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CSE 4215 / 5431: Mobile Communications (Winter 2008) Instructor: N. Vlajic Date: February 19, 2008

Midterm Examination

Instructions:

Examination time: 75 min. Print your name and CS student number in the space provided below. This examination is closed book and closed notes, one-page cheat-sheet allowed. There are 6 questions. The points for each question are given in square brackets, next to the question title. The overall maximum score is 100. Answer each question in the space provided. If you need to continue an answer onto the last page, clearly indicate that and label the continuation with the question number.

Question

Points

1 2 3 4 5 6 Total

/ 20 / 10 / 15 / 20 / 25 / 10 / 100

1.

Multiple Choice

Circle the correct answer(s) for the following statements. (1.1) Antenna Size Consider a system that reports signal attenuation of L = -0.1 [dB]. This implies: (a) (b) (c) input (transmitted) signal is greater than the output (received) signal output (received) signal is greater than the input (transmitted) signal measurement is incorrect

(1.2) Signal Propagation Which of the following is least critical for wireless transmission in a big indoor hall with no object or obstacle greater than 5 [cm]. (a) (b) (c) (d) reflection diffraction scattering all are equally critical

(1.2) Multiplexing For which of the following techniques/systems the information about maximum possible distance between a pair of communicating users is least critical: (a) (b) (c) (d) SDMA FDMA TDMA CDMA

(1.4) Random MAC Techniques Which can achieve best channel utilization in high load? (a) (b) (c) (d) slotted ALOHA 0.01-peristent CSMA 1-persistent CSMA non-persistent CSMA

(1.5) DSSS Autocorelation Which of the following codes is most appropriate for systems that suffer from poor sender-receiver synchronization. (a) (b) (c) (d) 0000 1111 1 -1 1 -1 none of the above 2

(1.6) Signal Bandwidth A periodic digital signal with period T = 1 [msec] occupies a larger spectral bandwidth than a periodic sinusoidal signal with period T = 1 [sec]. (a) (b) True False

(1.7) Modulation Amplitude modulation performs better in multi-path environment than frequency modulation. (a) (b) True False

(1.8) Beam With The beam-width of a perfect isotropic antenna is 180. (a) (b) True False

(1.9) Space Division Multiple Access SDMA is employed in all existing wireless/cellular phone systems (e.g. Rogers Wireless, Telus, etc.). (a) (b) True False

(1.10) MAC schemes In wireless environment, the information about the status of the channel can be revealed simply by sensing the medium/carrier. (a) (b) True False

2.

Modulation

A digital bit stream that is coming to a BPSK modulator is modulated and then sent over the air. The picture below captures a pattern/portion of the transmitted signal. The rate at which data arrives at the modulator is 5000 [bps]. Which digital data pattern is represented with the given signal? (Namely, what is the data bit sequence encoded into the signal as shown in the picture?)

bit-period/duration = 1/5000 = 0.2 [ms] 1.2/0.2 = 6 bits are transmitted totally Bit sequence: 1 1 0 1 0 1

3.

Path Loss

Assume that two antennas are half-wave dipoles and each has a directive gain of 3 [dB]. If the transmitted power is 1 [W] and the two antennas are separated by a distance of 10 [km], what is the received power? Assume that the antennas are aligned so that the directive gain numbers are correct and that the frequency used is 100 MHz.

The relationship between transmitted power (Pt) and received power (Pr) is:

The two gains are given to be 3 [dB] which is a factor of 103/10 = 2. The wavelength is given to be 3*108 / 108 = 3 [m]. The distance is 104 [m], and Pt = 1[W]. By substituting these numbers we get:

2 2 1 32 Pr = = 2.28 10 9 2 8 16 (3.14) 10

4.

