EFFECT OF PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES ON THE SALES OF LUBRICANTS

BY

EMMANUEL NELSON BASSEY
(MBA;CNA; NIAFA)

COLLEGE OF ACCOUNTANCY AND COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY

BLOCK B, FLAT 8, MASOJE ESTATE P.T.I. ROAD. EFFURUN,DELTA STATE NIGER

EMAIL…e_n_bassey@yahoo.co.uk +2347027002108

+2348028756984

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DEDICATION

This research project is dedicated to the Almighty God for His ever enduring love, kindness, mercy and grace all through the course of this programme. Father, I thank and worship you and give You all the Glory and Honour.

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ABSTRACT Sales promotion includes those marketing activities, other than personal selling, advertising, and publicity, that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness. They include point-of-purchase displays, shows and exhibit demonstrations, and other nonrecurrent selling efforts. Businesses can target sales promotions at three different audiences: consumers, resellers, and the company's own sales force. Sales

promotion acts as a competitive weapon by providing an extra incentive for the target audience to purchase or support one brand over another. It is particularly effective in spurring product trial and unplanned purchases. Most marketers believe that a given product or service has an established perceived price or value, and they use sales promotion to change this price-value relationship by increasing the value and/or lowering the price. Compared to the other components of the marketing mix (advertising, publicity, and personal selling), sales promotion usually operates on a shorter time line, uses a more rational appeal, returns a tangible or real value, fosters an immediate sale, and contributes highly to profitability. In this research work, the researcher will consider in chapter one….the introduction of the study which will in turn considers the following topics. The background of the study, the statement of research problem, the

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objective of the study, significance of the study, the hypothesis and the structure of the work. Chapter two focuses on the literature review, this chapter is where the researcher extract materials from various books, magazines, news papers and internet resources. In chapter three, the researcher deals on research methods while chapter four is data analysis and presentation. The findings, summary, and conclusion is in chapter five.

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCION

1.1

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Sales promotion is an important component of a small business's overall marketing strategy even on the sales of lubricant, along with advertising, public relations, and personal selling. The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines sales promotion as "media and nonmedical marketing pressure applied for a predetermined, limited period of time in order to stimulate trial, increase consumer demand, or improve product quality." But this definition does not capture all the elements of modern sales promotion. One should add that effective sales promotion increases the basic value of a product for a limited time and directly stimulates consumer purchasing, selling effectiveness, or the effort of the sales force. It can be used to inform, persuade, and remind target customers about the business and its marketing mix. Some common types of sales promotion include samples, coupons, sweepstakes, contests, in-store displays, trade shows, price-off deals, premiums, and rebates.

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In determining the relative importance to place on sales promotion in the overall marketing mix especially as touching the sales of lubricant, a small business should consider its marketing budget, the stage of the product in its life cycle, the nature of competition in the market, the target of the promotion, and the nature of the product. For example, sales promotion and direct mail are

particularly attractive alternatives when the marketing budget is limited, as it is for many small businesses. In addition, sales promotion can be an effective tool in a highly competitive market, when the objective is to convince retailers to carry a product or influence consumers to select it over those of competitors. Similarly, sales promotion is often used in the growth and maturity stages of the product life cycle to stimulate consumers and resellers to choose that product over the competition—rather than in the introduction stage, when mass advertising to build awareness might be more important. Finally, sales promotion tends to work best when it is applied to impulse items whose features can be judged at the point of purchase, rather than more complex, expensive items that might require hands-on demonstration.

1.2

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Some organizations/firms do not carry out any form of marketing promotion. They are satisfied that a good product with a network of

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distribution is enough. However, nowadays the picture is different. There is need for marketing/sales promotion and it is unavoidable to be successful in the dynamic environment, a producer must not only offer a good product at a reasonable price, right time, right quality and right quantity but also inform actual and potential customers about the product and where they can buy it. Producers must tell wholesalers and retailers in the channel about their product and their marketing mix. These intermediaries in turn must use sales promotion to reach their customers- therefore, arose the effect of promotion to marketing strategies. In considering the effect of promotional activities on sales of lubricant, some questions easily come to mind are:…. 1. What is the effect of sales promotion on marketing lubricants? 2. What is the role of management with regards to promotional activities to marketing of lubricant? 3. What is the contribution of workers in sales promotion of the lubricants? 4. What impact does the company have on the promoters as well as workers with regards to promotion? 5. 6.
What is style of business communication? How and where does focus on customer satisfaction begin in an organization?

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7.

How does the company build positive relationship with their customers?

1.3

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE STUDY Sales promotion has grown substantially in recent years. There are several reasons for this dramatic growth in sales promotion. First, consumers have accepted sales promotion as part of their buying decision criteria. It provides reluctant decision makers with an incentive to make choices by increasing the value offered by a particular brand. Second, the increasing tendency of businesses to focus on short-term results has helped spur growth in sales promotion, which can provide an immediate boost in sales. Product managers also tend to view sales promotion as a way to differentiate their brand from that of competitors in the short term. Third, the emergence of computer technology has enabled

manufacturers to get rapid feedback on the results of promotions. Redemption rates for coupons or figures on sales volume can be obtained within days. Finally, an increase in the size and power of retailers has also boosted the use of sales promotion. Historically, the manufacturer held the power in the channel of distribution. Mass marketers utilized national advertising to get directly to consumers, creating a demand for the heavily advertised brands that stores could not afford to ignore. With consolidation and the growth of major retail chains, however, retailers have gained the

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power to demand incentives from manufacturers to carry their products. Many sales promotions are designed to provide benefits to the retailers. 1.4 PURPOSE OF STUDY The purpose of this study is to find the effect of promotional activities on sales of lubricants, since these are changes in modern world of marketing. Affecting buyers’ behaviour is a challenging job and it is the object of the promotion. As a service to exhibitor, to ensure that participants get maximal opportunity, to meet buyers and users, the promoter actively carries unique characteristics in order to take advantage of the competitors’ market environment. The fact behind this purpose is……To communicate with individuals, groups or organizations to directly or indirectly facilitate exchanges by informing and persuading one or more audiences to accept an organization's products.

