f^; ikBd`ks`! vkid`h ¥ksd`f^; ,oa lokZxzx≥; if(d`k ‘^fr;ksfxrk niZ.

’ d`k uoEcj vad` vkids` le” ^Lrqr d`jrs gq, geÍ g"Z gks jgk gS\ bl vad` d`ks Hh] vU; vad`kÍ d`h Hk∑fr] vf|d`kf|d` ijh{kksi;ksxh cukus d`k ^;kl fd`;k x;k gS\ geÍ fo'okl gS fd` ^Lrqr vad` vkid`h vkd`ka{kkvkÍ ds` vuqÔi mikns; gksxk\ fofHUu izfr;ksxh ijh{kkvkÍ eÍ ¥kHnk;d` gksus d`h n~fÆV ls bl vad` eÍ vusd` egRoiw.Z fo";kÍ d`k fo'¥s".kRed` fucU÷kkÍ ds` Ôi eÍ v÷;;u d`jk;k x;k gS\ bueÍ ls dq`N fucU÷k bl ^d`kj gß%oSf'od` fo®h; lad`V ls (Lr fu|Zu ns'k] fo'o eÍ efg¥k vf|d`kjkÍ d`h fLFkfr] i;kZoj. ^cU|u vkfn\ if(d`k ds` lokZf|d` egRoiw.Z Hkx eÍ fofHUu izfr;ksxh ijh{kkvkÍ ds` p;fur iz'u-i( vko';d` O;k“;k ,oa lads`rkÍ ds` lkFk fn, x, gß\ bueÍ ls dq`N ^'u–i( bl ^d`kj gß% lkekU; v÷;;u%vkxkeh Hkjrh; flfo¥ lsok ·eq“;‚ ijh{kk] 2009 gsrq fo'ks" ekWM¥ g¥ ^'u-i(\ oLrqfuÆB lkekU; Kku%(i) ;wukbVsM bf≥M;k ba';ksjÍl d`Eiuh ^'kklfud` vf|d`kjh ijh”k] 2009, (ii) fgekp¥ ^ns'k ¥ksd` lsok vk;ksx ·^k\‚ ijh”k] 2009, (iii) ,l\,l\lh\ lh\ih\vks\ lc-baLisDVj ijh”k] 2009, (iv) ih\,u\ch\ d~`f" vf|d`kjh ijh{kk] 2009. ,sfPNd` fo"; # (i) fof|%m®jk[≥M ¥ksd` lsok vk;ksx ·^k\‚ ijh”k] 2006, (ii) vkj\,\,l\/vkj\Vh\,l\ ·^k\‚ ijh”k] 2008, (iii) lkekU; fgUnh%>kj[≥M ¥ksd` lsok vk;ksx eq“; ijh”k] 2006. rdZ`{kerk ijh{kk%(i) ;wukbVsM bf≥M;k ba';ksjÍl d`Eiuh ^'kklfud` vf|d`kjh ijh”k] 2009, (iii) LVsV cßd` vkWœ` bf≥M;k fo'ks"K vf|d`kjh ijh{kk] 2009. la“;kRed` vfH;ksX;rk%xqÈMxk∑o xzkeh. cßd` vkWœ`hllZ ijh”k] 2009. fofHUu ^fr;ksxh ijh{kkvkÍ ds` VkWilZ ,oa vU; lœ`¥ v˙;fFkZ;kÍ ds` fujUrj lEidZ` eÍ jgus ls ^kIr lœ`¥rk-jgL;kÍ/ea(kÍ d`ks ge vkids` lkFk ck∑Vuk pkgrs gß\ loZfuÆB Ôi ls ;g rF; lkeus vk;k gS fd` lœ`¥rk ds` f¥, ;kstukc* d`fBu ifjJe] vkRefo'okl ,oa lgh ekxZn'kZu vifjgk;Z gß\ buds` fcuk lœ`¥rk d`h ds`o¥ d`Yiuk gh d`h tk ld`rh gS] mld`k oj. ugÓ\ ge psrkouh ds` Ôi eÍ vkils fuosnu d`juk pkgrs gß fd` ds`o¥ eu-eksnd` œ`ksÈMus ls d`ke ugÓ p¥sxk\ lœ`¥rk ^kIr d`jus ds` f¥, mi;qZDr ds` vfrfjDr d`ksbZ vU; ekxZ ugÓ gS\ vki ^;kl d`hft, ‘^fr;ksfxrk niZ.’ vkid`k ekxZn'kZu d`jsxh rFkk vU; mi;qDr lkexzh ^Lrqr d`jsxh\ fu;fer Ôi ls le>nkjh ds` lkƒ izfr;ksfxrk niZ. ifÈ<,\ ;g vkid`ks vHhÆV lœ`¥rk fn¥kus ,oa vkids` mTTo¥ HfoÆ; d`k fuekZ. d`jus eÍ iw.Zr# l”e gS\ egsUê tSu vkid`h prqfnZd` lœ`¥rk ,oa Lof.Ze HfoÆ; d`h gkfnZd` æqHd`keukvkÍ lfgr
·lEiknd`‚

2009
11 vDVwcj%Hkjrh; fjtoZ cßd` ch xzsM vf|d`kfj;kÍ d`h HrhZ ijh{kk ·^ƒe pj.‚ 22 vDVwcj%flfo¥ lfoZlst eq“; ijh”k] 2009 25 vDVwcj%U;w bafM;k ,';ksjÍl d`Eiuh ^æklfud` vf÷kd`kfj;kÍ d`h HrhZ ijh”k 25 vDVwcj%xqÈMxk∑o xzkeh. cßd` vf|d`kjh Lds`¥-I HrhZ ijh”k 25 vDVwcj%m\ ^\ eÍ flaMhds`V cßd` }kjk ^ƒek cßd` eÍ vf÷kd`kfj;kÍ ·Lds`¥–I‚ d`h HrhZ

ijh”k
1 uoEcj%Js;l xzkeh. cßd` foæs"K vf÷kd`kfj;kÍ d`h HrhZ ijh”k 1 uoEcj%m®jkap¥ xzkeh. cßd` f¥fid` lg–jksd`fÈM;k HrhZ ijh”k 1 uoEcj%xqÈMxk∑o xzkeh. cßd` f¥fid`-lg-jksd`fÈM;k HrhZ ijh”k 1 uoEcj%m\ ^\ eÍ flaMhds`V cßd` }kjk ^ƒek cßd` eÍ d`k;kZ¥; lgk;d`kÍ/f¥fid`kÍ d`h HrhZ

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2010
10 tuojh%;wfu;u

cßd` D¥sjhd`¥ dS`Mj ijh”k ·vkWu¥kbu vfUre frfƒ%31 vDVwcj] 14 œ`jojh%la? ¥ksd` lsok vk;ksx lfEef¥r j”k lsok ijh”k (I), 2010 ·vfUre frfƒ%26 vDVwcj]

2009‚ 2009‚

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/642

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2009

645 646 652 657 662 668 673 679 681 686 688 691 693 695 701 706 708 711 713 714 716 720 724 728

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800 801 802 803 806 809 810 English Language—Andhra Bank Marketing Associates Exam., 2009

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^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/643

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thus dh dyk lw;Z ls lhf[k,
lw;Z leLr ^d`kæ d`k lzksr gS lkƒ gh vR;Ur foLr~r vkSj foæk¥ gS\ og ^k.nk;d` vkSj ewfrZear thou gS\ lw;Z fnu Hj rius ds` i'pkrΩ jkf( d`ks foJke d`jrk gS rƒk ^kr#d`k¥ v:`. Ôi gksd`j mn; gksrk gS\ mld`k næZu vkæk] Lœw`frZ ,oa vkuUn d`k gsrq gksrk gS\ ge Hh lw;Z d`h Hk∑fr fuR; uohu mRlkg ,oa Lœw`frZ ¥sd`j mn; gks ld`rs gß] fnu Hj d`k;Z d`jrs gq, gekjh d`ksfæd`kvkÍ d`k ”; gksrk gS rƒk jkf( eÍ foJke d`k¥ eÍ d`ksfæd`kvkÍ d`k iqu# fuekZ. gks tkrk gS\ bl ^d`kj ^d~`fr geÍ fuR; u;k Ôi ^nku d`jrh gS\ thou vkSj vejrk d`k jgL; ;gh gS] ijUrq ge bl rF; ds` ^fr tkxÔd` ugÓ gksrs\ MkW\ jk|kd~`Æ.u us Bhd` gh d`gk gS ‘vkfn ls vUr rd` gekjk thou ,d` ^d`kj d`h e~R;q gS ftld`k vƒZ gS%fuR; u, thou d`h ^kfIr’\ blh ckr d`ks nkæZfud` I¥sVks us bl ^d`kj d`gk gS fd` ‘;g egRoiw.Z ugÓ gS fd` ge fd`rus fnu thfor jgrs gß] egRoiw.Z ;g gS fd` ge fd`l ^d`kj thfor jgrs gß\’ ge thou eÍ u;k ^d`kæ rHh ^nku d`j ld`rs gß] tc lw;Z d`h Hk∑fr fpj uohu Lœw`frZ ds` lkƒ fujUrj rirs gq, d`k;Zjr cus jgÍ\ thou d`k mˆs'; lR; d`h lk|uk gS vkSj ^d`kæ lR; d`k ^rhd` gS\
xq:nso jchUnzukƒ VSxksj us ,d` Lƒku ij f¥[k gS fd` ^kr# mxrs gq, lw;Z us pkjkÍ vksj viuk ^d`kæ-iqat fod`h.Z d`j fn;k\ ,slk d`jrs gq, mlus fd`lh ^d`kj d`k HsnHko ugÓ fd`;k\ ml n~'; us esjs ≤n; eÍ ,d` fofp( ^d`kj d`h ihÈMk mRiUu d`j nh vkSj eß lekurk d`h Hkouk }kjk vfHHwr gks mBk\ lekurk d`h Hkouk us eq>s fo'o-ekuo d`h d`Yiuk ^nku d`j nh vkSj eß fo'o-osnuk d`k xk;d` cu x;k\ d`ohUnz ds` d`ƒu d`k vfH^k;# LiÆV gS fd` tc ckgj d`k ^d`kæ Hhrj d`k ^d`kæ cu tkrk gS] rc jchUnz ukƒ ln~æ fo'o d`fo ,oa vej xk;d` d`k fuekZ. gksrk gS\ vkUrfjd` ^d`kæ ds` vHko eÍ ckÌ ^d`kæ O;ƒZ jgrk gS\ eu d`h vk∑[Í u [q¥Í] rks eLrd` d`h vk∑[Í ek( eksj ia[ d`h vk∑[Í cuh jgrh gß\ xksfi;kÍ us Kkuh m*o ls ;gh d`gk ƒk fd`] ‘˜|ks! Jhd~`Æ.-næZu ds` f¥, vf[;k∑ pgß] u eksj vf[;k∑ pgß\’ lO;ZO;kih ^d`kæ gh lkƒZd` gksrk gS\ og ckÌ gks vƒok vkUrfjd`\ og loZxzkgh ,oa loZxzkgh gksuk pkfg,\ ,d` jktk ds` rhu ¥ÈMds` ƒs\ mlus ^R;sd` d`ks ,d` fuf'pr |ujkfæ nsd`j d`gk%‘bl |u ls tks ,slh oLrq ¥k,xk] tks iwjs ?j eÍ lek tk,] mld`ks eß viuk m®jkf|d`kjh cuk nw∑xk\’ jktk d`h vkKk lqud`j vkSj eu eÍ jkT;-^kfIr d`h bPNk ¥sd`j rhukÍ ¥ÈMds` ogk∑ ls p¥s x,\ ig¥k ¥ÈMd`k ,d` cÈMk x¥hpk ¥s vk;k] ijUrq og NksVk iÈM x;k\ nwljk ¥ÈMd`k ,d` cgqr
^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/645

u ihNs d`h vksj ns[rk gS vkSj u chrk gqvk le; gh okil vkrk gS\ ;fn ge lw;Z d`h Hk∑fr fuR; uohu ¥{; ¥sd`j thou eÍ vxzlj gksuk pkgrs gß] rks geÍ fd`dsZ` xkMZ (Kierke Gaard) d`k ;g d`ƒu ;kn j[uk pkfg, fd`%“Life can only be
understood backwards, but it must be lived forwards.” thou eÍ lœ`¥ gksus ds`

cÈMk niZ. ¥sd`j ¥kSVk] mleÍ iwjs ?j d`k ^frfcEc vk x;k] ijUrq og nl feuV ckn gh VwV x;k\ rhljk ¥ÈMd`k tc ¥kSVk] rc mlds` gkƒ eÍ ,d` eksec®h ƒh\ eksec®h us iwjs ?j d`ks ^d`kfær d`j fn;k vkSj og fujUrj ^d`kæeku jgh\ jktk us blh ¥ÈMds` d`ks m®jkf|d`kjh ?ksf"r d`j fn;k] D;kÍfd` mlus ?j d`ks ^d`kfær d`jus d`h lad`Yiuk d`h ƒh\ thou d`h lkƒZd`rk ;gh gS fd` ge ^d`kæ œS`¥k,a] ftlls va|d`kj d`k ukæ gks vkSj jkLrs fn[kbZ nsus ¥xÍ\ ,d` iqjkuh d`gkuh ds` vuqlkj%,d` va|k O;fDr lnSo vius gkƒ eÍ t¥rh gqbZ ¥k¥Vsu j[rk ƒk\ blls nks ¥kH gksrs ƒs\ jkgxhj va|s d`ks ns[ ¥srs ƒs vkSj va|k O;fDr lqjf”r cuk jgrk ƒk\ lkƒ gh jkgxhjkÍ d`ks va|sjs eÍ viuk jkLrk ns[us eÍ lgk;rk ^nku d`jrk ƒk\ mDr d`gkuh d`k fuÆd`"Z ;g Bgjrk gS fd` foLrkj Hkouk ds` ^fr tkxÔd` ck¥d` jkT; d`k vf|d`kjh curk gS\ Lokeh foosd`kuUn us blh thou-lw( d`ks ¥{; d`jrs gq, d`gk gS fd`] ∏thou d`k ig¥k vkSj LiÆV ¥”. gS%foLrkj\ ;fn rqe thfor jguk pkgrs gks] rks rqEgÍ œS`¥uk gksxk\ ftl le; rqe thou d`k foLrkj cUn d`j nksxs] mlh ”. tku ¥suk fd` foif®;k∑ rqEgkjs lkeus gß\’ foif®;k∑ gh D;kÍ] e~R;q rqEgkjs lkeus gS] D;kÍfd` fod`kl thou d`k ¥”. gS vkSj bld`k vHko e~R;q d`k ifjpk;d` gS\ lw;Z fujUrj p¥rk jgrk gS] mlds` lkƒ le; Hh O;rhr gksrk tkrk gS\ lw;Z

f¥, O;fDr d`ks lnSo ;g lkspuk pkfg, fd` mls d`¥ D;k d`juk gS = blds` f¥, og chrs gq, d`¥ ls fæ”k ¥s ld`rk gS] ijUrq mlls fpids` jguk] mlds` f¥, d`Hh Hh ¥kHnk;d` fl* ugÓ gksxk\ vf|d`kaæ O;fDr ;gh ugÓ le> ikrs gß fd` bl vYithou eÍ os D;k d`jÍ] ijUrq lkƒ gh og ;g Hh lad`Yiuk d`jrs gß fd` mud`k vx¥k thou cgqr cÈMk gksxk\ os d`Hh ;g ugÓ lksprs fd` ^d~`fr d`k d`ksbZ inkƒZ vius orZeku thou d`ks rqPN ugÓ le>rk gS] D;kÍfd` mld`k vx¥k thou cgqr mi;ksxh ,oa ewY;oku gksxk\ mnkgj. ds` f¥,] xq¥kc d`k œw`¥ ;»fi vYid`k¥ rd` f[¥rk gS] rƒkfi og leLr ok;qe≥M¥ d`ks lqjfHr d`j nsrk gS\ xq¥kc d`h ^R;sd` d`¥h d`h ;gh d`gkuh gS fd` og orZeku d`ks lqjfHr d`jds` viuk thou lkƒZd` d`jrh gS\ xq¥kc ;fn vius thou d`h LoYirk d`ks rqPNrk le> cSBs] rks mld`k f[¥uk ,oa ok;qe≥M¥ d`k lqjfHr gksuk lekIr gks tk,\ fo'o ^iap d`k ,d` d`. Hh ;fn viuh rqPNrk d`h vuqHwfr }kjk vfHHwr gksd`j fufÆ∂`; gks tk,] rks fo'o d`h ijek.q Δk~a[¥k [f≥Mr gks tk, vkSj ^¥; d`k n~'; mifLƒr gks tk,\ tks O;fDr ^d~`fr ds` bl fu;e ds` vuqlkj thou d`ks mRlkgiwoZd` ugÓ thrs gß] os ekuks u, tUe d`h reUuk eÍ [qndq`æh d`j ¥srs gß\ lw;Z jfDreo.Z mfnr gksrk gS vkSj jfDreo.Z gh vLr gksrk gS\ og fo'o d`ks nsuk tkurk gS] mlls ¥suk ugÓ] D;kÍfd` vkfn ls vUr rd` ,d`lk cuk jgrk gS\ mlds` thou d`k ^R;sd` ”. mRlkg vkSj foLrkj-Hkouk }kjk iwfjr cuk jgrk gS\ fopkjd` lSeqv¥ tkWUlu us Bhd` gh d`gk gS fd`] ∏lEiUu gksd`j ejus d`h vis”k lEiUu thou O;rhr d`juk d`gÓ vf|d` JsÆB gSπ (It is better to live rich than
to die rich.)

O;kogkfjd` thou d`k ;g lw( euu d`jus ;ksX; gS fd` egRoiw.Z ;g ugÓ gS fd` ge fd`lh fl*kUr ds` f¥, ^k. R;kxrs gß] cfYd` egRoiw.Z ;g gS fd` ge fd`lh fl*kUr ds` f¥, thfor jgrs gß\ lw;ksZn; eÍ tks ukVd` Hjk gS] lkSUn;Z Hjk gS tks ¥h¥k Hjh gS] og gekjs thou d`h ^sj.k gksuh pkfg, fd` ftUnxh Hksj gS] lwjt ls fud`¥rs jfg,\ ●●●

ih,l,¥oh-lh14 }kjk leqnz fuxjkuh mixzg vks'kulSV-2 d`k lœ`¥ iz{ksi.
varfj{k foKku ds` {ks( eÍ ,d vkSj mi¥fC| Hkjrh; varfj{k vuqla|ku laxBu (ISRO) us 23 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks ml le; izkIr d`h tc lkeqfnzd` vuqla|kukÍ ds` f¥, vR;k|q f ud` mixz g vks ' kulS V - 2 (Ocean sat-2) d`k lœ`¥ iz{ksi. fd`;k x;k\ 960 fd`xzk otu ok¥s bl lkeqfnzd` fuxjkuh mixzg d`ks i~Foh d`h ¥xHx 720 fd`eh ˜∑ph |zqoh; d`{kk eÍ Lƒkfir fd`;k x;k gS\ ;g iz{ksi. iks¥j lSVs¥kbV ¥k∑p Oghd`¥ (PSLV-C14) ds` }kjk vkU|z izns'k eÍ Jhgfjd`ksVk fLƒr lrh'k |ou varfj{k ds`Unz ls fd`;k x;k\

KkrO; gS fd` izk;# mixzg d`h ¥kxr ls d`gÓ vf|d` [pZ mlds` iz{ksi. ij vkrk gS\ varjkZÆV_h; cktkj eÍ izfr ,d` fd`xzk\ otu d`h 500-700 fd`eh\ ˜∑pkbZ ok¥h d`{kk eÍ iz{ksi. d`k ewY; ¥xHx 10 gtkj MkW¥j gS] tcfd` 36000 fd`eh d`h ˜∑pkbZ ok¥h Hw-LƒSfrd` d`{kk eÍ iz{ksi. d`k [pZ ¥xHx 25 gtkj MkW¥j izfr fd`xzk\ cSBrk gS\

ih,l,¥oh d`h mÈMkuÍ
ih,l,¥oh-Mh1 ih,l,¥oh-Mh2 ih,l,¥oh-Mh3 ih,l,¥oh-lh1 ih,l,¥oh-lh2 ih,l,¥oh-lh3 ih,l,¥oh-lh4 ih,l,¥oh-lh5 ih,l,¥oh-lh6 ih,l,¥oh-lh7 ih,l,¥oh-lh8 ih,l,¥oh-lh10 ih,l,¥oh-lh9 ih,l,¥oh-lh11 ih,l,¥oh-lh12 ih,l,¥oh-lh14
20 flrEcj] 1993

``ih,l,¥oh-lh 14 }kjk leqnz fuxjkuh mixzg vksæulSV-2 d`k lœ`¥ iz{ksi. ``pUnzek d`h lrg ij ikuh d`h [kst # pUnz;ku-1 d`h cÈMh mi¥fC| ``lk{kj Hkjr feæu ``vkU|z izns'k ds` eq“;ea(h okbZ ,l vkj jsMΩMh d`k gs¥hd`kWIVj nq?ZVuk eÍ fu|u ``lkekU; ls 20-21 izfr'kr d`e jgh bl o"Z ekulwuh o"kZ ``ukS u, ,uvkbZVh Lƒkfir d`jus d`h ;kstuk ``lhch,lbZ d`h nloÓ d`{kk d`h ijh{kk oSd`fYid` gqbZ ``tEew d`'ehj eÍ vkbZvkbZ,e d`h LFkkiuk d`h ;kstuk jnΩn # nks ds`Unzh; fo'ofo»k¥;kÍ d`h LFkkiuk gksxh jkT; eÍ ``Dok(ksfPp ds` fo:`* eke¥s d`h okilh ls can gksxk cksœ`kslZ n¥k¥h eke¥k ``laf”Ird`h

·foœ`¥‚ 15 vDVwcj] 1994 21 ekpZ] 1996 29 flrEcj] 1997 26 ebZ] 1999 22 vDVwcj] 2001 12 flrEcj] 2002 17 vDVwcj] 2003 5 ebZ] 2005 10 tuojh] 2007 23 vizS¥] 2007 23 tuojh] 2008 28 vizS¥] 2008 22 vDVwcj] 2008 20 vizS¥] 2009 23 flrEcj] 2009

lrh'k |ou varfj{k ds`Unz ls ih,l,¥ohlh14 d`h mÈMku

‘bljks’ izeq[ th\ ek|ou uk;j o vU; ofjÆB oS K kfud`kÍ ds ` vfrfjDr mijkÆV_ifr gkfen valkjh Hh bl volj ij mifLƒr ƒs\ 20 flrEcj] 1993 d`ks ih,l,¥oh d`h ig¥h foœ`¥ mÈMku ds` i'pkrΩ bl iz{ksi. ;ku d`h ;g ¥xkrkj 15 oÓ lœ`¥ mÈMku ƒh\ blls iwoZ 22 vDVwcj] 2008 d`ks ih,l,¥oh-lh-11 }kjk pUnz;ku -1 d`k rƒk 20 vizS¥] 2009 d`ks ih,l,¥oh-lh-12 }kjk fjlS V- 2 d`k iz{ksi. fd`;k x;k ƒk\ ih,l,¥oh-lh-14 d`h bl mÈMku }kjk 6 vU; uSuks mixzgkÍ d`ks Hh |zqoh; d`{kk eÍ Lƒkfir fd`;k x;k gS\ ¥xHx 8-8 fd`xzk otu ds ¥DtsecxZ o teZuh ds` nks :fcu (Rubin) lSVs¥kbVΩl ds` vfrfjDr 1-1 fd`xzk\ otu ds` 4 vU; D;wclSVΩl fofHUu ;wjksih; fo'ofo»k¥;kÍ }kjk fufeZr gß\

vks'kulSV-2 Hkjr d`k 16 ok∑ nwj laosnh mixzg gS tks eRL; cgq¥ {ks(kÍ d`h igpku d`jus] leqnz eÍ Tokj HkVk d`h fLƒfr d`k vuqeku] rVh; {ks( ds` v÷;;u ds` v¥kok ekSle laca|h iwokZuqeku ¥xkus ds` f¥, vk∑d`ÈMs mi¥C| d`jk,xk\ bl mixzg us viuh d`{kk eÍ igq∑pd`j vks'kulSV-1 d`k Lƒku f¥;k gS\ leqnzh foKku ds` HkSfrd` vkSj tSfod` ig¥qvkÍ ds` v÷;;u ds` f¥, ebZ 1999 eÍ iz{ksfir

