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You are on page 1of 59

Winter Term 06/07

Prof. Dr. Stephan Simons

University of Applied Sciences Darmstadt

Master of Science in Electrical Engineering

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 2 Stephan Simons

Contents of the course

1. Introduction to automation systems

2. Fundamentals

a) numerical representations, b) logical functions and operations

3. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

a) basics, b) principle of operation, c) architecture, d) PLC family

4. PLC S7-300 with interface modules

5. Programming of a PLC

1. Overview PLC standard IEC 1131-3

2. Programming Languages for S7 family & program structure

3. Basic operations of STEP 7 in STL, LAD and FBD: Flags, Edge

evaluation, Result of logic operation & Status word, Set and reset

operations (flip flop), Timer instructions, Counter instructions,

Particular instructions

4. Program organization units

5. Indirect Addressing

6. Structured Control Language (S7-SCL)

7. Sequential Control Language (S7-Graph)

today

Repetition of last lecture

Comparison functions

Functions in STL, FBD & LAD; Example

Arithmetic functions

Functions in STL, FBD & LAD; Example Two step controller

Meaning of and working with EN input and ENO output

Mathematical functions

Functions in STL, FBD & LAD

Conversion functions

Functions in STL, FBD & LAD; Conversions to REAL; Conversions from REAL to INT

Example for mathematical function with conversion functions including normalization

Normalization of analog values using the AD & DA converter

Working with analog physical inputs (Conversion of transducer, AD converter,

Normalization, processing a mathematical function, conversion of DA converter,

conversion of actuator)

Jump instructions

J umps in STL, FBD & LAD; Additional jumps in STL incl. jump distributer and loop

Example: Using the jump instruction to restrict an analog value

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 4 Stephan Simons

Free PLC Development SW similar to STEP 7

http://www.mhj-software.com/de/

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 5 Stephan Simons

Comparison functions in STL

Comparison

function

INT DINT REAL

Equal ==I ==D ==R

Not equal <>I <>D <>R

Greater >I >D >R

Greater or equal >=I >=D >=R

Less <I <D <R

Less or equal <=I <=D <=R

INT: Integer DINT: Doubleinteger REAL: floating point

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 6 Stephan Simons

Example: Comparison functions in STL

The input word IW0 is compared with the literal 120

(10)

. If both values are

equal Bit Q4.0 shall be set to 1 , otherwise Q4.0 shall be 0.

No. STL Comments

1 A Q4.0

Q4.0

IW0

120

Q4.0

2 R // Q4.0 is set to 0

3 L // load IW0 into ACCU 1

4 L // transfer IW0 from ACCU 1 into ACCU 2 and load 120

// into ACCU 1

5 ==I // Compare ACCU 1 with ACCU 2 to be equal

6 S // Set Q4.0 to 1 if ACCU 1 = ACCU 2

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 7 Stephan Simons

Example comparison function in FBD

The input word IW0 is compared with the literal 120

(10)

. If both values are

equal Bit Q4.0 shall be set to 1 , otherwise Q4.0 shall be 0.

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 8 Stephan Simons

Arithmetic functions

Additional: DEC n (Decrements ACCU 1 by the value of n)

(only in STL) INC n (Increments ACCU 1 by the value of n)

Arithmetic function INT DINT REAL

Addition +I +D +R

Subtraction -I -D -R

Multiplication *I *D *R

Division with quotient as

result

/I /D /R

Division with remainder as

result

- MOD -

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 9 Stephan Simons

Examples for arithmetic functions

L MW0

L MW2

+I

T MW10

L MD0

L MD2

-D

T MD10

L MD0

L MD2

*R

T MD10

L MD0

L MD2

/R

T MD10

Fct. LAD FBD STL

I1-I2

I1+I2

I1*I2

I1/I2

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 10 Stephan Simons

Mathematical functions

Square, square-root

Sine, cosine, tangent

Arc sine, arc cosine, arc tangent

Exponential function to base e, natural logarithm

All these mathematical functions only work with values of the data type

REAL!