1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY Although sales promotion is an important strategy for producing quick, short-term, positive results, it is not a cure for a bad product, poor advertising, or an inferior sales team. After a consumer uses a coupon for the initial purchase of a product, the product must then take over and convince them to become repeat buyers. In addition,

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sales promotion activities may bring several negative consequences, including "clutter" due to the number of competitive promotions. New approaches are promptly cloned by competitors, as each marketer tries to be more creative, more attention getting, or more effective in attracting the attention of consumers and the trade. Finally, consumers and resellers have learned how to milk the sales promotion game. Consumers may wait to buy certain items knowing that prices will eventually be reduced, for example, while resellers have become experts at negotiating deals and manipulating competitors against one another. This study investigates the effect of promotional activities on sales of lubricants . The study covers all level of promotion, from personal selling, advertising, direct marketing public relations, publicity to sales promotion. 1.6 THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The main objective of the study is to determine the effects of promotional activities on sales of lubricants. The subsidiary objective includes: Selecting the right Promotional Tools: A marketer must do the following while planning and sending communications to a target audience:

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1. Identify the Audience Individuals, groups, special publics or the general public. Intermediaries vs Consumer 2. Identify the Stage of Product Life Cycle
o

Introductory Inform Publicity/Advertising/Sales force (interm.)/Sales promotion (free samples)

o o

Growth Persuade Differentiate from competitors offering Maturity Remind Reminder advertising, Sales promotion (coupons)

o

Decline Cut budget

3. Product Characteristics
o

Complexity: How much information must be communicated. The more complex the message, the greater the need to use personal selling.

o

Risk Greater risk, greater need for personal selling

4. Stages of Buying Decision In many cases the final response sought is purchase, but purchase is the result of a long process of consumer decision making. Need to know where the target audience now stands (in the process), and what state they need to be moved to. 1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This research will be of great interest and benefit to the following: 1. The manager of any company dealing on lubricants.

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2.

Producer,

intermediaries,

as

well

as

management,

organizations/firms. 3. The students of marketing and business administration. 4. Likewise to aspiring businessmen and entrepreneur. 5. The diverse group of people and the dynamic marketing partners as well as the society at large. The diversified group of people above, must know how to adapt to the marketing strategies, new technologies etc.

Marketing need a broad range of skills in order to build profitable relationships with customers as well as satisfy their needs in the global competitive environment.

1.8

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This work was carried out under a tight schedule of school pressure and work load which makes it absolutely necessary to devote

limited time to do it, having sleepless night etc. Another problem encountered is finance, the cost of transportation in carrying out the investigation. Individual differences in responses to questionnaire are also a limitation encountered. The Questionnaire method of primary data collection was limited to the verbal responses of subjects to pre-arrange questions. It also had limitation that its usefulness depended on the level of education

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of the subjects. There was the limitation of the problem of memory in remembering past facts. The structured nature of the

questionnaire may compel the respondents to give answers that they do not fully endorse, There was the limitation of the rigidity of the research instrument, which diminishes the amount of

information that could be gathered. There was the limitation that the cost of administering the questionnaire was very high due to high administrative, personnel and traveling costs especially when some of the respondents were initially not on their seats. There was the limitation that the researcher and the field data collectors were not policemen and so they could not force some of the respondents if they refuse to give answers. There was also the limitation of the scarcity of time and money resources. In nutshell, we want to mellow down this point to the following subtopics Material Procurement There was a lot constraints as to getting information and materials for the job. The researcher made series of consultations and visit to most renowned institutions to acquire the needed information. Most materials used were very difficult to come by, as there is no library within the town.

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Time Constraints Combining academic work with job is no doubt a thought provoking issue, as it has to do with time. Actually, a lot of time was wasted as the researcher visited the organizations and individuals together with government agencies to obtain valuable information for the project. Financial Constraints The researcher would have obtained more information than what is obtainable here but due to lack of money to visit some of the firms and government agencies located a bit farther from the researcher place of resident. HYPOTHESIS It is a conjectural statement of the relationships between two or more variables. It is testable, tentative problem explanation of the relationship between two or more variables that create a state of affairs or phenomenon. E,C, Osuola (1986 page 48) said hypothesis should always be in declarative sentence form, and they should relate to them generally or specially variable to variables.

HYPOTHESIS THUS: 1. 2. Explain observed events in a systematic manner Predict the outcome of events and relationships

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3.

Systematically summarized existing knowledge.

In essence, there exist NULL HYPOTHESIS set up only to nullify the research hypothesis and the ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS for the purpose of the study. For the efficiency of the study, the hypothesis is as follows: NULL HYPOTHESIS (HO) 1. Sales promotion does not includes those marketing activities, other than personal selling? 2.` The role of the sales promotion has nothing to do with communication with individuals, groups or organizations to directly or indirectly facilitate exchanges by informing and persuading one or more audiences to accept an organization's products.

ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS 1. Does Sales promotion includes those marketing activities, other than personal selling? 2. The role of the sales promotion is to communicate with individuals, groups or organizations to directly or indirectly facilitate exchanges by informing and persuading one or more audiences to accept an organization's products. 1.8 STRUCTURE OF WORK This research work is to be organized in five chapters as follows: 1. Introduction

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2. Review of Related Literature 3. Research Methods and Producers 4. Data presentation and Analysis and 5. Summary, Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation.

CHAPTER TWO

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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 THE SPECTRUM SALES PROMOTION Promotion professional is seen from and dimension associates and different been given scholars, various

bodies

have

definitions of promotion. Nevertheless, it is indeed noteworthy that each definition is unique. Promotion is a vital component of marketing and an integral aspect of or complex social economic system. However, few of the definitions by some authors are as follows: According to George E. Belch and Michael A. Belch, (2001) Promotion is the “co-ordination of all seller-initiated efforts to get up channel of information and persuasion to sell goods and services or promote an idea” (advertising and Promotion Fifth Edition 2001)

Scoth

Ogini

(2005)

Promotion

is

the

marketer

tool

for

communicating with customers for understanding and patronage. Promotion is a short-term incentive to encourage sales of goods and services. It is indeed an organized way or plan of communicating function of marketing to customers to effect behaviour of diversified buyers-target customers and taking advantage of competition market environment. More than half of the world’s economic activities consist of exchanges between organization and most of

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these are commercial enterprises that exist to provide products or services to other firms or ultimate consumer. Thus, promotion plays a crucial part of any marketing mix in an organization, essential for the success of the overall marketing strategy. The effect of promotion is to inform and create awareness that the right product is available at the right place at the right price to satisfy consumers or customers need.

