52 views

Uploaded by Andrea Branch

save

- VBU Manual U-37 Chapter 1-13.pdf
- Blr AH Perf Indices
- Boiler Fundamentals
- Cat C18 ACERT Spec Sheets - Commercial C18 ACERT marine propulsion engine specifications.pdf
- combustion
- Secador Hibrido Para Pescado
- Moisture in Coal
- Valenzuela CFEI Layout1
- Biomass
- Maritime Fuel
- Dashlari ER Calc 18-12-2012
- Inc Inert Or Project Final
- THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF DOWNDRAFT GASIFIERS INTEGRATED WITH GAS TURBINE, SPARK AND COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINES FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION
- A short analysis of chemical bonds.
- Scientific American Meet the Microbes Eating the Gulf Oil Spill
- GT2
- Water Treatment
- When Chemical Reactors Were Admitted And Earlier Roots of Chemical Engineering
- 05 Ofp Crude Field Proc
- monitoring steam efficiency
- monitoring steam efficiency
- Introduction to Materials Handling.pdf
- Ev Hammer Impact Crusher Low Res
- the power of knowledge
- Pacific-Gas-and-Electric-Co-Residential-Care-Program-Service
- tmpE4C.tmp
- Rhodes Scholarship Application.pdf
- Data 2
- Enel Insieme 2012 Nr. 10
- 2015sw4_cellularglass
- SKD 100 Leaflet, Issue 4
- Tesina Di Educazione Tecnica_Fienili Ad Energia Solare in Israele
- global warming holiday homework.pptx
- extintores.ppt
- (132-270)TelephoneGuide
- Navabharat Ventures Ltd
- Appareillage Industriel
- Studies of some high solidity symmetrical and unsymmetrical blade H-Darrieus rotors with respect to starting characteristics, dynamic performances and flow physics in low wind streams.pdf
- Ensayo de Una Turbina Pelton
- LMZ Reference
- Neural Network Based Statcom for Grid Connected Wind Generator
- Project report- THDCIL
- t-011_p6-9
- tcd_2013_genset_en
- higiene.pptx
- Manual Practicas Maquinas Ia (1) (1)
- 142_serie3_f1b
- cf100.pdf
- Medida de Energia en Condiciones de Distorsion y Deseq
- chemistryreflection
- Comment ça marche _ les ponts thermiques - Règles et normes - LeMoniteur.fr
- 01 Intro&Theory Gt
- 17.List the Starting Procedure That You Are Doing to Put the Lubricating Oil and Fuel Oil Purifier Into Service. Include All the Checks You Are Making

You are on page 1of 5

Definitions for heating value of a biomass The heating value of any fuel is the energy released per unit mass or per unit volume of the fuel when the fuel is completely burned (ANSI/ASABE S593.1 2011). The term calorific value is synonymous to the heating value. Typical units for expressing calorific or heating value are MJ/kg in SI units or Btu/lb in English units. The heating value of a fuel depends on the assumption made on the condition of water molecules in the final combustion products. The higher heating value (HHV) refers to a condition in which the water is condensed out of the combustion products. Because of this condensation all of the heating value of the fuel including sensible heat and latent heat are accounted for. The lower heating value (LHV), on the other hand refers to the condition in which water in the final combustion products remains as vapor (or steam); i.e. the steam is not condensed into liquid water and thus the latent heat is not accounted for. The term net heating value (NHV) refers to LHV (ANSI/ASABE S593.1 2011). The term gross heating value (GHV) refers to HHV. Determination of heating value of a biomass Heating value of a biomass is measured experimentally in terms of the high heating value (HHV). The standard method uses a device called bomb calorimeter. The device burns a small mass of biomass in the presence of oxygen inside a sealed container (or bomb). The heat released from combustion is transferred to a mass of fluid (air or water) that surrounds the container. The heating value is calculated from the product of mass of fluid x specific heat of fluid x net temperature increase. The calculated heating value must be corrected for heat losses to the mass of container, heat conduction through the container wall, and heat losses to the surrounding of the device. In modern calorimeters the corrections are made automatically using sensors and controllers. The resulting measured heating value is considered gross heating value (high heating value) at constant volume because the biomass combustion in the container has taken place inside the fixed volume of the container. The resulting gross heating value can be expressed based on dry mass content of the sample biomass, HHV (Eq. 1) HHVd 1 M where HHVd is the gross heating value of the biomass in MJ/kg of bone dry biomass, HHV is the gross heating value determined by the calorimeter. M is the moisture content of the biomass in decimal wet mass fraction. The high heating value can be estimated from the composition of the fuel (Gaur and Reed 1995), HHVd 0.35 X C 1.18 X H 0.10 X S 0.02 X N 0.10 X O 0.02 X ash (Eq. 2) where X is the mass fractions (percent mass dry basis) for Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Sulfur (S), Nitrogen (N), Oxygen (O), and ash content (ash). The unit of HHV in Equation 2 is in