Conversion functions for REAL INTEGER (in STL):

lTD Conversion of INT to DINT

ITB Conversion of INT to BCD

DTR Conversion of DINT to REAL

RND Conversion of REAL to DINT with rounding to the next higher

integer number

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 11 Stephan Simons

Conversion

16 bit Integer

to

32 bit Integer

Conversion

32 bit Integer

to

REAL

Input Data

Integer

16 Bit

Program

algorithms

using REAL

Conversion functions INT DINT REAL

LAD FBD STL

MW12

MD20

MD20

MD28

L MW12

ITD

T MD20

L MD20

DTR

T MD28

MW12

MD20

MD20

MD28

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 12 Stephan Simons

Conversion fromReal 32 bit DINT

Round (FBD & LAD) / RND (STL): Rounds to the next integer. When the fraction

of the number is exactly between an even and uneven result, the operation chooses

the even result. Examples: +1.49 +1; 1.5 2; 2.5 2; 2.51 3

Trunc: Round with truncation of the fraction part. The result is only the integer part

of the real data. Examples: 1.6 1.

Ceil / RND+: Round to the next highest integer. This operation rounds the

converted number to the smallest integer, that is greater than or equal to the

converted integer. Examples: +1.2 +2; -1.5 -1.

Floor / RND-: Round to the next lowest integer. This operation rounds the

converted number to the largest integer, that is smaller or equal to the converted

integer. Examples: +1.5 +1; -1.5 -2.

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 13 Stephan Simons

Conversion function: Example

(PIW288) (PQW320)

Analog Input: PIW288 (16 bit Integer)

Analog Output: PQW320 (16 bit Integer)

Realize the following function f(x) with a PLC:

x * . y 16 3 =

with: 0V <= x <= 10V, 0V <= y <= 10V

0V 10 V 0 27648

(10)

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 14 Stephan Simons

Normalization (Scaling)

x y * 16 , 3 =

V 10 27648

int

=

8 , 2764 *

int

y y =

8 , 2764 *

int

x x =

8 , 2764

* 16 , 3

8 , 2764

int int

x y

=

int int

* 8 , 2764 * 16 , 3 x y =

int int

* 157 , 166 x y =

7)

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 15 Stephan Simons

Internal representation of analog value in case of

bipolar measurement range

Increments Voltage

measurement range

Current

measurement range

Range

dec. hex. 10 V 20 mA

32767 7FFF 11,851 V 23,70 mA

32512 7F00

32511 7EFF 11,759 V 23,52 mA

27649 6C01

27648 6C00 10 V 20 mA

20736 5100 7,5 V 15 mA

1 1 361,7 V 723,4 nA

0 0 0 V 0 mA

1 FFFF -361,7 V -723,4 nA

20736 AF00 7,5 V 15 mA

27648 9400 10 V 20 mA

27649 93FF

32512 8100 11,759 V 23,52 mA

32513 80FF

32768 8000 11,851 V 23,70 mA

Underflow

Underrange

Rated range

Overange

Overflow

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 16 Stephan Simons

Table for normalization

System Voltage

measurement

range

Current measurement range Range

dez. hex. 10 V 0..10 V 20 mA 0..20 mA 4..20 mA

27648 6C00 10 V 10 V 20 mA 20 mA 20 mA

0 0 0 V 0 V 0 mA 0 mA 4 mA

27648 9400 10 V 20 mA

Rated

range

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 17 Stephan Simons

Revolution measurement: transducer

10 V, 20 mA, 16 mA

1000 U/min

365

500 865

1500 rpm

0 27648 Incr. 13824

1000

10092

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 18 Stephan Simons

Analog value conversion and processing

865 rpm 3,65 V 10092 Incr

10092

(INT)

10092

(DINT)

10092,0

10092,0 *2,2 22202,4

22202,4 22202

(DINT)