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/646

vks'kulSV-1 mixzg varfj{k eÍ viuh nl o"Z d`h vof| iwjh d`j pqd`k gS\ vks'kulSV-2 d`k thoud`k¥ ik∑p o"Z vkd`f¥r fd`;k x;k gS\ vks'kulSV-2 ds` lœ`¥ iz{ksi. ds` i'pkrΩ ‘bljks’ }kjk lapkj mixzg th-lSV4 d`k iz{ksi. fnlEcj 2009 eÍ fd`;k tk,xk\ ;g iz{ksi. th,l,¥oh-Mh 3 }kjk fd`;k tk,xk\ blls iwoZ ih,l,¥ohlh15 }kjk d`kVkZlSV- 2 ch d`k iz{ksi. Hh lEHkfor gS\ vks'kulSV-2 ds` lœ`¥ iz{ksi. ds` f¥, jkÆV_ifr izfrHk ikfV¥] mijkÆV_ifr gkfen valkjh vkSj iz|kuea(h eueksgu ¯lg us ‘bljks’ d`h Vhe d`ks c|kbZ nh gS\ vius lans'k eÍ jkÆV_ifr us d`gk fd` oSKkfud`kÍ us lœ`¥rkiwoZd` mixzgkÍ d`k iz{ksi. fd`;k gS vkSj ;g lewps ns'k ds` f¥, xoZ d`k {k. gS\ vius c|kbZ lans'k eÍ iz|kuea(h eueksgu ¯lg us d`gk fd` ih,l,¥oh ds` lœ`¥ iz{ksi. ls ‘bljks’ us ,d` ckj iqu# viuh cgqeq[h {kerk vkSj fo'oluh;rk lkfcr d`j nh gS\ mUgkÍus d`gk fd` vks'kulSV-2 leqnz foKku ds` ckjs eÍ gekjh le> d`h ,d` ubZ 'kqÔvkr d`jsxk\

x;k ƒk] ls izkIr vk∑d`ÈMkÍ }kjk Hh pUnzek d`h lrg ij ikuh d`h ekStwnxh ds` lk{; izkIr gq, ƒs\ bl izd`kj pUnzek d`h lrg ij ikuh d`h [kst d`k Js; Jh uk;j us pUnz;ku-1 fe'ku d`ks fn;k gS\ Jh uk;j us d`gk gS fd` pUnzek ij ikuh d`h ekStwnxh d`k irk ¥xkd`j ns'k ds` ig¥s pUnz;ku us ,d` ‘egRoiw.Z’ vkSj ‘okLrfod`’ [kst d`h gS\ mUgkÍus crk;k gS fd` pUnzek d`h lrg ij [kstk x;k ikuh leqnz] >h¥ ;k cw∑nkÍ ds` Ôi eÍ ugÓ gS rƒk bls ;w∑ gh ,d`( ugÓ fd`;k tk ld`rk\ ogk∑ [kstk x;k ikuh pVΩVkukÍ] feVΩVh o [futkÍ eÍ gS rƒk mUur izkS»ksfxd`h d`k bLrsek¥ d`j ,d` Vu feVΩVh ls vk|k ¥hVj rd` ikuh izkIr gks ld`rk gS\ pUnzek d`h lrg ls ikuh d`h [qnkbZ ds` f¥, 2013 eÍ Hsts tkus ok¥s pUnz;ku-2 ds` lkƒ nks jksoj Hstus d`h ‘bljks’ d`h ;kstuk gS\ bueÍ ,d` Ôlh jksoj ds` lkƒ gh jksoj d`k ,d` Lons'k fufeZr NksVk laLd`j. Hh gksxk\ pUnz ; ku 2 d`k iz{ksi. 2012-13 eÍ lEHkfor gS\

fot; fn¥kus ok¥s d`fj'ekbZ eq“;ea(h jkt'ks[j jsMΩMh 2 flrEcj d`ks izkr# lkÈ<s vkB cts gSnjkckn ds` csxeisV gokbZ vMΩMs ls gs¥hd`kWIVj }kjk fp®wj ds` f¥, jokuk gq, ƒs rƒk 10·40 ij mUgÍ fp®wj igq∑puk ƒk] okbZ ,l vkj jsMΩMh fd`Urq mÈMku ds` ,d` ?≥Vs ckn gh gs¥hd`kWIVj d`k jsfM;ks lEidZ` VwV x;k\ cS¥ –430 (Bell-430) Js.h d`k mud`k ;g gs¥hd`kWIVj dq`Uuwj ds` fud`V uY¥kek¥k ioZr Δka~a[¥k d`h ,d` igkÈMh ls tk Vd`jk;k ƒk ftlls ml ij lokj eq“;ea(h jkt'ks[j jsMΩMh d`k fu|u gks x;k\ eq“;ea(h ds` iz|ku lfpo ih\ lqcze≥;e o eq“; lqj{kk vf|d`kjh ,\ ,l\ lh\ osL¥h bl gs¥hd`kWIVj ij lokj ƒs rƒk blds` ik;¥V xzqi dS`IVsu ,l\ ds`\ HkfV;k o lg ik;¥V ,e\ ,l\ jsMΩMh ƒs\ ;s lHh pkj Hh bl nq[n nq?ZVuk eÍ ekjs x,\ gs¥hd`kWIVj d`k e¥ok

lk{kj Hkjr fe'ku
ns'k eÍ lk{kjrk d`h fLƒfr eÍ izHkoh lq|kj ds` f¥, iwoZ ?ksf"r ‘lk{kj Hkjr fe'ku’ d`k 'kqHkjEH iz|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg us 8 flrEcj 2009 d`ks vUrjkZÆV_h; lk{kjrk fnol ds` volj ij fd`;k\ dss`Unz o jkT; ljd`kjkÍ d`h Hkxhnkjh ok¥s bl fe'ku d`k tehuh rkSj ij fdz`;kUo;u iapk;rh jkt laLƒkvkÍ ds` ek÷;e ls gksxk\ 50 izfr'kr ls d`e efg¥k lk{kjrk ok¥s 365 ft¥kÍ eÍ ;g ¥kxw gksxk rƒk bu ¥f{kr 365 ft¥kÍ eÍ 1·70 ¥k[ xk∑o iapk;rkÍ ds` ek÷;e ls bls d`k;kZfUor fd`;k tk;sxk\ xzkeh. Hkjr eÍ eq“;r# fuj{kj efg¥kvkÍ d`ks lk{kj cukus ij œ`ksd`l bl fe'ku ds` rgrΩ fd`;k tk;sxk\ dq`¥ lkr d`jksÈM fuj{kjkÍ d`ks lk{kj cukus ds` ¥{; ok¥s bl fe'ku eÍ 6 d`jks È M efg¥kvkÍ d`ks ¥f{kr fd`;k tk;sxk\ blls lk{kjrk nj d`ks 64 izfr'kr ·2001 d`h fLƒfr‚ ls cÈ<kd`j 80 izfr'kr rƒk ‘tßMj xSi’ d`ks 21 izfr'kr ls ?Vkd`j 10 izfr'kr fd`;k tk lds`xk\ fe'ku d`h dq`¥ vuqekfur ¥kxr 6502 d`jksÈM :i, vkd`f¥r d`h xbZ gS ubZ fnY¥h eÍ vUrjkZÆV_h; lk{kjrk fnol ij efg¥k ftleÍ ds`Unz d`h fgLlsnkjh 4993 d`jksÈM lk{kjrk ds` f¥, lk{kj Hkjr fe'ku ds` 'kqHkjaH ds` :i, gksxh\ dq`¥ ¥kxr d`k 75 izfr'kr volj ij iz|kuea(h eueksgu ¯lg] ds`Unzh; ekuo ds`Unz }kjk o 'ks" 25 izfr'kr jkT;kÍ }kjk lalk|u ea(h d`fi¥ flCc¥] ¥ksd`lHk Lihd`j ehjk ogu fd`;k tk,xk\ iwoksZ®j jkT;kÍ ds` eke¥s dq`ekj o ekuo lalk|u jkT; ea(h Mh iqjUns'ojh eÍ ds`Unz o jkT;kÍ d`h bl ¥kxr eÍ fgLlsnkjh dz`e'k# 90 o 10 izfr'kr fu|kZfjr d`h xbZ gS\

pUnzek d`h lrg ij ikuh d`h [kst # pUnz;ku-1 d`h cÈMh mi¥fC| `
2 2 vDVw c j 2008 d`ks iz { ks f ir pUnz;ku-1 ls ‘bljks’ (ISRO) d`k lEidZ` ;»fi ¥f{kr le; lhek ls ,d` o"Z iwoZ gh lekIr gks x;k gS rƒk ‘bljks’ us vkSipkfjd` Ôi ls bl fe'ku ds` lekiu d`h ?ks".k 29 vxLr] 2009 d`ks d`j nh ƒh] rƒkfi bl fe'ku d`h mi¥fC|;k∑ vR;Ur egRoiw.Z jgh gß\ ‘bljks’ ds` izeq[ th\ ek|ou uk;j us bl fe'ku d`ks 90-95 izfr'kr lœ`¥ ig¥s d`jkj fn;k ƒk fd`Urq blls fe¥h rktk tkud`kfj;kÍ ds` ckn vc bl fe'ku d`ks 110 izfr'kr lœ`¥ mUgkÍus d`gk gS\ pUnz;ku-1 ds` lkƒ Hsts x, 11 oSKkfud` mid`j.kÍ eÍ ls ,d` ewu feujks¥kWth eSij (M3) us pUnzek d`h lrg ij t¥ d`h ekStwnxh d`h iqfÆV d`h gS\ ‘uklk’ ds` mid`j. M3 ls izkIr vk∑d`ÈMkÍ ds` fo'¥s". ds` i'pkrΩ foKku if(d`k ‘lkbal’ dss` flrEcj 2009 ds` ,d vad` eÍ izd`kf'kr lh\ ihVlZ ·M 3 ds` vkad`ÈMkÍ d`k fo'¥s". d`jus ok¥s izeq[ oSKkfud`‚ ds` ,d` 'kks| i( eÍ pUnzek d`h lrg ij ikuh d`h ekStwnxh d`h iqfÆV d`h xbZ gS\ ‘bljks’ izeq[ uk;j ds` vuqlkj pUnz;ku-1 ds` lkƒ Hsts x, ,d` vU; mid`j. ewu bEiSDV izksc (MIP), ftls pUnzek d`h lrg ij mrkjk

vkU|z izns'k ds` eq“;ea(h okbZ ,l vkj jsMΩMh d`k gs¥hd`kWIVj nq?ZVuk eÍ fu|u
n\ Hkjr d`h jktuhfr d`ks ,d` viwj.h; {kfr flrEcj 2009 eÍ ml le; gqbZ tc vkU|z izns'k ds` eq“;ea(h okbZ\ ,l\ jkt'ks[j jsMΩMh d`k ,d` gs¥hd`kWIVj nq?ZVuk eÍ fu|u gks x;k\ ¥xkrkj nks fo|kulHk pqukokÍ eÍ d`kaxzsl d`ks ækunkj

o bu ik∑pkÍ ds` 'ko 3 flrEcj d`ks [ksts tk lds`\ eq“;ea(h jkt'ks[j jsMΩMh ds fu|u ij nks fnu d`k jktd`h; 'kksd` ds`Unz ljd`kj us Hh ?ksf"r fd`;k\ blh ds` p¥rs ubZ fnY¥h eÍ 4 flrEcj d`ks MCY;w\ Vh\ vks\ ds` O;kikj eaf(;kÍ ds` f¥, vk;ksftr lkaLd~`frd` d`k;Zdz`e Hh jnΩn d`j fn;k x;k ƒk\ Jh jsMΩMh ds` vlkef;d` fu|u ij iz|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg] foi{k ds` usrk ¥k¥d~`Æ. vkMok.h o ;w\ih\,\ v÷;{k lksfu;k xka|h `lfgr fofHUu jktuhfrd`

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/648

n¥kÍ ds` usrkvkÍ us xgjk 'kksd` O;Dr fd`;k gS\

okbZ\ ,l\ jkt'ks[j jsMΩMh ds` fu|u ds` i'pkrΩ jkT; eÍ u, eq“;ea(h ds` pquko ds` f¥, ljxfeZ;k∑ rst gks xbZ gS\ u, usrk ds` fof|orΩ pquko rd` ofjÆB d`kaxzslh usrk o jsMΩMh eaf(e≥M¥ ds` uEcj nks d`h gSfl;r j[us ok¥s 77 o"hZ; ds`\ jkslS;k (K. Rosaiah) d`ks eq“;ea(h ds` Ôi eÍ 'kiƒ 3 flrEcj d`ks fn¥kbZ xbZ gS\ laoS|kfud` vko';d`rk ds` p¥rs okbZ\ ,l\ vkj\ eaf(ifj"nΩ ds` lHh eaf(;kÍ us in vkSj xksiuh;rk d`h 'kiƒ 6 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks iqu# xzg. d`h gS\ okbZ\ ,l\ vkj\ jsMΩMh d`h Le~fr eÍ muds` x~g tuin d`MIik (Kadappa) d`k uked`j. muds` uke ij d`jus d`h ?ks".k u, eq“;ea(h jkslS;k us d`h gS\

lkekU; ls 20-21 izfr'kr d`e jgh bl o"Z ekulwuh o"kZ
ekulwu d`h fLƒfr d`h n~fÆV ls pk¥w fo®h; o"Z 2009-10 d`h x.uk vfr [jkc o"ksÛ eÍ d`h tk,xh\ nf{k. if'pe ekulwu ·twu-flrEcj‚ tks ns'k eÍ ekulwuh o"kZ ds` f¥, m®jnk;h gS d`h iw.Z okilh vc gks pqd`h gS\ Hkjrh; ekSle foHkx (IMD) us vizS¥ 2009 eÍ vius iwokZuqekukÍ ds` rgrΩ bl ekulwu eÍ o"kZ ‘nh?Zd`kf¥d` vkSlr’ (Long Period Average-LPA) d`k 96 izfr'kr jgus d`h HfoÆ;ok.h d`h ƒh\ vkbZ,eMh us vius bl iwokZuqeku d`ks ?Vkd`j tq¥kbZ 2009 eÍ 93 izfr'kr o vxLr 2009 eÍ 87 izfr'kr d`j fn;k ƒk\ flrEcj 2009 ds` e÷; rd` mi¥C| vk∑ d `È M kÍ ds ` vuq l kj bl o"Z o"kZ nh?Zd`kf¥d` vkSlr d`k 79 izfr'kr gh ƒh\ ·flrEcj d`h 'ks" vof| eÍ bl fLƒfr eÍ ,d`k| izfr'kr d`k ifjorZu laHkfor ƒk‚ bl izd`kj lUnfHZr o"Z eÍ dq`¥ o"kZ lkekU; ls 20-21 izfr'kr d`e jgh gS\ izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/650

flrEcj 2009 ds` e÷; rd` d`h fLƒfr ds` vuqlkj ns'k ds` dq`¥ 533 ekSle mi[≥MkÍ (Meteorological SubDivisions) eÍ ls 38 mi[≥MkÍ eÍ ·¥xHx 7 izfrær‚ o"kZ vfr U;wu (Scanty) jgh tgk∑ 60 izfr'kr ls vf|d` d`h d`eh (Deficiency) ntZ d`h xbZ] tcfd` 260 mi[≥M ·¥xHx 50 izfrær‚ eÍ o"kZ ‘U;wu’ (Deficient) jgh tgk∑ 20 ls 59 izfr'kr rd` d`h d`eh ntZ d`h xbZ gS\ ns'k ds` dq`¥ 35 jkT;kÍ o ds`Unz'kkflr {ks(kÍ eÍ ls ds`o¥ 14 eÍ o"kZ bl o"Z ‘lkekU;’ ;k ‘lkekU; ls vf|d`’ jgh gS\ bueÍ rfe¥ukMq] d`ukZVd`] ds`j¥] xksok] egkjkÆV_] xqtjkr] i\ caxk¥] mÈMhlk] vle] f(iqjk] nknjk ,oa uxj gos¥h] neu vkSj nho] ¥{k}hi rƒk vaMeku fud`ksckj }hi lewg 'kkfe¥ gß\

ukS u, ,uvkbZVh Lƒkfir d`jus d`h ;kstuk
X;kjgoÓ iapo"hZ; ;kstuk eÍ ns'k eÍ ukS u, jkÆV_ h ; iz k S » ks f xd`h la L ƒkukÍ
(National Institutes of TechnologyNITs) d`h Lƒkiuk d`h ds`Unz ljd`kj d`h

ugÓ gS\ bueÍ ef.iqj] es?k¥;] fetksje] uxk¥S≥M] xksok] iqnqpsjh] flfDd`e] fnY¥h o m®jk[≥M 'kkfe¥ gß\ xksok eÍ Lƒkfir fd`;k tkus ok¥k ,u vkbZ Vh neu vkSj nho] nknjk vkSj uxj gos¥h o ¥{k}hi d`h tÔjrkÍ d`ks Hh iwjk d`jsxk] tcfd` iqnqpsjh ,u vkbZ Vh vaMeku-fud`ksckj }hi lewg d`ks rƒk fnY¥h ,uvkbZVh paMhxÈ< d`ks lkƒ eÍ d`oj d`jsxk\ fnY¥h o m®jk[≥M eÍ bu laLƒkukÍ d`h vuqekfur ¥kxr 300-300 d`jksÈM :i, o vU; jkT;kÍ eÍ ;g 250-250 d`jksÈM :i, vkd`f¥r d`h xbZ gS\ bu lHh laLƒkukÍ eÍ d`{kk,a vkxkeh 'kS{kf.d` l( 2010-11 eÍ gh 'kqÔ d`jus d`k ljd`kj d`k bjknk gS\ buds` Hou rS;kj u gks ikus d`h fLƒfr eÍ ;g d`{kk,∑ buds` eÍVj laLƒkukÍ eÍ 'kqÔ d`j nh tk,axh\ mY¥s[uh; gS fd` tks 20 jkÆV_h; izkS»ksfxd`h laLƒku (NIT) orZeku eÍ ns'k eÍ d`k;ZjrΩ gß bueÍ ls 17 ig¥s {ks(h; bathfu;¯jx d`kW¥st (REC) d`g¥krs ƒs rƒk 2003 eÍ bUgÍ ds`Unz ljd`kj ds` laLƒkukÍ ds` Ôi eÍ ekU;rk nsd`j MhEM ;wuhoflZVh d`k ntkZ iznku d`jrs gq, jkÆV_h; izkS»ksfxd`h laLƒku (NIT) uke fn;k x;k ƒk\

;ks t uk gS \ bl iz L rko d`ks ds ` Unz h ; lhch,lbZ d`h nloÓ d`{kk d`h eaf(e≥M¥ us 18 flrEcj] 2009 d`h cSBd` eÍ eatwjh iznku d`h gS\ blls ns'k eÍ ijh{kk oSd`fYid` gqbZ NITs d`h dq`¥ la“;k 29 gks tk,xh\ u, ,uvkbZVh mu jkT;kÍ eÍ Lƒkfir fd`, ek÷;fed` f'k{kk iz.k¥h eÍ lq|kj d`h tka,xs tgk∑ orZeku eÍ `d`ksbZ ,uvkbZVh fn'kk eÍ ,d` vkSj d`ne cÈ<krs gq, ds`Unz

ljd`kj us ds`Unzh; ek÷;fed` f'k{kk ifj"nΩ (CBSE) ls lEc* fo»k¥;kÍ eÍ nloÓ d`{kk d`h ijh{kk d`ks 2010-11 ls oSd`fYid` d`j fn;k gS\ baVju¥ ,lsleÍV ds` vk|kj ij gh fo»kfƒZ;kÍ d`ks xzsM iznku fd`, tk,axs\ 2009-10 l( eÍ nloÓ d`{kk eÍ iÈ< jgs fo»kfƒZ;kÍ ds` f¥, ijh{kk nsuk vfuok;Z gksxk] fd`Urq xzs¯Mx iz.k¥h bl l( ls gh 'kqÔ gks tk,xh\ ubZ izLrkfor da`VhU;wvl ,≥M d`kWfEizgÍflo boSY;w'ku (CCE) ij vk|kfjr xzs¯Mx O;oLƒk d`{kk 9 ls gh 'kqÔ gksxh rƒk blds` rgrΩ ,-1 ls bZ-2 rd` dq`¥ 9 xzsM fo»kfƒZ;kÍ d`ks fn, tk,axs\ ek÷;fed` fo»k¥;kÍ eÍ tgk∑ d`{kk XI o XII fo»eku gß] nloÓ d`h ijh{kk nsus d`h vko';d`rk ugÓ gksxh rƒk nloÓ ds` lHh Nk( ijh{kk ds` fcuk X;kjgoÓ d`{kk eÍ izos'k ik ldÍ`xs\ nloÓ ds` i'pkrΩ fd`lh nwljs Ldw`¥/jkT; eÍ izos'k ¥sus ds` bPNqd` fo»kfƒZ;kÍ d`ks ;g ijh{kk nsuk vfuok;Z gksxk\ ,sls fo»kfƒZ;kÍ ds` f¥, ‘ek∑x ij’ (On Demand) gh ijh{kk lh\ch\,l\bZ\ }kjk vk;ksftr d`h tk,xh\

tEew d`'ehj eÍ vkbZvkbZ,e d`h Lƒkiuk d`h ;kstuk jnΩn # nks ds`Unzh; fo'ofo»k¥;kÍ d`h Lƒkiuk gksxh jkT; eÍ
vkxkeh nks o"ksÛ eÍ ftu lkr jkT;kÍ eÍ Hkjrh; izcU|u laLƒkukÍ (IIMs) d`h Lƒkiuk ds` izLrko d`ks ds`Unzh; eaf(e≥M¥ d`h 27 vxLr] 2009 d`h cSBd` eÍ vuqeksfnr fd`;k x;k ƒk] mueÍ ls ,d` jkT; tEew d`'ehj Hh ƒk\ jkT; ljd`kj ds` vuqjks| ij ogk∑ vc vkbZvkbZ,e d`h ctk; ds`Unzh; fo'ofo»k¥; d`h Lƒkiuk d`h tk,xh\ ;g ?ks".k ds`Unzh; ekuo lalk|u fod`kl ea(h d`fi¥ flCc¥ us xr 25 flrEcj d`ks d`h gS\ tEew d`'ehj eÍ ,d` ds`Unzh; fo'ofo»k¥; d`h Lƒkiuk d`k izLrko lsUV_¥ ;wuhoflZVht ,DV 2009 eÍ ig¥s gh fo»eku gS\ vkbZvkbZ,e ds` Lƒku ij ogk∑ vc ,d` vkSj ds`Unzh; fo'ofo»k¥; gh Lƒkfir fd`;k tk,xk\ blls ogk∑ Lƒkfir fd`, tkus ok¥s u, ds`Unzh; fo'ofo»k¥;kÍ d`h la“;k 2 gks tk,xh\ blds` f¥, lÍV_¥ ;wfuoflZVht ,DV] 2009 eÍ la'kks|u ljd`kj }kjk fd`;k tk,xk\ izLrkfor nks u, ds`Unzh; fo'ofo»k¥;kÍ eÍ ls ,d` tEew eÍ o nwljk Jhuxj eÍ Lƒkfir fd`;k tk,xk\ KkrO; gS fd` tEew d`'ehj eÍ ,d` ds`Unzh; fo'ofo»k¥; o ,d` vkbZvkbZ,e d`h Lƒkiuk d`h ?ks".k iz|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg us 2007 eÍ d`h ƒh\