2.2

METHOD/FORMS OF PROMOTION. Most companies or organization have various ways/methods of promoting their product or services. Take for example car

companies uses variety of methods to promote their brands. Thus, there are several forms of promotion available as noted by William D. Perreault, E Jerome McCarthy, Steven Parkison and Kate Stewart (2000). They are as follows: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Personal selling . Advertising . Direct marketing or mass selling. Publicity and public relation Sales promotion.

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Each of these promotional, tools has its own unique characteristics, cost, strength and limitations. However, a marketing manager uses them in combination thereby creating a promotion mix. Below is a diagrammatic basic promotion method and strategy planning.

Target

Product

Place

Promotion

Price

Personal Selling

Mass Communication or Direct Marketing

Sales promotion

Advertising

Publicity and Public Relation

William D. Perreault, E. Jerome McCarthy, Steven Parkison & Kate S (1990). Basic promotion method and strategy planning. The ultimate objectives of promotion are to effect the buyers’ behavour. The promotion objectives are. i. Informing.

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ii. iii. iv.

Persuading Reminding. Assuring.

For a firm’s promotion to be effective, its promotion objectives must be clearing defined because the right promotion mix depends on what the firm or organization wandts to accomplish. Promotion also requires effective communication.

PERSONAL SELLING (Flexibility is its strength) Personal selling is the most effective tool at the later stages of the buying process. A form of person-to person, face-to-face

communication between seller and prospective or potential buyers so as to inform build up buyer preference, persuade them to

purchase the company’s product or services. However, it is the final element of an organizations promotional mix.

Personal selling has three distinctive qualities: i. Personal confrontation: personal selling involves an immediate and precise feedback due to interactive relationship between the seller and customer (Rention) if the feedback is unfavourable, the sales person can modify the massage accordingly.

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ii.

Cultivation: personal selling result to a customer’s relationship as well as a deep personal selling makes the buyer or customer feel or seller’s talk.

ADVERTISING Advertising is defined as any paid from of non-personal

communication of an organization, product, idea or services by an identified sponsored. Scoth Ogini (2006). The paid aspect of the

definition means that the space or time for an advertising message must be bought or paid for except PSA (public service

announcement whose advertising time or space is donated by the media. The non personal means of advertising which involves mass media e.g. T.V, radio, magazine and newspapers that passes information to a large number of persons at the same times. Due to advertising many forms and usages, it is difficult to make generation. uniqueness. i. Public presentation: its public nature legitimizes the product or services and gives a standardized offer. ii. Pervasiveness: permits repetition of a message or information many a time. Advertising allows buyers to receive and compare the messages of various competitors. For instance, large advertising Nevertheless, it has the following qualities or

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conveys positive information about the seller’s size, power and success. iii. Amplified expressiveness: advertising provides opportunities for dramatizing the company and its products through the artful use of print, sound and colour. iv. Impersonality: it is a monologue in front of, not a dialogue with the audience, hence the audience may feel obligated to pay attention or respond to it but it thus build up a long-term image for a product or trigger quick sales.

DIRECT MARKETING MASS COMMUNICATION/MASS SELLING (reaching million at a price or even free) This is communicating with large number of prospective customers at the same time. Direct marketing involves a variety of activities which includes database management, direct selling, tele-

marketing, direct response as through direct mail, the internet, website, various broadcast and print media. It is intended to acquire and retain customers, by contracting them without the use of any intermediary. Unlike the other forms of communication, it usually requires an immediate response which means that its effectiveness can be accessed quantitatively. Direct marketing is defined as “the distribution of products, information and promotional benefits to target consumers through

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interactive communication in a way that allows response to be measured. Direct marketing plays a big role in the integrated marketing communication programme of consumer-product

companies and business-to-business marketers. And it has four distinctive marketers: i. Non-public: the message can be prepared to appeal to the addressed individual. ii. Up-to-date: a massages can be prepared very quickly, building oneto-one customers relationships-scrutinized. iii. Interactive: the massage can be change depending on the person’s response.

PUBLICITY according to

AND scoth

PUBLIC ogini

RELATION (2006) means

PUBLICITY: an unpaid

publicity form of

communicating ideas, products , and services, (publicity is free) like advert, it is no personal communication to a mass audience but it is not directly paid for by the company. The information publicized is carried out through the use of newspapers, press conference, articles, films and editor who determine the nature of the massage. The information passed could be negative or positive since it is not under the control of the organization. An advantage of publicity is that it is highly credible or credibility. The stories and features are more authentic and credible to reader than advert.

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Another advantages is its low cost. Since the company does not pay for its except the information is favourable and the company now decide to develop it by appointing a public relation officers which may incur some cast.

PUBLIC RELATION: it is noteworthy to know that there is distinction between publicity and public relations. When an

organization systematically plans and distributes information to control and manage the nature and posive image of publicity it

receives. It is said to have engaged in public relation. Public relation is defined as the management function, which calculates public attitudes, identifies the policies and procedure of an individual or organization with the public interest and executives a programme of action to earn public understanding and acceptance. The purpose of public relation is to establish an maintain a positive image of the organization or firm and dramatizes a company’s product or service.

SALES PROMOTION: sales promotion could be defined as various marketing activities that add extra value, incentive to the sales force, distributors or the ultimate consumer. Thus sales promotion spark immediate interest stimulates purchase by final consumers on

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product and services in the channel. There two major categories or sales promotion, namely; i. ii. Consumer – Oriented. Trade – Oriented.

CONSUMER – ORIENTED: is targeted to the ultimate uses of a product or services, which includes couponing premiums,

consumer rebates sampling, pens and calendar and free T-shirts and cap etc. and this encourages consumers purchase items immediately and stimulates short-term sales.

TRADE – ORIENTED: sales promotion is targeted towards marketing retailers intermediaries which includes like whole sales and distributors and

promotional

merchandising

allowances, price deals, trades shows, training programmes e.t.c which are various means of promotional tools used by companies or firms to promotes their product or goods and services. (Jerome McCarthy E. and William D. Perreault) Jr (1990).

2.3

IMPORTANCE OF PROMOTION IN MARKETING STRATEGIES AND ITS ADVANTAGES. The need or importance of promotion cannot be

underestimated.

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Promotion is fourth means of marketing the others are product, place and price, an integral part of marketing process in most organization achieving or more company. efficient The and promotional effective mix helps in

communication

programme. More so, promotion contributes towards IMC (integrated marketing communication), which involves a rapidly changing environment in terms of technologies, consumers and media. The importance of promotion lies in six development in marketing world: the decline of the influence of commercial broadcast networks increase in programmes cast, education of management technologies about these marketing, influences pressure from bolster the new

combined

marketing

programmes and create good image of the organization. Infact, the rapid changes in the dynamic market environment added up to increase the importance of promotion in this twendty-first century. Professionals trained in the strategies and techniques in marketing will be in great demand in the decades ahead.