22202 Incr

22202 Incr 8,03 V 1303 rpm

Transducer

A/D-Converter

L PIWn

ITD DTR

Programmed algortihm

RND T PQWn

Actuator

D/A-Converter

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 19 Stephan Simons

J ump unconditional

LAD FBD STL

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 20 Stephan Simons

J umps conditional

LAD FBD STL

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 21 Stephan Simons

All jump instructions in STL

Unconditionally jumps:

JU label J ump Unconditional

JL label J ump to Labels

J umps based on RLO:

JC label J ump if RLO = 1

JCN label J ump if RLO = 0

JCB label J ump if RLO = 1 with BR

JNB label J ump if RLO = 0 with BR

J umps based on another bit in the status

word:

JBI label J ump if BR = 1

JNBI label J ump if BR = 0

JO label J ump if OV = 1

JOS label J ump if OS = 1

J umps based on the result of a

calculation:

JZ label J ump if Zero

JN label J ump if Not Zero

JP label J ump if Plus

JM label J ump if Minus

JPZ label J ump if Plus or Zero

JMZ label J ump if Minus or Zero

JUO label J ump if Unordered

Loop instruction

LOOP label call a program

segment multiple

times

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 22 Stephan Simons

Instruction contents of lecture

Bit logic instructions

Bit logic instructions with expressions in parenthesize

Edge triggered instructions

Memory functions: Setting / Resetting bit addresses

Timer instructions

Counter instructions

Load and transfer instructions

Comparison instructions

Integer and floating-point arithmetic instructions

Floating point mathematical instructions

Jump instructions

Contents of the course

1. Introduction to automation systems

2. Fundamentals

a) numerical representations, b) logical functions and operations

3. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

a) basics, b) principle of operation, c) architecture, d) PLC family

4. PLC S7-300 with interface modules

5. Programming of a PLC

1. Overview PLC standard IEC 1131-3

2. Programming Languages for S7 family & program structure

3. Basic operations of STEP 7 in STL, LAD and FBD: Flags, Edge

evaluation, Result of logic operation & Status word, Set and reset

operations (flip flop), Timer instructions, Counter instructions,

Particular instructions

4. Program organization units

5. Indirect Addressing

6. Structured Control Language (S7-SCL)

7. Sequential Control Language (S7-Graph)

Functions

Circuit diagram of a hwp realization:

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 25 Stephan Simons

Functions

Circuit diagram of a hwp realization:

Logic plan

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 26 Stephan Simons

Logic plan

PLC realization:

Inputs

I0.1 I0.2 I0.3 I0.4

PLC S7-300

Q4.1

I0.5

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 27 Stephan Simons

Logic plan

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 28 Stephan Simons

Declaration of the variables of the function

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 29 Stephan Simons

Networks of the function using symbolic variables

Logic plan

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 30 Stephan Simons

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 31 Stephan Simons

Declaration of variables of OB1

Only system variables are declared!

No declaration of variables for function FC0 are needed!

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 32 Stephan Simons

Calling of function FC0 withihn OB1

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 33 Stephan Simons

Logic diagramof a BCD counter

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 34 Stephan Simons

BCD-Counter with J K-FFs

1.) Designing a function block for J K-FF

R: reset input

X: 0 or 1

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 35 Stephan Simons

Logic diagramJ K-FF: Realization with mit two

memory FF (Master-Slave)

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 36 Stephan Simons

Function block J K-FF: Declaration of the variables

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 37 Stephan Simons

Function

block

J K-FF:

Networks

1 & 2

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 38 Stephan Simons

Function block J K-FF: Networks 3 & 4

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 39 Stephan Simons

OB1 calling function block FB11 (J K-FF) with

instance data block DB11

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 40 Stephan Simons

OB1 calling function block FB11 (J K-FF) with

instance data block DB11

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 41 Stephan Simons

Instanz-Datenbaustein DB11 fr J K-FF

Funktionsbaustein

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 42 Stephan Simons

Usage of instance data blocks in STEP 7

1.) Generate a function block (Insert, S7 block, Function Block)!