Dok(ksfPp ds` fo:`* eke¥s d`h okilh ls can gksxk cksœ`kslZ n¥k¥h eke¥k
ds`Unz ljd`kj us nks næd` iqjkus cksœ`kslZ n¥k¥h ds` ,d`ek( æs" vkjksih vksrkfo;ks Dok(ksfPp (Ottavio Quattrocchi) ds` fo:* eke¥k okil ¥sd`j bl eke¥s d`ks iwjh rjg can d`jus d`k œS`l¥k fd`;k gS\ 29 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks ljd`kj us mPpre U;k;k¥; ls d`gk fd` bV¥h ds` O;kikjh vksrkfo;ks Dok(ksfPp ds` f[¥kœ` ds`l d`ks okil ¥sus d`k fu.Z; fd`;k x;k gS\ lkWf¥flVj tuj¥ xksik¥ lqcz©≥;e us eq“; vksrkfo;ks Dok(ksfPp U;k;k|hæ ds`\ th\ ck¥Î`Æ.u d`h `v÷;{krk ok¥h ihB ls d`gk fd` gksfoRtj lkSns eÍ 64 d`jksÈM :i, d`h n¥k¥h ds` Hqxrku eke¥s ds` vkjksih Dok(ksfPp d`ks `izR;fiZr d`jus æs" i~ÆB 661 ij izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/651

jkÆV_ifr izfrHk ikfV¥ d`h Ôl o rkftfd`Lrku ;k(k
vius nsæ ds` mPpLrjh; fæÆVe≥M¥ ds` lkƒ Hkjr d`h jkÆV_ifr ^frHk ikfV¥ us 2-9 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks Ôl o rkftfd`Lrku d`h ;k(k d`h\ isV_ksf¥;e ea(h eqj¥h nsoÈMk] d`iÈMk jkT; ea(h ih\ ¥{eh ,oa fonsæ lfpo fu:iek jko lkr fnu d`h mud`h bl ;k(k ij lkƒ x, fæÆVe≥M¥ eÍ ækfe¥ ƒs\ jkÆV_ifr ds` Ôi eÍ Jherh ^frHk ikfV¥ d`h Ôl d`h tgk∑ ;g ig¥h gh ;k(k ƒh\ ogÓ rkftfd`Lrku d`h fd`lh Hh Hkjrh; jkÆV_ifr d`h ;g ig¥h gh ;k(k ƒh] 2 flrEcj d`ks ubZ fnY¥h ds` gokbZ vMΩMs ij Jherh ^frHk ikfV¥ d`ks fonkbZ nsus ok¥kÍ eÍ mijkÆV_ifr gkfen valkjh o ^|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg ds` vfrfjDr ofjÆB dS`fcusV ea(h ækfe¥ ƒs\ Ôl d`h mud`h ;k(k ds` mˆs';kÍ eÍ f}i”h; lEcU|kÍ eÍ ^xkÈ<rk ¥kus ds` lkƒ-lkƒ Ôl eÍ Hkjr ds` o"Z (Year of India in Russia) d`k æqHkjEH d`juk Hh ækfe¥ ƒk\ blls iwoZ 2008 eÍ Hkjr eÍ Ôl d`k o"Z (Year of Russia in India) euk;k x;k ƒk\ bld`k vkSipkfjd` lekiu Ôlh jkÆV_ifr nfef( esnosnso us fnlEcj 2008 eÍ fd`;k ƒk\

jkÆV_ifr ^frHk ikfV¥ d`h Ôl o rkftfd`Lrku ;k(k ukehfc;k ds` jkÆV_ifr iksgkEck d`h Hkjr ;k(k eaxksf¥;k Hh Hkjr d`ks ;wjsfu;e vkiwfrZ d`ks lger # eaxksf¥;kbZ jkÆV_ifr ,YcsxnkstZ d`h Hkjr ;k(k ds` nkSjku le>kSrk fœ`th d`k jkÆV_e≥M¥ ls iqu# fu¥Ecu tkiku eÍ lalnh; pqukokÍ eÍ Mseks∂s`fVd` ikVhZ d`ks Hkjh cgqer # ;wfd`;ks grks;kek u, ^|kuea(h cus baVjusV ds` tUe ds` 40 o"Z iw.Z # mi;ksx d`jus ok¥kÍ d`h la“;k vc MsÈ< vjc ls vf|d` teZuh eÍ lalnh; pquko # ,ats¥k edsZ`¥ ds` iqu# pkal¥j cuus d`ks ekxZ ^'kLr lokZf|d` d`ek˜ f∂`ds`VjkÍ d`h œ`ksClZ lwph eÍ |ksuh d`k æh"Z Lƒku lqj{kk ifj"nΩ ds` loZlEer ^Lrko eÍ ,uihVh o lhVhchVh ij gLrk{kj d`k vkÿku laf”Ird`h

vkfn eÍ nksukÍ nsækÍ ds` chp ikjLifjd` lg;ksx rƒk lk[f¥u–I ifj;kstuk eÍ vks,uthlh d`h lgHkfxrk vkfn d`k mY¥s[ d`jrs gq, Ôlh jkÆV_ifr us d`gk fd` Hkjrh; jkÆV_ifr ^frHk ikfV¥ d`h Ôl ;k(k ls nksukÍ nsækÍ ds` fj'rs eÍ u;k v÷;k; tqÈMsxk\ fofHUu f}i”h eqnΩnkÍ ij lg;ksx lEo*Zu ij foLr~r ppkZ ckn eÍ nksukÍ jkÆV_ifr;kÍ d`h vkilh okrkZ eÍ d`h xbZ\ ækfUriw.Z mˆs';kÍ ds` f¥, ijek.q ˜tkZ ds` bLrsek¥ ds` lkƒ-lkƒ lSU; ^kS»ksfxd`h lg;ksx ds` ekStwnk Lrj d`ks vkxs cÈ<kus ij lgefr bl okrkZ eÍ nksukÍ i”kÍ us O;Dr d`h\ nksukÍ i”kÍ us Lohd`kj fd`;k fd` lEcU|kÍ d`ks vkSj cÈ<kus ds` i;kZIr volj fo»eku gß\ vx¥s o"Z rd` f}i”h; O;kikj ds` 10 vjc MkW¥j ds` ¥{; d`ks ^kIr d`jus ds` f¥, nksukÍ i”kÍ }kjk fd`, tk jgs ^;klkÍ ij Hkjrh; jkÆV_ifr us larks" O;Dr fd`;k\ 20 ^frær o~f* ds` lkƒ ;g O;kikj 2009 eÍ 8·4 vjc MkW¥j gks tkus d`h lEHkouk gS\ ekWLd`ks eÍ O;Lr d`k;Z∂`ekÍ ds` i'pkrΩ jkÆV_ifr ^frHk ikfV¥ ds` dq`N d`k;Z∂`e lÍVihVlZcxZ eÍ Hh fu|kZfjr ƒs\

nqækacs eÍ rkftfd`Lrku ds` jkÆV_ifr beke v¥h jk“eksukso ds` lkƒ jkÆV_ifr izfrHk ikfV¥

dzs`ef¥u eÍ Ôlh jkÆV_ifr esnosnso ds` lkƒ Hkjrh; jkÆV_ifr izfrHk ikfV¥

ekW L d`ks eÍ Hkjrh; jkÆV_ i fr d`k vkSipkfjd` Lokxr d`jrs gq, Ôlh jkÆV_ifr nfef( esnosnso us ∂s`ef¥u eÍ d`gk fd` Hkjr o Ôl d`k foæs" j.uhfrd` fj'rk ifjfLƒfr;kÍ ij vk|kfjr ugÓ gS rƒk ;g ^xkÈ< fj'rk jktuhfr ds` cn¥rs l(kÍ eÍ cn¥us ok¥k ugÓ gS\ mUgkÍus crk;k fd` oSf'od` eanh ds` ckotwn Hkjr o Ôl ds` O;kikj eÍ o~f* ntZ d`h xbZ gS\ ˜tkZ] mPp ^kS»ksfxd`h] Kku vk|kfjr m»ksx o |krq ifjæks|u foæs"r# dq`Mkudq`¥e ifj;kstuk ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/652

,d` lIrkg d`h viuh bl ;k(k ds` nwljs pj. eÍ Jherh ikfV¥ 6 flrEcj d`ks rkftfd`Lrku d`h jkt|kuh nqækEcs (Dushambe) igq∑pÓ\ rkftfd`Lrku d`h ;k(k d`jus ok¥h og Hkjr d`h ig¥h jkÆV_ifr gß\ HkSxksf¥d` n~fÆV ls phu] vœ`xkfuLrku] mTcsfd`Lrku] fd`fxZLrku ds` lkƒ lhekvkÍ ok¥k rkftfd`Lrku o ikd` vf|d~`r d`'ehj ds` chp vœ`xkfuLrku d`k dq`N Hw-Hkx gS\ lkefjd` n~fÆV ls egRoiw.Z HkSxksf¥d` fLƒfr ok¥k rkftfd`Lrku us eqfL¥e cgq¥ gksus ds` ckotwn Lo;a d`ks |eZfujis” jkÆV_ ?ksf"r fd`;k gqvk gS rƒk vUrjkZÆV_h; vkrad`okn] d`VΩVjokn o eknd` inkƒksÛ d`h vUrjkZÆV_h; rLd`jh ds` fo:* og vkokt mBkrk jgk gS\ nqækEcs eÍ vkSipkfjd` Lokxr ds` i'pkrΩ estcku jkÆV_ifr beke v¥h jk“eksukso ds` lkƒ f}i”h; lEcU|kÍ ij mud`h okrkZ gqbZ\ Hkjr o rkftfd`Lrku ds` chp vkfƒZd` o lkefjd` lg;ksx ds` vfrfjDr foKku] lwpuk o lapkj ds` ”s(kÍ eÍ d`kjxj lg;ksx cÈ<kus ij Bksl lgefr bl okrkZ eÍ gqbZ\

KkrO; gS fd` nqækEcs ds` fud`V ,suh ,;jcsl d`k fuekZ. Hkjr ds` lg;ksx ls fd`;k x;k gS rƒk ogk∑ lÈMd`kÍ ds` fuekZ. eÍ rd`uhd`h lgk;rk Hh Hkjr us mi¥C| d`jkbZ gS\ rktk ckrphr eÍ rkftd` jkÆV_ifr us Hkjr d`ks vius nsæ eÍ ;wjsfu;e mR[uu] ˜tkZ] d`ikl] nok] VsDlVkbYl ds` vfrfjDr lwpuk ,oa lapkj ds` ”s(kÍ eÍ <k∑pkxr lqfo|k,a fod`flr d`jus d`ks vkeaf(r fd`;k gS\ f}i”h; okrkZ ds` i'pkrΩ nksukÍ jkÆV_ifr;kÍ d`h mifLƒfr eÍ nks vkfƒZd` le>kSrkÍ ij gLrk”j Hh 8 flrEcj d`ks fd`, x,] f}i”h; O;kikj lEo*Zu le>kS r s ds` vfrfjDr nksgjs d`jkjksi. ls cpko d`k le>kSrk bueÍ ækfe¥ ƒk\ ckn eÍ Lonsæ jokuk gksus ls iwoZ 8 flrEcj d`ks rkftfd`Lrku ds` 19 oÍ LorU(rk fnol ij eq“; vfrfƒ ds` Ôi eÍ mifLƒfr Jherh ^frHk ikfV¥ us ntZ d`h\ rkftfd`Lrku ds` LorU(rk fnol ij ;g lEeku ikus ok¥h og ig¥h o ,d`ek( fonsæh gß\ bl d`k;Z∂`e eÍ Hkxhnkjh ds` i'pkrΩ Jherh ikfV¥ d`h Lonsæ okilh 8 flrEcj d`ks gh gqbZ\

ukehfc;k ds` jkÆV_ifr iksgkEck d`h Hkjr ;k(k
vius nsæ ds` mPpLrjh; fæÆVe≥M¥ ds` lkƒ ukehfc;k ds` jkÆV_ifr fgfœ`ds`iqU;s iksgkEck (Hifikepunye Pohamba) us vxLr-flrEcj 2009 eÍ Hkjr d`h ;k(k d`h\ 5 fnu d`h bl ;k(k ij muds` lkƒ vk, 43 lnL;h; fæÆVe≥M¥ eÍ mud`h iRuh Hh ækfe¥ ƒÓ\ ukehfc;k ds` ˜tkZ] j”k] [uu o lapkj ea(h o muds` foHkxh; vf|d`kjh muds` bl fæÆVe≥M¥ eÍ ækfe¥ ƒs\ 31 vxLr d`ks jkÆV_ifr Hou eÍ vkSipkfjd` Lokxr ds` i'pkrΩ esgeku jkÆV_ifr iksgkEck d`h Hkjrh; ^|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg o vU; ^eq[ usrkvkÍ ds` lkƒ f}i”h; o vUrjkZÆV_h; egRo ds` eqnΩnkÍ ij ckrphr gqbZ\ ftlds` i'pkrΩ ftu f}i”h; le>kSrkÍ/lgefr i(kÍ ij gLrk”j fd`, x,] mueÍ Hkjr d`ks ;wjsfu;e vkiwfrZ d`k le>kSrk ækfe¥ gS\ lapkj] [uu] ˜tkZ o j”k ”s(kÍ eÍ lg;ksx lEo*Zu ds` lkƒ-lkƒ jktuf;d` o vkf|d`kfjd` ikliksVZ |kjd`kÍ ds` f¥, ohÈtk d`h vfuok;Zrk lekIr d`jus ds` f¥, Hh lgefr i( ij gLrk”j fd`, x,\ la;qDr jkÆV_ lqj”k ifj"nΩ ds` foLrkj d`h Hkjr d`h ek∑x d`k iqjtksj leƒZu Hh ukehfc;k us f}i”h; okrkZ eÍ fd`;k\

jkÆV_ifr Hou eÍ ukehfc;k ds` jkÆV_ifr fgfœ`ds`iqU;s iksgkEck vkSj mud`h iRuh d`k Lokxr d`jrÓ jkÆV_ifr izfrHk ikfV¥\ lkƒ eÍ gß iz|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu flag

ubZ fnY¥h ^okl ds` nkSjku jkÆV_ifr ^frHk ikfV¥] ^|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg ds` vfrfjDr mijkÆV_ifr eksgEen gkfen valkjh] foi” ds` usrk ¥k¥d~`Æ. vkMok.h o ;wih, v÷;” lksfu;k xka|h ls Hh eq¥kd`kr d`h\ ckn eÍ mlh fnu Hkjrh; m»fe;kÍ d`h ,d` cSBd` d`ks lEcksf|r d`jrs gq, ukehfc;kbZ jkÆV_ifr iksgkEck us mUgÍ ukehfc;k eÍ fuosæ ds` f¥, ^ksRlkfgr d`jrs gq, crk;k fd` HwxHZ ,oa [fut lalk|ukÍ d`ks ¥sd`j ftl lgefr i( ij gLrk”j nksukÍ nsækÍ ds` chp fd`, x, gß] mlds` p¥rs Hkjrh; m»fe;kÍ d`ks ukehfc;k ds` [fut ”s(kÍ eÍ la;qDr m»e Lƒkfir ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/653

d`jus d`k ekSd`k fe¥sxk\ ‘fœ`Dd`h’] ‘,slkspSe’ o lhvkbZvkbZ }kjk la;qDr Ôi ls vk;ksftr bl cSBd` eÍ ukehfc;kbZ jkÆV_ifr us crk;k fd` ukehfc;k eÍ [uu] lapkj] ˜tkZ o i;ZVu ”s(kÍ eÍ fuosæ d`h O;kid` lEHkouk,a fo»eku gß\ ubZ fnY¥h eÍ ,d` fnu ds` ^okl ds` i'pkrΩ ukehfc;kbZ jkÆV_ifr Lonsæ okilh ls iwoZ vkxjk o cax¥q: Hh x,\ mY¥s[uh; gS fd` 45 lnL;h; ukfHd`h; vkiwfrZd`rkZ lewg (NSG) }kjk Hkjr ij ls ^frcU| gVk, tkus ds` ckn Hkjr us mu nsækÍ ls ?fuÆBrk cÈ<kbZ gS ftuds` ikl ijek.q la;U(kÍ d`ks p¥kus ds` f¥, bÛ|u mi¥C| gS\ blh fnæk eÍ d`tk[Lrku ds` jkÆV_ifr uwj lqYrku utjck;so d`ks Hh bl o"Z x.U(r fnol ij eq“; vfrfƒ ds` Ôi eÍ vkeaf(r fd`;k ƒk rƒk d`tk[Lrku ls ;wjsfu;e ^kIr d`jus ds` f¥, le>kSrs ij gLrk”j Hh ml le; fd`, x, ƒs\ blh ifj^s{; eÍ vc ukehfc;k o eaxksf¥;k ds` lkƒ Hh le>kSrs Hkjr us fd`, gß\ ;wjsfu;e lEink ds` eke¥s eÍ ukehfc;k d`k fo'o eÍ NBk Lƒku gS rƒk vkus ok¥s o"ksÛ eÍ bld`h ;g ”erk vkSj cÈ<us d`h lEHkouk gS\

fofHUu vU; ”s(kÍ eÍ Hh f}i”h; lg;ks x cÈ < kus d`ks lgefr nks u kÍ ^|kuefU(;kÍ d`h f}i”h; okrkZ eÍ gqbZ gS\ Hkjrh; ^|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg us eaxksf¥;k d`h vƒZO;oLƒk d`ks lqn~È< cukus ds` f¥, 2·5 d`jksÈM MkW¥j d`h lgk;rk nsus rƒk rd`uhd`h ^fæ”. d`k;Z∂`e ds` rgrΩ

d`k r“rk i¥Vd`j lsuk us l®k ij d`Ctk fnlEcj 2006 eÍ d`j f¥;k ƒk\ lsuk ds` bl d`ne d`k fojks| d`jrs gq, jkÆV_e≥M¥ us ;g psrkouh fœ`th d`ks nh ƒh fd` vDVwcj 2010 rd` pquko d`jkus d`h fnæk eÍ d`ksbZ izHkoh d`k;Zokgh lSU; lefƒZr iz|kuea(h œzß`d` cSuhejkek }kjk ;fn ugÓ d`h xbZ] rks 1 flrEcj] 2009 ls fœ`th d`k jkÆV_e≥M¥ ls fu¥Ecu d`j fn;k tk,xk\ bl psrkouh d`ks gh O;kogkfjd` Ôi iznku d`jrs gq, jkÆV_e≥M¥ d`h lnL;rk ls fœ`th d`ks 1 flrEcj] 2009 ls fu¥fEcr fd`;k x;k gS\

jkÆV_ifr Hou eÍ eaxksf¥;k ds` jkÆV_ifr lkf[;kftu ,YcsxnkstZ o mud`h iRuh Jherh cks¥ksjek [kftnlqjsu d`h vxokuh d`jrÓ Hkjr d`h jkÆV_ifr Jherh ^frHk nsoh flag ikfV¥ o Hkjr ds` ^|kuea(h eueksgu flag

tkiku eÍ lalnh; pqukokÍ eÍ Mseks∂s`fVd` ikVhZ d`ks Hkjh cgqer # ;wfd`;ks grks;kek u, ^|kuea(h cus
tkiku eÍ foxr ik∑p næd` ls Hh vf|d` vof| eÍ vkerkSj ij l®kÔÈ< jgh f¥cj¥ Ms e ks ∂ s ` fVd` ikVhZ (LDP) vc ogk∑ foi” d`h Hwfed`k eÍ gS rƒk Mseks∂s`fVd` ikVhZ vkWœ` tkiku (DPJ) ds` usrk ;wfd`;ks grks;kek
(Yukio Hatoyama)

eaxksf¥;k Hh Hkjr d`ks ;wjsfu;e vkiwfrZ d`ks lger # eaxksf¥;kbZ jkÆV_ifr ,YcsxnkstZ d`h Hkjr ;k(k ds` nkSjku le>kSrk
ækfUriw.Z mi;ksx ds` f¥, ukfHd`h; la;U(kÍ ds` f¥, ;wjsfu;e vkiwfrZ ds` f¥, ukehfc;k ds` ckn vc eaxksf¥;k ds` lkƒ Hh le>kSrk Hkjr us flrEcj 2009 eÍ fd`;k gS\ ;wjsfu;e vkiwfrZ le>kSrk mu ik∑p le>kSrkÍ eÍ ækfe¥ ƒk ftu ij Hkjr o eaxksf¥;k ds` chp gLrk”j eaxksf¥;kbZ jkÆV_ifr lkf[;kftu ,YcsxnkstZ (Tsakhiagin Elbegdorj) d`h flrEcj 2009 d`h Hkjr ;k(k ds` nkSjku fd`, x, gß\ ;g le>kSrs )`. lgk;rk LVsc¥kbÈtsæu] LokLF; ,oa fpfd`Rlk foKku] lkaf“;d`h; eke¥kÍ eÍ lg;ksx o 2009-12 ds` nkSjku lkaLd~`frd` vknku-^nku ls lEcfU|r gß\ oSf'od` fo®h; lad`V ds` ifj^s{; eÍ vƒZO;oLƒk eÍ fLƒjrk cuk, j[us ds` f¥, enn ds` rkSj ij eaxksf¥;k d`ks 25 fef¥;u MkW¥j d`k fj;k;rh )`. mi¥C| d`jkus d`ks lgefr Hkjr us ^nku d`h gS\ 45 lnL;h; ukfHd`h; vkiwfrZd`rkZ lewg (NSG) }kjk ^frcU| gVk, tkus ds` i'pkrΩ œz`kal] vejhd`k] Ôl] d`tk[Lrku o ukehfc;k ds` ckn eaxksf¥;k ,s l k NBk nsæ gS ftlds` lkƒ ukfHd`h; lg;ksx le>kSrk Hkjr us fd`;k gS\ ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/654

eaxksf¥;k ds` Nk(kÍ d`k d`ksVk 60 ls cÈ<kd`j 120 d`jus ds` lkƒ-lkƒ eaxksf¥;k eÍ lwpuk ^kS»ksfxd`h d`k ,d` ds`Unz Lƒkfir d`jus d`h Hh ?ks".k d`h\ nksukÍ nsækÍ ds` ”s( eÍ vfLƒjrk vkSj vkrad`okn ds` [rjs ds` eˆsutj fu;fer lSfud` v˙;kl d`jus d`k Hh œS`l¥k fd`;k gS\ ”s(h; vkSj fo'o eke¥kÍ ij fud`V lg;ksx d`k Hh lad`Yi f¥;k x;k\ eaxksf¥;kbZ jkÆV_ifr ,YcsxnkstZ us vius lEcks|u eÍ Hkjr ds` lkƒ eaxksf¥;k ds` ¥Ecs ,sfrgkfld` ,oa vk÷;kfRed` lEcU|kÍ d`k mY¥s[ fd`;k rƒk la;qDr jkÆV_ lqj”k ifj"nΩ eÍ Hkjr ds` Lƒk;h lnL;rk ds` nkos d`k Hh leƒZu fd`;k\ eaxksf¥;k ds` lkƒ mi;qZDr le>kSrs ogk∑ ds` jkÆV_ifr ,YcsxnkstZ d`h flrEcj 2009 d`h ;k(k ds` nkSjku ubZ fnY¥h eÍ fd`, x,\ twu 2009 ds` pqukokÍ ds` i'pkrΩ ,YcsxnkstZ d`h ;g ig¥h gh fonsæ ;k(k ƒh\ pkj fnu Hkjr d`h bl ;k(k ds` nkSjku ubZ fnY¥h ds` vfrfjDr cks|x;k Hh og x,] tgk∑ egkcksf| efUnj d`k vo¥ksd`u mUgkÍus fd`;k\

fœ`th d`k jkÆV_e≥M¥ ls iqu# fu¥Ecu
¥ksd`ra( ds` guu ds` eke¥s eÍ iwoZ eÍ jkÆV_e≥M¥ ls fu¥fEcr jg pqds` fœ`th d`ks ¥ksd`rU( d`h iquLƒkZiuk ds` eke¥s eÍ fu|kZfjr le; lhek eÍ ld`kjkRed` d`ne mBkus eÍ foœ`¥ jgus ij ,d` ckj iqu# jkÆV_e≥M¥ ls fu¥fEcr fd`;k x;k gS\ KkrO; gS fd` fœ`th eÍ fuokZfpr ljd`kj

us ubZ ljd`kj d`k xBu 16 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks fd`;k gS\ 30 vxLr d`ks ogk∑ lEiUu lalnh; pqukokÍ eÍ l®kÔÈ< f¥cj¥ Mseks∂s`fVd` ikVhZ d`ks Hkjh ijkt; d`k lkeuk d`juk iÈMk ƒk rƒk Mseks∂s`fVd` ikVhZ vkWœ` tkiku (DPJ) d`ks Hkjh cgqer bl pquko eÍ ^kIr gqvk ƒk\ laln ds`` 480 lnL;h; fup¥s lnu eÍ 308 lhVkÍ ij Mhihts d`ks fot; ^kIr gqbZ] tcfd` fiN¥s 54 o"ksÛ eÍ ds`o¥ 11 ekg d`ks NksÈMd`j ¥xkrkj l®klhu jgh ,¥Mhih d`ks ds`o¥ 119 lhVÍ gh bl pquko eÍ fe¥ ld`Ó\ bl pquko eÍ fjd`kWMZ 54 efg¥k,a thr d`j lnu eÍ igq∑pus eÍ lœ`¥ jgh gß\ pquko ds` bu ifj.kekÍ ds` p¥rs Mseks∂s`fVd` ikVhZ vkWœ` tkiku ds` usrk ;wfd`;ks grks;kek (Yukio Hatoyama) d`ks 16 flrEcj d`ks laln ds` la;qDr l( eÍ ^|kuea(h pquk x;k gS\ 62 o"hZ; grks;kek vejhd`k eÍ fæf”r bathfu;j gß rƒk iwoZ o"ksÛ eÍ ^|kuea(h jgs bfæjks grks;kek ds` ikS( gß\ og lksæ¥ Mseks∂s`fVd` ikVhZ (SDP) o ihiqYl U;w ikVhZ vkfn NksVs n¥kÍ d`ks lkƒ eÍ ¥sd`j ubZ ljd`kj d`k xBu mUgkÍus fd`;k gS\ og tkiku ds` 93oÍ ^|kuea(h gß rFkk bl in ij vklhu gksus ok¥s og 60oÍ O;fDr gß\
;wfd`;ks grks;kek # tkiku ds` u, iz|kuea(h

