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TRANSPORTATION MODES

USED IN CARGO HANDLING


Port and shipping industry are interrelated with each other,one can’t think
about ships n shipping industry without ports and without shipping ports
doesn’t have any commercial significance.ships may be large and small
sea going vessel,it can carry passengers and cargo.but they need certain
platforms for loading,unloding and maintanance of ship.so,they need
ports.

Ports are the place where ships can take on or discharge cargo.countries
economy mainly depends upon shipping,in india,a large percent of foreign
trade depends upon shipping.it goes upto 90% by volume n 70% by value.

Trades between the country basically held up by shipping industry


.shipping country is a commercial enterprise of moving cargos and
passengers.

The major trading done by the ships and the ports are cargo handling.
Ships carry the cargo n delivers it through various mode of transportation.
It includes road network,rail network and inland water network
also.although,there are many modes of transport but for a good trade
network shipping is atmost more up than other transport activities.

EXPECTED GROWTH IN CARGO TRAFFICING

• 2009-10 5.2% pa

• 2010-11

• 2011-12 7.7% pa

• In 2009-10, it is estimated cargo traffic will be 5.2%


pa.it will improve further in 2010-11.

• In 2011-12 it is estimated traffic will be by 7.7% pa .


The most widely used modes for freight transport are
Sea (40,000 bn ton km), followed by Road (7,000),
Railways (6,500), Oil pipelines (2,000) and Inland
Navigation (1,500)
 WAYS OF TRANSPORT:
CONVENTIONAL WAYS
AIRWAYS
ROADWAYS
RAILWAYS
WATERWAYS
PIPELINE

 WAYS OF TRANSPORT:
CONVENTIONAL MODE
It is the earliest mode of transport,it is mainly of two types:-

1. Animal powered

2. Man powered

ANIMAL POWERED
This means of transport is used in every era with some
modifications,firstly through animals like horses,donkeys and camels
etc,then after some times carts has been introduced.such as bullock
cart,camell cart,chariot and sledge.

MAN POWERED:

This is done through the muscle power.they usually carry cargo


through rickshaw,sledge,boards and hands.

CAPACITY – 20kg to 100 kg

AIRWAYS
It is the fastest mode of transport.

It is the costly means of transport .

Valuable and urgent cargos sent through it.

It includes aircraft and helicopters,rockets and jets.


AIRCRAFTS

It gives fastest medium to discharging and loading of cargo.

It is commonly used in carrying passengers and cargos.

In war it plays a vital role.

It carries huge amount of cargo(perishable goods,electronic


items,valuble items,antiquetees etc.

HELICOPTER

They play very vital role in transporting cargo.

They used as a public transport too.

It is used in rescue operations on a wider scale.

ROADWAY The most used n have network all over the


countries.

it is used in many purposes.

Mainly cargo handeling in roadways done through vehicles or


commonly said as trucks.

They carry cargo from ports and railways,discharged it on desired


location.
TYPES OF TRUCKS:
TRUCKS PLAYS VITAL ROLE IN LIFTING CARGO.THEY USUALLY CARRY
UNDER ROAD TRANSPORT.

1.HEAVY TRUCK

2.MEDIUM TRUCK

3.LIGHT TRUCK

4.MINI TRUCK

HEAVY TRUCKS

Heavy hauler: A heavy hauler is a very large transporter for moving


oversize loads which are too large to go on a highway without an
escort and special permit.this ship usually involve in carrying goods
from General-cargo ships and from refer usually carrying
steel,pipes,ores,small cars and perishable goods too.

CAPACITY: 2000 tonns.

Ballast tractor:

A ballast tractor is a heavy haulage road vehicle designed to pull or


push heavy or exceptionally large loads

the ballast tractor is designed or adapted to pull or push loads from


a drawba .it carry cargo from refer,barge carrying ships etc.

CAPACITY: 200 tonns.


Dump truck:

A dump truck or production truck is a truck used for transporting


loose material (such as sand , gravel, or dirt ) for construction ,it
carry cargos from port n take it to the desired station.

CAPACITY: 26 and 27 tons. And capable of carrying 3-5 loads per


day.

Semi-trailer truck:

A semi-trailer truck, also known as


tractor-trailer articulated truck Nor articulated lorry, often
abbreviated to artic, is an articulated vehicle consisting of a towing
engine and a semi-trailer (plus possible additional trailers) that
carries the freight.

CAPACITY: many countries permitted to carry around 60 tonns.

Tank truck:

A tank truck or tanker lorry is a motor vehicle designed to carry


liquefied loads, dry bulk cargo or gases on roads. The largest such
vehicles are similar to railroad tank cars which are also designed to
carry.

CAPACITY: ranging from 5,500 gallons (20,820 litres) to 9,000


gallons (34,069 litres).
MEDIUM TRUCKS

Box truck:

A box truck, also known as a cube truck, cube van, bob truck, box
van, or straight truck, is a truck with a cube -shaped cargo area.