2.) Declare the interface variables in the function block and implement the

algorithms of the function block!

3.) Insert a call of the function block at the desired place e.g. in OB1 by

double clicking on it in the container FB blocksof the program

elementsoverview.

4.) Specify the instance data block number for the inserted function block!

The data block will be generated automatically after inquiring if it does not

exist at that time.

5.) If the function block shall be used at another place of the program with

another instance data block, insert it there once again and specify the

appropriate instance data block!

6.) If the interface parameters of a function block are changed, the data block

has to be generated new (as a precaution delete the data block before!)

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 43 Stephan Simons

Logic diagramof a BCD counter

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 44 Stephan Simons

Inputs and outputs of BCD counter realization

Clock input for all FFs: I0.0

Reset input for all FFs: I0.7

FFA: J A=KA: I0.1=1, QA: Q4.0, QA: Q4.4

FFB: QB: Q4.1, QB: Q4.5

FFC: QC: Q4.2, QC: Q4.6

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 45 Stephan Simons

Realization of BCD counter (I)

Network 1: FFA

1. J K-FF. Instance data block: DB11

J =K=I0.1=1, Clock=I0.0, R=I0.7,

QA=A4.0, QAN=Q4.4

Network 2: FFB:

2. J K-FF. Instance data block: DB12

QB=A4.1, QBN=Q4.5

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 46 Stephan Simons

Realization of BCD counter (II)

Network 4: FFD

4. J K-FF. Instance data block: DB14

QD=A4.3, QDN=Q4.7

Network 3: FFC:

3. J K-FF. Instance data block: DB13

QC=A4.2, QCN=Q4.6

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 47 Stephan Simons

Realizing the BCD counter with mutliple instances

Programthe J K-FlipFlop in FB11!

Generate a newfunction block e.g. FB5!

Declare the flipflops FFA, FFB, FFC and FFD in the interface variable

declaration section of function block FB5 as static variables of data type

FB11. By this all variables needed by the several calls of function block

FB11 are created as local variables in FB5.

Insert each flipflop at the desired place in FB5 by picking the appropriate

flipflop (e.g. FFA) fromthe container multiple instancesof the program

elementsoverview.

Call the function block FB5 at the desired place in OB1 one time and

specify the instance data block. This instance data block contains all

parameters of all flipflops declared in FB5.

Realization see pdf files in

Example BCD counter with mutli instances.zip

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 48 Stephan Simons

Event-driven

program

processing

of a S7 PLC

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 49 Stephan Simons

Symbolic addressing

In functions and function blocks only use

symbolic addressing (also in exam)!

Its also possible to use symbolic addressing in organization

blocks:

Therefore open LAD/STL/FBD Editor and

choose Symbol tablein menue Options.

Declare the symbols in the table.

Those symbols can afterwards be used globally.

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 50 Stephan Simons

Important OBs used beside OB1

OB100 ( startup OB )

Determines the startup behavior of the PLC.

Is processed once directly after power up of the PLC (before first

instruction of other OBs e.g. of OB1).

Is used to set initial values for the PLC outputs or global variables.

Makes sure, that the process gets into a safe state if the voltage of

the PLC returns after a power failure.

OB35 ( Cyclic interrupt OB )

Realizes start of processing of programs in fixed time intervals i.e.

programs are processed with fixed sampling rates.

Is used to realize digital control loops or to sample measurement

values with fixed sampling rates.