baVjusV ds` tUe ds` 40 o"Z iw.Z # mi;ksx d`jus ok¥kÍ d`h la“;k vc MsÈ< vjc ls vf|d`
lwpuk ^kS»ksfxd`h ”s( eÍ egk∂`kfUr ¥kd`j lEiw.Z fo'o d`ks ,d` oSf'od` xk∑o ds` Ôi eÍ fod`flr d`jus ok¥s baVjusV us vius tUe ds` 40 o"Z 2 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks iwjs fd`, gß\ 40 o"Z iw.Z 2 flrEcj] 1969 d`ks ig¥h ckj dS`¥hœ`kWfuZ;k fo'ofo»k¥; ·¥kWl] ,atsYl‚ eÍ nks v¥x-v¥x d`EI;wVjkÍ }kjk vikZusV (Arpanet) ds` ,d` ijh”. eÍ lwpukvkÍ d`k vknku-^nku lœ`¥rkiwoZd` fd`;k x;k ƒk\ ¥su D¥hujkWd` (Len Kleinrock) ds` bu ijh”.kÍ us gh baVjusV d`k lw(ik( fd`;k\ ckn eÍ bZ-es¥ d`k fod`kl js VkWfeYlu (Ray Tomlinson) }kjk 1972 eÍ rƒk oYMZ okbM osc www d`k fVe cuZlZ ¥h (Tim Berners Lee) }kjk 1990 eÍ fd`;k x;k ƒk\ mY¥s[uh; gS fd` ‘baVjusV’ mi;ksx d`jus ok¥kÍ d`h fo'o eÍ dq`¥ la“;k 1999 eÍ ds`o¥ 25 d`jksÈM ƒh] tks cÈ<d`j 2002 eÍ 50 d`jksÈM 2006 eÍ 1 vjc o 2008 eÍ 1·5 vjc gks xbZ ƒh\ rktk mi¥C| vk∑d`ÈMkÍ ds` vuqlkj fo'o eÍ baVjusV mi;ksx d`jus ok¥kÍ d`h dq`¥ la“;k ;»fi phu eÍ lokZf|d` gS] nsæ d`h dq`¥ tula“;k ds` ^frær ds` Ôi eÍ baVjusV miHksDrk lokZf|d` vkLV_sf¥;k eÍ gß\ baVjusV mi;ksx d`jus ok¥kÍ d`h la“;k ds` eke¥s eÍ Hkjr d`k pkSƒk Lƒku gS\

teZuh eÍ lalnh; pquko # ,ats¥k edsZ`¥ ds` iqu# pkal¥j cuus d`ks ekxZ ^'kLr
flrEcj 2009 ds` vUr eÍ teZuh eÍ lEiUu lalnh; pqukokÍ eÍ ,ats¥k edsZ`¥ d`h fdz`f'p;u Mseksdzs`fVd` ;wfu;u (CDU) ds` usr~Ro ok¥s xBcU|u us cgqer gkfl¥ fd`;k

baVjusV mi;ksx d`jus ok¥kÍ d`h la“;k
nsæ phu vejhd`k tkiku Hkjr czkth¥ teZuh ;w\ ds`\ œz`kal Ôl n\ d`ksfj;k vkLV_sf¥;k baVjusV d`k mi;ksx d`jus ok¥kÍ nsæ d`h dq`¥ tula“;k eÍ baVjusV mi;ksx d`h la“;k ·fef¥;u eÍ‚ d`jus ok¥kÍ d`k Hkx ·^frær eÍ‚
298 227 94 81 68 55 48 41 38 37 17 22·4 74·7 73·8 7·1 34·3 67·0 72·0 66·0 27·0 76·0 80·6

vke pquko eÍ lœ`¥rk ds` ckn ,aats¥k edsZ`¥

gS\ lhMh;w us lks'k¥ Mseksdzs`VΩl d`h ikVhZ (SPD) ds` LFkku ij 16 o"ksÛ ls foi{k eÍ jgh œz`h Mseksdzs`fVd` ikVhZ (FDP) ds` lkFk pqukoh xBcU|u bl ckj fd`;k Fkk\ pquko eÍ fdz`f'p;u Mseksdzs`fVd` ;wfu;u o mld`h

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/655

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lokZf|d` d`ek˜ f∂`ds`VjkÍ d`h œ`ksClZ lwph eÍ |ksuh d`k æh"Z Lƒku

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^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/657

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d`ksfj;k‚ eÍ gksxk\ 2011 ls izfro"Z ,d` gh fæ[j lEes¥u vk;ksftr fd`, tkus d`h lEHkouk gS\

oSf'od` fonsæh izR;” fuosæ eÍ Hkjh d`eh d`k ‘vad`VkM’ d`k vuqeku
oSf'od` eanh ds` p¥rs fo'o Hj eÍ 2009 eÍ fonsæh izR;” fuosæ (FDI) eÍ d`eh vkus d`h lEHkouk ‘vad`VkM’
(UNCTAD—United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) d`h

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,d` rktk fjiksVZ eÍ O;Dr d`h xbZ gS\ laxBu d`h oYMZ Mso¥ieÍV fjiksVZ%2009 æh"Zd` ls flrEcj 2009 eÍ tkjh bl fjiksVZ eÍ crk;k x;k gS fd` chrs o"Z 2008 eÍ oSf'od` fonsæh izR;” fuosæ 1·7 fV_f¥;u MkW¥j jgk ƒk] ftlds` 30 izfrær ?Vd`j 2009 eÍ 1·2 fV_f¥;u MkW¥j ls Hh d`e jgus d`h lEHkouk gS\ fjiksVZ ds` vuqlkj 2010 eÍ bleÍ dq`N lq|kj gksxk rƒk ;g 1·4 fV_f¥;u MkW¥j rd` gks lds`xk] tcfd` mlds` ckn bleÍ rsth vk,xh rƒk 2011 eÍ ;g 1·8 fV_f¥;u MkW¥j rd` igq∑p tk,xk\ ‘vad`VkM’ d`h bl fjiksVZ eÍ crk;k x;k gS fd` o"Z 2008 eÍ fonsæh izR;” fuosæ (FDI) vkd`f"Zr d`jus ds` eke¥s eÍ Hkjr nqfu;k eÍ tgk∑ 13oÍ Lƒku ij jgk] ogÓ ,fæ;k eÍ bl eke¥s eÍ ;g ,d` ik;nku fœ`l¥d`j rhljs Lƒku ij igq∑p x;k\ fjiksVZ eÍ d`gk x;k gS fd` 2008 ds` nkSjku ,œ`MhvkbZ vkd`f"Zr d`jus ok¥s chl izeq[ nsækÍ eÍ vejhd`k ig¥s Lƒku ij jgk] tcfd` œz`kal nwljs] phu rhljs] fczVsu pkSƒs] ¸Ôlh egkla? ik∑poÍ] Lisu NBs]

fiVΩlcxZ fæ[j lEes¥u eÍ mifLƒr jkÆV_k÷;” o vU; izfrfuf|

th- 20 d`k vkxkeh fæ[j lEes¥u d`ukMk eÍ eLd`ksd`k eÍ twu 2010 eÍ vk;ksftr d`jus d`k œS`l¥k bl lEes¥u eÍ fd`;k x;k\ 25–27 twu] 2010 d`ks gh ogk∑ th-8 fæ[j lEes¥u vk;ksftr fd`;k tkuk gS\ 2010 eÍ th-20 d`k nwljk fæ[j lEes¥u uoEcj eÍ fl;ks¥ ·n\ ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/658

gkaxd`kax lkroÍ] csfYt;e vkBoÍ] vkLV_sf¥;kbZ ukSoÍ vkSj czkth¥ nloÍ Lƒku ij jgk gS\ d`ukMk bl eke¥s eÍ 11oÍ] LohMu 12 oÍ vkSj Hkjr 13 oÍ Lƒku ij jgk gS\ l˜nh vjc d`k 14ok∑] teZuh d`k 15ok∑] tkiku d`k 16ok∑] ¯lxkiqj d`k 17ok∑] eSfDld`ks d`k 18ok∑] ukbthfj;k d`k 19ok∑

gksrh\ ,sls fuosæd`kÍ d`ks gh izf∂`;kxr ck|kvkÍ ls lcls T;knk xqtjuk gksrk gS] D;kÍfd` muds` ikl ljd`kjh uhfr;kÍ ls lEcfU|r tkud`kjh d`k vHko gksrk gS\ vkuan æekZ ds` eqrkfcd` ubZ d`Eiuh ‘bUosLV bafM;k’ ,sls fuosæd`kÍ d`h tÔjrkÍ d`ks iwjk d`jsxh\ okf.T; ,oa m»ksx ea(h us crk;k fd` ew¥r# ;g d`Eiuh rhu fl*karkÍ ij d`ke d`jsxh\ ig¥k] Hkjr eÍ izR;” fonsæh fuosæ d`ks izksRlkgu nsuk] nwljk] Hkjr vkus ok¥s fonsæh fuosæd`kÍ d`ks izf∂`;kxr lqfo|k,a iznku d`juk o fofHUu ea(k¥;kÍ ds` chp leUo;d` d`k d`ke d`juk vkSj rhljk] vkS»ksfxd` uhfr ij ljd`kj d`ks œ`hMcSd` iznku d`juk\

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Lo.Z cspus d`h vkbZ,e,œ` d`h ;kstuk
m|kj iznku d`jus d`h viuh ”erk ds` foLrkj ds` f¥, vUrjkZÆV_h; eqnzk d`ks" (IMF) d`h vius foæk¥ Lo.Z HaMkj eÍ ls 403·3 Vu lksuk cspus d`h ;kstuk gS\ bl fc∂`h ls 13 vjc MkW¥j d`h izkfIr eqnzk d`ks" d`ks gks lds`xh\ bld`k bLrsek¥ vius lnL; jkÆV_kÍ d`ks] foæs"r# fu|Zu jkÆV_kÍ d`ks )`. mi¥C| d`jkus ds` f¥, vkbZ,e,œ` }kjk fd`;k tk,xk\ Lo.Z fc∂`h ds` bl izLrko d`ks vkbZ,e,œ` ds` izcU|d` eaM¥ us 18 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks eatwjh iznku d`h gS\ fc∂`h fd`, tkus ok¥k Lo.Z vkbZ,e,œ` ds` ikl mi¥C| dq`¥ 3217 Vu Lo.Z d`k ¥xHx vkBok∑ Hkx gksxk\ 186 lnL;h; vkbZ,e,œ` vejhd`k o teZuh ds` ckn rhljk cÈMk Lo.Z d`ks" |kjd` gS\ d`ks" ds` lalk|u cÈ<kus ds` f¥, bl Lo.Z d`ks" d`k ,d` Hkx cspus d`k œS`l¥k d`ks" ds` izcU| ra( us v^S¥ 2008 eÍ gh fd`;k ƒk\ d`ks" d`h bl ;kstuk d`k vuqeksnu th-20 us Hh v^S¥ 2009 ds` ¥anu fæ[j lEes¥u eÍ fd`;k ƒk\ vUrjkZÆV_h; eqnzk d`ks" us ;g ?ks".k d`h gS fd` Lo.Z d`h izLrkfor fc∂`h bl izd`kj ls d`h tk,xh] ftlls bl |krq ds` vUrjkZÆV_h; cktkj ij d`ksbZ vlj u iÈMs\ d`ks" d`h bl ?ks".k ds` ckotwn vUrjkZÆV_h; cktkj eÍ Lo.Z ds` ewY; ¥xHx ,d` gtkj MkW¥j izfr vkmal d`h fxjkoV Lo.Z fc∂`h ds` œS`l¥s ds` ckn d`h xbZ gS\

C;kt njkÍ ds` ok;nk d`kjksckj d`k æqHkjEH
vxLr 2008 eÍ fonsæh eqnzk d`k ok;nk d`kjksckj æqÔ d`jus ds` i'pkrΩ Hkjr eÍ vc C;kt njkÍ d`k ok;nk d`kjksckj Hh æqÔ gks x;k gS\ ds`Unzh; fo® lfpo væksd` pko¥k us bld`k æqHkjEH jkÆV_h; LVkWd` ,DlpÍt (NSE) eÍ xr 31 vxLr d`ks fd`;k\ cßd`] ^kbejh Mh¥j] E;wpqv¥ œ`≥M] chek d`Eifu;k∑] d`kWiksZjsV gkml] fonsæh laLƒkxr fuosæd` o vU; `fo®h; laLƒku

‘flfc¥’ ls ∂s`fMV fjiksVZ izkIr d`jus d`h lqfo|k
cßd`kÍ ls )`. ¥sus ds` bPNqd` vkosnd`kÍ d`ks )`. Lohd~`r d`jus ls iwoZ cßd` ^k;# vkosnd` d`h ‘∂s`fMV fgLV_h’ ns[rs gß\ blls ;g irk p¥ tkrk gS fd` vkosnd` fd`lh cßd` d`k )`. pqd`kus eÍ ig¥s ‘fMœ`kWYVj’ rks ugÓ jgk gS\ ‘∂s`fMV fgLV_h’ izfrdw`¥ gksus ij cßd` )`. ds` vkosnd` d`ks u;k )`. lohd~`r d`jus ls bud`kj d`j ld`rs gß\ Hkjr eÍ cßd`kÍ ds` ‘fMœ`kWYVlZ’ d`k ;g ‘MkVk-cßd`’ ∂s`fMV bUœ`kWesZæu C;wjks vkWœ` bafM;k f¥\ (CIBIL) }kjk fofHUu cßd`kÍ ds` lg;ksx ls rS;kj fd`;k x;k gS\ ‘flfc¥’ ds` ‘MkVk cßd`’ eÍ fofHUu cßd`kÍ ls )`. o

pqd`kuk gksxk\ ehfM;k fjiksVZ ds` vuqlkj ;g æqYd` fœ`¥gk¥ 142 :i, fu|kZfjr gS\ bl lEcU| eÍ foLr~r tkud`kjh ‘flfc¥’ d`h osclkbV ls ¥h tk ld`rh gS\

eqEcbZ fLƒr usæu¥ LVkWd` ,DlpÍt eÍ C;kt nj eÍ ok;nk d`kjksckj d`k mnΩ?kVu d`jrs fo® lfpo væksd` pko¥k ·nk,a ls nwljs‚ lkƒ eÍ gß fjtoZ cßd` d`h fMIVh xouZj ';ke¥k xksihukƒ] lsch ds` ps;jeSu lh\ ch\ Hkos ·ck,a ls nwljs‚ vkSj ,u,lbZ ds` ,eMh ,oa lhbZvks jfo ukjk;.

C;kt nj d`k ok;nk d`kjksckj d`j ldÍ`xs\ blls C;kt njkÍ eÍ gksus ok¥s mrkj-pÈ<ko ls lqj”k bUgÍ izkIr gks lds`xh\ C;kt nj ds` ok;nk d`kjksckj ds` æqHkjEH ds` volj ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/659

thMhih eÍ o~f* 6·1 izfrær jgh gS] tksfd` fiN¥h frekgh ·tuojh-ekpZ 2009‚ eÍ 5·8 ^frær rƒk iwoZ o"Z d`h leku vof| ·v^S¥-twu 2008‚ eÍ 7·8 izfrær ƒh\ rktk mi¥C| vk∑d`ÈMkÍ ds` vuqlkj v^S¥-twu 2009 ds` nkSjku d~`f" ”s( eÍ o~f* 2·4 ^frær m»ksxkÍ eÍ o~f* 5·0 ^frær rƒk lsokvkÍ ds` ”s( eÍ ;g 7·8 ^frær jgh gS\ thMhih ds` bu ifj.kekÍ ds` ifjizs{; eÍ vƒZO;oLƒk ds` eanh ls dq`N mcjus ds` lads`r fe¥rs gß\ 2008-09 eÍ v^S¥-twu 2008 eÍ 7·8 ^frær tq¥kbZ-flrEcj 2008 eÍ 7·6 ^frær jgus ds` i'pkrΩ vDVwcjfnlEcj 2008 o tuojh-ekpZ 2009 eÍ o~f* nj ∂`eæ# 5·8–5·8 ^frær jgh ƒh] tks vc v^S¥-tq¥kbZ 2009 eÍ 6·1 ^frær ntZ d`h xbZ gS\

vkbZ,e,œ` }kjk 4.8 vjc MkW¥j ds` rqY; ,lMhvkj vkoaVu ls Hkjr ds` fonsæh eqnzk d`ks" eÍ o~f*
28 vxLr] 2009 d`ks lekIr gq, lIrkg eÍ Hkjr ds` fonsæh eqnzk d`ks" 276·3 vjc MkW¥j ds` gks x, ƒs] tks ,d` lIrkg iwoZ 21 vxLr] 2009 d`ks 271·957 vjc MkW¥j ds` ƒs\ vUrjkZÆV_h; eqnzk d`ks" (IMF) }kjk Hkjr ds` i” eÍ 4·8 vjc MkW¥j ds` rqY; ,lMhvkj d`k vkoaVu xr 28 vxLr d`ks d`jus ds` d`kj. lUnfHZr frfƒ d`ks fonsæh eqnzk d`ks" eÍ ;g o~f* ntZ d`h xbZ ƒh\ nsæ ds` vkjf”r fonsæh eqnzk d`ks"kÍ eÍ o~f* d`k ;g fl¥fl¥k ckn ds` lIrkgkÍ eÍ Hh cuk jgk rƒk 11 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks lekIr lIrkg eÍ dq`¥ fonsæh eqnzk d`ks" 280·978 vjc MkW¥j gks x, ƒs\

le; ls Hh nks ?≥Vs d`e `gksxk\ nwljh nwjarks ,Dlizsl d`k izpk¥u 21 flrEcj] fo'o vkfƒZd` eap (World Economic 2009 ls psUubZ-fnY¥h ds` chp æqÔ fd`;k Forum—WEF) ds` oSf'od` izfrLi*kZ x;k gS\ bld`k æqHkjEH ds`Unzh; x~gea(h ih\ fpnEcjeΩ us psUubZ LVsæu ij >≥Mh lwpd`kad` 2009-10 (Global Competitive Index) d`h n~fÆV ls Hkjr d`k fo'o eÍ vc fn[kd`j fd`;k\ 49ok∑ Lƒku gS rƒk fiN¥s o"Z d`h rq¥uk eÍ ;g ,d` ik;nku ˜ij pÈ<k gS\ fiN¥s 2009-10 d`h ig¥h frekgh eÍ o"Z Hkjr d`k bl eke¥s eÍ 50ok∑ Lƒku ƒk\ vkfƒZd` o~f* nj 6.1 ^frær phu d`h j߯d`x Hh bl o"Z ,d` ik;nku lq|j d`j 30 ls 29 gks xbZ gS\ fo'o pk¥w fo®h; o"Z 2009-10 d`h ig¥h vkfƒZd` eap us fo'o ds` 133 pquÓnk nsækÍ ds` frekgh ·v^S¥-twu 2009‚ ds` ld`¥ ?js¥w f¥, izfrLi*kZ lwpd`kad` 8 flrEcj] 2009 mRikn (GDP) lEcU|h vk∑d`ÈMs ds`Unzh; d`ks tkjh fd`, gß\ eap ds` vuqlkj vU; lkaf“;d`h; laxBu (CSO) }kjk 31 nsækÍ d`h rq¥uk eÍ csgrj fo®h; cktkj o vxLr] 2009 d`ks tkjh fd`, x, ƒs\ bu etcwr c߯d`x ”s( ds` p¥rs Hkjr d`h vk∑d`ÈMkÍ ds` vuqlkj lUnfHZr vof| eÍ izfrLi*kZ ”erk eÍ lq|kj gqvk gS\

oSf'od` izfrLi*kZ lwpd`kad` eÍ Hkjr d`k 49ok∑ Lƒku

ig¥h nwjarks js¥xkÈMh fl;k¥nkg o fnY¥h ds` chp izkjEH
2009-10 ds` js¥ ctV eÍ nsæ eÍ 14 ubZ nw j a r ks (Duronto) js¥xkfÈM;kÍ d`k izpk¥u d`jus d`k izLrko js¥ ea(h eerk cuthZ us fd`;k ƒk\ bueÍ ls ig¥h js¥xkÈMh fl;k¥nkg o fnY¥h ds` chp 18 flrEcj] 2009 ls æqÔ d`h xbZ gS\ js¥ ea(h eerk cuthZ us bl ig¥h nwjarks ,Dlizsl d`ks d`ks¥d`krk eÍ >≥Mh fn[kd`j jokuk fd`;k\ ubZ fnY¥h-fl;k¥nkg ds` chp d`h nwjh d`ks ;g 16 ?≥Vs] 20 feuV eÍ r; d`jsxh tks jkt|kuh ,Dlizsl }kjk f¥, tkus ok¥s

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/660

fo'o vkfƒZd` eap ds` o"Z 2009-10 ds` rktk izfrLi*kZ lwpd`kad`kÍ d`h n~fÆV ls lokZf|d` izfrLi*hZ jkÆV_ fLoVΩtj¥S≥M gks x;k gS rƒk bl eke¥s eÍ vejhd`k] tks fiN¥s o"Z æh"Z ij ƒk] d`ks mlus nwljs Lƒku ij NksÈM fn;k gS\ vejhd`k ds` ckn rhljk] pkSƒk o ik∑pok∑ Lƒku ∂`eæ# ¯lxkiqj] LohMu o MsuekdZ` d`k gS\ Ôl d`h j߯d`x eÍ Hkjh fxjkoV bl o"Z ntZ d`h xbZ gS rƒk ;g 51 ls fxjd`j 63oÓ bl o"Z jgh gS\ oSf'od` izfrLi*kZ lwpd`kad` d`h n~fÆV ls izeq[ nsækÍ d`h j߯d`x fuEuf¥f[r rkf¥d`k eÍ nækZbZ xbZ gS%
izfrLi*kZ j߯d`x jkÆV_ fLoVΩtj¥S≥M vejhd`k ¯lxkiqj LohMu MsuekdZ` fœ`u¥S≥M teZuh tkiku d`ukMk uhnj¥S≥MΩl phu Hkjr czkth¥ Ôl
(2009-10) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 29 49 56 63

flLVEl d`k 3·9 vjc MkW¥j eÍ vf|xzg. d`jus ds` f¥, le>kSrk 21 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks fd`;k gS\ oSf'od` fo®h; lad`V d`k nkSj æqÔ gksus ds` ckn ls bls vkbZVh ”s( d`k lcls cÈMk lkSnk ekuk tk jgk gS\ Ms¥ d`h vksj ls tkjh oDrO; ds` vuqlkj nksukÍ czkaMkÍ ds` chp d`jkj d`h ærksÛ d`ks nksukÍ d`Eifu;kÍ ds` funsæd` eaM¥kÍ d`h eatwjh fe¥ xbZ gS\

