B S
V Ts N B S
V Ts
B S
N low er it
V
B S f
N low er it
sat sat
sat
sat
sat s
.
.
.
.
( lim )
( lim )
2
2 2
4
4
4
s
s
s
s
V
L
N
S 980103YCY02
t
VTs/2
i
sat
V.dt Li

sat
980103YCY02
V
L
Area = VT s / 2
V
V
Ts/2
Ts
t
5
1. Basic Equation : V Ts N B S sat . s 4
1) When Ts is fixed , the larger B sat
Smaller S & Smaller N
Smaller Core Size
2) When B sat is fixed , the smaller Ts ( the larger fs )
Smaller S & Smaller N
Smaller Core Size
2. Basic Equation : V Ts N B S sat . 4
( V.Ts = fixed , S = fixed )
A : optimal N
Most efficient use of
the core.
optimal design.
B : Small N
Result in Saturation.
C : Large N
Inefficient use of core.
Oversized Core.
3. Flux Balance Condition
A : area of A = area of B
To avoid the flux walking
or Saturation.
A A increase decrease
V t V t 1 1 2 2 . .
VoltSecond Balance
i
sat
C
A
B
980103YCY03
V
L
V
t
1
2
A
B
V
t2
t1
IL
980103YCY03
6
IV. Inductor Design Using Area Product Approach
1. Electrical Specification
DC current IL is determined from the Load requirement.
Current ripple , AiL determines the value of the inductance.
(EX) Buck Converter
A
A
i
V V
L
t
L
V V
i
t
L
g o
on
g o
L
on
=
=
Here, in general rule #1,
AiL dont exceed 20% of IL
to reduce the output ripple.
Ai
I
L
L
< 0 2 .
Winding Loss(I R
2
) determines the current density J.
Here, in general rule #2, J A cm A cm = 250 1000
2 2
~ ,
the common value is 450 A cm
2
.
2. Design Strategy
S : Crosssectional area
W : Windowarea
VL
iL
t
t
AiL
IL
980104ycy01
W
S
980104ycy01
7
Strategy #1. Full utilization of flux capability.
iL
t
iL
*
IL
*
s l o p e = L
s a t
990102chn05
) 1 (
S
*
B
*
L
I L
N
*
I L S
*
B N
*
) i
2
1
I
*
I (
8 . 0 ~ 6 . 0
* *
I L
L
L L L
s L
=
= =
+ =
= =
A
N : the number of turns.
B
*
: 0.25~0.32[T] for ferrite.
*
L
I : peak inductor current.
Strategy #2. Full utilization of the window area.
) 2 (
*
L
I N J W k =
k : Window utilization factor (0.3<k<0.6)
From (1) and (2) ,
k J B
2
)
*
L
I ( L
*
B N
*
L
I L
J k
*
L
I N
S W AP
= =
AP : Area Product (Energy handling Capacity)
8
3. Inductor Design Steps
1). Pick the core with the area product closest but higher than the one
calculated by :
k J
*
B
2
)
*
L
I ( L
S W AP
= =
B
*
: 0.25[T] for ferrite ( . ) m ax B = 0 25
J : 450 ( / ) A cm
2
k : 0.3
2). Determine the number of turns by :
S
*
B
*
L
I L
N
= ( lower limit )
3). Determine the wire crosssection.
A
I
J
w = and the wire size.
4). Using the mean length per turn data , find the winding loss.
P I R I is rm s value loss =
2
( .)
5). Calculate the airgap by using :
) P
. 2
N L (
l
S
2
N
L g
g
o
=
=
or more practically adjust the airgap to obtain the desired inductance.
6). Find the core loss from the core data sheet.
Loss in core I) Hysterisis loss( f, minor loops area)
II) Eddy current loss: neglect in ferrite meterial
9
4. Inductor design example.
When the following values is given by , input voltage : Vg = 12 (V)
output voltage : Vo = 5 (V)
load resistor : R load = 1 (O)
switching frequency : fs = 40 kHz
1) Determining the values of the inductance of L such that
Ai
I
L
L
= 0.2 ,
H L
DT
L
V V
I i s
o g
L in ax L
73
2 . 0 I I m m
~
= = = A
from : # L i A = iL*0.2 = (Vo/Rload )*0.2 = (5/1)*0.2 = 1 [A]
# D = Output / Input = 5 / 12
# Ts = 1 / fs = 25 * 10
6
[sec]
2) The steadystate waveforms of V t i t L L ( ) , ( ),
V
Vo
L
i
L
+
Vg
+
S
C
Buck Converter
980105ycy01
VL
iL
t
t
AiL
IL=5A
5(v)
7(v)
ton
ton Ts
980105ycy01
10
[Inductor Design Steps]
1) Pick the core with the area product.
k J
*
B
2
*
I L
S W AP
= = =(73*10
6
*5.5
2
)/(0.25*450*0.3)=6.54*10
9
AP = ) ( 10 54 . 6
4 9
m
= W.S = A A cw e .
A cw : Crosssectional winding area of core.(
2
m )
A e : Effective crosssectional area. (
2
m )=S
Select PC44PQ26/20Z12 ; AP=7.188
9
10
Ae=119
6
10
2) Determine the number of turns by ,
) ( 14
5 . 13
6
10 119 25 . 0
5 . 5
6
10 73
*
*
turns N
S B
I L
N
>
~
=
3) Determine the wire crosssection area ,
1 )
2
/ ( 5 . 4 / ) ( 5 )
2
/ ( 450 / ) ( 5 ~ = = = mm A A cm A A
J
I
Aw
Select #16AWG (with Bare Area = ) ( 324 . 1
2
mm )
4) Calculate the airgap by using ,
g
o
l
S
2
N
L
=
lg = 0.635 (mm)
We can select Core PC44PQ26/20Z12, and should wind the number of
14 turns as the #16AWG using BE281110CP .
And then , we should the value of L(=73uH) as adjusting the airgap.
11
[ Winding Loss , Core Loss and efficiency ]
To finding the winding loss (P I R loss =
2
) ,
The resistance of #16AWG wire : ) / (
6
10 8 . 131 cm O
Average length of turns around the bobbin of BPQ26/201112CP
bobbin :
l m m w = 56 2 .
Effective resistance of the wire : ) ( 37 . 10 14 62 . 5 10 8 . 131
6
O = ~
m R
P I R l o s s =
2
=
3 2
10 37 . 10 5
=0.259(W)
To finding the core loss from the core data sheet ,
A A
A
A
A
A
A
A
=
=
= =
=
~
=
= =
N B S
B
N S
L
i
s lo p ein the i graph
B m T
B
m T flux density
P W m at C kH z
P P C ore Volum e m W
cv
coreloss cv
75 10
6
41 45
2
20
0 5
3
60 40
2 745
( .)
. ( )
( ) ( )
. ( / ) ( , )
. ( )
For finding the overall efficiency of the inductor :
q =
+
=
P P P
P
o u t p u t c o r e l o s sw i n d i n g l o s s
o u t p u t
( )
. %
100
98 5
12
Inductor design
(2005. 8. 4)