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Unit 11

COMPUTERS

AIM:
To recognize the English technical terms related to prototype computing devices and the first stages in the evolution of computers;

OBJECTIVES:
On successfully completing this unit the student should be able to:

identify correctly the terms describing the basic functions performed by computers; recognise the specific terms related to early types of computing machines; describe the operation principles of these rudimentary computers; identify the types of equipment used for performing the various computational operations; describe the evolutionary path in this domain;

assimilate at least 30 terms specific of prototype computing devices and the functions they ere able to provide;

KEY TERMS:
calculation, electronic communication, instruction, program, to retrieve, to process, to store, to route, output device, video display monitors printer, bar code, scanner, embedded, electronic circuitry, appliances, control, security system, videocassette recorders (VCRs), digitized sound, stereo systems, digitally encoded laser disc, computer applications, advanced calculus, computer-controlled projection unit, graphics, , sound, animation, to encode, to unscramble messages, analogue machine, logarithm tables, add, subtract, , multiply, divide, digit, devise, silk loom, punched cards, early mechanical computer, difference engine, mathematician, analytical engine, arithmetic operations, programming language, capacity to store instructions, primitive memory, computational time, Computing- abulating-Recording Company, !nternational "usiness #achines (!"#), e$uations, uring machine, automatic type%riter, universal machine, modern digital computer, computational theorist, #ark ! calculating machine, solid state transistor, binary numbers, computer science program, data, program instruction, &lectronic 'iscrete Variable (utomatic Computer (&'V(C), the &lectronic )umerical !ntegrator (nd Computer (&)!(C), (utomatic Computer (*)!V(C), prototype computing device+

COMPUTERS 11. 1. Introduction Computer, machine that performs tasks, such as calculations or electronic communication, under the control of a set of instructions called a program. Programs usually reside within the computer and are retrieved and processed by the computers electronics. The program results are stored or routed to output devices, such as video display monitors or printers. Computers perform a wide variety of activities reliably, accurately, and quickly. 11.2. Uses of Computers People use computers in many ways. In business, computers track inventories with bar codes and scanners, check the credit status of customers, and transfer funds electronically. In homes, tiny computers embedded in the electronic circuitry of most appliances control the indoor temperature, operate home security systems, tell the time, and turn videocassette recorders !C"s# on and off. Computers in automobiles regulate the flow of fuel, thereby increasing gas mileage. Computers also entertain, creating digiti$ed sound on stereo systems or computer% animated features from a digitally encoded laser disc. Computer programs, or applications, e&ist

to aid every level of education, from programs that teach simple addition or sentence construction to programs that teach advanced calculus. 'ducators use computers to track grades and communicate with students( with computer%controlled pro)ection units, they can add graphics, sound, and animation to their communications see Computer%*ided Instruction#. Computers are used e&tensively in scientific research to solve mathematical problems, investigate complicated data, or model systems that are too costly or impractical to build, such as testing the air flow around the ne&t generation of aircraft. The military employs computers in sophisticated communications to encode and unscramble messages, and to keep track of personnel and supplies. 11.3 HISTORY OF COMPUTERS 11.3.1 Beginning The history of computing began with an analogue machine. In +,-. /erman scientist 0ilhelm 1chikard invented a machine that used ++ complete and , incomplete sprocket wheels that could add, and with the aid of logarithm tables, multiply and divide. 2rench philosopher, mathematician, and physicist 3laise Pascal invented a machine in +,4- that added and subtracted, automatically carrying and borrowing digits from column to column. Pascal built 56 copies of his machine, but most served as curiosities in parlours of the wealthy. 1eventeenth%century /erman mathematician /ottfried 7eibni$ designed a special gearing system to enable multiplication on Pascals machine. 11.3.2. Fir t Punc! C"rd In the early +8th century 2rench inventor 9oseph%:arie 9acquard devised a speciali$ed type of computer; a silk loom. 9acquards loom used punched cards to program patterns that helped the loom create woven fabrics. *lthough 9acquard was rewarded and admired by 2rench emperor <apoleon I for his work, he fled for his life from the city of 7yon pursued by weavers who feared their )obs were in )eopardy due to 9acquards invention. The loom prevailed, however; 0hen 9acquard died, more than .6,666 of his looms e&isted in 7yon. The looms are still used today, especially in the manufacture of fine furniture fabrics. 11.3.3. Pre ursor to Mo!ern Computer *nother early mechanical computer was the =ifference 'ngine, designed in the early +>-6s by 3ritish mathematician and scientist Charles 3abbage. *lthough never completed by 3abbage, the =ifference 'ngine was intended to be a machine with a -6%decimal capacity that could solve mathematical problems. 3abbage also made plans for another machine, the *nalytical 'ngine, considered the mechanical precursor of the modern computer. The *nalytical 'ngine was designed to perform all arithmetic operations efficiently( however, 3abbages lack of political skills kept him from obtaining the approval and funds to build it. *ugusta *da 3yron, countess of 7ovelace, was a personal friend and student of 3abbage. 1he was the daughter of the famous poet 7ord 3yron and one of only a few woman mathematicians of her time. 1he prepared e&tensive notes concerning 3abbages ideas and the *nalytical 'ngine. 7ovelaces conceptual programs for the machine led to the naming of a programming language *da# in her honour. *lthough the *nalytical 'ngine was never built, its key concepts, such as the capacity to store instructions, the use of punched cards as a primitive memory, and the ability to print, can be found in many modern computers. 11.". #e$e%opments in t&e 2't& Centur( 11.".1. E)r%( E%e troni C)% u%)tors