6 fo'ks"K n¥kÍ d`k 2009 eÍ fd`;k gS\

xBu izkf|d`j. us flrEcj
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æs" i~ÆB 656 d`k fonsæ ea(h ,l\,e\ d~`Æ.k d`h cs¥kÔl o rqdZ`esfuLrku ;k(k
fonsæ ea(h ,l\ ,e\ d~`Æ.k us 16–19 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks cs¥kÔl vkSj rqdZ`esfuLrku d`h ;k(k d`h\ pkj fnu d`h bl ;k(k ds` nkSjku Jh d~`Æ.k æqÔ eÍ nks fnukÍ rd` cs¥kÔl eÍ jgs tgk∑ jkÆV_ifr ,¥sDtÍMj ¥qd`kæÍd`ks vkSj fonsæ ea(h lxsZ ekfrZukso ls fofHUu fcUnqvkÍ ij mUgkÍ u s fopkj-foeæZ fd`;k\ ckn eÍ og rqdZ`esfuLrku x, tgk∑ fonsæ ea(h jæhn esjsnkso o jkÆV_ifr xqjcaxq¥h cnhZeqgEenkso ds` lkƒ f}i”h; eqnΩnkÍ ij mUgkÍus ppkZ d`h\
●●●

cßd` vkWœ` egkjkÆV_ d`k I¥sVhue t;arh o"Z
lkoZtfud` ”s( ds` cßd` vkWœ` egkjkÆV_ us viuh Lƒkiuk ds` 75oÍ o"Z eÍ izosæ flrEcj 2009 eÍ fd`;k gS\ 16 flrEcj] 2009 ls 16 flrEcj] 2010 rd` I¥sVhue t;arh o"Z ds` Ôi eÍ cßd` }kjk euk;k tk jgk gS\
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æs" i~ÆB 651 d`k

ds` lHh iz;kl foœ`¥ gks x, gß ftlds` p¥rs lhchvkbZ us varr# eke¥s d`ks can d`jus d`k œS`l¥k fd`;k gS\ lkWf¥flVj tuj¥ lqcz©≥;e us fnY¥h mPp U;k;k¥; ds` 2004 ds` ml œS`l¥s d`k gok¥k Hh mPpre U;k;k¥; eÍ fn;k ftleÍ d`gk x;k Fkk fd` cksœ`kslZ lkSns eÍ HzÆVkpkj d`k d`ksbZ eke¥k ugÓ curk\ lqcz©≥;e us d`gk fd` eke¥s ds` bu lHh rF;kÍ ij xkSj d`jus ds` ckn ljd`kj us ds`l d`ks can d`jus d`k œS`l¥k f¥;k gS\ lkWf¥flVj tuj¥ ds` bl c;ku d`k Hktik vkSj bl eke¥s eÍ lqizhe d`ksVZ d`k njoktk [V[Vkus ok¥s od`h¥kÍ us d`ÈMk fojks| fd`;k] tcfd` d`kaxzsl us d`gk gS fd` varr# eke¥s ij fojke ¥x vU; egRoiw.Z rF; x;k gS\ KkrO; gS fd` bl eke¥s eÍ Dok(ksfPp ,d`ek( vkjksih cp x;k Fkk ‘Mk¥Mk’ czkaM d`h okilh iwoZ o"ksÛ eÍ vfr ¥ksd`f^; jgs ‘Mk¥Mk’ D;kÍfd` fnY¥h mPp U;k;k¥; us 31 ebZ] czkaM d`h okilh Hkjrh; cktkj eÍ xr flrEcj 2005 d`ks vU; vkjksfi;kÍ ds` fo:* vkjksi ekg eÍ gqbZ gS\ vejhd`h [k» d`Eiuh cqaxs fujLr d`j fn, Fks\
(Bunge) d`h Hkjrh; vuq"axh d`Eiuh cqaxs bafM;k izk\ f¥\ us ‘Mk¥Mk’ uke ls fjœ`kbaM laf{kIrd`h rs¥ fc∂`h ds` f¥, xr 7 flrEcj d`ks ¥kap fd`;k gS\ KkrO; gS fd` cqaxs us fgUnqLrku f¥oj 2009 eÍ 72 ck?kÍ d`h e~R;q d`k xSj(HLL) ls Mk¥Mk czkaM 2003 eÍ [jhn f¥;k ljd`kjh laxBukÍ d`k nkok ƒk\ ck? laj{k. gsrq fd`, x, reke iz;klkÍ Hkjr eÍ ig¥k bL¥kfed` cßd` ds`j¥ eÍ ds` ckotwn ns'k eÍ bud`h la“;k eÍ fxjkoV d`k LFkkiuk|hu vans'kk gS\ 2006 d`h fiN¥h ck? x.uk (Tiger ns'k eÍ ig¥k bL¥kfed` cßd` ds`j¥ eÍ Census) eÍ ns'k eÍ ck?kÍ d`h dq`¥ la“;k 1411 d`ksfPp eÍ LFkkfir gksxk\ blds` f¥, iathd`j. vkd`f¥r d`h xbZ ƒh\ xSj-ljd`kjh laxBukÍ d`k ^fdz`;k ^kjEH gks pqd`h gS rFkk bld`k d`k;Z nkok gS fd` bueÍ ls d`e-ls-d`e 150 ck?kÍ d`h 2010 eÍ ^kjEH gksus d`h lEHkouk gS\ ds`j¥ LVsV e~R;q bl vof| eÍ gks pqd`h gS\ bueÍ ls 72 baMfLV_;¥ Mso¥ieÍV d`kWiksZjs'ku (KSIDC) d`h ck?kÍ ds` rks blh o"Z ·2009 eÍ‚ ekjs tkus d`k bleÍ 11 ^fr'kr Hkxhnkjh gksxh\ nkok fd`;k x;k gS\ ck? la“;k eÍ vk jgh bl Ms¥ }kjk isjkWV flLVEl d`k vf|xzg. d`eh ds` ifjizs{; eÍ lHh ck? vH;kj≥;kÍ d`k fo'o d`h nwljh cÈMh ilZu¥ d`EI;wVj Lora( ewY;kad`u d`jkus d`k jkÆV_h; ck? laj{k. d`Eiuh Ms¥ bad` us d`EI;wVj lsok œ`eZ isjkWV izkf|d`j. (NTCA) d`k bjknk gS\ blds` f¥,

New Release

Mathematical Formulae
(Useful for Various Competitive Examinations)
Compiled by : Dr. N. K. Singh Code No. 1642

Rs. 65/-

HINDI EDITION

Code 248 Rs. 76/Upkar Prakashan, AGRA-2
● E-mail : publisher@upkar.in ● Website : www.upkar.in

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/661

ujs'k n;k¥] tks 30 flrEcj d`ks lsokfuo~® gq, gß] d`k LFkku mUgkÍus 1 vDVwcj] 2009 ls f¥;k gS\

¥hfc;k ds` v¥h vCnqLl¥ke V_sd`h la;qDr jkÆV_ egklHk ds` 64oÍ l( ds` v÷;{k
¥hfc;k ds` vœz`hd`h ;wfu;u eke¥kÍ ds` ea(h v¥h vCnqLl¥ke V_sd`h (Ali Abdussalam Treki) la;qDr jkÆV_ egklHk ds` 64oÍ vf|os'ku ds` v÷;{k gß\ egklHk ds` 15 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks 'kqÔ gq, bl vf|os'ku ds` v÷;{k ds` Ôi eÍ mUgkÍus d`k;ZHkj l∑Hk¥ f¥;k gS\ la;qDr jkÆV_ la? d`h v¥h vCnqLl¥ke V_sd`h 192 lnL;h; egklHk eÍ twu 2009 eÍ loZlEefr ls mUgÍ bl nkf;Ro gsrq pquk x;k Fkk\ muls iwoZ fud`kjkxqvk ds` fexq,¥ Mh ,Ld`ksVks czkWd`eSu egklHk ds` 63oÍ l( ds` v÷;{k Fks\

'kCn la{ksi
(Abbreviations)

lh vks\ ch\ vkj\ ,\ ·d`kscjk‚%d`ekaMks cVkf¥;u œ`kWj fjÈT;kWY;wV ,D'ku
CoBRA—Commando Battalion for Resolute Action

O;k“;k%bl v*ZlSfud` c¥ d`k xBu uDl¥h xfrfof|;kÍ ij vadq`'k ds` f¥, fd`;k x;k Fkk\ vkbZ\ lh\ ,e\ ,\ vkbZ\%baLVhVΩ;wV vkWœ` d`kWLV ,≥M eSusteÍV ,d`kmaVΩl vkWœ` bafM;k
ICMAI—Institute of Cost and Management Accounts of India O;k“;k%1959 eÍ laln }kjk ikfjr vf|fu;e ds` rgrΩ xfBr baLVhVΩ;wV vkWœ` d`kWLV ,≥M oDlZ ,d`kmaVΩl vkWœ` bafM;k (ICWAI) d`ks 'kh?z gh vc bl u, uke

·baLVhVΩ;wV vkWœ` d`kWLV ,≥M eSusteÍV ,d`kmaVΩl vkWœ` bf≥M;k‚ ls tkuk tk,xk\ laLFkk ds` uke eÍ ifjorZu d`k vuqjks| ljd`kj us lS*kfUrd` rkSj ij Lohd`kj d`j f¥;k gS] fd`Urq blds` f¥, vkbZlhMCY;w,vkbZ vf|fu;e eÍ ifjorZu d`juk gksxk\ d`kWiksZjsV eke¥kÍ ds` ea(h l¥eku [q'khZn ds` vuqlkj bl fn'kk eÍ d`ke fd`;k tk jgk gS rFkk vkSipkfjd`rkvkÍ d`ks 'kh?z gh iwjk d`j f¥;k tk,xk\ (ABC) d`k ps;jeSu l( 2009-10 ds` f¥, fu;qfDr;k¡ loZlEefr ls pquk x;k\ ¥ksd`er xzqi ds` fot; njMk d`ks C;wjks d`k fMIVh ps;jeSu (Appointments) bl pquko eÍ pquk x;k\ clar lsB%flMch (SIDBI) ds` miVh\ oÍd`Vjke jsMΩMh%MsDd`u dz`kWfud`¥ ^cU| funs'kd` clar lsB d`ks vc lkoZtfud` ds` ps;jeSu Vh\ oÍd`Vjke jsMΩMh d`ks o"Z {ks( ds` flaMhds`V cßd` d`k ps;jeSu lg^cU| 2009-10 ds` f¥, bafM;u U;wtisij funs'kd` vxLr 2009 eÍ fu;qDr fd`;k x;k lkslkbVh (INS) d`k v÷;{k pquk x;k gS\ gS\ iwoZ o"ksÛ eÍ og cßd` vkWœ` bafM;k eÍ mud`k p;u lkslkbVh d`h gSnjkckn eÍ egk^cU|d` jg pqds` gß\ 24 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks lEiUu 70oÓ okf"Zd` ih\ lh\ Hkj}kt%¥sfŒVuÍV tuj¥ cSBd` eÍ gqvk\ bl in ij mUgkÍus ckWEcs ih\ lh\ Hkj}kt Hkjrh; Fk¥ lsuk ds` lekpkj ohd`¥h ds` gksjeqlth ,u\ d`kek u, mi^eq[ cuk, x, gß\ bl in ij d`k LFkku f¥;k gS\ ¥sfŒVuÍV tuj¥ Fkacwjkt d`k LFkku mUgkÍus v'kksd` ds`\ da`B%e¥sf'k;k eÍ Hkjr xzg. fd`;k gS] tks 30 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks ds` jktnwr v'kksd` ds`\ da`B vc Jh¥ad`k eÍ lsokfuo~® gq, gß\ ¥sfŒVuÍV tuj¥ Hkj}kt Hkjr ds` u, mPpk;qDr gkÍxs\ bl vk'k; blls iwoZ Fk¥ lsuk d`h m®jh d`eku ds` d`h ?ks".k Hkjrh; fons'k ea(k¥; }kjk ^eq[ Fks\ flrEcj 2009 eÍ d`h xbZ gS\ Mh\ ds`\ nhoku%okbl ,Mfej¥ Mh\ fnud`j [qY¥j%fons'k ea(k¥; eÍ ds`\ nhoku Hkjrh; ukSlsuk ds` u, mi^eq[ vfrfjDr lfpo fnud`j [qY¥j d`ks gß\ 1 flrEcj] 2009 ls bl in ij okbl ,Mfej¥ vkj\ ih\ lqFkku d`k LFkku mUgkÍus vkfLV_;k eÍ Hkjr d`k jktnwr flrEcj f¥;k gS] tks ,d` fnu iwoZ lsokfuo~® gq, Fks\ 2009 eÍ fu;qDr fd`;k x;k gS\ bl in ij lqczrks pVΩVksik÷;k;%n isfualq¥k lkSjH dq`ekj d`k LFkku og ¥Íxs\ lqtkrk jko%,MΩl fu;a(. foHkx œ`kmaMs'ku ds` ps;jeSu lqczrks pVΩVksik÷;k; d`ks xr 15 flrEcj d`ks eqEcbZ eÍ lEiUu d`h ^eq[ lqtkrk jko vc ns'k d`h ubZ pquko eÍ vkWfMV C;wjks vkWœ` `ldqZ`¥s'ku LokLF; lfpo cukbZ xbZ gß\ bl in ij ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/662

cqYxkfj;k d`h bfjuk cksd`ksok gkÍxh ;wusLd`ks d`h vx¥h egkfuns'kd`
cqYxkfj;k d`h iwoZ fons'k ea(h ,oa orZeku eÍ œz`kal eÍ jktnwr bfjuk cksd`ksok (Irina Bokova) ‘;wusLd`ks’ (UNESCO) d`h vkxkeh egkfuns'kd` gkÍxh\ bl in ds` f¥, ;wusLd`ks ds` 5 8 lnL;h; d`k;Zd`kjh cksMZ eÍ vfr la?"Ziw.Z pquko eÍ mUgÍ pquk x;k gS\ 22 flrEcj] `2009 d`ks bfjuk cksd`ksok ik∑poÍ nkSj ds` ernku eÍ felz ds` lkaLd~`frd` ea(h œ`k:[ gksLuh d`ks 31–27 erkÍ ds` ekew¥h vUrj ls mUgkÍus ijkftr fd`;k\ blls iwoZ pkSFks nkSj ds` ernku eÍ 29-29 er nksukÍ d`ks ^kIr gq, Fks\ muds` bl pquko d`k ;wusLd`ks d`h egklHk eÍ vuqeksnu vDVwcj 2009 eÍ fd`;k tk,xk\ la;qDr jkÆV_ la? (UNO) d`h isfjl fLFkr bl ,tÍlh d`h ^eq[ cuus ok¥h og ig¥h efg¥k gkÍxh\

iqjLdkj@lEeku
(Awards/Honours)

,f'k;u fœ`Ye esd`j vkWœ` n bZ;j% ckW¥hoqM ds` tkus-ekus fuekZrk funsZ'kd` ;'k pksiÈMk d`ks n\ d`ksfj;k eÍ cqlku eÍ 8–16 vDVwcj] 2009 d`ks gksus ok¥s vUrjkZÆV_h; fœ`Ye egksRlo eÍ ,f'k;u fœ`Ye esd`j vkWœ` n bZ;j ds` Ôi eÍ iqjLd~`r fd`;k tk,xk\

vkbZlhlh ds` 2008-09 ds` iqjLd`kj
fdz`ds`V ds` {ks( eÍ mRd~`ÆV ^n'kZu ds` f¥, vUrjkZÆV_h; fdz`ds`V ifj"nΩ ds` o"Z ds` ·NBs‚ iqjLd`kjkÍ d`k forj. n\ vœz`hd`k eÍ tksgkalcxZ eÍ 1 vDVwcj] fd`;k x;k\ 13 vxLr] 2008 ls 24 vxLr] 2009 d`h vof| ds` ^n'kZu d`ks bu iqjLd`kjkÍ ds` f¥, vk|kj cuk;k x;k Fkk\ iqjLd~`r f[¥kfÈM;kÍ ds` uke fuEuf¥f[r gß% fdz`ds`Vj vkWœ` n bZ;j%fe'ks¥ tkWulu ·vkLV_sf¥;k‚ VsLV I¥s;j vkWœ` n bZ;j%xkSre xaHhj ·Hkjr‚ ou Ms I¥s;j vkWœ` n bZ;j%egsUnz flag |ksuh ·Hkjr‚ beftÛx I¥s;j vkWœ` n bZ;j%ihVj flM¥ ·vkLV_sf¥;k‚\ ,lksfl,V ,≥M ,fœ`f¥,V I¥s;j vkWœ` n bZ;j%fof¥;e iksVZjœ`hYM ·vk;j¥S≥M‚\ Vh-20 ijœ`kWeZj vkWœ` n bZ;j%fr¥d`jRus fn¥'kku ·Jh¥ad`k‚ oksesu I¥s;j vkWœ` n bZ;j%D¥s;j Vs¥j ·bax¥S≥M‚ vEik;j vkWœ` n bZ;j%v¥he Mkj ·ikfd`Lrku‚ fLifjV vkWœ` fdz`ds`V%U;wth¥S≥M\ vkbZlhlh ouMs Vhe vkbZlhlh VsLV Vhe egsUnz ¯lg |ksuh ·d`Irku‚] ohjsUnz egsUnz ¯lg |ksuh ·d`Irku‚] lfpu lgokx] ;qojkt ¯lg] f∂`l xs¥] rÍnq¥d`j] xkSre xEHhj] ,aM_;w LV_kl] ds`fou ihVjlu] fr¥d`jRus fn¥æku] ,ch fMfof¥;lZ] fƒ¥u lejohjk] ekfVZu xqfIV¥] ,aM_;w ¯Œ¥VkWœ`] uqoku ekbd`¥ D¥kdZ`] ækfd`c v¥ glu] dq`¥kæs[jk] vtark eÍfMl] mej xq¥ feæs¥ tkulu] LVqvVZ czkM] Ms¥ LVsu 12ok∑ f[¥kÈMh%fƒ¥u rq"kjk 12ok∑ f[¥kÈMh%gjHtu ¯lg
2008-09 2009 d`ks

egsUnz ¯lg |ksuh # ou Ms I¥s;j vkWœ```n bZ;j

xkSre xEHhj # VsLV I¥s;j vkWœ```n``bZ;j

vkbZlhlh ds` bu iqjLd`kjkÍ d`k ;g NBk o"Z Fkk\ blls iwoZ 2004 eÍ bu iqjLd`kjkÍ d`k forj. ¥anu eÍ] 2005 eÍ flMuh eÍ] 2006 eÍ eqEcbZ eÍ] 2007 eÍ tksgkalcxZ eÍ o 2008 eÍ ;g nqcbZ eÍ fd`;k x;k Fkk\ bu o"ksÛ eÍ fofHUu iqjLd~`rkÍ ds` uke fuEuf¥f[r gß%

vkbZlhlh iqjLd`kjkÍ ds` iwoZ o"ksÛ eÍ fotsrk
2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09

tSDl dS`f¥l ·nf{k. vœz`hd`k‚ vkSj ,aM_;w fŒ¥aVkWœ` ·bax¥S≥M‚ VsLV I¥s;j vkWœ` n bZ;j jkgq¥ nzfoÈM ·Hkjr‚ tSDl dS`f¥l ·nf{k.``vœz`hd`k‚ ou Ms I¥s;j vkWœ` n bZ;j ,aM_;w fŒ¥aVkWœ` ds`fou ihVjlu ·bax¥S≥M‚ ·bax¥S≥M‚ beftÛx I¥s;j vkWœ` n bZ;j bjœ`ku iBku ·Hkjr‚ ds`fou ihVjlu ·bax¥S≥M‚ Vh-20 I¥s;j vkWœ` n bZ;j oweSu fdz`ds`Vj vkWœ` n bZ;j fdz`ds`Vj vkWœ` n bZ;j vEik;j vkWœ` n bZ;j lkbeu Vœs`¥ ·vkLV_sf¥;k‚ lkbeu Vœs`¥ ·vkLV_sf¥;k‚

jkgq¥ nzfoÈM ·Hkjr‚

fjd`h ikÍfVax ·vkLV_sf¥;k‚ fjd`h ikÍfVax ·vkLV_sf¥;k‚ ekbd`¥ glh ·vkLV_sf¥;k‚ b;ku cs¥ ·bax¥S≥M‚ d`kjsu jkYVu ·vkLV_sf¥;k‚ lkbeu Vœs`¥ ·vkLV_sf¥;k‚

fjd`h ikÍfVax ·vkLV_sf¥;k‚ eksgEen ;wlqœ` ·ikfd`Lrku‚ eSF;w gsMsu ·vkLV_sf¥;k‚ æku VSV ·vkLV_sf¥;k‚ >w¥u xksLokeh ·Hkjr‚ lkbeu Vœs`¥ ·vkLV_sf¥;k‚

fæoukjk;. pUnzik¥ ·osLVbaMht‚ Ms¥ LVsu ·nf{k.``vœz`hd`k‚ egsUnz flag |ksuh ·Hkjr‚ vtUrk eÍfMl ·Jh¥ad`k‚ ;qojkt flag ·Hkjr‚ pk¥ksZVh ,MoMΩlZ ·bax¥S≥M‚ lkbeu Vœs`¥ ·vkLV_sf¥;k‚

cSVΩleSu vkWœ` n bZ;j%xkSre xEHhj ·2 ¥k[ :i,‚ Hkjrh; fdz`ds`VjkÍ ds` f¥, dS`LV_kW¥ (Castrol) ds` o"Z 2008 ds` iqjLd`kjkÍ d`k ckW¥j vkWœ` n bZ;j%gjHtu flag forj. eqEcbZ eÍ 17 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks ·2 ¥k[ :i,‚ fd`;k x;k\ ;g iqjLd`kj fuEuf¥f[r d`ks twfu;j fdz`ds`Vj vkWœ` n bZ;j%jfoUnz ^nku fd`, x,% tMstk ·1 ¥k[ :i,‚ bafM;u fdz`ds`Vj vkWœ` n bZ;j%xkSre xEHhj ·5·00 ¥k[ :i,‚ ¥kbœ`Vkbe ,phoeÍV iqjLd`kj%xqaMIik VsLV I¥s;j vkWœ` n bZ;j%ohjsUnz fo'oukFk ·5 ¥k[ :i,‚ lgokx · 2 ¥k[ :i,‚ VsLV fdz`ds`V eÍ lokZf|d` dS`p ¥sus vksMhvkbZ I¥s;j vkWœ` n bZ;j%,e\ d`k fo'o fjd`kWMZ cukus ok¥s jkgq¥ nzfoÈM ,l\ |ksuh ·2 ¥k[ :i,‚ rFkk 12,000 ls vf|d` ju cukus ok¥s ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/663/3

dS`LV_kW¥ fdz`ds`V iqjLd`kj (2008)

fo'o ds` ig¥s cY¥sckt cus lfpu rÍnq¥d`j d`ks 2-2 ¥k[ :`i, ds` fo'ks" iqjLd`kj mi;qZDr lekjksg eÍ ^nku fd`, x,\ ejkBh fœ`Ye ‘gfj'panzkph œS`DVjh’ vkWLd`j iqjLd`kj gsrq Hkjr d`h vkf|d`kfjd` izfofÆV%tkus-ekus jaxd`ehZ ijsæ eksd`kæh }kjk funsZfær ejkBh fœ`Ye ‘gfj'panzkph œS`DVjh’ d`ks bl o"Z ds` vkWLd`j iqjLd`kjkÍ ds` f¥, fonsæh fœ`Ye Js.h eÍ Hkjr d`h vkf|d`kfjd` izfofÆV ds` rkSj ij pquk x;k gS\ nks ?aVs d`h vof| d`h bl fœ`Ye eÍ Hkjrh; flusek ds` firkeg

nknk lkgsc œ`kYds` }kjk 1913 eÍ Hkjr d`h ig¥h œ`hpj fœ`Ye ‘jktk gfj'panz’ cukus eÍ fd`, x, la?"Z d`k fp(. fd`;k x;k gS\ fœ`Ye œs`Mjsæu vkWœ` bafM;k (FFI) us bl fœ`Ye ds` ukekad`u d`h ?ks".k flrEcj

2009 eÍ d`h\ vkWLd`j iqjLd`kj ds` f¥, Hkjr d`h vkf|d`kfjd` izfofÆV ds` f¥, fœ`Ye ds` p;u gsrq ,œ`,œ`vkbZ d`h T;wjh d`h izeq[ tkuh-ekuh vfHus(h vkæk ikjs[ ƒÓ\

vkW L d`j iq j Ld`kj gs r q Hkjr d`h vkf|d`kfjd` ,aV_h ds` rkSj ij ækfe¥ gksus ok¥h ‘gfj'panzkph œS`DVjh’ nwljh ejkBh fœ`Ye gS\ blls ig¥s o"Z 2004 eÍ ‘'okl’ d`ks pquk x;k ƒk\

55oÍ jkÆV_h; fœ`Ye iqjLd`kj # eUuk Ms d`ks nknk lkgsc œ`kYds` iqjLd`kj%2007
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^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/664

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ækafr] fu#æL(hd`j. vkSj fod`kl gsrq bafnjk xka|h vUrjkZÆV_h; iqjLd`kj (2008) %o"Z 2008 d`k ækafr] fu#æL(hd`j. ,oa fod`kl gsrq bafnjk xka|h vUrjkZÆV_h; iqjLd`kj (Indira Gandhi Prize
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^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/665

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fu/ku
(Death)

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(Persons in the News)

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Environment 2009)

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(Books) Stranger)

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Sudoku of India’s Growth)

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xqtjkr mPp U;k;k¥; us tloar flag d`h iqLrd` ls ^frcU| gVk;k
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nq?kZVuk,a
(Accidents)

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(Committee/Commission)

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(Conferences)

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fotÍnj flag d`k eqDds`cktkÍ d`h fo'o jßfda`x eÍ æh"Z Lƒku
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2009 eÍ