2.4

THE ROLES OF PROMOTION The role of promotion in the marketing function is to convey news, to tell customers about the benefits of the products. Promotion helps to achieve the organization’s objectives of

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targeted market strategies. Added to promotion is marketing function. Companies ranges from large multinational corporatins to small retailers increasingly rely on promotion to help them market product and services. Promotion facilitates the sales of product, goods and services. An indispensable tool for creating and exploiting differences that is for positioning, such as persuading, assuring or convincing and reminding the targeted audience that the promotional mix activities differs substantially from its competitors.

2.5

PROMOTIONAL MANAGEMENT Promotional management has to do with co-ordinating the promotional mix element in order to develop a controlled integrated programme of effective marketing communication. Promotion is much more than selling and entertainment to the hungry public. At the heart of every thing is communication. Communication must be interesting. Effective promotion must attract attention before it can be interpreted and build

constituencies etc. and with regards to this fact, there should be management. In organizing the various promotional mix, the marketer should decide on which form of promotion to use, how to combine them so as to achieve the organization’s marketing objectives. The

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manager must reason on what percentage of the budget to allocate to the choice of promotional mix decided on. In developing and managing of promotional mix, the following should be considered by: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Type of product The target marketer Buyers decision process Stage of product life cycle. Channels of distribution.

2.6

THE PROMOTIONAL PLANNING PROCESS A key success to any business function is planning. Planning is fundamental for effective promotion process or role. Promotion is not the straightforward activity that in a grossly over communicated society, the process is more complex. Setting reasonable, achievable objectives then is the first and most important step in the promotion plan. All other plans flow naturally form this producing an effective marketing plan that will give an organization competitive advantage and it requires knowledge, skill intellect and creatively and above all, time. Promotion planers must have business marketing intelligence (BMI) because it likes an organization to its external environment, thereby enabling management to

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develop informed and rational decisions about markets, competitors and strategy. BMI is defined as the collection, analysis and interpretation of relevant internal and external marketing information. It is a process that makes it possible for firms or organization to learn, understand and deal with new challenges. MBI is a future oriented activity that helps

organization cope in the market environment. It includes all ways and use information. Today marketing intelligence tends to create changes in the global market world; hence it is essential for a promotional planner in planning process. A rational marketer must design a promotional planning process, if possible may sometimes re-evaluate the planning process to measures the progress and effectiveness of the programmes develop, implemented in marketing corrections for adjustment with regards to the promotional function of marketing strategies. Promotional planners must decide on specific role, elements of

promotional mix develop strategies for each elements and plan as well as implement. In addition, the market plan of an organization should be written document that describes the overall marketing strategy to reach the target audience. Infact, promotional plan is an integral part of the marketing

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strategy. (Susan Tyler Eastman, Douglas A. Ferguson and Robert A. Klen (1999)

2.7

DEVELOPING PROMOTIONAL STRATEGIES Besides the promotional plan process, developing promotional strategies and activities play a pivotal role in market channel. These activities selling include effort advertising, e.t.c which sale is promotion, directed and

personal

towards

influencing and stimulating consumer behaviour or end-user purchases, thereby having a programme to motivate channel members. And the fundamental strategy decision is “a push versus a pull” promotional strategy. A push strategy is a programme designed and focuses manufacturer promotional efforts on the members of distribution channel itself rather than the final user using trade advertising and allowances, trade promotions, and personal selling to stock manufacturers

products and promote them to final user. The goal of lthe push strategy is the product to re-sellers or trades, selling and promoting the items through the channels of middlemen. It aims at convincing resellers that push the products to their customers and make profit on it. On the other hand, a pull strategy is to appetiz buyer or customers demand for a product or services by professional

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effort that are aimed at the ultimate customer or industrial user. The pull promotional strategies goal is to imbues or create demand of the product or service on the customer at a level and encourage them to request for the product or service form the retailers, whole sellers or distributors and the middlemen will thus be compelled to stock the products or renders services in accordance to their respective assortments. More so, push strategy uses advertising and consumer

promotion element however, the push or pull promotional strategies to be use depends on the company’s choice base on its number of factors which includes: i. ii. iii. Company’s relation with trade Promotional budget Demand for the firms product or services rendered

Company that has favourable relation or channel relationship may prefer a push strategy while that which has a favourable demand out look for product or service swill prefer a pull strategy. But combination of a push and pull strategies in more beneficial and appropriate. (George E. belch and Michael A. Belch (2001). 2.8

CONSUMER SALES PROMOTION TECHNIQUES Price deal: A temporary reduction in the price, such as
happy hour

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Loyal Reward Program: Consumers collect points, miles, or credits for purchases and redeem them for rewards. Two famous examples are
Pepsi Stuff

and

Advantage.

Cents-off deal: Offers a brand at a lower price. Price reduction may be a percentage marked on the package.

Price-pack deal: The packaging offers a consumer a certain percentage more of the product for the same price (for example, 25 percent extra).

Coupons: coupons have become a standard mechanism for sales promotions.

Loss leader:

the price of a popular product is temporarily reduced in

order to stimulate other profitable sales

Free-standing insert (FSI): A coupon booklet is inserted into the local newspaper for delivery.

On-shelf couponing: Coupons are present at the shelf where the product is available.

Checkout dispensers: On checkout the customer is given a coupon based on products purchased.

On-line couponing: Coupons are available on line. Consumers print them out and take them to the store.

Mobile couponing: Coupons are available on a mobile phone. Consumers show the offer on a mobile phone to a salesperson for redemption.

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Online interactive promotion game: Consumers play an interactive game associated with the promoted product. See an example of the
Interactive Internet Ad

for tomato ketchup.
barcode

Rebates:

Consumers are offered money back if the receipt and

are mailed to the producer.

Contests/sweepstakes/games:

The

consumer

is

automatically

entered into the event by purchasing the product.

Point-of-sale displays:o o o o

Aisle interrupter: A sign that juts into the aisle from the shelf. Dangler: A sign that sways when a consumer walks by it. Dump bin: A bin full of products dumped inside. Glorifier: A small stage that elevates a product above other products.

o o

Wobbler: A sign that jiggles. Lipstick Board: A board on which messages are written in crayon.

o o

Necker: A coupon placed on the 'neck' of a bottle. YES unit: "your extra salesperson" is a pull-out
fact sheet.