?erman ?ollerith, an *merican inventor, used an idea similar to 9acquards loom when he combined the use of punched cards with devices that created and electronically read the cards. ?olleriths tabulator was used for the +>86 @.1. census, and it made the computational time three to four times shorter than the time previously needed for hand counts. ?olleriths Tabulating :achine Company eventually merged with two companies to form the Computing%Tabulating% "ecording Company. In +8-4 the company changed its name to International 3usiness :achines I3:#. In +8., 3ritish mathematician *lan Turing proposed the idea of a machine that could process equations without human direction. The machine now known as a Turing machine# resembled an automatic typewriter that used symbols for math and logic instead of letters. Turing intended the device to be a Auniversal machineB that could be used to duplicate or represent the function of any other e&isting machine. Turings machine was the theoretical precursor to the modern digital computer. The Turing machine model is still used by modern computational theorists. In the +8.6s *merican mathematician ?oward *iken developed the :ark I calculating machine, which was built by I3:. This electronic calculating machine used relays and electromagnetic components to replace mechanical components. In later machines, *iken used vacuum tubes and solid state transistors tiny electrical switches# to manipulate the binary numbers. *iken also introduced computers to universities by establishing the first computer science program at ?arvard @niversity in Cambridge, :assachusetts. *iken obsessively mistrusted the concept of storing a program within the computer, insisting that the integrity of the machine could be maintained only through a strict separation of program instructions from data. ?is computer had to read instructions from punched cards, which could be stored away from the computer. ?e also urged the <ational 3ureau of 1tandards not to support the development of computers, insisting that there would never be a need for more than five or si& of them nationwide. 11.".2. E#*+C, E-I+C, )n! U-I*+C *t the Institute for *dvanced 1tudy in Princeton, <ew 9ersey, ?ungarian%*merican mathematician 9ohn von <eumann developed one of the first computers used to solve problems in mathematics, meteorology, economics, and hydrodynamics. !on <eumannCs +845 design for the 'lectronic =iscrete !ariable *utomatic Computer '=!*C#Din stark contrast to the designs of *iken, his contemporaryDwas the first electronic computer design to incorporate a program stored entirely within its memory. This machine led to several others, some with clever names like I77I*C, 9E?<<I*C, and :*<I*C. *merican physicist 9ohn :auchly proposed the electronic digital computer called '<I*C, the 'lectronic <umerical Integrator *nd Computer. ?e helped build it along with *merican engineer 9ohn Presper 'ckert, 9r., at the :oore 1chool of 'ngineering at the @niversity of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. '<I*C was operational in +845 and introduced to the public in +84,. It is regarded as the first successful, general digital computer. It occupied +,F sq m +,>66 sq ft#, weighed more than -F,666 kg ,6,666 lb#, and contained more than +>,666 vacuum tubes. "oughly -,666 of the computers vacuum tubes were replaced each month by a team of si& technicians. :any of '<I*Cs first tasks were for military purposes, such as calculating ballistic firing tables and designing atomic weapons. 1ince '<I*C was initially not a stored program machine, it had to be reprogrammed for each task. 'ckert and :auchly eventually formed their own company, which was then bought by the "and Corporation. They produced the @niversal *utomatic Computer @<I!*C#, which was used for

a broader variety of commercial applications. The first @<I!*C was delivered to the @nited 1tates Census 3ureau in +85+. 3y +85F, there were 4, @<I!*Cs in use. 3etween +8.F and +8.8, while teaching at Iowa 1tate College, *merican physicist 9ohn !incent *tanasoff built a prototype computing device called the *tanasoff%3erry Computer, or *3C, with the help of his assistant, Clifford 3erry. *tanasoff developed the concepts that were later used in the design of the '<I*C. *tanasoffs device was the first computer to separate data processing from memory, but it is not clear whether a functional version was ever built. *tanasoff did not receive credit for his contributions until +8F., when a lawsuit regarding the patent on '<I*C was settled.

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E4ERCISES
A. REA5I6, T!) 1ur1o ) o+ t!) +o**o%in& )2)rci ) i to d)-)*o1 r)"din& tr"t)&i) "nd r)in+orc) to1ic r)*"t)d -oc"'u*"r$0 not to c!)c( '"c(&round (no%*)d&). A.1. 7"-in& r)"d t!) t)2t0 "n %)r t!) +o**o%in& .u) tion /t!) 1)ci+ic"tion in 'r"c()t r)+)r to t!) )ction in t!) t)2t %!)r) t!) "n %)r c"n ') +ound3: !" #hat is a computer$ %!!"!"& '" #hat is its operation principle$ %!!"!"& 3" #hat are the main applications of computers$ %!!"'"& (" #hich ere the first steps to ards the development of prototype computing devices$ %!!"3"& )" #hich ere the ne*t stages in the evolution of computers in the '0 century$ %!!"("& A.2. 7"-in& r)"d t!) t)2t0 d)cid) %!)t!)r t!) in+or#"tion &i-)n in t!) t"t)#)nt ')*o% i tru) /T3 or +"* ) /F3. Corr)ct t!) +"* ) t"t)#)nt : !" +omputer, machine that performs tas-s, such as calculations or electronic communication, under the control of a set of instructions called a program" '" The program results are stored or routed to input devices, such as video display monitors or printers" 3" The history of computing began ith a digital machine" (" .rench philosopher, mathematician, and physicist /laise 0ascal invented a machine in !1(' that added and subtracted, automatically carrying and borro ing digits from column to column" )" 2ollerith3s Tabulating 4achine +ompany eventually merged ith t o companies to form the +omputing5Tabulating56ecording +ompany and !7'( the company changed its name to 8nternational /usiness 4achines %8/4&" 1" Turing3s machine as the theoretical precursor to the modern digital computer"
th