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fo'o ,ƒ¥sfVDl œ`kbu¥%o"Z 2009 d`h vfUre cÈMh ,ƒ¥sfVd` ehV-fo'o ,ƒ¥sfVDl œ`kbu¥ (World Athletics Final) flrEcj 2009 eÍ ;w u ku eÍ ƒslk¥ksfud`h (Thessaloniki) eÍ 13-14 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks lEiUu gqbZ\ fo'o ds` lcls rst |kod` mlsu cksYV us bl ehV d`h 100 eh Li*kZ eÍ Hkx ugÓ f¥;k\ 200 eh eÍ Lo.Z ind` teSd`k ds` mlsu cksYV ·19·68 lsd`≥M‚ us thrk\ iq:"kÍ d`h 100 eh nkSÈM vejhd`k ds` Vk;lu xs ·9·88 lsd`≥M‚ o efg¥kvkÍ d`h ;g nkSÈM vejhd`k d`h gh d`kesZf¥Vk tsVj (Carmelita Jeter, 10·67 lsd`≥M‚ us thrh\ efg¥kvkÍ d`h 400 eh nkSÈM eÍ vejhd`k d`h lkU;k fjpMΩlZ ·49·95 lsd`≥M‚ fotsrk jgÓ] tcfd` iks¥ okYV f[rkc Ôl d`h ;s¥suk bfluck;sok us thrk\ cf¥Zu eSjkƒu eÍ u;k fo'o fjd`kWMZ cukus ls pwds` xSczsfl¥klh%eSjkƒu nkSÈM eÍ fo'o fjd`kWMZ|kjh gS¥s xSczsfl¥klh ·bƒksfi;k‚ 20 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks cf¥Zu eSjkƒu nkSÈM eÍ fotsrk jgs\ 36 o"hZ; xSczsfl¥klh us ;g nkSÈM 2 ?≥Vs] 6 feuV] 8 lsd`≥M eÍ iwjh d`h\

;s¥suk bfluck;sok

fcfy;MZ ,oa Luwdj

eÍ u;k fo'o fjd`kWMZ xSczsfl¥klh us cuk;k ƒk\ 20 flrEcj] 2009 d`h bl o"Z d`h nkSÈM eÍ d`hfu;k ds` œz`kafll fd`ijksi 2 ?≥Vs 7 feuV vkSj 4 lsd`≥M ds` lkƒ nwljs rƒk bƒksfi;k ds` usxkjh rsjœ`k 2 ?≥Vs 7 feuV vkSj 41 lsd`≥M ds` lkƒ rhljs Lƒku ij jgs\ efg¥kvkÍ d`k f[rkc bƒksfi;k d`h ,lsns gCrkew cslq;s us 2 ?≥Vs 24 feuV vkSj 47 lsd`≥M eÍ nkSÈM iwjh d`jds` thrk\ bfluck;sok d`k iks¥ okYV eÍ iqu# u;k fo'o fjd`kWMZ%fjd`kWMksÛ d`h jkuh ;s¥suk ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/668

gS¥s xSczsfl¥klh 2008 eÍ 2 ?≥Vs 3 feuV 59 lsd`≥M 42·195 fd`eh d`h ;g nkSÈM iwjh d`jds`

iad`t vkMok.h d`k fo'o isæsoj fcf¥;MΩlZ pSfEi;ufæi eÍ f[rkc%Hkjr ds` iad`t vkMok.h us 6 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks bax¥S≥M eÍ ¥hMΩl eÍ fo'o isæsoj fcf¥;MΩlZ pSfEi;ufæi d`k f[rkc thrk\ 9 ckj ds` fo'o pSfEi;u ekbd` jls¥ d`ks œ`kbu¥ eÍ gjkd`j vkMok.h us bl VwukZeÍV eÍ cÈMk m¥Vœs`j fd`;k\ iwoZ o"ksÛ eÍ fo'o ,esP;ksj fcf¥;MΩlZ ,oa Luwd`j f[rkc ds` fotsrk iad`t vkMok.h ;g f[rkc thrus ok¥s xhr ls B h ds ` ckn nwljs Hkjrh; gß\ xhr lsBh us 1992 eÍ ig¥h ckj ;g f[rkc fo'o eqDds`ckth eÍ fotÍnj flag d`ks thrk ƒk\ d`kaL; ind`%flrEcj 2009 eÍ bV¥h eÍ fe¥ku eÍ fo'o eqDds`ckth pSfEi;ufæi eÍ Hkjr ds` vks¥fEid` d`kaL; ind` fotsrk fotÍnj flag fefM¥osV oxZ eÍ d`kaL; ind` thrus eÍ lœ`¥ jgs\ fo'o pSfEi;ufæi eÍ d`ksbZ ind` thrus ok¥s og ig¥s Hkjrh; eqDds`ckt gß\ iad`t vkMok.h fotÍnj d`k ijlsIV ds` lkƒ 24 o"hZ; iad`t vkMok.h d`h mi;qZDr vuqca|%Hkjr ds` vks¥fEid` d`kaL; ind` fotsrk eqDds`ckt fotÍnj flag vc eqEcbZ mi¥fC| ij mUgÍ c|kbZ nsus ok¥kÍ eÍ d`h ,d` [s¥ izcU|u d`Eiuh ijlsIV Mh jkÆV_ifr ^frHk ikfV¥ o ^|kuea(h MkW\ ekdZ` ds` czkaM ,EcslMj gks x, gß\ ijlsIV eueksgu ¯lg Hh ækfe¥ ƒs\ fcf¥;MΩlZ o Luwd`j eÍ fofæÆV ds` lkƒ 5 d`jksÈM :i, d`k ;g vuqcU| mUgkÍus flrEcj 2009 eÍ fd`;k gS\ m|j] mi¥fC|;kÍ ds` p¥rs iad`t vkMok.h d`ks ,d` vU; [s¥ izcU|u d`Eiuh bfUœ`fuVh 2004 eÍ vtqZu iqjLd`kj ls] 2006 eÍ vkWfIVe¥ lfoZlst (IOS) us ;g nkok jktho xka|h [s¥jRu iqjLd`kj ls rƒk fd`;k gS fd` fotsUnj us mlds` lkƒ 10 o"Z 2009 eÍ inΩeJh ls lEekfur fd`;k tk d`k vuqcU| 2005 eÍ gh fd`;k gqvk gS\ pqd`k gS\ vkbZvks,l ds` bl nkos ls rhukÍ i{kkÍ ds` jkÆV_h; pSfEi;ufæi%flrEcj 2009 e÷; fookn d`h fLƒfr mRiUu gks xbZ gS\ eÍ vkxjk eÍ lEiUu 76oÓ jkÆV_h; fcf¥;MΩlZ

bfluck;sok us iks¥ okYV eÍ ubZ ˜∑pkb;k∑ Nwus d`k dz`e tkjh j[rs gq, 20 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks æa?kbZ xksYMu xzka\ izh\ eÍ ,d` ckj iqu# u;k fo'o fjd`kWMZ cuk;k\ efg¥k iks¥ okYV eÍ 5·07 ehVj d`h ˜∑pkbZ ukid`j mUgkÍus ;g u;k fjd`kWMZ cuk;k\ blls ig¥s d`k fjd`kWMZ mUgÓ ds` uke ij 5·06 ehVj d`k ƒk] tks mUgkÍus vxLr 2009 eÍ T;wfj[ eÍ xksYMu ¥hx eÍ cuk;k ƒk\

pSfEi;ufæi d`k f[rkc fo'o fcf¥;MΩlZ pSfEi;u iad`t vkMok.h us thrk\ vius bl pkSƒs ·¥xkrkj rhljs‚ jkÆV_h; f[rkc ds` f¥, iwoZ fo'o pSfEi;u xhr lsBh d`ks œ`kbu¥ eÍ vkMok.h us ijkftr fd`;k\

eÍ Jh¥ad`k ds` fo:* izsenklk LVsfM;e ij [s¥rs gq, cuk;k\ d`kWEiSd` d`i ds` œ`kbu¥ eSp eÍ 133 xÍnkÍ ij 10 pkSd`kÍ o 1 NDds` lfgr dq`¥ 138 ju d`h ikjh lfpu us [s¥h\ blls vUrjkZÆV_h; fdz`ds`V eÍ muds` ærd`kÍ d`h dq`¥ la“;k 86 ·42 VsLV ærd`kÍ lfgr‚ gks xbZ gS\

Hkjr-Jh¥ad`k-U;wth¥S≥M f(d`ks.h; Δk~a[¥k ·d`kWEiSd` d`i‚%Jh¥ad`k eÍ flrEcj 2009 eÍ [s¥h xbZ ,d`fnolh; vUrjkZÆV_h; fdz`ds`V d`h ;g f(d`ks.h; Δk~a[¥k Jh¥ad`k d`ks œ`kbu¥ eÍ 46 jukÍ ls gjkd`j Hkjr us thrh\ 14 flrEcj d`ks [s¥s x, œ`kbu¥ eÍ ærd`h; ikjh [s¥us ok¥s lfpu rÍnq¥d`j d`ks ‘eSu vkWœ` n eSp’ ds` lkƒ-lkƒ ‘eSu vkWœ` n lhfjt’ d`k iqjLd`kj Hh fn;k x;k\ d`kWEiSd` d`i f(d`ks.h; Δk~a[¥k eÍ Hkjr d`h ;g f[rkch fot; 1998 ds` ckn Jh¥ad`k eÍ Hkjr d`h d`ksbZ Δk~a[¥k fot; gS\ ,d`fnolh; vUrjkZÆV_h; fdz`ds`V eÍ lfpu rÍnq¥d`j d`k 44ok∑ ærd`%Hkjr ds` LVkj cY¥sckt lfpu rÍnq¥d`j us ,d`fnolh; vUrjkZÆV_h; fdz`ds`V eÍ viuk 44ok∑ ærd` 14 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks d`ks¥Ecks

usgjk us 11 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks d`ks¥Ecks eÍ U;wth¥S≥M ds` czßMu eSd`dq`¥e d`k f¥;k\ ,d`fnolh; vUrjkZÆV_h; fdz`ds`V eÍ 100 ;k vf|d` fods`V ¥sus ok¥s og Hkjr ds` 13oÍ xÍnckt gß\ bu lHh xÍncktkÍ d`h lwph fuEuf¥f[r gS% 100 ;k vf|d` fods`V ¥sus ok¥s Hkjrh; xÍnckt (11 flrEcj] 2009 d`h fLƒfr‚ xÍnckt eSp fods`V
vfu¥ dq`Ec¥s tokx¥ Jhukƒ vftr vxjd`j d`fi¥ nso tghj [ku gjHtu flag oÍds`Vsæ izlkn eukst izHkd`j lfpu rÍnq¥d`j bjœ`ku iBku jfo ækL(h lkSjo xkaxq¥h vkæh" usgjk
269 229 191 225 156 188 161 130 426 107 150 308 77 334 315 288 253 212 206 196 157 154 152 129 100 100

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^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/669

cukus ok¥s nwljs xÍnckt cus gß\ vksje us 2 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks d`ks¥Ecks eÍ Jh¥ad`k ds` fo:* VΩoÍVh-20 eSp eÍ ¥xkrkj rhu xÍnkÍ ij rhu f[¥kfÈM;kÍ ·,ats¥ks eSF;wt] uqoku dq`¥lsd`jk o ef¥axk caMkjk‚ d`ks vkmV d`j ;g mi¥fC| izkIr d`h\ VΩoÍVh-20 vUrjkZÆV_h; fdz`ds`V eÍ ig¥h gSfV_d` vkLV_sf¥;k ds` czsV ¥h us 16 flrEcj] 2007 d`ks n\ vœz`hd`k eÍ ds`iVkmu eÍ fo'o d`i ds` ,d` eSp eÍ ckaX¥knsæ ds` rhu f[¥kfÈM;kÍ ·ld`hcq¥ glu] eqæjZœ` eqrZtk o vk¥ksd` d`ik¥h‚ d`ks ¥xkrkj rhu xÍnkÍ ij vkmV d`j cukbZ ƒh\ mY¥s[uh; gS fd` VsLV fdz`ds`V eÍ 37 o ,d`fnolh; vUrjkZÆV_h; fdz`ds`V eÍ dq`¥ 25 gSfV_Dl flrEcj 2009 ds` vUr rd` cuh ƒh\ ,d`fnolh; vUrjkZÆV_h; fdz`ds`V vkbZlhlh jßfda`x eÍ ,d` fnu æh"Z ij jgk Hkjr%Hkjr d`ks ,d`fnolh; vUrjkZÆV_h; fdz`ds`V d`h vkbZlhlh d`h fo'o jßfda`x eÍ æh"Z ij jgus d`k Js; vUrr# fe¥ gh x;k] fd`Urq bl Lƒku ij og ds`o¥ ,d` fnu gh jg ld`k\ 11 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks d`ks¥Ecks eÍ f(d`ks.h; fdz`ds`V Δk~a[¥k eÍ U;wth¥S≥M ds` fo:* fot; ds` ckn Hkjr us n\ vœz`hd`k d`ks vinLƒ d`j fo'o jßfda`x eÍ ig¥k Lƒku izkIr d`j f¥;k ƒk\ 2002 eÍ ou Ms fdz`ds`V eÍ fo'o jßfda`x d`h O;oLƒk æqÔ gksus ds` ckn ;g ig¥k gh volj ƒk] tc Hkjr d`ks æh"Z Lƒku bleÍ izkIr gqvk ƒk] fd`Urq vx¥s gh fnu 12 flrEcj d`ks Jh¥ad`k ls ijkt; ds` ckn Hkjr d`h ;g jßfda`x 3 gks xbZ\ bl izd`kj Hkjr d`ks fæ[j ij jgus d`k volj ds`o¥ ,d` fnu gh izkIr jgk\ j߯d`x d`h bl fLƒfr eÍ rsth ds` lkƒ œs`jcn¥ ckn eÍ gksrk jgk gS\

Hkjrh; fdz`ds`V da`V_ks¥ cksMZ (BCCI) d`k ig¥k d`kWiksZjsV V_kWœ`h
d`kWiksZjsV V_kWœ`h fdz`ds`V VwukZesUV flrEcj eÍ fofHUu ægjkÍ eÍ vk;ksftr fd`;k x;k\ 8 flrEcj d`ks ,;j bf≥M;k jsM us cax¥kSj eÍ ,;j bf≥M;k CY;w d`ks œ`kbu¥ eÍ 93 jukÍ ls gjkd`j ;g VwukZesUV thrk\ bl VwukZesUV eÍ ,;j bf≥M;k jsM d`h Vhe ds` d`Irku ;qojkt flag o ,;j bf≥M;k CY;w ds` d`Irku egsUnz flag |ksuh ƒs\ ,d`fnolh; fdz`ds`V eÍ chlhlhvkbZ ds` bl ig¥s lgkjk d`kWiksZjsV V_kWœ`h VwukZesUV ds` œ`kbu¥ eÍ Lƒku cukus ds ` f¥, ,;j bf≥M;k jS M us vks,uthlh d`ks cax¥kSj eÍ rƒk ,;j bf≥M;k CY;w us VkVk LiksVΩlZ D¥c d`ks eksgk¥h eÍ lsehœ`kbu¥ eSpkÍ eÍ ijkftr fd`;k ƒk\
2009

nlok∑ ,fæ;k d`i f∂`ds`V VwukZeÍV twu 2010 eÍ%f∂`ds`V d`k vkxkeh (10ok∑‚ ,fæ;k d`i 15–25 twu] 2010 d`ks vk;ksftr fd`;k tk,xk\ ,fæ;kbZ f∂`ds`V ifj"nΩ (ACC) us ;g ?ks".k 11 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks d`h gS\ VwukZeÍV ds` vk;kstu Lƒ¥ d`h ?ks".k vHh ugÓ d`h xbZ gS\ bl VwukZeÍV eÍ Hkjr] ikfd`Lrku] Jh¥ad`k o ckaX¥knsæ d`h VheÍ Hkx ¥Íxh rƒk dq`¥ 7 eSp bleÍ [s¥s tk,axs\ blls iwoZ ukSoÍ ,fæ;k d`i d`k vk;kstu twu-tq¥kbZ 2008 eÍ ikfd`Lrku eÍ gqvk ƒk\ Hkjr d`ks œ`kbu¥ eÍ gjkd`j Jh¥ad`k us ;g VwukZeÍV thrk ƒk\ ujsUnz eksnh xqtjkr fdz`ds`V ,lksfl,æu ds` v÷;{k%æjn iokj o v:. tsV¥h ds` ckn vc xqtjkr ds` eq“;ea(h ujsUnz eksnh Hh vc fdz`ds`V izæklu eÍ izosæ d`j x, gß\ 15 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks vgenkckn eÍ lEiUu pquko eÍ mUgÍ xqtjkr fdz`ds`V ,lksfl,æu (GCA) d`k v÷;{k fufoZjks| pquk x;k gS\ xqtjkr ds` x~g ea(h vfer ækg ,lksfl,æu ds` mik÷;{k pqus x, gß\ ikfd`Lrku us fo'o d`i ds` vk;kstd` d`k ntkZ NksÈMk%ikfd`Lrku vc fo'o d`i2011 ds` vk;kstd` jkÆV_kÍ eÍ ækfe¥ ugÓ gS\ ,d`fnolh; fdz`ds`V ds` bl fo'o d`i d`k vk;kstu vc ds`o¥ Hkjr] Jh¥ad`k o ckaX¥knsæ gh d`jÍxs\ vUrjkZÆV_h; fdz`ds`V ifj"nΩ (ICC) o ikfd`Lrkuh fdz`ds`V cksMZ (PCB) ds` chp xr vxLr ekg eÍ gqbZ ,d` lgefr ds` rgrΩ eSpkÍ d`k vk;kstu u d`jus ds` ckotwn vk;kstu æqYd` ds` lkƒ gh leqfpr eqvkotk mls vkbZlhlh }kjk fn;k tk,xk] fd`Urq VwukZesUV ds` vk;kstu d`k d`ksbZ nkf;Ro ml ij ugÓ gksxk\ bl VwukZesUV ds` nkSjku [s¥s tkus ok¥s dq`¥ 49 eSpkÍ eÍ ls 29 eSp vc Hkjr eÍ [s¥s tk,axs] tcfd` 12 eSp Jh¥ad`k eÍ o 8 eSp ckaX¥knsæ eÍ gkÍxs\ vkLV_sf¥;k-bax¥S≥M Δk~a[¥k%bax¥S≥M ds` nkSjs ij fjd`h ikÍfVax ds` usr~Ro ok¥h vkLV_sf¥;kbZ fdz`ds`V Vhe us lkr ,d`fnolh; eSpkÍ d`h Δk~a[¥k flrEcj 2009 eÍ [s¥h\ bl Δk~a[¥k d`k vfUre eSp gh bax¥S≥M d`h Vhe thr ld`h\ ig¥s Ng eSpkÍ eÍ fot; ds` p¥rs vkLV_sf¥;k us ;g Δk~a[¥k 6–1 ls thrh\

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^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/670

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xzk≥M L¥Se Vsful eÍ f¥,aMj isl ds` ;qx¥ f[rkc
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1999 1999 1999 2001 2003 2003 2006 2008 2009 2009

VwukZesUV foEc¥Mu foEc¥Mu œz`kalhlh vksiu œz`kalhlh vksiu vkLVs_f¥;kbZ vksiu foEc¥Mu vejhd`h vksiu vejhd`h vksiu ≠`kalhlh vksiu vejhd`h vksiu

Li*kZ iq:" ;qx¥ fefJr ;qx¥ iq:" ;qx¥ iq:" ;qx¥ fefJr ;qx¥ fefJr ;qx¥ iq:" ;qx¥ fefJr ;qx¥ iq:" ;qx¥ iq:" ;qx¥

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^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/671

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2009 d`h xzkaM L¥Se Li*kZvkÍ eÍ fotsrkvkÍ ,oa mifotsrkvkÍ ds` uke # ,d` n~fÆV eÍ vkLV_sf¥;kbZ vksiu œz`kalhlh vksiu foEc¥Mu vejhd`h vksiu Li*kZ ·tuojh 2009‚ ·ebZ-twu 2009‚ ·twu-tq¥kbZ 2009‚ ·flrEcj 2009‚ fotsrk jkœs`¥ uMk¥ ·Lisu‚ jkstj œs`Mjj ·fLoVΩtj- jkstj œs`Mjj ·fLoVΩtj- tqvku ekfVZu Ms¥ iks(ks iq:`" ,d`¥ ¥S≥M‚ ¥S≥M‚ ·vtsZUVhuk‚ mifotsrk jkstj œs`Mjj ·fLoVΩtj¥S≥M‚ jkWfcu lksMf¥ax ·LohMu‚ ,aMh jkWfMd` ·vejhd`k‚ jkstj œs`Mjj ·fLoVΩtj¥S≥M‚ fotsrk lsjsuk fof¥;El ·vejhd`k‚ Losr¥kuk dq`tusRlksok ·Ôl‚ lsjsuk fof¥;El ·vejhd`k‚ fd`e fD¥LVlZ ·csfYt;e‚ efg¥k ,d`¥ mifotsrk fnukjk lœ`huk ·Ôl‚ fnukjk lœ`huk ·Ôl‚ ohul fof¥;El ·vejhd`k‚ dS`jksf¥u okstfu;kd`h ·MsuekdZ`‚ fotsrk czk;u cU|q ·ckWc ,oa ekbd` f¥,≥Mj isl ·Hkjr‚ o Msfu;¥ usLVj ·d`ukMk‚ o f¥,aMj isl ·Hkjr‚ o czk;u] nksukÍ vejhd`k‚ ¥qd`kl M¥ksgh ·pSd` x.- usukn fteksuftd` ·lfcZ;k‚ ¥qd`kl M¥ksgh ·pSd` x.iq:`" ;qx¥ jkT;‚ jkT;‚ mifotsrk egsæ Hwifr ·Hkjr‚ o ekdZ` osL¥s ewMh ·n\ vœz`hd`k‚ o ckWc czkW;u o ekbd` czk;u egsæ Hwifr ·Hkjr‚ o uksYl ·cgkekl‚ fMd` ukWeZu ·csfYt;e‚ ·nksukÍ vejhd`k‚ ekdZ` uksYl ·cgkekl‚ fotsrk fof¥;El cguÍ ·ohul o vukcs¥ esMhuk xSjhX;wl ohul o lsjsuk fof¥;El ohul o lsjsuk fof¥;El lsjsuk fof¥;El nksukÍ ,oa othZfu;k :vkuks ikLd`¥ ·nksukÍ vejhd`k‚ ·nksukÍ vejhd`k‚ efg¥k ;qx¥ vejhd`k‚ ·nksukÍ Lisu‚ mifotsrk Msfu;¥ garqpksok ·L¥ks- foDVksfj;k vtkjÍd`k lkeaƒk LVkslqj o jsus d`kjk C¥Sd` ·ftEckCos‚ o okfd`;k‚ o vbZ lqfx;kek ·cs¥kÔl‚ o ,¥suk osluhuk LVCl ·nksukÍ vkLV_sf¥;k‚ f¥ts¥ Ìwcj ·vejhd`k‚ ·tkiku‚ ·Ôl‚ fotsrk egsæ Hwifr o lkfu;k fetkZ ¥ht¥ Ìwcj o ckWc czk;u ekdZ` uksYl ·cgkekl‚ o d`k¥hZ xqf¥d`lu o V_sfol ·nksukÍ Hkjr‚ ·nksukÍ vejhd`k‚ vUuk xzks,ufœ`YM ·teZuh‚ isjksV ·nksukÍ vejhd`k‚ fefJr ;qx¥ mifotsrk ,aMhjke ·btjkb¥‚ o uƒk¥h okfu;k fda`x ·vejhd`k‚ o f¥,aMj isl ·Hkjr‚ o f¥,aMj isl ·Hkjr‚ o Msph ·œz`kal‚ eklsZ¥ks es¥ks ·czkth¥‚ d`kjk C¥Sd` ·ftEckCos‚ d`kjk C¥Sd` ·ftEckCos‚