2.9

TRADE SALES PROMOTION TECHNIQUES Trade allowances: short term incentive offered to induce a retailer to stock up on a product.

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Dealer loader: An incentive given to induce a retailer to purchase and display a product.

Trade contest: A contest to reward retailers that sell the most product.

Point-of-purchase displays: Extra sales tools given to retailers to boost sales.

Training programs: dealer employees are trained in selling the product.

Push money: also known as "spiffs". An extra commission paid to retail employees to push products. Trade discounts (also called functional discounts): These are payments to distribution channel members for performing some function .

2.10 SALES PROMOTION OPPORTUNITIES AND LIMITATIONS Increase in sales by providing extra incentive to purchase. May focus on resellers (push), consumers (pull) or both.
o

o

Objectives must be consistent with promotional objectives and overall company objectives.

o

Balance between short term sales increase and long term need for desired reputation and brand image.

o o

Attract customer traffic and maintain brand/company loyalty. Reminder functions-calendars, T Shirts, match books etc.

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o o

Impulse purchases increased by displays Contests generate excitement esp. with high payoffs. Limitations Consumers may just wait for the incentives May diminish image of the firm, represent decline in the product quality.

o o

o

Reduces profit margins, customers may stock up during the promotion.

Shift focus away from the product itself to secondary factors, therefore no product 2.11 DEFINITION OF TERMS In order to ensure proper understanding of what the study entails, the following key words and concept are explained below: 1. PROMOTION: to boost the sales of product or service rendered through sales promotion, advertising, personal selling, direct marketing and publicity and public relation. 2. PROMOTION MIX: an organizations total promotional effects including personal selling, advertising etc. the promotional mix attempt to attain integrated marketing communications.

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3. PROMOTIONAL PRICING: temporarily setting the price of product below least price and sometimes even below cost price to increase sales in short term. 4. PROMOTERS: a person involved insetting up and preparing, finding customers, raising subscription for the

organization/firm. The promoters in a position of trust with regards to the new company/companies and may not make undisclosed profit or benefit at its expense. 5. MARKETING STRATEGY: a plan identifying what marketing goals and objectives will be implemented in selling its product and how the objectives can be achieved. 6. MARKETING WEBSITE: this is a site designed to handle interactive communication initiated by the company with consumers for the purpose of moving them closer to a purchase. 7. STRATEGIC PLAN: a plan describing how a firm will adapt to take advantage of opportunities in its constantly changing environment so as to maintain the firms goals and capabilities in the market sector. 8. BME (BUSINESS MARKETING INTELIGENCE): this is gathering, analyzing and interpreting relevant internal and external marketing information, it enables a firm to learn,

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understand and deal or cope with new challenges future oriented for success in global world.

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES

3.1

RESEARCH DESIGN The research method selected for the study is a combination of a survey and an industrial study. The survey research method is described hereunder that:

(i)

It is a design in which primary data is gathered from members of the sample that represents a specific population;

(ii)

It is a design in which a structure and systematic research instrument like a questionnaire or an interview schedule is utilized together with the primary data;

(iii)

It is a method in which the researcher manipulates no explanatory variables because they have already occurred and so they cannot be manipulated;

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(iv) (v)

Data are got directly from the subjects; The subjects give the data the natural settings of their

workplaces; (vi) The answers of the respondents are assumed to be

largely unaffected of the Context in which they are brought; (vii) The impacts of the confounding factors are “controlled”

statistically; and (viii) The aim of the research may span from the exploration phenomena to hypotheses testing (stone 1995). The survey research method has some merit, which are to be articulated hereunder: In the survey research method, the sample of the respondents is selected in such a way as to make for the generally low due to the utilization of big sample sizes, which results in generally low sample errors. Also the

probability sampling

techniques utilized in selecting the

samples of the respondents in a survey especially, the selecting the samples of the respondents in a survey especially, the random sampling techniques makes it possible to give every element in the population a known and chance of belonging to the sample and by so doing, sample bias is either minimised or completely eliminated (Stone 1995). Sampling even as a compromise has a lot of strength. The survey research method

38

also has the merit that data collection takes place in the “natural” settings of the workplace rather than an activated laboratory. Data is collected directly from the respondents. The advantage that the survey yields data that suggests new hypothesis is very illuminating. There is also the merit that a set of systematic data collection instruments such as

questionnaire interview schedules and observation gadgets can either be used alone or in conjunction with other instruments (Stone, 1995).

3.2

SAMPLING Spiegel (1992) observes that sampling theory is a study of the relationship existing between a population or universe and the samples drawn from it. The population in this study is the entire staff of the firm. In order to make conclusions of sample theory and statistical references to be valid, a sample must be selected as to be representative of the population (Spiegel, 1992 ). One way

in which a representative sample may be got, is by the process of stratified random sampling. In this research work, the technique of simple random sampling is used to select the sample of 100 respondents from a total sample size of 200.

39

The list of all the senior staff in the two firms in the aviation industry is got from the personnel department of the firms in the industry. The numbers are written on a piece of paper, put in a basket and the papers are folded to cover the numbers and one of the pieces of paper is selected at a time without replacing it and any name corresponding to the number becomes a number of the sample. This method of sampling without replacement is done until the sample of 100 respondents per firm is got.

3.3

DATA COLLECTION As earlier stated, the primary data collection instrument in this study was the questionnaire. In the questionnaire method of primary data collection, a heavy dependence was placed on verbal reports from the subjects to get information on the role of packaging as a management strategy. The questionnaire had a lot of merits. It needed less skill to administer. Further, Questionnaire can be administered to a big number of individuals at the same time. Also with a specific research budget, it was usually possible to cover a brooder area and to get information from more subjects by a questionnaire. The impersonal nature of a questionnaire, its structure and standardized wording, its order of question, its

40

standardized instructions for recording answers might make one to conclude that if offers some uniformity from one measurement occasion to another (Selltiz et al, 1976).

Another merit of questionnaire was that subjects may have a bigger confidence in their anonymity, and thus feel freer to express views they feel might be disapproved-Another

attribute of the questionnaire that is sometimes, through not always desirable is that it might place less pressure on the subjects for immediate response (Selltiz et al, 1976).The questionnaire also has some demerits. It has been estimated that for purpose of giving dependable responses to a questionnaire, one respondents must be considerable

educated, Thus one of the demerits of the usual questionnaire is that it is appropriate only for with a considerable amount of education. There is also the demerit that subject may be reluctant and unable to report on the particular subject matter. Also, if a subject misinterprets a question or give his or her answer in a batting manner, there is often a little that can be done to ameliorate the situation. In a questionnaire, the information the researcher gets is limited to the fixed alternative answer format, when a specific answer is not available, it can lead to errors (Selltiz, 1976).