Five received power measurements were taken at distances of 50 [m], 100 [m], 200 [m], 400 [m] and 1000 [m]. The measured values are given in the table below. Distance from transmitter 50 [m] 100 [m] 200 [m] 400 [m] 1000 [m] Measure (received) power [dBm] 0 - 10 - 15 - 25 - 50

It is assumed that the path loss for these measurements follows the standard path loss formula:

Pr _ dB = P0 _ dB 10 log( d )

The received power at 50 [m] is also found to be 0 [dBm] by analytical models. Find the value of path loss gradient () that minimizes the mean square error (MSE) for the data shown in the above table. Recall, mean square error is computed by the following formula:

MSE =

) (P P

i =1 i i

where Pi represents the measured and Pi the respective estimated value of received power (using the standard path loss formula) at certain locations. Hint:

Hence

Accordingly, for any other d [m],

Distance 50 [m] 100 [m] 200 [m] 400 [m] 1000 [m] Actual Received Power [dBm] 0 - 10 - 15 - 25 - 50 Estimate [dBm] - 10log(d/50) 0 - 3.01 - 6.02 - 9.03 - 13.01

Using the above table for measure and estimated values of received power at various distances:

MSE() = (0-0)2 + (-10+3.01)2 + (-15+6.02)2 + (-25+9.03)2 + (-50+13.01)2 MSE() = 2825 - 1541.8 + 214.62

We are interested in the minimum MSE. So, we would like to find the that minimizes the MSE(). To find that, we should derivate MSE() with respect to , and then make it equal to zero.

5.

DSSS Potpourri

5.a) DSSS in practice [8 points] Two mobiles, X and Y, are transmitting concurrently using DSSS technique. A receiver hearing both of these transmission receives the combined signal X+Y and uses DSSS technique to despread it and obtain the original data bits of mobile X. The receiver has the codeword of X as 010011. (Note: do required conversion of the given codeword prior to bit-wise multiplication.)

0 0 _____________________________________ .

5.b) Walsh Codes - Part 1 [8 points] Demonstrate that the Walsh codes of length 4 are orthogonal to each other.

0 0 0 0

0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1

0 1 1 0

or or or or

-1 -1 -1 -1

-1 1 -1 1

-1 -1 1 1

-1 1 1 -1

code1 * code2 = 1 + (-1) + 1 + (-1) = 0 code1 * code3 = 1 + 1 + (-1) + (-1) = 0 code1 * code4 = 1 + (-1) + (-1) + 1 = 0 code2 * code3 = 1 + (-1) + (-1) + 1 = 0 code2 * code4 = 1 + 1 + (-1) + (-1) = 0 code3 * code4 = 1 + (-1) + (1) + (-1) = 0

5.c) Walsh Codes - Part 2 [3 points] What is the unique feature of the Walsh code that DSSS systems capitalize on? Orthogonality. Since Walsh codes provide perfect orthogonal codes, they prevent interference of any two users using two different codes, assuming the users are perfectly synchronized.

5.d) Walsh Codes - Part 3 [3 points] What are the limitations of using Walsh codes in DSSS applications? The cross-correlations between different shifts of the Walsh sequences are not zero (and could be high), so Walsh codes do not provide good spread spectrum codes in scenarios where tight synchronization is not provided.

5.e) DSSS Power Control [3 points] If a DSSS-based cellular system had poor or inadequate power regulation, what effect would be noticeable in the network? Near-Far Problem: A user closer to the base station (BS) would saturate the BSs receiver and create considerable noise to all users further away.

10

6.

Multiple Access

6.a) Reservation Aloha [5 points] We have discussed Explicit Reservation Aloha, also referred to as Packet Reservation Multiple Access (PRMA) scheme, in class. (See figure below.)

. Identify one scenario in which this scheme provides worst throughput performance than the simple Slotted Aloha.

In those cases when most users send short (1-slot) messages, the performance of PRMA will be worse than the performance of Slotted Aloha, as there will be one (subsequent) wasted slot for each message sent.

6.b) Capture Effect [5 points] What is the capture effect and how does it impact the performance of random access methods?

Capture effect is related to near-far phenomenon and refers to the case when collision of two packets does not destroy both packets. Namely, if one of transmitting stations is much closer to the access point (receiver) than the others, than the signal from other stations may appear as a background noise, and the access point will capture (detect) the packet from the closes terminal successfully. Ultimately, the capture effect increases the throughput of the radio network because in calculating the throughput, we always assume that concurrently sent packets collide and get destroyed.

11

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