Biomass Energy Data Book -- 2011 -- http://cta.ornl.gov/bedb

443M M is the wet basis moisture content (mass fraction decimal). Sulfur increase the heating value whereas the elements Nitrogen. For a moist fuel. High and low heating value at constant pressure In practice.447 M where LHV is the gross (or lower) heating value MJ/kg. Equation 2 shows that the elements Carbon. M is the wet basis moisture content (mass fraction decimal). the heating value decreases because a portion of the combustion heat is used up to evaporate moisture in the biomass and this evaporated moisture has not been condensed to return the heat back to the system. An estimate of the LHV or net heating value (NHV) is obtained from the measured HHV by subtracting the heat of vaporization of water in the products. Example of using equations 1-5 The high heating values of two biomass species poplar and stover along with their ultimate analysis were measured. (Eq. The moisture content of the samples was 35% wet mass basis.212 X H 0.0008 X O X N where HHVp is the high heating value at constant pressure for dry biomass. In other words during combustion the volume expands but the pressure in the combustion zone does not change much. XH. XO.ornl. 4) HHVp HHV 0.gov/bedb . Net heating value of biomass The HHV or GHV for woody biomass (including bark) that is determined experimentally is around 20 MJ/kg (8600 Btu/ lb) dry mass basis and for herbaceous biomass it is around 18.447 is the latent heat of vaporization of water in MJ/kg at 25oC.0 M 2. Oxygen.w is the net heating value of biomass at constant pressure per unit of wet biomass. The table below lists the measured data.8 MJ/kg (8080 Btu/ lb) dry mass basis (Oberberger and Thek 2010). For these cases equation 3 developed from constant volume measurement is converted to heating value at constant pressure according to equation 4. and ash suppress the heating value. (Eq. Hydrogen. 5) LHVp .MJ/kg dry mass.http://cta. Biomass Energy Data Book -. the net heating value at constant pressure is calculated from (Eq. 3) LHV HHV 1 M 2.2011 -. For wet biomass. the gases evolving from combustion of a biomass are expanded without much constraints. The constant 2. A more accurate estimate of the net heating value from equation 3 can be obtained by including the heat released by the combustion of the hydrogen content of the biomass. This situation is often present in a boiler combustion chamber with unrestricted exhaust system. LHVp. and XN are the mass fraction (percent dry mass) of the biomass.w HHVp 1.