9" 8n the !730s :merican mathematician 2o ard :i-en developed the 4ar- 8 calculating machine, hich as built by 8/4" This electronic calculating machine used relays and mechanical components to replace electromagnetic components" ;" :merican physicist <ohn 4auchly proposed the electronic digital computer called E=8:+, the Electronic =umerical 8ntegrator :nd +omputer" 7" Electronic >iscrete ?ariable :utomatic +omputer %E>?:+& is regarded as the first successful, general digital computer and it occupied !19 sq m %!,;00 sq ft&, eighed more than '9,000 -g %10,000 lb&, and contained more than !;,000 vacuum tubes" !0" :tanasoff3s device as the second computer to separate data processing from memory, but it is not clear hether a functional version as ever built" B. VOCABU8ARY 9ORK T!) 1ur1o ) o+ t!) +o**o%in& )2)rci ) i to 1ro#ot) t!) "c.ui ition o+ n)% *)2ic"* it)# '$ 1ro-idin& co**oc"tion 0 t)r# +o**o%)d '$ 1r)1o ition *)2ic"* )t "nd tr"n *"tion o+ t!) t)r# con id)r)d r)*)-"nt to t!) to1ic. B.1. M"tc! )"c! o+ t!) t)r# in co*u#n A %it! " %ord in co*u#n B: A B to retrieve a @nmulAi to process circuitele electronice to store a @nmagazina to route a direcAiona output devices graficB electronic circuitry aparat analogic advanced calculus periferice de ieCire graphics a scBdea analogue machine calculator digital logarithm tables a @mpBrAi to add a @nmulAi to subtract tabele logaritmice multiply calcul matematic special to divide a recupera digital computer a procesa B.2. Ent)r in t!) +o**o%in& t"'*) in+or#"tion r)*"t)d to 1rotot$1) co#1utin& d)-ic) :

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C. 8A6,UA,E FOCUS: E4EMP8IFICATIO6 T!) 1ur1o ) o+ t!) +o**o%in& )2)rci ) i to d)-)*o1 *"n&u"&) "%"r)n) in t)r# o+ )2)#1*i+ic"tion. C.1. It i o+t)n u )+u* to &i-) )2"#1*) %!)n d) cri'in&0 d)+inin& or c*" i+$in&. T!i "ction i (no%n " )2)#1*i+ic"tion /or )2)#1*i+$in&3: ).&. i t!) "''r)-i"tion #)"nin& +or )2"#1*). R)"d )ction 11.1. "nd )ction 11. 3.3. "nd id)nti+$ t!) t)r# u )d +or )2)#1*i+ic"tion. C.2. U ) t!) +o**o%in& t)r# in )nt)nc) d) cri'in& )"r*$ co#1utin& d)-ic) . M"() ur) t!) *"tt)r 1"rt i '" )d u1on t!) in+or#"tion cont"in)d in t!) +or#)r 1"rt o+ t!) )nt)nc). A6 I88USTRATIO6 OF0 FOR E4AMP8E0 FOR I6STA6CE0 A CASE I6 POI6T0 SUC7 AS0 A6 E4AMP8E0 PARTICU8AR8Y: 5. TRA6S8ATIO6 T!) 1ur1o ) o+ t!i )2)rci ) i to d)-)*o1 tr"n *"tin& (i** . 5.1. Tr"n *"t) )ction 11.1. t)2t into Ro#"ni"n: E. SPEAKI6, T!) 1ur1o ) o+ t!) ) )2)rci ) i to d)-)*o1 1)"(in& (i** %it! " +ocu on 1r) )ntin& t!) c!rono*o&ic"* )-o*ution o+ co#1utin& d)-ic) "nd )2)#1*i+$in&. E.2. Pr) )nt"tion T"(in& turn 0 1r) )nt )"c! t"&) in t!) d)-)*o1#)nt o+ )"r*$ co#1ut)r "nd &i-) )2"#1*) o+ 1rotot$1) co#1utin& d)-ic) .

Unit 12

RECE6T 5EVE8OPME6TS A65 T7E FUTURE OF COMPUTI6,

AIM:
To recognize the English technical terms related to recent developments and the future of computing;

OBJECTIVES:
On successfully completing this unit the student should be able to:

identify correctly the terms defining recent developments in computer architecture and design; recognise the specific terms related to transistor and integrated circuits technology; characterise the main transformations brought about by transistors and integrated circuits; identify the types of equipment used for increasing computer po er and versatility; describe possible future improvements in computer technology and the applications aimed at;

assimilate at least 30 terms specific of integrated circuit technology;

KEY TERMS:

electric s%itch, transistor, integrated circuits, miniaturize, single computer circuit, microprocessor, integrated circuit technology, personal computers (,Cs), --bit !ntel -.-. microprocessor, R(#, input, s%itches, front panel, output, display, light-emitting diode (/&'s), storage device, C,*, computational abilities, graphical user interface (0*!), sophisticated operating system, 1indo%s, #ac 23, /inu4, supercomputer, to compute, parallel processing machine, #oore5s /a%, po%er, versatility, virus, %orms, malfunction, digital revolution, speech recognition, virtual reality, virtual-reality program languages, Virtual Reality #odelling /anguage (VR#/), biological computing, molecular computing, future computational platforms, limitation+