41

There is also limitation of memory in reporting on past facts. There is also a problem beyond memory. Usually, the cause of a failure to report past facts is not forgetting in the usual sense of the word but rather, it may be motivational. Also the researcher is not a policeman that can compel answers. That is, the information may not be readily accessible to the subject and thus the subject may be reluctant to put forth enough alternative information that he or she is only barely conscious of (Selltiz et al, 1996). In this research project a structured and undisguised

questionnaire is utilised which is made up of two parts namely, the personal data section and the section on the data on the actual subject matter of the work. The questionnaire is undisguised in the sense that the purpose of the data collection which is to collect primary data for writing up the researcher’s HND project is made known to the 200

respondents. The questionnaire is structured in the sense that the questions are logically sequenced and are to be asked to the respondents in the same manner and no follow up questions are to be allow. Some of the questions are of the fixed alternative answer format type. Ten (10) of the questions have yes or no answers, Ten (10) of the questions have alternative answers for the respondents to tick.

42

The structured questionnaire has the merit that it yields data that is easier to analyse than Also data the produced structured by an

unstructured

questionnaire.

nature

diminishes both researchers and research instrument biases. It however has the demerit that the rigidity of the research instrument diminishes the amount of information that could be got. The method of communication of the research instrument is by means of the personal interview. The method has the merit that it produces a better sample of the population than either mail or the telephone methods. It also has the merit that it gives a very high completion and response rates. It has the merit that the interview has a bigger sensitivity

misunderstandings by the respondents and gives a chance for clarification of misunderstood questions. It has the merit that it is a very feasible method (Selltiz et al, 1976). The personal interview method has the demerit that it is more costly than the mail or the telephone methods of communication of a questionnaire.

3.4

FIELD WORK The researcher and three other field data collectors did the fieldwork.

43

The field data collectors were other classmates also offering the part-time HND program, who have also offered Research Methodology. They were to be trained by the researchers on how to gain entry , greet the respondents and , how to tick the questionnaire correctly, and honestly.

3.5

DESCRIPTION TOOLS The data

OF

DATA

PRESENTATION

AND

ANALYSIS

presentation

tools

were

simple

bar

charts,

histograms, and pictorial tables. The most important parts of a table include; (a) (b) (c) Table numbers Title of the table Caption

Stub or the designation of the rows and columns The body of the table. The head note or prefatory note or explanatory just before the title; Foot note, which is an explanation not at the end of the page (h) source note, which refers to the literally or scientific source of the table(Mills and Walter 1995) Anyiwe (1994) has observed that a table has the following merits over a prose information that;

44

A table ensure an easy location of the required figures; Comparisons are easily made utilizing a table than a prose information; (k) Patterns or trends within the figures which cannot be visualised in the prose information can be revealed and better depicted by a table; and A table is more concise and takes up a less space than a prose formation: The data is to be analysed by means of percentage, cross tabulation and the chi square test of population proportions for testing the two hypotheses. Percentages express the ratio of two sets of data to a common base of 100. Cross tabulation involves utilising a table to display two or more variables. The chi square test of population of the respondents who said yes to a particular yes or no question is given at 5% level of significance to a particular (Spiegel, 1992)

45

It is in this respect that this study finds it worthwhile to address the following questions using time series data for a 31-year period, 19702000: (a) what is the nature of relationship between poverty, unemployment and growth in Nigeria? (b) what steps should be taken to ensure that growth is such that brings about decrease in unemployment and poverty in Nigeria?

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 INTRODUCTION
In the previous chapter, the research methods and procedures have been handled. In this chapter the data presentation and analysis are to be done. The data is to be presented by means of tables, two simple bar charts, one histogram and one pie chart to make it amenable for further analysis. By analysis is meant the act of noting relationship and aggregating the set of variables with similar

attributes and also breaking the unit of their components (Mills and Walters 1995). In this research work, the research accepts the contention of Podsakoff and Dalton (1995) that the factual information from the

46

data can be used as a basis for reasoning, calculation and discussion. Apart from the heading above, the other headings in this chapter includes: Data Presentation, Percentage analysis Cross-tabulated analysis Hypothesis testing

4.2 DATA PRESENTATION
TABLE1 THE SUMMARY OF THE PERSONAL DATA OF THE RESPONDENTS

47

1

SEX Male Female Total Marital Status Married Single Total AGE 21-30 years 31-40 years 41-50 years 51-60 years Total HIGHER EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION DIPLOMA OND HND FIRST DEGREE SECOND DEGREE NIM TOTAL

FREQUENCY 150 50 200 130 70 200 90 90 10 10 200 Angles suspended in degree

2

3

4

10 30 80 20 40 20 200

18 54 144 36 32 36 360

The marital statuses of the 200 respondents it is found that 130 of them are married while 70 of them are single. For the ages of the

200 respondents they are 21-30 years, 31-40 years, 51-60 years with frequency of 90 and 10 respectively. For the highest educational qualification of the 200 respondents they are diploma, OND, HND, First Degree, Second Degree, NIM. and they have frequencies of 10, 30, 80, 20, 40 and 20 respectively.

48

Figure 4.1 below shows the simple bar chart of the data on the sex of the respondents.

FIGURE 4.1: THE SIMPLE BAR CHART OF THE DATA ON THE SEX OF THE RESPONDENTS GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS
16014012010080 60 40 20 0

MAIL FEMALE

TABLE 2.

GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS

Frequency percentage Valid Cumulative Percent Percent MAIL 150 75.0 75.0 75.0 FEMALE 50 25.0 25.0 100.0 Total 200 100.0 100.0

Source: from data in table 1 (generated from SPSS)

49

From figure 4.1 above, it is shown that male respondents have the modal frequency of 150 of the 200 respondents while the female respondents have the frequency of 50 of them. Figure 4.2 below shows the simple bar chart of the data on the marital statuses of the respondents. FIGURE 4.2: THE SIMPLE BAR CHART OF THE DATA ON THE MARITAL STATUSES OF THE RESPONDENTS
140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

MARRIED SINGLE

TABLE 3. Status

MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS

frequency Percentage Valid Cumulative Percent Percent MARRIED 130 65.0 65.0 65.0 SINGLE 70 35.0 35.0 100.0 Total 200 100.0 100.0

From figure 4.2 above, it is shown that the married respondents have the modal frequency of 130 out of the 200 respondents while the single respondents have the frequency of 70 of them.