10( 0.26 ) 0.75 0.00 0. Elements.02 X ash Substituting from compositions listed in the table above for poplar HHVd 0.00 ) 0.35 ) 10.212 X H 0. for poplar.0008 X O X N Substituting from the table above for HHVd (for constant volume) and concentrations.gov/bedb .10( 0.64 44. HHVd 0.38 HHVd S (%) (MJ/kg) 0.35 ) 0. HHVp ( 20.35( 44.447( 0.55 N (%) 0.35 X C 1.8 MJ/kg The calculated HHVd for both species are slightly higher than measured HHVd in the table above.000841.2011 -.00 ) 0. Estimation of LHV (constant volume) Equation 3 is used to calculate low heating value LHV HHVd 1 M 2.55 ) 0.64 ) 1.26 ) 0.3 MJ/kg and for stover.27 C (%) 51.02 X N 0.ornl.00 19.10 X O 0.8 ) 0.18 X H 0.4 MJ/kg Calculations for of HHVp (constant pressure) Equation 3 is used to calculate low heating value (or net calorific value) at constant pressure HHVp HHVd 0.8 )1 0.33 Poplar Stover Estimation of HHVd (constant volume) Equation 2 is used to calculate high heating value HHVd 0.45 39.45 ) 0.7 MJ/kg and for stover.212( 6. and High Heating Value of Biomass M (%) Ash (%) 35 0.35 ) 12.447 M Substituting for HHV and moisture content.18( 5.35( 51.01 ) 0.00 20.Measured Moisture.65 ) 21.80 ) 1.18( 6.447( 0. LHV ( 17.26 5.35 O (%) 41.45 0.65 35 11.38 ) 0. for poplar.10( 39.10( 41.http://cta.35 2.3 )1 0.35 2.80 H (%) 6.02( 11. LHV ( 20.4 MJ/kg Biomass Energy Data Book -.02( 0.01 17.10 X S 0.27 ) 17.02( 0.02( 0.

4 30 12.3 20 15.1 1.6 MJ/kg The table below shows the application of equation 5 to calculate the net heating value of biomass at various levels of moisture content.000839.4 )1 0.0 3. for poplar.3 14.6 40 50 60 70 80 10.38 16.5 6.ornl.35 ) 9.gov/bedb .and for stover.9 10.1 10 17. Effect of Moisture Content on the Net Heating Value of Biomass at Constant Pressure Moisture content percent wet mass basis Biomass Poplar Stover 0 19. Increasing moisture content diminished the net heat value of biomass to the point that at slightly higher than 80% moisture content.35 ) 0.35 2.1 1. LHV ( 16. LHV ( 19.8 MJ/kg and for stover.1 )1 0.http://cta.3 ) 0.443M Substituting for HHVp and moisture content. much of the heat content of the biomass is used up to evaporate its moisture.443( 0.1 MJ/kg Calculations for of LHVp (constant pressure) Equation 5 is used to calculate low heating value.4 16.55 0. LHVp HHVp 1.443( 0.212( 5.8 5.3 Biomass Energy Data Book -.3 4.35 2.9 8. HHVp ( 17.35 ) 11.0 M 2.2011 -.7 6.7 8.1 12.

gov/bedb .ornl. NREL/TB433-7965. Washington. Earthsacn. SIS-CENéTS14918:2005. TAPPI Gross heating value of black liquor. USA. National Renewable laboratory. 2010. American Society for Agricultural & Biological Engineers.astm. ASTM E870 . Earthscan LLC.http://cta.htm Gaur. http://www. DE95009212. St. 2011.19836&_dad=portal&_sc hema=PORTAL Sjaak. Reed. September 2011. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Thek. Joseph.tappi. 1995. Golden Colorado. Biomass Energy Data Book -. S. Solid biofuels. The handbook of biomass combustion and co-firing.org/Bookstore/Standards--TIPs/Standards.2011 -. DC. I. DC. and G. 2008. Van Loo.. An atlas of thermal data for biomass and other fuels. T.List and Definition of Symbols Symbol LHV HHV GHV NHV HHVp HHVd M X Subscripts ash C d H N O p w Units Btu °C MJ kg lb Definition Lower heating value Higher heating value Gross heating value Net heating value High heating value at constant pressure Bone dry gross heating value of the biomass Moisture content wet mass basis Mass fraction percent dry mass basis Ash Carbon Dry mass basis Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Constant pressure Moist biomass British thermal unit Degrees Celsius Mega (106) Joule (SI unit) Kilogram Pound mass References ASABE Standards.biomassenergycentre. Washington. MI: ASABE.org. IEA Bioenergy.uk/portal/page?_pageid=77. UC Category: 1310. The Pellet Handbook.aspx Written by Shahab Sokhansanj.82(2006) Standard Test Methods for Analysis of Wood Fuels. http://www. Obenberger.org/Standards/E870. Jaap Koppejan. Method of determination of calorific value. Test Method T 684 om11http://www.