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I¥s vkWœ` nkSj eÍ Hkjr ds` lksenso ceZu o jksgu cksiUuk vius ,d`¥ eqd`kc¥s thrus eÍ lœ`¥ jgs ƒs] fd`Urq egsæ Hwifr ds` pksfV¥ gksus ds` d`kj. Hwifr-cksiUuk d`h tksÈMh ;qx¥ eqd`kc¥s eÍ chp eÍ gh d`ksVZ ls gV xbZ ƒh\ ckn eÍ lksenso ceZu o ;qd`h Hkacjh m¥V ,d`¥ thrus eÍ lœ`¥ jgs] ftlls bl nkSj eÍ Hkjr d`h cÈ<r 4–1 d`h jgh\ Vhe ds` xSj f[¥kÈMh d`Irku ,l\ ih\ feJk gß\ fo'o xzqi eÍ Hkjr d`k eqd`kc¥k Ôl ds` lkƒ gksxk\ blds` f¥, eSp 5–7 ekpZ] 2010 d`ks Ôl eÍ [s¥s tk,axs\ Msfol d`i (2009) ds` f¥, œ`kbu¥ eqd`kc¥k pSd` x.jkT; o Lisu ds` e÷; gksxk%bl o"Z Msfol d`i ds` f¥, œ`kbu¥ eqd`kc¥k pSd` x.jkT; o Lisu ds` chp gksxk\ bl VwukZesUV ds` lsehœ`kbu¥ eqd`kc¥s flrEcj 2009 eÍ gq,\ Lisu eÍ eqflZ;k (Murcia) eÍ [s¥s x, ,d` lsehœ`kbu¥ eÍ btjkb¥ d`ks 4–1 ls gjkd`j Lisu us rƒk dz`ks,fæ;k eÍ iksjsd` (Porec) eÍ nwljs lsehœ`kbu¥ eÍ dz`ks,fæ;k d`ks 4–1 ls gjkd`j pSd` x.jkT; us œ`kbu¥ eÍ Lƒku cuk;k gS\ œ`kbu¥ eqd`kc¥k 4–6 fnlEcj] 2009 d`ks Lisu eÍ gksxk\

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2009

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,fæ;kbZ efg¥k pSfEi;ufæi%psUubZ eÍ flrEcj 2009 eÍ lEiUu 23 oÓ œ`hck (FIBA) ,fæ;kbZ efg¥k ckLds`Vck¥ pSfEi;ufæi d`k f[rkc phu us œ`kbu¥ eÍ d`ksfj;k d`ks gjkd`j thrk\ VwukZesUV eÍ rhljk Lƒku tkiku d`k jgk\ æs" i~ÆB 678 ij

vksfj,aV¥ cßd` vkWœ` d`kWelZ eÍ ^kscsæujh vf|d`kfj;kÍ d`h 313 fjfDr;k∑
lkoZtfud` {ks( ds` vksfj,aV¥ cßd` vkWœ` d`kWelZ eÍ izkscsæujh vf|d`kfj;kÍ ds` dq`¥ 313 inkÍ ij HrhZ ds` f¥, ik( mEehnokjkÍ ls vkosnu-i( vkWu ¥kbu vkefU(r fd`, x, gß\ mi¥C| fjfDr;kÍ eÍ ls dq`N fjfDr;k∑ fofHUu oxksÛ ds` v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ds` f¥, fu;ekuqlkj vkjf{kr gß\ fjfDr;kÍ d`h la“;k ?V-cÈ< ld`rh gS\ æSf{kd` ;ksX;rk%·d`‚ foKku Lukrd`kÍ ds` f¥, d`e-ls-d`e 60 izfrær ·vuq\ tkfr/ tutkfr/ækjhfjd` fod`¥kax ds` eke¥s eÍ 55 izfrær‚ vad`kÍ ds` lkƒ rƒk vU; LV_he ds` Lukrd`kÍ ds` f¥, d`e-ls-d`e 55 izfrær ·vuq\ tkfr/tutkfr/ækjhfjd` fod`¥kax ds` eke¥s eÍ 50 izfrær‚ vad`kÍ ds` lkƒ Lukrd` vƒok led`{k] ·[‚ okafNr d`EI;wVj izoh.rk ds` lEcU| eÍ izfrfÆBr laLƒk ls izek.-i(\ vk;q lhek%1 vDVwcj] 2009 d`ks 21–30 o"Z\ fofHUu eke¥kÍ eÍ vk;q lhek eÍ fu;ekuqlkj NwV mi¥C| gS\ bl HrhZ gsrq vkosnu ds` f¥, v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ds` f¥, vkWu ¥kbu iathd`j. d`h vfUre frfƒ 31 vDVwcj] 2009 gS\ HrhZ ds` f¥, ¥h tkus ok¥h ijh{kk eÍ oLrqfuÆB o o.ZukRed` nksukÍ gh fd`Le ds` iz'u-i( gkÍxs\ 135 feuV d`h oLrqfuÆB ijh{kk eÍ rdZ`æfDr] la“;kRed` vfH;ksX;rk] lkekU; tkxÔd`rk o vaxzsth Hk"k d`h ijh{kk gksxh\ o.ZukRed` ijh{kk ds`o¥ Dok¥hœ`kbax fd`Le d`h gksxh\ bl ijh{kk eÍ fgUnh vƒok vaxzsth Hk"k eÍ m®j fn, tk ldÍ`xs\ f¥f[r ijh{kk d`h lEHkfor frfƒ 13 fnlEcj] 2009 gS\ bl HrhZ ds` lEcU| eÍ vkosnu-i( ds` izkÔi o vU; foLr~r tkud`kjh ds` f¥, 26 flrEcj%2 vDVwcj 2009 d`k jkstxkj lekpkj ns[Í\ mi;qZDr ijh{kk ds` f¥, mid`kj izd`kæu }kjk izd`kfær cßd` ih\vks\ ijh{kk ls lEcfU|r iqLrd`kÍ d`k v÷;;u d`jÍ\

lfEef¥r j”k lsok ijh”k (I),
2010
la? ¥ksd` lsok vk;ksx }kjk tuojh 2011 ls ^kjEH gksus ok¥s Hkjrh; lSfud` vd`kneh] ukSlsuk vd`kneh rƒk ok;qlsuk vd`kneh ds` d`kslksÛ rƒk vizS¥ 2011 ls ^kjEH gksus ok¥s vf|d`kjh ^fæ”. vd`kneh] psUubZ d`kslZ eÍ HrhZ gsrq 14 œ`jojh] 2010 d`ks lfEef¥r j”k lsok ijh”k (I), 2010 vk;ksftr d`h tk,xh\ bl ijh”k ds` ifj.ke ds` vk|kj ij Hjh tkus

ok¥h fjfDr;kÍ d`h vuqekfur la“;k Hkjrh; lSfud` vd`kneh ds` f¥, 250 ·,u\ lh\ lh\ ‘lh’ ^ek.-i(|kjd` mEehnokjkÍ ds` f¥, vkjf”r fjfDr;k∑ lfEef¥r gß‚] ukSlsuk vd`kneh ds` f¥, 40 [,u\ lh\ lh\ ‘lh’ ·ukSlsuk Ld`U|‚ ^ek.-i(|kjd` mEehnokjkÍ ds` f¥, 6 fjfDr;k∑ lfEef¥r gSß]] ok;qlsuk vd`kneh ds` f¥, 32 rƒk vf|d`kjh ^fæ”. vd`kneh ds` f¥, 175 rFkk vf|d`kjh ^f'k{k. vd`kneh ·efg¥k-xSj rd`uhd`h‚ ds` f¥, 18 gksxh\ ik(rk d`h ærsÛ # ·d`‚ vk;q lhek] f¥ax rƒk oSokfgd` fLƒfr`# (1) Hkjrh; lSfud` vd`kneh ds` f¥,% ds`o¥ ,sls vfookfgr iq:" mEehnokj gh ik( gß] ftud`k tUe 2 tuojh] 1987 ls ig¥s rƒk 1 tuojh] 1992 ds` ckn u gqvk gks\ (2) ukSlsuk vd`kneh ds` f¥,%ds`o¥ ,sls vfookfgr iq:" mEehnokj gh ik( gß] ftud`k tUe 2 tuojh] 1989 [,u\ lh\ lh\ ‘lh’ ·ukSlsuk Ld`U|‚ ^ek.i(|kjd`kÍ ds` f¥, 2 tuojh] 1987] ls ig¥s rƒk 1 tuojh] 1992 ds` ckn u gqvk gks\ (3) ok;qlsuk vd`kneh ds` f¥,%ds`o¥ ,sls vfookfgr iq:" mEehnokj gh ik( gß] ftud`k tUe 2 tuojh] 1988 ls ig¥s rƒk 1 tuojh] 1992 ds` ckn u gqvk gks\ (4) vf|d`kjh ^fæ”. vd`kneh ds` f¥,% ds`o¥ ,sls iq:" mEehnokj ·fookfgr ;k vfookfgr‚ gh ik( gß] ftud`k tUe 2 tuojh] 1986 ls ig¥s rƒk 1 tuojh] 1992 ds` ckn u gqvk gks\ (5) vf|d`kjh ^f'k{k. vd`kneh ·,l\,l\ lh\-efg¥k xSj-rd`uhd`h ikBΩ;dz`e‚ ds` f¥,%vfookfgr/r¥kd`'kqnk/fo|ok efg¥k,a ftud`k tUe 2 tuojh] 1986 ls ig¥s o 1 tuojh] 1992 ds` ckn u gqvk gks\ ·[‚ æSf”d` ;ksX;rk,a # (1) Hkjrh; lSfud` vd`kneh rƒk vf|d`kjh ^fæ”. vd`kneh ds` f¥,% fd`lh ekU;rk ^kIr fo'ofo»k¥; d`h fMxzh ;k led`” ;ksX;rk\ (2) ukSlsuk vd`kneh ds` f¥,— HkSfrd`h vkSj xf.r fo";kÍ lfgr ch\ ,l-lh\ fMxzh vƒok bathfu;jh ds` Lukrd`\ (3) ok;qlsuk vd`kneh ds` f¥,%HkSfrd`h vkSj xf.r fo";kÍ ds` lkƒ 1 0 + 2 m®h.Z d`jus ds` i'pkrΩ Lukrd` fMxzh vƒok bathfu;jh ds` Lukrd`\ tks mEehnokj fMxzh ijh”k ds` vfUre o"Z eÍ iÈ< jgs gß rƒk mUgÍ fMxzh ds` vfUre o"Z d`h

mid`kj izd`kæu d`h mi;ksxh iqLrdÍ`
·fiN¥s o"ksÛ ds` g¥ iz'u-i( lfgr‚

xSj-rd`uhd`h V_sM
mid`kj js¥os HrhZ cksMZ ijh{kk lkWYoMΩ isilZ 215/mid`kj js¥os lkWYoMΩ isilZ ·fVd`V d`¥sDVj‚ 110/mid`kj js¥os lkWYoMΩ isilZ ·lgk;d` LVsæu ekLVj‚ 130/mid`kj js¥os lkWYoMΩ isilZ ·xqMΩl xkMZ‚ 135/mid`kj js¥os euksoSKkfud` ijh{k. (IInd Stage) 75/mid`kj izSfDVl odZ`-cqd` js¥os euksoSKkfud` ijh{k. 125/mid`kj Hkjrh; js¥ # ,d` ifjp; 99/mid`kj js¥os HrhZ cksMZ ijh{kk
·¥s[d` # [Uuk ,oa oekZ‚
135/-

mid`kj js¥os HrhZ cksMZ ijh{kk ·MkW\ ¥k¥ ,oa tSu‚ 225/mid`kj js¥os xqMΩl xkMZ/lgk;d` LVsæu ekLVj ijh{kk 160/mid`kj js¥os HrhZ cksMZ fVd`V d`¥sDVj/ d`kWefæZ;¥ D¥dZ` ·lEiknd` e≥M¥ # lkekU; Kku niZ.‚ 145/mid`kj js¥os HrhZ cksMZ V_Sfœ`d` vizsfUVl ijh{kk
·lEiknd` e≥M¥ # izfr;ksfxrk niZ.‚
215/-

mid`kj js¥os HrhZ cksMZ okf.fT;d` vizsfUVl ijh{kk 235/-

rd`uhd`h V_sM
mid`kj js¥os vflLVÍV ¥ksd`ks ik;¥V ijh{kk mid`kj js¥os izSfDVl lsV vflLVÍV ¥ksd`ks ik;¥V mid`kj js¥os lkWYoMΩ isilZ vflLVÍV ¥ksd`ks ik;¥V mid`kj js¥os HrhZ cksMZ ijh{kk lkWYoMΩ isilZ ·rd`uhd`h V_sM‚ mid`kj izSfDVl odZ` cqd` js¥os HrhZ cksMZ ijh{kk ·rd`uhd`h V_sM‚ mid`kj js¥os HrhZ cksMZ ·rd`uhd`h ds`Mj‚
·flfo¥/fo»qr/;kaf(d` bathfu;¯jx‚
195/65/90/220/120/280/-

mid`kj js¥os HrhZ cksMZ lqijokbtj ·ih\os‚/ b¥sfDV_d`¥ flxu¥ esUVsuj xzsM-II HrhZ ijh{kk 225/mid`kj fnY¥h esV_ks js¥ ·LVsæu d`UV_ks¥j/V_su vkWijsVj‚ HrhZ ijh{kk 270/ENGLISH EDITIONS ARE ALSO AVAILABLE

js¥os HrhZ cksMZ ijh{kk ds` f¥, foæs"r# mi;ksxh v÷;;u lkexzh
gj eghus ifÈ<, gj eghus ifÈ<,
ewY; # 35/-

mid`kj izd`kæu
2/11,]

Lonsæh chek uxj] vkxjk-2

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izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/673

ijh”k vƒok led`” ijh”k vHh mÂkh.Z d`juh gS] og Hh bl ijh”k ds` f¥, vkosnu d`j ld`rs gß] ¥sfd`u mUgÍ vk;ksx ds` ijh”k ds` uksfVl eÍ fu|kZfjr frfƒ;kÍ rd` ijh”k mÂkh.Z d`jus d`k ^ek. ^Lrqr d`juk gksxk\ bl ^fr;ksfxrk ijh”k ds` lEcU| eÍ vko';d` ækjhfjd` ekud`] ijh”k ikBΩ;∂`e o vU; foLr~r tkud`kjh ds` f¥, 26 flrEcj%2 vDVwcj 2009 d`k ,EI¥kW;eÍV U;wt/jkstxkj lekpkj ns[Í\ v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ds` iw.ZÔi ls Hjs gq, vkosnu-i( la? ¥ksd` lsok vk;ksx ds` ubZ fnY¥h fLƒr d`k;kZ¥; eÍ 26 vDVwcj] 2009 rd` Lohd`kj fd`, tk,axs\ nwjnjkt ds` pquÓnk fufnZÆV LƒkukÍ ds` v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ds` Mkd` ls ^sf"r vkosnu-i( Lohd`kj fd`, tkus d`h vfUre frfƒ 3 uoEcj] 2009 gS\ mi;qZDr ijh{kk ds` f¥, ‘mid`kj ^d`kæu’ }kjk ^d`kfær iqLrd`kÍ d`k v÷;;u d`jÍ\ iqLrd`kÍ ds` vaxzsth o fgUnh nksukÍ laLd`j. cktkj eÍ mi¥C| gß\

d`j lgk;d` ijh”k%2009
ds`Unzh; ^R;” d`j cksMZ (CBDT) rƒk ds`Unzh; mRikn æqYd` ,oa lhek æqYd` cksMZ (CBEC) eÍ d`j lgk;d`kÍ (Tax Assistants) d`h HrhZ ds` f¥, d`j lgk;d` ijh”k–2009 (Tax Assistant Examination–2009) d`k vk;kstu d`eZpkjh p;u vk;ksx }kjk fnukad` 13 fnlEcj] 2009 d`ks fd`;k tk,xk\ ds`Unzh; mRikn æqYd` ,oa lhek æqYd` cksMZ ds` v|hu fjfDr;kÍ d`h dq`¥ la“;k 626 gS] tcfd` ^R;” d`j cksMZ ds` v|hu ;g 2 7 8 gS\ mi¥C| fjfDr;kÍ eÍ ls dq`N fjfDr;k∑ fofHUu oxksÛ ds` f¥, fu;ekuqlkj vkjf”r gß\ fjfDr;kÍ d`h la“;k ?V-cÈ< ld`rh gS\ æS”f.d` ;ksX;rk%(i) Lukrd` d`h mikf|\ (ii) d`EI;wVj ij okaNuh; MkVk ,aV_h LihM ds` f¥, foLr~r foKkiu ns[Í\ vk;q lhek ·30 vDVwcj] 2009 d`ks‚% 20–27 o"Z\ fofHUu eke¥kÍ eÍ vk;q lhek eÍ fu;ekuqlkj NwV mi¥C| gS\ bl HrhZ ds` f¥, vk;ksftr d`h tkus ok¥h 300 vad`kÍ d`h f¥f[r ^fr;ksfxrk ijh”k eÍ oLrqfuÆB fd`Le ds` nks ^'u-i( ∂`eæ# 200 o 100 vad`kÍ ds` gkÍxs\ 200 vad`kÍ ds` ig¥s ^'u-i( ds` [≥M ‘v’ eÍ 100 vad`kÍ d`h lkekU; vaxzsth d`h o [≥M ‘c’ eÍ 100 vad`kÍ d`h lkekU; tkxÔd`rk d`h ijh”k gksxh\ 100 vad`kÍ d`k nwljk ^'u-i( vad`xf.r d`k gksxk\ bl ^fr;ksfxrk ijh”k ds` lEcU| eÍ vkosnu-i( ds` ^kÔi o vU; foLr~r fooj. ds` f¥, 26 flrEcj%2 vDVwcj] 2009 d`k jkstxkj lekpkj ns[Í\ v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ds` iw.ZÔi ls Hjs gq, vkosnu-i( vk;ksx ds` lEcfU|r d`k;kZ¥; eÍ 30 vDVwcj] 2009 rd` Lohd`kj fd`, tk,axs\ mi;qZDr ijh{kk ds` f¥, mid`kj izd`kæu }kjk izd`kfær ,l\,l\lh\ d`j lgk;d` ijh{kk

vkosnu-i( 20 vDVwcj] 2009 rd` vkeaf(r fd`, x, gß\ bl HrhZ ds` rgrΩ mi¥C| fjDr inkÍ d`h dq`¥ la“;k 25 gS\ fofHUu oxksÛ ds` mEehnokjkÍ ds` f¥, fu;ekuqlkj vkj”. d`k e÷; ^nsæ o jktLƒku Mkd` ^ko|ku bl HrhZ ds` rgrΩ mi¥C| gS\ fjfDr;kÍ ifje≥M¥kÍ eÍ Mkd` lgk;d` d`h la“;k ?V cÈ< ld`rh gS\ laoxZ d`h fu;qfDr;k∑ æS”f.d` ;ksX;rk%b≥VjehfM,V (10+2) ;k led`” rƒk Vkb¯ix o ækWVZgS≥M d`h e÷; ^nsæ o jktLƒku Mkd` ifje≥M¥kÍ fu|kZfjr ;ksX;rk\ eÍ Mkd` lgk;d` laoxZ (Postal Assistants/ vk;q lhek%·20 vDVwcj] 2009 d`ks‚ Sorting Assistants) ds` cÈMh la“;k eÍ fjDr 18–25 o"Z\ fofHUu eke¥kÍ eÍ vk;q lhek eÍ inkÍ ij fu;qfDr gsrq lq ; ks X ; mEehnokjkÍ ls fu|kZfjr izkÔi ij vkosnu-i( vkeaf(r fd`, fu;ekuqlkj NwV mi¥C| gS\ ækjhfjd` uki-rkS¥ o n”rk ijh”k eÍ vgZ x, gß\ v¥x-v¥x d`h tkus ok¥h bu HfrZ;kÍ ik, x, v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ds` f¥, vk;ksftr d`h tkus ds` rgrΩ 481 fjDr in e÷; iznsæ ifje≥M¥ ds` laHkxkÍ eÍ rƒk ¥xHx 200 fjDr in ok¥h f¥f[r ^fr;ksfxrk ijh”k eÍ 100-100 jktLƒku ifje≥M¥ ds` laHkxkÍ ds` rgrΩ gß\ vad`kÍ ds` oLrqfuÆB fd`Le ds` nks ^'u-i( fofHUu oxksÛ ds` mEehnokjkÍ ds` f¥, fu;ekuqlkj ∂`eæ# (1) vaxzsth o fgUnh Hk"k] (2) lkekU; vkj”. d`k izko|ku bu HfrZ;kÍ ds` rgrΩ mi¥C| Kku ·rdZ`æfDr o vad`xf.r lfgr‚ ds` gkÍxs\ f¥f[r ijh”k eÍ lœ`¥ mEehnokjkÍ d`ks Vkb¯ix gS\ fjfDr;kÍ d`h la“;k ?V-cÈ< ld`rh gS\ æS”f.d` ;ksX;rk%10+2 m®h.Z\ eSfV_d` o ækWVZgS≥M ds` fLd`¥ VsLV eÍ ækfe¥ fd`;k Lrj rd` fgUnh d`k v÷;;u Hh vo'; fd`;k tk,xk\ bl HrhZ ds` lEcU| eÍ vkosnu-i( ds` gks\ js¥os es¥ lfoZl o vkehZ iksLV¥ lfoZl ds` f¥, 10+2 ijh”k vaxzsth vfuok;Z fo"; ds` ^kÔi o vU; foLr~r tkud`kjh gsrq 19 flrEcj] lkƒ m®h.Z gksuk pkfg,\ Vad`. d`k Kku o 2009 d`k n fgUnw ·ubZ fnY¥h‚ jkstxkj lekpkj d`EI;wVj Kku okaNuh; ;ksX;rk gS\ ns[Í\ vk;q lhek ·vkosnu d`h vfUre frfƒ mi;qZDr ijh{kk ds` f¥, mid`kj izd`kæu d`ks‚% 18–25 o"Z\ }kjk izd`kfær iqLrd` Hkjr-frCcr lhek fofHUu oxksÛ ds` f¥, vk;q lhek eÍ iqf¥l c¥ gSM d`k∑LVsfc¥ ,oa vflLVÍV lcbaLisDVj d`k v÷;;u ¥kHd`kjh gksxk\ fu;ekuqlkj NwV mi¥C| gS\ bl HrhZ ds` f¥, vk;ksftr d`h tkus ok¥h Hkjr-frCcr lhek iqf¥l eÍ f¥f[r vfH:fp ijh”k (Aptitude Test) eÍ vaxzsth] xf.r] lkekU; Kku] rdZ`”erk ,oa lc-baLisDVj ·vksojlhj‚ ds` fo'¥s". ”erk vkfn d`h 50 vad`kÍ d`h oLrqfuÆB fjDr in fd`Le d`h ijh”k ,d` ?≥Vs d`h vof| d`h gksxh\ 10+2 ijh”k eÍ izkIrkad`kÍ ds` vk|kj ij ds`Unzh; x~g ea(k¥; ds` v|hu HkjrmEehnokjkÍ d`ks bl ,IVhVΩ;wM VsLV ds` f¥, vYi lwphc* fd`;k tk,xk\ blds` vfrfjDr frCcr lhek iqf¥l (ITBP) eÍ lc-baLisDVj 30 feuV d`h Vad`./d`EI;wVj lEcU|h ijh”k (Overseer) ds` in ij fu;qfDr gsrq lq;ksX; Hh vk;ksftr d`h tk,xh\ bl HrhZ ds` lEcU| eÍ iq:" mEehnokjkÍ ls fu|kZfjr ^kÔi ij vkosnu-i( ds` izkÔi o vU; foLr~r tkud`kjh vkosnu-i( 20 vDVwcj] 2009 rd` vkeaf(r gsrq 26 flrEcj%2 vDVwcj] 2009 d`k jkstxkj fd`, x, gß\ bl HrhZ ds` rgrΩ mi¥C| fjDr lekpkj ns[Í\ v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ds` iw.ZÔi ls Hjs gq, inkÍ d`h dq`¥ la“;k 61 gS\ fofHUu oxksÛ ds` vkosnu-i( Lohd`kj fd`, tkus d`h vfUre mEehnokjkÍ ds` f¥, fu;ekuqlkj vkj”. d`k frfƒ jktLƒku Mkd` ifje≥M¥ ds` eke¥s eÍ ^ko|ku bl HrhZ ds` rgrΩ mi¥C| gS\ fjfDr;kÍ 15 vDVwcj] 2009 rƒk e÷; ^nsæ Mkd` d`h la“;k ?V-cÈ< ld`rh gS\ ifje≥M¥ ds` eke¥s eÍ 26 vDVwcj] 2009 gS\ æS”f.d` ;ksX;rk%eSfV_d` ;k led`” rƒk mi;qZDr ijh”k ds` f¥, mid`kj ^d`kæu flfo¥ bathfu;¯jx eÍ fMI¥ksek\ }kjk ^d`kfær Mkd` foHkx Mkd` lgk;d`/N∑VkbZ vk;q lhek%·20 vDVwcj] 2009 d`ks‚ lgk;d` ijh”k d`k v÷;;u ¥kHd`kjh gksxk\ 20–25 o"Z\ fofHUu eke¥kÍ eÍ vk;q lhek eÍ iqLrd` d`k vaxzsth laLd`j. Hh mi¥C| gS\ fu;ekuqlkj NwV mi¥C| gS\ ækjhfjd` uki-rkS¥ o n”rk ijh”k eÍ vgZ Hkjr-frCcr lhek iqf¥l eÍ ik, x, v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ds` f¥, vk;ksftr d`h tkus ok¥h f¥f[r ^fr;ksfxrk ijh”k 100 vad`kÍ d`h lgk;d` lc-baLisDVj gksxh\ bl ijh”k eÍ 80 vad`kÍ ds` O;kolkf;d` ·LVsuksxzkœ`j‚ ds` fjDr in Kku ds` o 20 vad`kÍ ds` lkekU; tkxÔd`rk ds` ds`Unzh; x~g ea(k¥; ds` v|hu Hkjr- ^'u gkÍxs\ bl HrhZ ds` lEcU| eÍ vkosnu-i( ds` frCcr lhek iqf¥l (ITBP) eÍ lgk;d` lcbaLisDVj ·LVsuksxzkœ`j‚ ds` in ij fu;qfDr gsrq ^kÔi o vU; foLr~r tkud`kjh gsrq 19–25 lq;ksX; iq:" mEehnokjkÍ ls fu|kZfjr ^kÔi ij flrEcj] 2009 d`k jkstxkj lekpkj ns[Í\ iqLrd` d`k v÷;;u ¥kHd`kjh gksxk\ iqLrd` d`k vaxzsth laLd`j. Hh mi¥C| gS\

