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The Effect of Moisture on Heating Values

Definitions for heating value of a biomass The heating value of any fuel is the energy released per unit mass or per unit volume of the fuel when the fuel is completely burned (ANSI/ASABE S593.1 2011). The term calorific value is synonymous to the heating value. Typical units for expressing calorific or heating value are MJ/kg in SI units or Btu/lb in English units. The heating value of a fuel depends on the assumption made on the condition of water molecules in the final combustion products. The higher heating value (HHV) refers to a condition in which the water is condensed out of the combustion products. Because of this condensation all of the heating value of the fuel including sensible heat and latent heat are accounted for. The lower heating value (LHV), on the other hand refers to the condition in which water in the final combustion products remains as vapor (or steam); i.e. the steam is not condensed into liquid water and thus the latent heat is not accounted for. The term net heating value (NHV) refers to LHV (ANSI/ASABE S593.1 2011). The term gross heating value (GHV) refers to HHV. Determination of heating value of a biomass Heating value of a biomass is measured experimentally in terms of the high heating value (HHV). The standard method uses a device called bomb calorimeter. The device burns a small mass of biomass in the presence of oxygen inside a sealed container (or bomb). The heat released from combustion is transferred to a mass of fluid (air or water) that surrounds the container. The heating value is calculated from the product of mass of fluid x specific heat of fluid x net temperature increase. The calculated heating value must be corrected for heat losses to the mass of container, heat conduction through the container wall, and heat losses to the surrounding of the device. In modern calorimeters the corrections are made automatically using sensors and controllers. The resulting measured heating value is considered gross heating value (high heating value) at constant volume because the biomass combustion in the container has taken place inside the fixed volume of the container. The resulting gross heating value can be expressed based on dry mass content of the sample biomass, HHV (Eq. 1) HHVd  1 M where HHVd is the gross heating value of the biomass in MJ/kg of bone dry biomass, HHV is the gross heating value determined by the calorimeter. M is the moisture content of the biomass in decimal wet mass fraction. The high heating value can be estimated from the composition of the fuel (Gaur and Reed 1995), HHVd  0.35 X C  1.18 X H  0.10 X S  0.02 X N  0.10 X O  0.02 X ash (Eq. 2) where X is the mass fractions (percent mass dry basis) for Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Sulfur (S), Nitrogen (N), Oxygen (O), and ash content (ash). The unit of HHV in Equation 2 is in

Biomass Energy Data Book -- 2011 --

443M M is the wet basis moisture content (mass fraction decimal). Sulfur increase the heating value whereas the elements Nitrogen. For a moist fuel. High and low heating value at constant pressure In practice.447 M where LHV is the gross (or lower) heating value MJ/kg. Equation 2 shows that the elements Carbon. M is the wet basis moisture content (mass fraction decimal). the heating value decreases because a portion of the combustion heat is used up to evaporate moisture in the biomass and this evaporated moisture has not been condensed to return the heat back to the system. An estimate of the LHV or net heating value (NHV) is obtained from the measured HHV by subtracting the heat of vaporization of water in the products. Example of using equations 1-5 The high heating values of two biomass species poplar and stover along with their ultimate analysis were measured. (Eq. The moisture content of the samples was 35% wet mass basis.212 X H  0.0008 X O  X N  where HHVp is the high heating value at constant pressure for dry biomass. In other words during combustion the volume expands but the pressure in the combustion zone does not change much. XH. XO.ornl. 4) HHVp  HHV  . Net heating value of biomass The HHV or GHV for woody biomass (including bark) that is determined experimentally is around 20 MJ/kg (8600 Btu/ lb) dry mass basis and for herbaceous biomass it is around 18.447 is the latent heat of vaporization of water in MJ/kg at 25oC.0  M   2. Oxygen.w is the net heating value of biomass at constant pressure per unit of wet biomass. The table below lists the measured data.8 MJ/kg (8080 Btu/ lb) dry mass basis (Oberberger and Thek 2010). For these cases equation 3 developed from constant volume measurement is converted to heating value at constant pressure according to equation 4. and ash suppress the heating value. (Eq. Hydrogen. 5) LHVp .MJ/kg dry mass.http://cta. Biomass Energy Data Book -. the net heating value at constant pressure is calculated from (Eq. 3) LHV  HHV 1  M   2.2011 -. For wet biomass. the gases evolving from combustion of a biomass are expanded without much constraints. The constant 2. A more accurate estimate of the net heating value from equation 3 can be obtained by including the heat released by the combustion of the hydrogen content of the biomass. This situation is often present in a boiler combustion chamber with unrestricted exhaust system. LHVp. and XN are the mass fraction (percent dry mass) of the biomass.w  HHVp 1.