RECE-T #E*E.OPME-TS +-# THE FUTURE OF COMPUTI-/ 12.1. T&e Tr)nsistor )n! Integr)te! Cir uits Tr)nsform Computing In +84>, at 3ell Telephone 7aboratories, *merican physicists 0alter ?ouser 3rattain, 9ohn 3ardeen, and 0illiam 3radford 1hockley developed the transistor, a device that can act as an electric switch. The transistor had a tremendous impact on computer design, replacing costly, energy%inefficient, and unreliable vacuum tubes. In the late +8,6s integrated circuits tiny transistors and other electrical components arranged on a single chip of silicon# replaced individual transistors in computers. Integrated circuits resulted from the simultaneous, independent work of 9ack Gilby at Te&as Instruments and "obert <oyce of the 2airchild 1emiconductor Corporation in the late +856s. *s integrated circuits became miniaturi$ed, more components could be designed into a single computer circuit. In the +8F6s refinements in integrated circuit technology led to the development of the modern microprocessor, integrated circuits that contained thousands of transistors. :odern microprocessors can contain more than 46 million transistors. :anufacturers used integrated circuit technology to build smaller and cheaper computers. The first of these so%called personal computers PCs#Dthe *ltair >>66Dappeared in +8F5, sold by :icro Instrumentation Telemetry 1ystems :IT1#. The *ltair used an >%bit Intel >6>6 microprocessor, had -5, bytes of "*:, received input through switches on the front panel, and displayed output on rows of light%emitting diodes 7'=s#. "efinements in the PC continued with

the inclusion of video displays, better storage devices, and CP@s with more computational abilities. /raphical user interfaces were first designed by the Hero& Corporation, then later used successfully by *pple Computer, Inc.. Today the development of sophisticated operating systems such as 0indows, the :ac E1, and 7inu& enables computer users to run programs and manipulate data in ways that were unimaginable in the mid%-6th century. 1everal researchers claim the ArecordB for the largest single calculation ever performed. Ene large single calculation was accomplished by physicists at I3: in +885. They solved one million trillion mathematical sub problems by continuously running 44> computers for two years. Their analysis demonstrated the e&istence of a previously hypothetical subatomic particle called a glue ball. 9apan, Italy, and the @nited 1tates are collaborating to develop new supercomputers that will run these types of calculations +66 times faster. In +88, I3: challenged /arry Gasparov, the reigning world chess champion, to a chess match with a supercomputer called =eep 3lue. The computer had the ability to compute more than +66 million chess positions per second. In a +88F rematch =eep 3lue defeated Gasparov, becoming the first computer to win a match against a reigning world chess champion with regulation time controls. :any e&perts predict these types of parallel processing machines will soon surpass human chess playing ability, and some speculate that massive calculating power will one day replace intelligence. =eep 3lue serves as a prototype for future computers that will be required to solve comple& problems. *t issue, however, is whether a computer can be developed with the ability to learn to solve problems on its own, rather than one programmed to solve a specific set of tasks. 12.2. T&e Future of Computers In +8,5 semiconductor pioneer /ordon :oore predicted that the number of transistors contained on a computer chip would double every year. This is now known as :oores 7aw, and it has proven to be somewhat accurate. The number of transistors and the computational speed of microprocessors currently doubles appro&imately every +> months. Components continue to shrink in si$e and are becoming faster, cheaper, and more versatile. 0ith their increasing power and versatility, computers simplify day%to%day life. @nfortunately, as computer use becomes more widespread, so do the opportunities for misuse. Computer hackers Dpeople who illegally gain access to computer systemsDoften violate privacy and can tamper with or destroy records. Programs called viruses or worms can replicate and spread from computer to computer, erasing information or causing malfunctions. Ether individuals have used computers to electronically embe$$le funds and alter credit histories. <ew ethical issues also have arisen, such as how to regulate material on the Internet and the 0orld 0ide 0eb. 7ong% standing issues, such as privacy and freedom of e&pression, are being re%e&amined in light of the digital revolution. Individuals, companies, and governments are working to solve these problems through informed conversation, compromise, better computer security, and regulatory legislation. Computers will become more advanced and they will also become easier to use. Improved speech recognition will make the operation of a computer easier. !irtual reality, the technology of interacting with a computer using all of the human senses, will also contribute to better human and computer interfaces. 1tandards for virtual%reality program languagesDfor e&ample, !irtual "eality :odelling language !":7#Dare currently in use or are being developed for the 0orld 0ide 0eb. Ether, e&otic models of computation are being developed, including biological computing that uses living organisms, molecular computing that uses molecules with particular properties, and

computing that uses deo&yribonucleic acid =<*#, the basic unit of heredity, to store data and carry out operations. These are e&amples of possible future computational platforms that, so far, are limited in abilities or are strictly theoretical. 1cientists investigate them because of the physical limitations of miniaturi$ing circuits embedded in silicon. There are also limitations related to heat generated by even the tiniest of transistors. Intriguing breakthroughs occurred in the area of quantum computing in the late +886s. Iuantum computers under development use components of a chloroform molecule a combination of chlorine and hydrogen atoms# and a variation of a medical procedure called magnetic resonance imaging :"I# to compute at a molecular level. 1cientists use a branch of physics called quantum mechanics, which describes the behaviour of subatomic particles particles that make up atoms#, as the basis for quantum computing. Iuantum computers may one day be thousands to millions of times faster than current computers, because they take advantage of the laws that govern the behaviour of subatomic particles. These laws allow quantum computers to e&amine all possible answers to a query simultaneously. 2uture uses of quantum computers could include code breaking and large database queries. Theorists of chemistry, computer science, mathematics, and physics are now working to determine the possibilities and limitations of quantum computing. Communications between computer users and networks will benefit from new technologies such as broadband communication systems that can carry significantly more data faster or more conveniently to and from the vast interconnected databases that continue to grow in number and type.