- VBU Manual U-37 Chapter 1-13.pdfUploaded bySanthana Kumar Annamalai
- Blr AH Perf IndicesUploaded bySam
- Boiler FundamentalsUploaded byaksjn
- Cat C18 ACERT Spec Sheets - Commercial C18 ACERT marine propulsion engine specifications.pdfUploaded byEnrique Morales
- combustionUploaded byapi-250308385
- Secador Hibrido Para PescadoUploaded byValeria Alarcón
- Moisture in CoalUploaded bymoorthy
- Valenzuela CFEI Layout1Uploaded byLester Kun
- BiomassUploaded byarpitnepalia1032
- Maritime FuelUploaded byosmanyukse
- Dashlari ER Calc 18-12-2012Uploaded byKaye Nicolas
- Inc Inert Or Project FinalUploaded byNicholas Michael James Entwistle
- THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF DOWNDRAFT GASIFIERS INTEGRATED WITH GAS TURBINE, SPARK AND COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINES FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATIONUploaded byandresmendi
- A short analysis of chemical bonds.Uploaded byBezverkhniy Volodymyr
- Scientific American Meet the Microbes Eating the Gulf Oil SpillUploaded byDini Kohandi
- GT2Uploaded byVenkateshPrasad
- Water TreatmentUploaded byPaul Mocanu
- When Chemical Reactors Were Admitted And Earlier Roots of Chemical EngineeringUploaded bydhananjaymote
- 05 Ofp Crude Field ProcUploaded byAndri Putra

- the power of knowledgeUploaded byapi-302644031
- Pacific-Gas-and-Electric-Co-Residential-Care-Program-ServiceUploaded byGenability
- tmpE4C.tmpUploaded byFrontiers
- Rhodes Scholarship Application.pdfUploaded bySunny Sourav
- Data 2Uploaded byPingasari Tandrawijaya
- Enel Insieme 2012 Nr. 10Uploaded bymauchiz
- 2015sw4_cellularglassUploaded byPasquale Cutri
- SKD 100 Leaflet, Issue 4Uploaded byMohamedIsmaili
- Tesina Di Educazione Tecnica_Fienili Ad Energia Solare in IsraeleUploaded byMajaMia
- global warming holiday homework.pptxUploaded byAnanya
- extintores.pptUploaded byJorge Luis Perez Rodriguez
- (132-270)TelephoneGuideUploaded byabu jafar
- Navabharat Ventures LtdUploaded byashif
- Appareillage IndustrielUploaded byAnonymous A13Lxz2hT
- Studies of some high solidity symmetrical and unsymmetrical blade H-Darrieus rotors with respect to starting characteristics, dynamic performances and flow physics in low wind streams.pdfUploaded byMostafa Rashed
- Ensayo de Una Turbina PeltonUploaded byhugo luna
- LMZ ReferenceUploaded bysmitapadmapat
- Neural Network Based Statcom for Grid Connected Wind GeneratorUploaded byEditor IJRITCC
- Project report- THDCILUploaded byMukesh Verma
- t-011_p6-9Uploaded byfructora
- tcd_2013_genset_enUploaded byRizki Heru Hermawan
- higiene.pptxUploaded byMario Rivas Valencia
- Manual Practicas Maquinas Ia (1) (1)Uploaded bykmantilla
- 142_serie3_f1bUploaded bymechanical15
- cf100.pdfUploaded byRafael Cotrina Castañeda
- Medida de Energia en Condiciones de Distorsion y DeseqUploaded byVictor Prieto Fernandez
- chemistryreflectionUploaded byapi-318460514
- Comment ça marche _ les ponts thermiques - Règles et normes - LeMoniteur.frUploaded byscanlivres
- 01 Intro&Theory GtUploaded byHafiz Usman Mahmood
- 17.List the Starting Procedure That You Are Doing to Put the Lubricating Oil and Fuel Oil Purifier Into Service. Include All the Checks You Are MakingUploaded byErs Ers