10( 0.26 )  0.75 0.00 0. Elements.02 X ash Substituting from compositions listed in the table above for poplar HHVd  0.00 )  0.35 )  10.212 X H  0. for poplar.0008 X O  X N  Substituting from the table above for HHVd (for constant volume) and .10( 0.64 44. HHVd  0.38 HHVd S (%) (MJ/kg) 0.35 )  0. HHVp  ( 20.35( 44.447( 0.55 N (%) 0.35 X C  1.8 MJ/kg The calculated HHVd for both species are slightly higher than measured HHVd in the table above.000841.2011 -.00 )  0. Estimation of LHV (constant volume) Equation 3 is used to calculate low heating value LHV  HHVd 1  M   2.55 )  0.64 )  1.26 )  0.3 MJ/kg and for stover.27 C (%) 51.02 X N  0.ornl.00   19.10 X O  0.8 )  0.18 X H  0.4 MJ/kg Calculations for of HHVp (constant pressure) Equation 3 is used to calculate low heating value (or net calorific value) at constant pressure HHVp  HHVd  0.8 )1  0.33 Poplar Stover Estimation of HHVd (constant volume) Equation 2 is used to calculate high heating value HHVd  0.45 39.45 )  0.7 MJ/kg and for stover.212( 6. and High Heating Value of Biomass M (%) Ash (%) 35 0.35 )  12.447 M Substituting for HHV and moisture content.18( 5.35( 51.01 )  0.00 20.Measured Moisture.65 )  21.80 )  1.18( 6.447( 0. LHV  ( 17.26 5.35 O (%) 41.45  0.65 35 11.38 )  0. for poplar.10( 39.10( 41.http://cta.35   2.3 )1  0.35   2.80 H (%) 6.02( 11. LHV  ( 20.4 MJ/kg Biomass Energy Data Book -.02( 0.01 17.10 X S  0.27 )  17.02( 0.02( 0.

4 30 12.3 20 15.1 1.6 MJ/kg The table below shows the application of equation 5 to calculate the net heating value of biomass at various levels of moisture content.000839.4 )1  0.0 3. for poplar.3 14.6 40 50 60 70 80 10.38   16.5 6.ornl.35 )  .and for stover.9 10.1 10 17. Effect of Moisture Content on the Net Heating Value of Biomass at Constant Pressure Moisture content percent wet mass basis Biomass Poplar Stover 0 19. Increasing moisture content diminished the net heat value of biomass to the point that at slightly higher than 80% moisture content.35 )  0.35   2.1 1. LHV  ( 16. LHV  ( 19.8 MJ/kg and for stover.1 )1  0.http://cta.3 )  0.443M Substituting for HHVp and moisture content. much of the heat content of the biomass is used up to evaporate its moisture.443( 0.1 MJ/kg Calculations for of LHVp (constant pressure) Equation 5 is used to calculate low heating value.4 16.55  0. LHVp  HHVp 1.443( 0.212( 5.8 5.3 Biomass Energy Data Book -.3 4.35   2.9 8. HHVp  ( 17.35 )  11.0  M   2.2011 -.7 6.7 8.1 12.

gov/bedb .ornl. NREL/TB433-7965. Washington. Earthsacn. SIS-CENéTS14918:2005. TAPPI Gross heating value of black liquor. USA. National Renewable laboratory. 2010. American Society for Agricultural & Biological Engineers.astm. ASTM E870 . Earthscan LLC.http://cta.htm Gaur. http://www. DE95009212. St. 2011.19836&_dad=portal&_sc hema=PORTAL Sjaak. Reed. September 2011. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Thek. Joseph.tappi. 1995. Golden Colorado. Biomass Energy Data Book -. S. Solid biofuels. The handbook of biomass combustion and -. DC. I. DC. and G. 2008. Van Loo.. An atlas of thermal data for biomass and other fuels. T.List and Definition of Symbols Symbol LHV HHV GHV NHV HHVp HHVd M X Subscripts ash C d H N O p w Units Btu °C MJ kg lb Definition Lower heating value Higher heating value Gross heating value Net heating value High heating value at constant pressure Bone dry gross heating value of the biomass Moisture content wet mass basis Mass fraction percent dry mass basis Ash Carbon Dry mass basis Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Constant pressure Moist biomass British thermal unit Degrees Celsius Mega (106) Joule (SI unit) Kilogram Pound mass References ASABE Standards.biomassenergycentre. Washington. MI: IEA UC Category: 1310. The Pellet Handbook.aspx Written by Shahab Sokhansanj.82(2006) Standard Test Methods for Analysis of Wood Fuels. http://www. Jaap Koppejan. Method of determination of calorific value. Test Method T 684 om11http://www.