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E4ERCISES
A. REA5I6, T!) 1ur1o ) o+ t!) +o**o%in& )2)rci ) i to d)-)*o1 r)"din& tr"t)&i) "nd r)in+orc) to1ic r)*"t)d -oc"'u*"r$0 not to c!)c( '"c(&round (no%*)d&). A.1. 7"-in& r)"d t!) t)2t0 "n %)r t!) +o**o%in& .u) tion /t!) 1)ci+ic"tion in 'r"c()t r)+)r to t!) )ction in t!) t)2t %!)r) t!) "n %)r c"n ') +ound3: !" #hen did integrated circuits replace individual transistors in computers$ %!'"!& '" #hat led to the development of modern microprocessors$ %!'"!& 3" #hich corporation designed first graphical user interfaces$ %!'"!& (" #hat as the large calculation accomplished by the physicists at 8/4 in !77)$ %!'"!& ) #hat is the name of the po erful computers performing such calculations$ %!'"!& A.2. 7"-in& r)"d t!) t)2t0 d)cid) %!)t!)r t!) in+or#"tion &i-)n in t!) t"t)#)nt ')*o% i tru) /T3 or +"* ) /F3. Corr)ct t!) +"* ) t"t)#)nt /t!) 1)ci+ic"tion in 'r"c()t r)+)r o t!) )ction in t!) t)2t %!)r) t!) "n %)r c"n ') +ound3: +. The transistor had a tremendous impact on computer design, replacing costly, energy% inefficient, and unreliable integrated circuits. +-.+# -. :odern microprocessors can contain more than 4 million transistors. +-.+# .. The *ltair used an >%bit Intel >6>6 microprocessor, had -5, bytes of "*:, received input through switches on the front panel, and displayed output on rows of light%emitting diodes 7'=s#. +-.+# 4. In +88, I3: challenged /arry Gasparov, the reigning world chess champion, to a chess match with a supercomputer called =eep 3lue. The computer had the ability to compute more than +66 million chess positions per second. +-.+# 5. =eep 3lue serves as a prototype for future computers that will be required to solve comple& problems. +-.+# ,. In +8,5 semiconductor pioneer /ordon :oore predicted that the number of transistors contained on a computer chip would double every decade. +-.-# F. The number of transistors and the computational speed of microprocessors currently doubles appro&imately every +> months. +-.-#

>. 1tandards for virtual%reality program languagesDfor e&ample, !irtual "eality :odelling language !":7#Dare currently in use or are being developed for the 0orld 0ide 0eb. +-.-# 8. Ether, e&otic models of computation have been already developed, including biological computing that uses living organisms, molecular computing that uses molecules with particular properties, and computing that uses deo&yribonucleic acid =<*#, the basic unit of heredity, to store data and carry out operations. +-.-# +6. 1cientists use a branch of physics called quantum mechanics, which describes the behaviour of subatomic particles particles that make up atoms#, as the basis for quantum computing. +-.-# B. VOCABU8ARY 9ORK T!) 1ur1o ) o+ t!) +o**o%in& )2)rci ) i to 1ro#ot) t!) "c.ui ition o+ n)% *)2ic"* it)# '$ 1ro-idin& co**oc"tion 0 t)r# +o**o%)d '$ 1r)1o ition *)2ic"* )t "nd tr"n *"tion o+ t!) t)r# con id)r)d r)*)-"nt to t!) to1ic. B.1. Ent)r t!) +o**o%in& t)r# und)r t!) "11ro1ri"t) !)"din& in t!) t"'*) ')*o%: 8i t 12.1. virtual5reality program languages, code brea-ing and large database queries, broadband communication systems, computational speed of microprocessors, ?irtual 6eality 4odelling language %?64D&, parallel processing machines, ability to learn to solve problems, biological computing, deo*yribonucleic acid %>=:&, silicon, or- of <acEilby at Te*as 8nstruments and 6obert =oyce of the .airchild Femiconductor +orporation in the late !7)0s, to store data and carry out operations, quantum computing, the development of the modern microprocessor, miniaturization; T"'*) 12.1. I6TE,RATE5 CIRCUITS FUTURE COMPUTI6, FUTURE APP8ICATIO6S