50

FIGURE 4.3: THE HISTOGRAM OF THE DATA ON THE AGES OF THE RESPONDENTS. AGES OF THE RESPONDENTS
100 20 40 60 80

Std. Dev = 78 Mean = 1.7 N = 200.00 2.0 3.0 4.0

1.0

TABLE 4. AGES OF THE RESPONDENTS Categories Frequency Percentage 21 TO 30 YEARS 90 45.0 Valid Percentage 45.0 45.0 5.0 5.0 100.0
Cumulative Percent

0

45.0 90.0 95.0 100.0

31 TO 40 90 45.0 YEARS 41 TO 50 10 5.0 YEARS 51 TO 60 10 5.0 YEARS SOURCE: From the data in Table 1. Total 200 100.0

From figure 4.3 above, it is shown that the age classes limit are 20.5-30.5 years, 30.5-40.5 years, 40.5-50.5 years and 50.5-60.5 years with frequencies of 90, 90, 10, 51

and 10 out of 200 respectively. This shows that this is bimodal distribution as the age classes of 20.5-30.5 years and 30. 5-40.5 years have a frequency of 10. Figure 4.4 below shows the pie chart of the data on the highest educational qualifications of the 200 respondents. FIG.4.4 THE PIE CHART OF THE DATA ON THE HIGHEST EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS OF THE 200 RESPONDENTS

OND 10% 30% SECOND DEGREE 20% 40% 80% SECOND DEGREE 20%

DIPLOMA
FIRST DEGREE OND

HND

52

TABLE 5. EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS Educational level DIPLOMA OND HND FIRST DEGREE SECOND DEGREE NIM Total Frequency 10 30 80 20 40 20 200 Percentage 5.0 15.0 40.0 10.0 20.0 10.0 100.0 Valid Percentage 5.0 15.0 40.0 10.0 20.0 10.0 100.0 Cumulative Percentage 5.0 20.0 60.0 70.0 90.0 100.0

SOURCE: from the data in table 1.

From figure 4.4 above, the Highest Educational Qualifications are Diploma, O.N.D, First Degree, Second Degree and NIM and the

53

sustained angles in degree is equal to 180, 540, 1440, 360, 720 and 360 and respectively at the center of the circle.

4.3 CROSS-TABULATED ANALYSIS Table bellows show the analysis of the statuses of the 200 respondents

TABLE 6.

CROSS- TABULATION 1
DOES SALES PROMOTION INCLUDES THOSE MARKETING ACTIVITIES OTHER THAN PERSONAL SELLING?

YES

NO

DON’T KNOW

NO ANSWER

2 2 7 9

Total

DIPLOMA OND HND FIRST DEGREE SECOND DEGREE NIM Total

6 19 14 40 21 100

2 31 10 43

10 19 91 19

2 39 39

18

40 21 200

39

The above table shows that the total of 100 respondents (out of 200 said YES. this proved that sales promotion does not other marketing activities other than personal selling.
TABLE 7. Cross-tabulation 2
THE ROLE OF THE SALES PROMOTION IS TO COMMUNICATE WITH INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS OR ORGANISATIONS…….

39

YES

DIPLOMA OND HND FIRST DEGREE SECOND DEGREE NIM Total

10

NO

DON’T KNOW

NO Total ANSWER 10
19 91 9 19 40 21 200

5414
40 21 104

19 30 10 47

40

47

9

The above table indicates that the role of the sales promotion is to communicate with individuals, group or organizations to directly or indirectly facilitate exchanges by informing and persuading one or more audiences to accept an organisation’s products. 104 respondents out of 200 said yes. While 40 did not agree with the fact. 4.4 HYPOTHESIS TESTING In attempting to arrive at decisions about the population, on the basis of sample information it is necessary to make assumptions or guesses about the population parameter involved. Such an assumption is called statistical hypothesis, which may or may not be true. The procedure, which enables the researcher to design on the basis, is sample regards whether a hypothesis is true or not is called test of hypothesis or test of significance. The null hypothesis asserts that there is no significant difference between the statistics and the population parameters and what ever is observed difference is there, is merely due to fluctuations in sampling from the same population. Null hypothesis is thereby denoted by the symbol H0. Any hypothesis, which contradicts the H0, is called an alternate hypothesis and is denoted by the symbol H1.

55

The researcher used chi-square analysis.

CHI-SQUARE TEST The c is one of the simplest and most widely used non-parametric test in statistical work. It makes no assumptions about the population being sampled. The quantity c describes the magnitude of discrepancy between theory and observation i.e. with the help of c test we can know whether a given discrepancy between theory and observation can be attributed to chance or whether it results from the inadequacy of the theory to fit the observed facts. If c is zero, it means that the observed and expected frequencies completely coincide. The greater the value of c the greater will be the discrepancy between observed and expected frequencies. The formula for computing chi-square is – c =∑ (O-E)2/E Where,O=Observed frequency E=Expected or theoretical frequency 4.5 SOFTWARE USED FOR DATA ANALYSIS: For the data analysis and the interpretation, the researcher has adopted advanced version of SPSS (statistical package for social science). This application software has facilitated the researcher to construct the frequency table, various types of charts and to find out the valid percentage responses from the sample. By this

56

automated data analysis it has minimized the researcher’s time constraints and reduced human error and give also accurate outlay of information.

Chi-Square Test (1)
DOES SALES PROMOTION INCLUDES THOSE MARKETING ACTIVITIES OTHER THAN PERSONAL SELLING?

YES NO DON’T KNOW NO ANSWER Total

Observed Expected F F 100 50.0 43 50.0 39 18 200 50.0 50.0

Residual 50.0 -7.0 -11.0 -32.0

Decision Accept Reject Reject Reject

Chi-Square Test (2)
THE ROLE OF THE SALES PROMOTION IS TO COMMUNICATE WITH INDIVIDUAL, GROUPS OR ORGANISATIONS TO DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY FACILITATE EXCHANGES BY INFORMING AND PERSUADING ONE OR MORE AUDIENCE TO ACCEPT AN ORGANISTION’S PRODUCTS.