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 51 Stephan Simons

Generating organization blocks in STEP 7

In SIMATIC Manager in container Blocks ( Bausteine ) of the project tree

choose Insert , S7 Block , Organization Block from the menu bar

OB100 is processed automatically first after power failure after downloading

the program into the PLC

Definition of the execution time (sampling rate) of a cyclic interrupt

organization block:

Select the desired SIMATIC station in the SIMATIC Manager e.g. SIMATIC

300(1)

Open the hardware configuration by double clicking on the Hardware icon

Select the CPU in Slot 2

Choose Edit, Object propertiesfrom the menu bar

Choose the Cyclic Interruptsection

Define the priority and the execution time (sample time in ms)

Download hardware configuration to PLC

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 52 Stephan Simons

Example for a global data blocks

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 53 Stephan Simons

Generating a global data block in STEP 7

In SIMATIC Manager in container Blocks

(Bausteine) of the project tree choose Insert,

S7 Block, Data Blockfrom the menu bar

Afterwards open the data block by double clicking

on it and declare data by inserting the data in the

table.

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 54 Stephan Simons

Indirect Addressing

Using indirect addressing addresses can be changed when

processing the program.

The indirect addressing is only possible with absolute

addressing!

Symbolic variables can not be addressed indirectly.

Indirect addressing exists only in STL, but not in FBD or LAD!

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 55 Stephan Simons

Indirect Addressing

Absolute addressing recognizes the following cases:

Immediate addressing

direct addressing

indirect addressing.

Immediate addressing means that the number value is specified

together with the operation. Example: L +152

With direct addressing data the address is given together with the

operator. Example: A I 0.5

With indirect addressing the statement indicates where the address is

to be found instead of containing the address itself.

There are two types of indirect addressing:

Memory-inidirect addressing

Register-indirect addressing.

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 56 Stephan Simons

Memory-indirect addressing

Uses an address from the system memory

Example: T QW [MD 220]

The address of the output word is located in the memory double word

MD 220.

The address in the has the form of an area-internal pointer

Area-internal pointer

A double word with 32 bit width with the following structure:

For a simplification the address can be loaded as a pointer.

Byte n Byte n+1 Byte n+2 Byte n+3

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y x x x

Byte address Bit address

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 57 Stephan Simons

Examples for memory-indirect addressing

1. Example: Load address using a pointer

L P#0. 1 // Load pointer with address 0.1 into ACCU 1.

T MD 10 // Transfer pointer 0.1 from ACCU1 to MD10.

A I [ MD 10] // Load I0.1.

A I 0. 2 // I0.1 AND I0.2

= Q 4. 0 // Assign (I0.1 AND I0.2) to output Q4.0

2. Example: Load address directly:

L 16#00000001 // Address 0.1 is loaded directly in hex-code into ACCU1;

// Byte address: y...y = 0, Bit address: xxx = 1.

T MD 10 // Transfer Pointer 0.1 from ACCU1 to MD 10.

A I [ MD10] // Load I0.1.

A I 0. 2 // I0.1 AND I0.2

= Q 4. 0 // Assign (I0.1 AND I0.2) to output Q4.0

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 58 Stephan Simons

L 4 // Load 4

T MW20 // Transfer 4 into MW 20.

OPN DB [ MW20] // Open global DB4.

L DBW4 // Load DW 4 of DB4 into ACCU 1.

T QW4 // Transfer DW 4 to output QW 4.

OB1: 1. Example: Indirect addressing of blocks

With a number blocks can be addressed indirectly.

Network 1: Indirect addressing of a data block

The data block number is located in memory word MW 20 (e.g. data block no. = 4).

DB 4:

Course Computer Based Automation WS 06/07 59 Stephan Simons

L 4 // Load 4

T MW20 // Transfer 4 to MW 20.

A I 0. 2

CU C [ MW20] // Count up

A I 0. 3

CD C [ MW20] // Count down

A I 0. 4

L C#20

S C [ MW20] // Load value 20 into counter.

A I 0. 7

R C [ MW20] // Reset counter to 0.

L C [ MW20] // Load counter value in dual code.

T MW10 // Transfer counter value to MW10.

NOP 0

A C [ MW20] // Get binary counter output.

= Q 5. 7 // Assign binary counter output to Q5.7

OB1: 2. Example: Indirect addressing of blocks

With a number blocks can be addressed indirectly.

Network: 1 Indirect addressing of a counter

Usage of the counter with the number located in MW 20 (here 4).

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