B.2. Fi** in t!) &"1 in t!) +o**o%in& t)2t %it! t!) t)r# r"ndo#*$ *i t)d ')*o%: 8i t 12.1. refinements, the 4ac OF, prototype, doubles, miniaturized, run programs, transistors, operating systems, integrated, microprocessor, data, computational, T)2t 12.1. !" :s integrated circuits becameGGGGGGGGGGGGG, more components could be designed into a single computer circuit" '" 8n the !790s GGGGGGGGGGGGin integrated circuit technology led to the development of the modernGGGGGGGG, GGGGGGGGGGcircuits that contained thousands ofGGGGGGGGG" 3" Today the development of sophisticated GGGGGGGGG5such as #indo s, GGGGGGGGG, and Dinu* enables computer users to GGGGGGGGand manipulateGGGGGGGGG in ays that ere unimaginable in the mid5'0th century" (" >eep /lue serves as a GGGGGGG for future computers that ill be required to solve comple* problems" )" The number of transistors and the GGGGGGGGGG speed of microprocessors currently GGGGGGGGG appro*imately every !; months" C. 8A6,UA,E FOCUS: PROBABI8ITY

T!) 1ur1o ) o+ t!) +o**o%in& )2)rci ) i to d)-)*o1 *"n&u"&) "%"r)n) in t)r# o+ )21r) in& 1ro'"'i*it$ "nd t)"c! #od"* -)r' "nd ).ui-"*)nt )21r) ion . C.1. R)"d t!) )nt)nc) ')*o% "nd #"tc! t!) und)r*in)d t)r# ;)21r) ion %it! t!)ir #)"nin& in t!) *i t. 8i t 12.2. A. REMOTE PROBABI8ITY B. PROBABI8ITY C. FUTURE OF PRE5ICTIO6 5. 8O,ICA8 5E5UCTIO6 FOR A FUTURE EVE6T !" 8n !71) semiconductor pioneer Hordon 4oore predicted that the number of transistors contained on a computer chip ould IshouldIought to double every year" '" +omputers are going toI ill become more advanced and they mayIare li-ely toIcan also become easier to use" 3" ?irtual reality, the technology of interacting ith a computer using all of the human senses, mightI are li-ely toIcould also contribute to better human and computer interfaces" Ftandards for virtual5reality program languagesJfor e*ample, ?irtual 6eality 4odelling language %?64D&Jare currently in use or are being developed for the #orld #ide #eb" 5. TRA6S8ATIO6 T!) 1ur1o ) o+ t!i )2)rci ) i to d)-)*o1 tr"n *"tin& (i** . 5.1. Tr"n *"t) t!) +o**o%in& )nt)nc) into En&*i !: !" 0roducBtorii au utilizat tehnologia circuitelor integrate @n construirea unor calculatoare cu dimensiuni Ci costuri de producAie reduse" '" Kn anii !790 @mbunBtBAirile aduse tehnologiei circuitelor integrate au condus la dezvoltarea microprocesorului modern, circuite integrate ce conAineau mii de tranzistori" 3" =umeroCi e*perAi preconizeazB cB acest tip de calculatoare cu procesare @n paralel vor depBCi @n curLnd anumite capacitBAi umane, unii chiar emit speculaAii conform cBrora potenAialul enorm de calcul al acestora va @nlocui la un moment dat inteligenAa umanB" E. SPEAKI6, T!) 1ur1o ) o+ t!) ) )2)rci ) i to d)-)*o1 1)"(in& (i** %it! " +ocu on E.1. 9!ic! "r)0 in $our o1inion0 t!) n)2t t"&) in t!) d)-)*o1#)nt o+ co#1utin& "nd %!"t %i** ') t!)ir i#1"ct. Ju ti+$ $our "n %)r.

Unit 13

COMPUTER ARC7ITECTURE A65 OR,A6ISATIO6

AIM:
To recognize the English technical terms related to computer architecture and organization;

OBJECTIVES:
On successfully completing this unit the student should be able to:

identify correctly the terms defining each category of computer components; recognise the specific terms related to operating systems, busses, input devices, output devices and the central processing unit; characterise the operation process of each component; identify the types of equipment used for performing each specific operation; describe the structure of computer components; assimilate at least 30 terms specific of computer architecture and organization;

KEY TERMS:
hard%are, physical computer, memory, data, program instructions, central processing unit (C,*), keyboard, mouse, printer, soft%are, video display monitor, to display, operating system, to prompt, command, to control, to store and manage data, se$uence, to run a program, to load a program, icon, file, to access files, to access commands, to click, to press a combination of keys, input method, binary digits, bit, possible representations, byte, numeric digits, kilobyte, gigabyte, terabyte, programmers, figure, physical memory, random access memory (R(#), read-only memory (R2#), e4ternal storage devices, magnetic floppy disks, hard drives, compact disc (C'), digital video disc ('V'), bus, memory circuit, parallel %ires, to transmit, simultaneous transmission, joystick, digital image, scanner, touch panel, microphone, voice recognition soft%are, 6 ablet7 computer, screen, microprocessor chip, register, C,* memory location, program counter, decoder, instruction cycle, pipeline processing, output device, a flat li$uid crystal display, overhead projector, videocassette recorder (VCR), speaker, printer+ COMPUTER ARC7ITECTURE A65 OR,A6ISATIO6 13.1. 7O9 COMPUTERS 9ORK The physical computer and its components are known as hardware. Computer hardware includes the memory that stores data and program instructions( the central processing unit CP@# that carries out program instructions( the input devices, such as a keyboard or mouse, that allow the user to communicate with the computer( the output devices, such as printers and video display monitors, that enable the computer to present information to the user( and buses hardware lines or wires# that connect these and other computer components. The programs that run the computer are called software. 1oftware generally is designed to perform a particular type of task Dfor e&ample, to control the arm of a robot to weld a cars body, to write a letter, to display and modify a photograph, or to direct the general operation of the computer. 13.2. THE OPER+TI-/ SYSTEM 0hen a computer is turned on it searches for instructions in its memory. These instructions tell the computer how to start up. @sually, one of the first sets of these instructions is a special program called the operating system, which is the software that makes the computer work. It prompts the user or other machines# for input and commands, reports the results of these commands and other operations, stores and manages data, and controls the sequence of the software and hardware actions. 0hen the user requests that a program run, the operating system loads the program in the computers memory and runs the program. Popular operating systems, such as :icrosoft 0indows and the :acintosh system :ac E1#, have graphical user interfaces /@Is#Dthat use tiny pictures, or icons, to represent various files and commands. To access these files or commands, the user clicks the mouse on the icon or presses a combination of keys on the keyboard. 1ome operating systems allow the user to carry out these tasks via voice, touch, or other input methods. 13.3. COMPUTER MEMORY To process information electronically, data are stored in a computer in the form of binary digits, or bits, each having two possible representations 6 or +#. If a second bit is added to a single bit