YES NO DON’T KNOW NO ANSWER Total

Observed F 104 40 47 9 200

Expected F 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0

Residual 54.0 -10.0 -3.0 -41.0

Decision Accept Rejected Rejected Rejected

Residuals The observed value of the dependent variable minus the value predicated by the regression equation, for each case. Large

57

absolute values for the residuals indicate that the observed values are very different from the predicted values.
SOURCE: From the questionnaires administered.

The formulated hypothesis that is subject to statistical test is at 5% level of significance in testing hypothesis, the calculated value of the test statistics is usually compared with tables of value. The critical values of the test statistics serve as criterion value. It afforded the basis for rejecting the null hypothesis is a function of the value of the tested statistic. Reject the null hypothesis if the calculated value of the test statistic is greater than the critical value. Accept the null hypothesis if the calculated value of the test statistic is less than the critical value. TEST STATISTICS

Chi-Square df

DOES SALES PROMOTION INCLUDES THOSE MARKETING ACTIVITIES OTHER THAN PERSONAL SELLING? 73.880 3

THE ROLE OF THE SALES PROMOTION IS TO COMMUNICATE WITH INDIVIDUAL, GROUPS OR ORGANISATIONS TO DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY FACILITATE
EXCHANGES BY INFORMING AND PERSUADING ONE OR MORE AUDIENCE TO ACCEPT AN ORGANISTION’S PRODUCTS.

94.120 3

note: df = degree of freedom

58

4.6 SUMMARY OF RESULT
Level of significance……….0.05 Critical value………………………43.0 Calculated value……………………73.880 From the above analysis, it could be seen that in the first test, does sales promotion includes those marketing activities other than personal selling, the calculated value is greater than the critical value so we reject the hypothesis. In the second test which state that the role of the sales promotion is to communicate with individual, groups or organisations to directly or indirectly facilitate exchanges by informing and persuading one or more audience to accept an organistion’s products , the level of significance is 0.05, the critical value is 44 while the calculated value from the test statistics table is 94.120. Looking the data above, it shows very clear that the calculated value is more greater than the critical value so we reject the hypothesis.

59

CHAPTER FIVE

FINDINGS, SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

5.1

FINDINGS Through this research, the researcher has been able to discover and established the fact that: Businesses can target sales promotions at three different

audiences: consumers, resellers, and the company's own sales

60

force. Sales promotion acts as a competitive weapon by providing an extra incentive for the target audience to purchase or support one brand over another. It is particularly effective in spurring product trial and unplanned purchases. Most marketers believe that a given product or service has an established perceived price or value, and they use sales promotion to change this price-value relationship by increasing the value and/or lowering the price. Compared to the other components of the marketing mix

(advertising, publicity, and personal selling), sales promotion usually operates on a shorter time line, uses a more rational appeal, returns a tangible or real value, fosters an immediate sale, and contributes highly to profitability. 5.2 SUMMARY Although sales promotion is an important strategy for producing quick, short-term, positive results, it is not a cure for a bad product, poor advertising, or an inferior sales team. After a consumer uses a coupon for the initial purchase of a product, the product must then take over and convince them to become repeat buyers. In addition, sales promotion activities may bring several negative consequences, including "clutter" due to the number of competitive promotions. New approaches are promptly cloned by competitors, as each marketer tries to be more creative, more attention getting, or more effective in attracting the attention of consumers and the trade.

61

Finally, consumers and resellers have learned how to milk the sales promotion game. Consumers may wait to buy certain items knowing that prices will eventually be reduced, for example, while resellers have become experts at negotiating deals and manipulating competitors against one another. 5.3 CONCLUSION Sales Promotion Opportunities and Limitations
o

Increase in sales by providing extra incentive to purchase. May focus on resellers (push), consumers (pull) or both. Objectives must be consistent with promotional objectives and overall company objectives. Balance between short term sales increase and long term need for desired reputation and brand image.

o

o

o o o o o o

Attract customer traffic and maintain brand/company loyalty. Reminder functions-calendars, T Shirts, match books etc. Impulse purchases increased by displays Contests generate excitement esp. with high payoffs. Consumers may just wait for the incentives May diminish image of the firm, represent decline in the product quality.

o

Reduces profit margins, customers may stock up during the promotion.

o

Shift focus away from the product itself to secondary factors, therefore no product differential advantage.

62

REFFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY Agbadudu, A.B. (1994). Statistics for Business and the Social Science Benin City. Uri Publishing Limited. Agenlejika, G. (1990). “Auditors and section 359 (2) of the companies and Allied Matters Decree (1990)”, The Nigerian Accountant, Volume xxiii, number 4, p-15. Alabi, S.A. (1990).”Auditing and Appraisal of oil and Gas Reserves.”

63

Paper presented in the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria Silver Jubilee Seminar on Accounting in the oil industry, November 8 & 9, pp 1-10. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) (1981). Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS), no. 39: Audit Sampling New York: AICPA AICPA (1983). Statement on Auditing Standards. No. 47: Risk and Materially in conducting an Audit. New York; AICPA AICPA (1988). Statement of Auditing Standards, no. 55: Consideration of the Internal Control Structure in Financial Statement Audit. New York; AICPA

Anthony, R.N. (1991). Planning and Control Systems: a Framework for Analysis. Harvard: Division of research, Harvard Business School.

Ouchi, W.G. (1978).” The Transmission of control through Organizational Hierarchy”, Academy off Management of Management Journal, Volume 21, 173-192.

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Paula, F.C. and Attwood, F.A. (1993). Auditing Principle and Practices. London: Pitman

Podsakoff, P.M., and Dalton, D.R. (1987). “Research mythology in Organizational Studies”, Journal of Management. Volume 13, Number 2,419-441.

Selltiz, C., and Wrightsman, L.S., and Croh, S.W. (1976). Research Methods on small Relations New Yok: Rinehart and Winston. Spiegel, M.R. (1992) Schaums Outline of theory and problems of Statistics in S.R. Units. New York: McGraw-Hill book company Stone, E,. (1995(. Research Mathology on organizational Behavior Santa Monca, California: Good Year Publishing Company Incorporated. Yomere, GO., and Algbonifoh, B.A. (1999). Research Methology in social sciences and Education. Benin City; Uniben press.

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http://www.bizcovering.com/Business-and-Society/Causes-ofUnemployment.42495 <a href="http://family.jrank.org/pages/1724/UnemploymentConsequences-Unemployment.html">Unemployment - Consequences Of Unemployment</a>

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