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Lab Background This week we will use strain gages to measure the strains on two different pressure vessels. The measured strains will then be used to calculate the stresses present in the pressure vessel walls. It is important to be able to measure the stresses in pressure vessel walls to ensure they are properly designed to prevent bursting or implosion. Lab Procedure Each group will be working with two different pressure vessels this week. The first vessel is a thinwalled steel pressure vessel. The second pressure vessel is thick-walled and made from aluminum. The following is a brief outline of the procedure you should follow for each vessel: Thin-Walled Steel ressure !essel "# $egin by observing and recording the orientation of the strain gage rosette on the vessel. $e sure to label which gage is which on your data sheet. %# &easure the orientation angle of the strain rosette. This angle should be measured as the angle between the a'ial direction of the cylinder and the gage closest to the a'ial direction (gage )#. *efine the '+ a'is to be along the same direction as gage ) and the y+ a'is to be along the direction of gage ,. -# .ero the amp/ set the gage factor/ and balance the strains on the strain indicators. 0# ,lose the pressure relief valve. 1# 2se the pump to increase the pressure inside the cylinder in %13 psi increments. Take readings from all three strain gages at every %13 psi increment until the pressure reaches %333 psi. 4# When finished/ open the pressure relief valve. Thick-Walled )luminum ressure !essel "# The two strain gages used for this vessel are oriented along two of the principal directions. 5age 6" is in the hoop direction and gage 6% is in the radial direction. %# .ero the amp/ set the gage factor/ and balance the strains on the strain indicator. 7ou will only be able to balance the strain for one of the strain gages. 8or the other gage/ record the strain at 3 psi and subtract this value from all your other strain values. -# ,lose the pressure relief valve. 0# 2se the pump to increase the pressure in "%1 psi increments. Take readings from the two strain gages at each "%1 psi increment. ,ontinue taking readings until the pressure reaches "333 psi. 1# When finished/ open the pressure relief valve. Calculations The calculations for this lab are fairly involved/ but by no means impossible to complete. If you have any difficulties/ feel free to contact me and I will help you with them. If you follow the steps listed below/ you should be able to complete your calculations without too much trouble. "# 2se E'cel to plot normal strain (y-a'is# vs. pressure ('-a'is# for each vessel. %# 2se linear regression to find the slope of each normal strain vs. pressure data set on your graph. There should be one line for each strain gage used. This will give you values for

εA εB ÷/ ÷/ and p p

εC ε" ε- ÷for the thin-walled vessel and values for ÷ (hoop direction# and ÷(radial direction# p p p for the thick walled vessel. -# 8ind the normal strains along the '+ and y+ a'es and the shearing strain for the thin-walled vessel by applying the e9uations for a 3/ 01/ :3; strain rosette which are given in E9. ("#.

E'perimental Aesults *escribe the method used in performing your calculations. Include a table or tables showing the following e'perimental values for the thin-walled vessel: σx > θp εy > σy > τx > y > σ% γx y εx > σ" > > p p p p p p p p 8or the thick-walled vessel create a table showing the following e'perimental values: εσε" σ" p p p p *iscussion of Aesults . ?# )pply the thin-wall theory given in E9. ) set of sample hand calculations should also be included. Include the two graphs created in E'cel. The following describes what is e'pected in two sections of your report. 4# 8rom either &ohr+s circle or the e9uations/ calculate the orientation of the principal a'es for the thin-walled vessel. The principal stresses in the thick-walled vessel can be found using a slightly different version of <ooke+s law shown as E9. (1# to both the thin-walled and thick-walled vessels to find a second set of reference values for your results. )lso/ describe how you found the reference values using the two pressure vessel theories.ompare your e'perimental principal stresses per unit pressure to the values predicted by the thin-walled and thick-walled theories. In theory/ the principal a'es should be directly aligned with the a'ial and hoop directions. Lab Report The report for this lab should be a memo written by your group worth "33 points. @# )lso apply the thick-wall theory given in E9. " ÷ will be the principal stress in the p σ hoop direction and % ÷will be the principal stress in the a'ial direction. Tables should be used to help organiBe all your comparisons. 2se percent errors to show how accurate the theories are.0# 8or the thin-walled vessel/ apply the bia'ial form of <ooke+s =aw given as E9. )lso/ compare your calculated orientation of the principal a'es to the actual orientation of the principal a'es. (0# to both of the vessels tested in the lab to find reference values for your results. . (%# to calculate τ x > y > σ x> σ y > p / p / and p . 7ou need to compare each e'perimental vessel to both of the theories. Presentation Each group will write their e'perimental values for the following on the board: Vessel Type σσ" σ% p p p Thin-Walled CD) Thick-Walled CD) Then two random groups will be asked 9uestions about the lab. $e sure to attach your initialed data sheet. (-#. 1# 8or the thin-walled vessel/ use either &ohr+s circle or the stress transformation e9uations to σ calculate the principal normal stresses per unit pressure. 7ou will already have p the principal normal stresses per unit pressure for the thick-walled vessel from step 0. &ake sure to show all the regression lines and their e9uations on the graph.

Strain Aosette ε A ε x> p = p (%# $ia'ial <ooke+s =aw σ x> E = p " −ν % εC p = ε y> p %ε B ε A ε C γ x > y > − + ÷= p p p p ε E normal strain/ inDin γ E shear strain/ rad pE gage pressure/ psi ε y> ε x> p +ν p σ y> ε E ε y> = +ν x > % p p " −ν p p =G (-# $ia'ial <ooke+s =aw σ" ε E ε" +ν . = % p " −ν p p σε E ε +ν " = % p " −ν p p τx> y > γ x>y> p σ " E principal hoop stress/ psi σ .E radial strain/ inDin (gage 6%# ε E normal strain/ inDin γ E shear strain/ rad pE gage pressure/ psi σ E normal stress/ psi τ E shear stress/ psi EE modulus of elasticity/ psi 5E modulus of rigidity/ psi υ E oisson+s ratio (1# Thick-Wall Theory b% a% " + r% σ" (hoop# = % % p b −a σ% a% = % % (a'ial# p b −a σp b% a% " − % r b% −a% (radial# (0# Thin-Wall Theory σ" p = a (hoop# t (4# Elastic .E principal radial stress/ psi ε" E hoop strain/ inDin (gage 6"# ε .Equations ("# 3/ 01/ :3.onstants Aelationship G= E %(" + υ ) σ% a = (a'ial# p %t σp = −" (radial# = a E inner radius/ in t E vessel wall thickness/ in a E inner radius/ in bE outer radius/ in r E radius to gage/ in .

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