of information, the number of representations is doubled, resulting in four possible combinations; 66, 6+, +6, or ++. * third bit added to this two%bit representation again doubles the number of combinations, resulting in eight possibilities; 666, 66+, 6+6, 6++, +66, +6+, ++6, or +++. 'ach time a bit is added, the number of possible patterns is doubled. 'ight bits is called a byte( a byte has -5, possible combinations of 6s and +s. * byte is a useful quantity in which to store information because it provides enough possible patterns to represent the entire alphabet, in lower and upper cases, as well as numeric digits, punctuation marks, and several character%si$ed graphics symbols, including non%'nglish characters such as p. * byte also can be interpreted as a pattern that represents a number between 6 and -55. * kilobyteD+,6-4 bytesDcan store about +,666 characters( a megabyte can store about + million characters( a gigabyte can store about + billion characters( and a terabyte can store about + trillion characters. Computer programmers usually decide how a given byte should be interpretedDthat is, as a single character, a character within a string of te&t, a single number, or part of a larger number. <umbers can represent anything from chemical bonds to dollar figures to colours to sounds. The physical memory of a computer is either random access memory "*:#, which can be read or changed by the user or computer, or read%only memory "E:#, which can be read by the computer but not altered in any way. Ene way to store memory is within the circuitry of the computer, usually in tiny computer chips that hold millions of bytes of information. The memory within these computer chips is "*:. :emory also can be stored outside the circuitry of the computer on e&ternal storage devices, such as magnetic floppy disks, which can store about megabytes of information( hard drives, which can store gigabytes of information( compact discs C=s#, which can store up to ,>6 megabytes of information( and digital video discs =!=s#, which can store >.5 gigabytes of information. * single C= can store nearly as much information as several hundred floppy disks, and some =!=s can hold more than +- times as much data as a C=. 13.". THE BUS The bus enables the components in a computer, such as the CP@ and the memory circuits, to communicate as program instructions are being carried out. The bus is usually a flat cable with numerous parallel wires. 'ach wire can carry one bit, so the bus can transmit many bits along the cable at the same time. 2or e&ample, a +,%bit bus, with +, parallel wires, allows the simultaneous transmission of +, bits - bytes# of information from one component to another. 'arly computer designs utili$ed a single or very few buses. :odern designs typically use many buses, some of them speciali$ed to carry particular forms of data, such as graphics. 13.0. I-PUT #E*ICES Input devices, such as a keyboard or mouse, permit the computer user to communicate with the computer. Ether input devices include a )oystick, a rod like device often used by people who play computer games( a scanner, which converts images such as photographs into digital images that the computer can manipulate( a touch panel, which senses the placement of a users finger and can be used to e&ecute commands or access files( and a microphone, used to input sounds such as the human voice which can activate computer commands in con)unction with voice recognition software. ATabletB computers are being developed that will allow users to interact with their screens using a pen like device. 13.1. THE CE-TR+. PROCESSI-/ U-IT Information from an input device or from the computers memory is communicated via the bus to the central processing unit CP@#, which is the part of the computer that translates commands

and runs programs. The CP@ is a microprocessor chipDthat is, a single piece of silicon containing millions of tiny, microscopically wired electrical components. Information is stored in a CP@ memory location called a register. "egisters can be thought of as the CP@s tiny scratchpad, temporarily storing instructions or data. 0hen a program is running, one special register called the program counter keeps track of which program instruction comes ne&t by maintaining the memory location of the ne&t program instruction to be e&ecuted. The CP@s control unit coordinates and times the CP@s functions, and it uses the program counter to locate and retrieve the ne&t instruction from memory. In a typical sequence, the CP@ locates the ne&t instruction in the appropriate memory device. The instruction then travels along the bus from the computers memory to the CP@, where it is stored in a special instruction register. :eanwhile, the program counter changesDusually increasing a small amountDso that it contains the location of the instruction that will be e&ecuted ne&t. The current instruction is analy$ed by a decoder, which determines what the instruction will do. *ny data the instruction needs are retrieved via the bus and placed in the CP@s registers. The CP@ e&ecutes the instruction, and the results are stored in another register or copied to specific memory locations via a bus. This entire sequence of steps is called an instruction cycle. 2requently, several instructions may be in process simultaneously, each at a different stage in its instruction cycle. This is called pipeline processing. 13. 2. OUTPUT #E*ICES Ence the CP@ has e&ecuted the program instruction, the program may request that the information be communicated to an output device, such as a video display monitor or a flat liquid crystal display. Ether output devices are printers, overhead pro)ectors, videocassette recorders !C"s#, and speakers.