Box trucks are usually used by companies that need to haul


appliances or furniture. They are also used as moving trucks.

Cutaway van chassis:

Cutaway van chassis are used by second stage manufacturers for a


wide range of completed motor vehicles, these are incomplete
vehicles, a second stage manufacturer adds specific equipment and
completes the vehicles.

Seating capacity of between 8 - 30 seats.

MINI TRUCKS:

these trucks are very small in size comparitive to other trucks.

KEY TRUCK:

A Kei truck, or Japanese mini truck is a tiny but practical pickup


truck available in RWD or 4WD version, built to satisfy the Japanese
keijidōsha statutory class of light vehicles.

LIGHT TRUCKS :
Minivan:

A minivan, multi-purpose vehicle (abbreviated MPV), people-carrier,


people-mover or multi-utility vehicle (shortened MUV) is a type of
automobile similar in shape to a van that is designed for personal use.

Minivans are usually between 1,600–1,800 millimetres (63–71 in) tall,


which is around 200 mm (7.9 in).

Pickup truck:

A pickup truck is a light motor vehicle with an open-top rear cargo


area (bed) which is almost always separated from the cab to allow
for chassis flex when carrying or pulling heavy loads.

liquefied loads.

CAPACITY: 250 kg (551 lb).

Tow truck:
A tow truck (also called a wrecker, a breakdown truck, recovery
truck or a breakdown lorry), is a vehicle used to transport motor
vehicles to another location (generally a repair garage),or to recover
vehicles which are no longer on a drivable surface.

RAILWAYS

Railways are one of the most appreciated and reliable mode of


transport.

It is broadly agreed that is the safest mode of transport.

Railways have a wide network so it carries wide variety of


cargos,contarized cargos etc.

It is also used as a passenger carrier.

WATERWAYS
A countries trade basically depends upon shipping.

95% by volume and 70% by value countries trade depends upon it.

There are many types of ships has been introduced to carry different
types of cargo.

Inland water transport also plays role in inter state trade module.

TYPES OF SHIPS
There are different types of ships used for handling wide variety of
cargo.
1.General-cargo ships

2.Reefer

3.Timber carriers

4.Containerships

5.Barge-carrying ships (lighter ships)

6.Ro-ro ships

7.Bulk-carriers (bulkers)

8.Heavy-cargo ships

9.Cattleships
GENERAL CARGO SHIPS

1.Now a days these ships are not Built on large scale but in small
quantities.

2.No. of decks may be one,two or may be multi deck.

3.General cargo includes items which are packed (boxes, barrels,bags,


packages) or not packed (pipes, bricks, machinery, rolls of wire).

4.Their carrying capacity is 4,000-6,000 t on average and may reach


16,000 - 20,000 t.
REEFER:

They usually used to transport perishable foods such as


vegetable,dairy,meatsand fruits etc.

Their carrying capacity is 8,000 – 12,000 tonns.

They sail at 18-22 knots more than general cargo ships because for
faster delivery of goods.

They holds good heat and freezing insulation at a temperature


varying from -25 C to +13 C

depending on the type of cargo.

TIMBER CARRIER:

single-decked ships designed to carry logs and beams.

carrying capacity is in between 5,000 - 20,000 t.

speed - 13-15 knots

CONTAINERSHIPS:

These ships basically carries containers so they are called


containership.

In the container,cargo like chemicals and acids, textile, instruments


and metals, TV sets, radios and computers, even cars are
transported.
carrying capacity - 8,000-15,000 t on average and 25,000-30,000 t
for big containerships.

The higher speed is of 20-26 knots..

BARGE CARRYING SHIPS:

Cargo is carried in floating containers, also referred to as barges or


lighters.

Their carrying capacity is 375 t - 1050 t.

RO-RO SHIPS:

used for transporting motor vehicles and other wheeled equipment.

cargo is carried on wheeled containers or trailers.

average speed is 22 knots.

They usually have 2-6 decks.

Their common representative is cars,trucksetc.

BULK CARRIERS(BULKERS):

It is designed to carry loose goods.

About 70% of all the shipments carried by sea.


speed - 14 - 16 knots

capacity between 30,000 t -150,000 t

Heavy bulk-carriers usually transport ore , coal and coke, building


materials, such as cement and gravel.

HEAVY CARRIER SHIPS:

designed to carry cranes, oil drills, machinery for factories and


power stations, equipment for heavy industry and other cargo
weighing 700-1000 t.

CATTLESHIP: - as the name implies, these ships transport cattle.

PIPELINE :

pipeline basically used in carrying crude oil and gases.it is cheapest


and safer way of handling crude oil,LPG etc. comparative to other
mediums.

THERE ARE MANY TYPE OF MEDIUM WHICH CAN TRAVEL ON LAND AND
WATER,
HOVERCRAFT:

It is a craft capable of traveling over relatively smooth surfaces


supported by a cushion of slow moving, high-pressure air, ejected
against the surface below, and contained within a "skirt."