You #"$ %"nt to &o '"c( to t!) ()$ %ord *i t)d "t t!) ')&innin& o+ t!) unit "nd c!)c( t!"t $ou "r) +"#i*i"r %it! )"c! on). ,i-) t!)ir Ro#"ni"n ).ui-"*)nt /i+ n)c) "r$0 $ou c"n u ) t!) &*o "r$ 1ro-id)d "t t!) )nd o+ t!) t)2t'oo(3.

E4ERCISES
A. REA5I6, T!) 1ur1o ) o+ t!) +o**o%in& )2)rci ) i to d)-)*o1 r)"din& tr"t)&i) "nd r)in+orc) to1ic r)*"t)d -oc"'u*"r$0 not to c!)c( '"c(&round (no%*)d&). A.1. R)"d t!) t)2t "nd id)nti+$ < #"in c"t)&ori) o+ co#1ut)r co#1on)nt " %)** " t!)ir +unction . A.2. U in& t!) '"c(&round (no%*)d&) "nd t!) in+or#"tion 1ro-id)d in t!) t)2t "'out co#1ut)r "rc!it)ctur) "nd or&"ni="tion0 "n %)r t!) +o**o%in& .u) tion : !" #hat is the term used to define the physical computer$ '" #hat is the term used to define the programs that run in a computer$ 3" >escribe the operating system and give e*amples" (" #hich is the operating principle of computer memory$ )" #hat is the difference bet een the t o types of computer memory$ 1" #hat is the bus and hat is its function$ 9" =ame at least three types of input devices" ;" #hat is the +0M$ 7" 2o does the +0M operate$ !0" =ame at least three output devices" B. VOCABU8ARY 9ORK T!) 1ur1o ) o+ t!) +o**o%in& )2)rci ) i to 1ro#ot) t!) "c.ui ition o+ n)% *)2ic"* it)# '$ 1ro-idin& co**oc"tion 0 t)r# +o**o%)d '$ 1r)1o ition *)2ic"* )t "nd tr"n *"tion o+ t!) t)r# con id)r)d r)*)-"nt to t!) to1ic. B.1. Fi** in t!) +o**o%in& di"&r"# %it! t!) #i in& t)r# :
I6PUT 5EVICES

OUTPUT 5EVICES

B.2. Fini ! t!) +o**o%in& )nt)nc) '$ 1ro-idin& t!) #i

in& %ord:

...i ;"r) c"**)d> !" The physical computer and its componentsNNNNNN" '" The unit that carries out program instructionsNNNNN 3" >evices that allo the user to communicate ith the computerNNN" (" >evices hat enable the computer to present information to the userNN" )" 2ard are lines or ires that connect these and other computer componentsNN 1" The programs that run the computerNNNNNNN"" 9" !,0'( bytes that can store about !,000 characters NNN" ;" The memory ithin these computer chipsNNNN 7" The flat cable ith numerous parallel ires allo ing the simultaneous transmission of !1 bits %' bytes& of information from one component to anotherNNN"" !0" The +0M memory location here information is storedNNN B.3. Add "t *)" t t%o #or) t)r# to )"c! o+ t!) )ri) &i-)n ')*o%: !" +0M, computer memory '" #indo s, Dinu* 3" /yte, megabyte, C. 8A6,UA,E FOCUS: E6UMERATIO6 T!) 1ur1o ) o+ t!) +o**o%in& )2)rci ) i to d)-)*o1 *"n&u"&) "%"r)n) in t)r# o+ )nu#)r"tion. C.1. 9!)n c*" i+$in& it i o+t)n n)c) "r$ to )nu#)r"t) t!) it)# ')*on&in& to " 1)ci+ic c"t)&or$. T!)$ "r) u u"**$ *i t)d in "n d) c)ndin& ).u)nc) r)+*)ctin& r)*)-"nt c!"r"ct)ri tic 0 uc! " t!)ir i#1ort"nc)0 i=)0 c"1"cit$ )tc. A** t)r# "r) )1"r"t)d '$ co##" 0 )2c)1t t!) *" t on) u u"**$ 1roc))d)d '$ A65 /"* o3. So#)ti#) t!) co##" i r)1*"c)d '$ " )#i?co*on. It coordin"t) or @oin t%o ind)1)nd)nt 'ut r)*"t)d c*"u ) or )nt)nc) . C.2. R)r)"d t!) t)2t "nd id)nti+$ "t *)" t 3 di++)r)nt )nu#)r"tion 1"tt)rn . 5. TRA6S8ATIO6 T!) 1ur1o ) o+ t!i )2)rci ) i to d)-)*o1 tr"n *"tin& (i** . 5.1. Tr"n *"t) t!) +o**o%in& t)r# into En&*i !: !" magistralB '" microprocesor 3" periferice de intrare (" periferice de ieCire )" sistem de operare 1" imprimantB 9" monitor ;" graficB 7" a rula un program !0" interfaAB E. SPEAKI6, T!) 1ur1o ) o+ t!) ) )2)rci ) i to d)-)*o1 1)"(in& (i** %it! " +ocu on co#1ut)r "rc!it)ctur) "nd or&"ni="tion. E.2. Pr) )nt"tion 5) cri') $our co#1ut)r "nd t!in( o+ t!r)) n)c) "r$ i#1ro-)#)nt "nd )21*"in t!) r)" on .