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/674

ds`Unzh; fo»k¥;kÍ eÍ fæ”d`kÍ rƒk f¥fid`kÍ d`h HrhZ
ds`Unzh; fo»k¥; laxBu ds` rgrΩ nsæHj eÍ fLƒr ds`Unzh; fo»k¥;kÍ ls l( 2010-11 eÍ fofHUu fo";kÍ eÍ ihthVh] VhthVh] ^kbejh VhpjkÍ o vU; fofo| VhpjkÍ d`h fu;qfDr gsrq iSu¥ rS;kj d`jus ds` f¥, bPNqd` ,oa ik( v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ls fu|kZfjr ^kÔi ij 12 vDVwcj] 2009 rd` vkosnu-i( vkeaf(r fd`, x, gß\ bl HrhZ eÍ fofHUu oxksÛ ds` f¥, fu;ekuqlkj vkj”. d`k ^ko|ku mi¥C| gS\ ik(rk gsrq U;wure æS”f.d` ;ksX;rk ds` f¥, foLr~r foKkiu ns[Í\ vk;q lhek%12 vDVwcj] 2009 d`ks ihthVh ds` f¥, vf|d`re 40 o"Z] VhthVh ds` f¥, vf|d`re 35 o"Z] ^kbejh Vhpj ds` f¥, vf|d`re 30 o"Z\ fofHUu eke¥kÍ eÍ vk;q lhek eÍ fu;ekuqlkj NwV mi¥C| gS\ fofHUu Jsf.;kÍ ds` fæ”d`kÍ d`h HrhZ ds` f¥, vk;ksftr d`h tkus ok¥h f¥f[r ijh”k eÍ rhu ^'u-i( gkÍxs\ oLrqfuÆB fd`Le d`k ig¥k ^'u-i( v˙;fƒZ;kÍ d`h L∂`h¯ux ds` f¥, gksxk\ 120 vad`kÍ ds` nks ?≥VkÍ d`h vof| ds` bl ^'u-i( ds` ig¥s Hkx eÍ lkekU; Kku] vaxzsth Hk"k n”rk] rdZ`æfDr] la“;kRed` vfH:fp] lelkef;d` eke¥s] fæ”k] lkekU; foKku o Hkjrh; lafo|ku vkfn ds` ^'u gkÍxs] tcfd` nwljs Hkx eÍ mEehnokj ds` fo"; lEcU|h ^'u gkÍxs\ 1 ?≥Vs d`k 40 vad`kÍ d`k nwljk o.ZukRed` fd`Le d`k ^'u-i( vaxzsth o fgUnh Hk"k d`k gksxk\ nwljh ik¥h eÍ 120 vad`kÍ d`k o.ZukRed` ^'u-i( mEehnokj ds` fo"; Kku d`h ijh”k ds` f¥, gksxk\ ihthVh ds` f¥, ;g ijh”k 26 fnlEcj] 2009 d`ks] VhthVh ds` f¥, 27 fnlEcj] 2009 d`ks o ^kbejh Vhpj ds` f¥, 28 fnlEcj] 2009 d`ks lEiUu gksxh\ fofHUu Jsf.;kÍ ds` fæ”d`kÍ d`h bu HfrZ;kÍ ds` vfrfjDr UDC ds` 40 o LDC ds` 73 inkÍ ds` f¥, Hh vkosnu-i( vkeaf(r fd`, x, gß\ bu inkÍ ds` f¥, vko';d` æS”f.d` ;ksX;rk] vk;q lhek o ijh”k ;kstuk vkfn ds` f¥, foLr~r foKkiu ns[Í\ bu HfrZ;kÍ ds` lEcU| eÍ vkosnu-i( ds` ^kÔi] U;wure æSf”d` ;ksX;rk o vU; foLr~r tkud`kjh ds` f¥, 12–18 flrEcj] 2009 d`k jkstxkj lekpkj ns[Í\ mi;qZDr ijh”k ds` f¥, mid`kj izd`kæu }kjk izd`kfær fuEuf¥f[r iqLrd`kÍ d`k v÷;;u ¥kHd`kjh fl* gksxk% ● mid`kj ds`Unzh; fo»k¥; laxBu Lukrd`ks®j f'k{kd` HrhZ ijh{kk``·izƒe iz'u-i(%Hkx- I‚ 255/● mid`kj ds`Unzh; fo»k¥; laxBu izf'kf{kr Lukrd` f'k{kd` HrhZ``ijh{kk ·izƒe iz'u-i(%Hkx-I‚ 235/● mid`kj ds`Unzh; fo»k¥; laxBu izkƒfed` f'k{kd` HrhZ ijh{kk``·izƒe iz'u-i(%Hkx- I‚ 145/●

Upkar Language Proficiency Test (English-Hindi) Paper-II

150/-

uksV—iqLrd`kÍ ds` vaxzsth laLd`j. Hh mi¥C| gß\

baVs¥htÍl C;wjks eÍ lgk;d` lÍV_¥ baVs¥htÍl vkWœ`hlj xzsM-II/VsDuhd`¥ d`h HrhZ gsrq ^fr;ksfxrk ijh”k] 2009
x~g ea(k¥; ds` v|hu baVs¥htÍl C;wjks (IB) eÍ lgk;d` lÍV_¥ baVs¥htÍl vkWœ`hlj xzsM- II/VsDuhd`¥ ds` dq`¥ fe¥kd`j 52 fjDr inkÍ d`h HrhZ gs r q lq ; ks X ; mEehnokjkÍ ls fu|kZfjr ^kÔi ij vkosnu-i( jkstxkj lekpkj eÍ foKkiu ^d`kfær gksus ds` ,d` ekg rd` vkeaf(r fd`, x, gß\ fofHUu oxksÛ ds` mEehnokjkÍ ds` f¥, fu;ekuqlkj vkj”. d`k ^ko|ku bl HrhZ ds` rgrΩ mi¥C| gS\ fjfDr;kÍ d`h la“;k ?V-cÈ< ld`rh gS\ æS”f.d` ;ksX;rk%HkSfrd`h ;k xf.r ;k d`EI;wVj foKku fo"; ds` lkƒ Lukrd` ;k led`” vƒok fufnZÆV fo";kÍ eÍ ls fd`lh ,d` eÍ

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/675

f(o"hZ; bathfu;¯jx fMI¥ksek vƒok foKkiu eÍ ¥ksd` lHk o jkT; lHk eÍ fjlpZ fufnZÆV 8 o"hZ; vuqHo ds` lkƒ gk;j lsds`≥Mjh\ vk;q lhek ·vkosnu d`h vfUre frfƒ vflLVÍV/twfu;j ikf¥Z;keÍVjh d`ks‚%18–27 o"Z\ fjiksVZj/V_kal¥sVj/LVsuksxzkœ`j/ fofHUu oxksÛ ds` f¥, vk;q lhek eÍ fu;ekflD;ksfjVh vflLVÍV/twfu;j uqlkj NwV mi¥C| gS\ D¥dZ` ds` fjDr in bl HrhZ ds` f¥, vk;ksftr d`h tkus ok¥h f¥f[r ^fr;ksfxrk ijh”k ds` f¥, vYi laln ds` nksukÍ lnukÍ eÍ fofHUu fjDr lwphc* v˙;fƒZ;kÍ d`ks gh vkeaf(r fd`;k inkÍ ·fjlpZ vflLVÍV ds` 7 fjDr in jkT; tk,xk\ HrhZ ds` lEcU| eÍ vkosnu-i( ds` ^kÔi o vU; foLr~r tkud`kjh gsrq 19–25 lHk eÍ] twfu;j ikf¥Z;keÍVjh fjiksVZj ds` 7 fjDr in jkT; lHk eÍ LVsuksxzkœ`j ds` 32 flrEcj] 2009 d`k jkstxkj lekpkj ns[Í\ fjDr in ¥ksd` lHk eÍ o 2 jkT; lHk eÍ] V_k∑l¥sVj ds` 7 fjDr in jkT; lHk eÍ] fnY¥h esV_ks js¥ d`kWiksZjsæu eÍ flD;ksfjVh vflLVÍV xzsM–II ds` 37 fjDr in d`LVej fj¥sæal vflLVÍV ds` ¥ksd` lHk eÍ o 19 fjDr in jkT; lHk eÍ] flD;ksfjVh vflLVÍV xzsM–II ·rd`uhd`h‚ ds` 37 318 o eÍVsuj ds` 961 fjDr in fjDr in ¥ksd` lHk eÍ rƒk twfu;j D¥dZ` ds` 29 fjDr in ¥ksd` lHk eÍ o 13 jkT; lHk fnY¥h esV_ks js¥ d`kWiksZjsæu f¥\ eÍ d`LVej eÍ‚ ij fu;qfDr gsrq lq;ksX; mEehnokjkÍ ls fj¥sæal vflLVÍV ds` 318 o eÍVsuj ds` dq`¥ fu|kZfjr ^kÔi ij vkosnu-i( laln ds` fe¥kd`j 961 fjDr inkÍ ij fu;qfDr gsrq lq;ksX; tkWbaV fj∂w`VeÍV lS¥ }kjk 26 vDVwcj] 2009 mEehnokjkÍ ls fu|kZfjr ^kÔi ij vkosnu-i( rd` vkeaf(r fd`, x, gß\ fofHUu oxksÛ ds` 19 vDVwcj] 2009 rd` vkeaf(r fd`, x, gß\ mEehnokjkÍ ds` f¥, fu;ekuqlkj vkj”. d`k eÍVsuj d`h mi¥C| fjfDr;k∑ b¥sfDV_fæ;u] ^ko|ku bl HrhZ ds` rgrΩ mi¥C| gS\ fjfDr;kÍ fœ`Vj] b¥sDV_kWfud` esds`fud` o jsf≠`tjsæu d`h la“;k ?V cÈ< ld`rh gS\ esds`fud` o ,lh esds`fud` vkfn V_sMlΩ eÍ gß\ bu inkÍ ds` f¥, vko';d` æS”f.d` o vU; fofHUu oxksÛ ds` mEehnokjkÍ ds` f¥, fu;ekuqlkj ;ksX;rkvkÍ gsrq foLr~r foKkiu ¥ksd` lHk d`h vkj”. d`k ^ko|ku bl HrhZ ds` rgrΩ mi¥C| osclkbV www.loksabha.nic.in ij vƒok gS\ fjfDr;kÍ d`h la“;k ?V-cÈ< ld`rh gS\ jkstxkj lekpkj eÍ ns[Í\ v˙;fƒZ;kÍ d`h æS”f.d` ;ksX;rk%(i) d`LVej fj¥sæal vf|d`re vk;q (26 vDVwcj] 2009 d`ks‚ 27 vflLVÍV in (CRA) gsrq%d`e-ls-d`e 50 o"Z gS ·fofHUu eke¥kÍ eÍ vk;q lhek eÍ ^frær vad`kÍ ds` lkƒ f(o"hZ; Lukrd` mikf| fu;ekuqlkj NwV mi¥C| gS‚\ rƒk lkƒ gh d`EI;wVj d`k fufnZÆV Lrj d`k bl HrhZ ds` f¥, vk;ksftr d`h tkus ok¥h Kku\ f¥f[r ^fr;ksfxrk ijh”k eÍ lkekU; Kku] (ii) eÍVsuj in gsrq%lEcfU|r V_sM eÍ vaxzsth-Hk"k] fucU| vkfn d`h ijh”k,a ækfe¥ vkbZVhvkbZ ^ek.-i(\ gß ·v¥x-v¥x inkÍ ds` f¥, ^'u-i(kÍ vkfn vk;q lhek (1 tq¥kbZ] 2009 d`ks‚%d`LVej d`h tkud`kjh osclkbV ls foLr~r foKkiu ls fj¥sæal vflLVÍV gsrq 18–28 o"Z rƒk eÍVsuj ¥Í‚\ bu HfrZ;kÍ ds` lEcU| eÍ vkosnu-i( ds` in gsrq 18–25 o"Z\ ^kÔi o vU; foLr~r tkud`kjh gsrq ¥ksd` lHk fofHUu oxksÛ ds` f¥, vk;q lhek eÍ fu;ek- d`h osclkbV ns[Í\ uqlkj NwV mi¥C| gS\ d`LVej fj¥sæal vflLVÍV in gsrq lhek lqj”k c¥ eÍ gSM d`k∑LVsfc¥ vk;ksftr d`h tkus ok¥h f¥f[r ^fr;ksfxrk ·jsfM;ks vkWijsVj/fœ`Vj‚ rƒk ijh”k eÍ nks ^'u-i( gkÍxs\ bueÍ ig¥s oLrqfuÆB lgk;d` mifujh”d`kÍ ·jsfM;ks fd`Le ds` ^'u-i( eÍ lkekU; tkxÔd`rk vaxzsth] ¥kWftd`¥ ,fcf¥Vh] la“;kRed` vfHesds`fud`‚ d`h HrhZ :fp ,oa/vƒok lEcfU|r V_sM ls lEcfU|r ^'u gkÍxs] tcfd` nwljk o.ZukRed` ^'u-i( lhek lqj{kk c¥ (BSF) d`E;wfuds`æu lSV iSjkxzkœ` jkb¯Vx] lkj ¥s[u] fucU| rƒk vi eÍ gSM d`k∑LVsfc¥ ·jsfM;ks vkWijsVj‚ ds` foKku ,oa ^kS»ksfxd`h ij ^'ukÍ d`k gksxk\ 244, gSM d`k∑LVsfc¥ ·fœ`Vj‚ ds` 6 rƒk lgk;d` eÍVsuj in gsrq HrhZ ds` f¥, vk;ksftr d`h mifujh{kd` ·jsfM;ks esds`fud`‚ ds` dq`¥ 42 inkÍ tkus ok¥h oLrqfuÆB fd`Le d`h ^fr;ksfxrk ij HrhZ ds` f¥, ik( iq:" v˙;fFkZ;kÍ ls ijh”k eÍ lkekU; tkxÔd`rk] rdZ`æfDr] fu|kZfjr ^kÔi ij 10 uoEcj] 2009 rd` la“;kRed` vfH:fp] vaxzsth Hk"k o lEcfU|r vkosnu-i( vkefU(r fd`, x, gß\ bueÍ ls vkbZVhvkbZ V_sM ij ^'u gkÍxs\ dq`N fjfDr;k∑ fofHUu oxksÛ ds` v˙;fFkZ;kÍ ds` bl HrhZ ds` lEcU| eÍ vkosnu-i( ds` f¥, fu;ekuqlkj vkjf{kr gß\ v˙;fFkZ;kÍ d`k ^kÔi o vU; foLr~r tkud`kjh gsrq 19–25 p;u 'kkjhfjd` n{krk ijh{kk] f¥f[r ijh{kk] flrEcj] 2009 d`k jkstxkj lekpkj ns[Í lk{kkRd`kj o fpfd`Rld`h; ijh{kk vkfn ds` vƒok www.delhimetrorail.com ij ¥kWx vk|kj ij fd`;k tk,xk\ 100 vad`kÍ d`h f¥f[r vkWu d`jÍ\ ijh{kk eÍ HkSfrd`h] jlk;u] xf.r] vaxzsth Hk"k

o lkekU; tkxÔd`rk d`h ijh{kk gksxh\ gSM d`k∑LVsfc¥ ·jsfM;ks vkWijsVj‚ ds` in gsrq ;g ijh”k 90 vad`kÍ d`h gksxh rƒk lkƒ gh 10 vad`kÍ d`h fMDVsæu ·vaxzsth‚ Hh v¥x ls gksxh\ 'kSf{kd` ;ksX;rk%eSfV_d` vFkok led`{k ijh{kk\ m®h.Z rFkk foKkiu eÍ fufnZÆV V_sMkÍ eÍ ls fd`lh ,d` eÍ f(o"hZ; fMI¥ksek\ vFkok HkSfrd` foKku] jlk;u foKku ,oa xf.r fo";kÍ ds` lkFk b≥VjehfM,V ;k led`{k ijh{kk m®h.Z ·uksV%rhukÍ inkÍ ds` f¥, v¥x-v¥x æS”f.d` ;ksX;rk gsrq foLr~r foKkiu ns[Í‚\ vk;q lhek ·10 uoEcj] 2009 d`ks‚%gSM d`k∑LVsfc¥ ·jsfM;ks vkWijsVj/fœ`Vj‚ gsrq 18–23 o"Z rƒk lgk;d` mifujh”d` ·jsfM;ks esds`fud`‚ ds` in gsrq 18–25 o"Z\ fofHUu eke¥kÍ eÍ vk;q lhek eÍ fu;ekuqlkj NwV mi¥C| gS\ bl HrhZ ds` lEcU| eÍ vko';d` 'kkjhfjd` eki-rkS¥] vkosnu-i( ds` ^kÔi o vU; foLr~r tkud`kjh ds` f¥, ‘jkstxkj lekpkj’ ns[Í\ mi;qZDr ijh{kk ds` f¥, mid`kj ^d`k'ku }kjk ^d`kf'kr lhek lqj{kk c¥ gSM d`k∑LVsfc¥ ·jsfM;ks vkWijsVj‚ rƒk lgk;d` mifujh{kd` ·jsfM;ks esds`fud`‚ HrhZ ijh{kk iqLrd`kÍ d`k v÷;;u ¥kHd`kjh fl* gksxk\

Hkjr-frCcr lhek iqf¥l eÍ baLisDVj ·fgUnh V_kal¥sVj‚ ds` fjDr in
ds`Unzh; x~g ea(k¥; ds` v|hu HkjrfrCcr lhek iqf¥l (ITBP) eÍ baLisDVj ·fgUnh V_kal¥sVj‚ ds` in ij fu;qfDr gsrq lq;ksX; mEehnokjkÍ ls fu|kZfjr ^kÔi ij vkosnu-i( 27 vDVwcj] 2009 rd` vkeaf(r fd`, x, gß\ bl HrhZ ds` rgrΩ mi¥C| fjDr inkÍ d`h dq`¥ la“;k 30 gS\ fofHUu oxksÛ ds` mEehnokjkÍ ds` f¥, fu;ekuqlkj vkj”. d`k ^ko|ku bl HrhZ ds` rgrΩ mi¥C| gS\ fjfDr;kÍ d`h la“;k ?VcÈ< ld`rh gS\ æS”f.d` ;ksX;rk%fgUnh vƒok vaxzsth eÍ Lukrd`ks®j mikf| ·vaxzsth eÍ Lukrd`ks®j mEehnokjkÍ d`ks Lukrd` ijh”k fgUnh ds` lkƒ m®h.Z gksuk pkfg,\ vU; fo";kÍ eÍ mikf| |kjd` Hh vU; okafNr vgZrk,a iwjh gksus ij vkosnu ds` ik( gß\ buds` f¥, foLr~r foKkiu ns[Í‚\ vk;q lhek%·27 vDVwcj] 2009 d`ks‚ vf|d`re 30 o"Z\ fofHUu eke¥kÍ eÍ vk;q lhek eÍ fu;ekuqlkj NwV mi¥C| gS\ ækjhfjd` uki-rkS¥ o n”rk ijh”k eÍ vgZ ik, x, v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ds` f¥, vk;ksftr d`h tkus ok¥h f¥f[r ^fr;ksfxrk ijh”k 200 vad`kÍ d`h gksxh\ bl ijh”k eÍ 100 vad`kÍ d`k ig¥k ^'ui( lkekU; Kku] vaxzsth o fgUnh d`k oLrqfuÆB fd`Le d`k gksxk] tcfd` 100 vad`kÍ d`k nwljk ^'u-i( V_kal¥sæu ·vaxzsth ls fgUnh eÍ o fgUnh ls vaxzsth eÍ‚ d`k gksxk\ bl HrhZ ds` lEcU| eÍ vkosnu-i( ds` ^kÔi o vU; foLr~r tkud`kjh gsrq jkstxkj lekpkj ns[Í\

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/676

Hkjr-frCcr lhek iqf¥l eÍ d`k∑LVsfc¥ ·ik;fu;j b¥sDV_hfæ;u/I¥Ecj/d`kjiÍVj/eslu/osYMj‚ o d`kjiÍVj ·,uhe¥ V_kaliksVZ‚ ds` fjDr in
ds`Unzh; x~g ea(k¥; ds` v|hu Hkjr-frCcr lhek iqf¥l (ITBP) eÍ d`k∑LVsfc¥ ·ik;fu;j b¥sDV_hfæ;u/I¥Ecj/d`kjiÍVj/ eslu/osYMj‚ o d`kjiÍVj ·,uhe¥ V_kaliksVZ‚ ds` inkÍ ij fu;qfDr gsrq lq;ksX; iq:" mEehnokjkÍ ls fu|kZfjr ^kÔi ij vkosnu-i( 20 vDVwcj] 2009 rd` vkeaf(r fd`, x, gß\ bl HrhZ ds` rgrΩ mi¥C| fjDr inkÍ d`h dq`¥ la“;k d`k∑LVsfc¥ ·ik;fu;j‚ ds` eke¥s eÍ 201 ·b¥sDV_hfæ;u 62, I¥Ecj 74, eslu 40, d`kjiÍVj 24 o osYMj 1) rƒk d`k∑LVsfc¥ ·,uhe¥ V_kaliksVZ‚ ds` eke¥s eÍ 127 gS\ fofHUu oxksÛ ds` mEehnokjkÍ ds` f¥, fu;ekuqlkj vkj”. d`k ^ko|ku bl HrhZ ds` rgrΩ mi¥C| gS\ fjfDr;kÍ d`h la“;k ?V cÈ< ld`rh gS\ æS”f.d` ;ksX;rk%eSfV_d` ;k led`” d`k∑LVsfc¥ ·ik;fu;j‚ ds` eke¥s eÍ lEcfU|r V_sM eÍ d`e-ls-d`e ,d` o"Z d`k vuqHo\ vk;q lhek%·20 vDVwcj] 2009 d`ks‚ d`k∑LVsfc¥ ·ik;fu;j‚ gsrq 18–23 o"Z rƒk d`k∑LVsfc¥ ·,uhe¥ V_kaliksVZ‚ gsrq 18–25 o"Z\ fofHUu eke¥kÍ eÍ vk;q lhek eÍ fu;ekuqlkj NwV mi¥C| gS\ ækjhfjd` uki-rkS¥ o n”rk ijh”k eÍ vgZ ik, x, v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ds` f¥, vk;ksftr d`h tkus ok¥h f¥f[r ^fr;ksfxrk ijh”k 50 vad`kÍ d`h ·d`k∑LVsfc¥ ,uhe¥ V_kaliksVZ ds` eke¥s eÍ 35 vad`kÍ d`h‚ gksxh\ bl HrhZ ds` lEcU| eÍ vkosnu-i( ds` ^kÔi o vU; foLr~r tkud`kjh gsrq jkstxkj lekpkj ns[Í\

ijh{kk frfFk # 21 uoEcj] 2009

Rajasthan
State Eligibility Test (SET)
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mid`kj izd`kæu d`h mi;ksxh iqLrdÍ`

Hkjr-frCcr lhek iqf¥l eÍ d`k∑LVsfc¥kÍ ·tuj¥ MΩ;wVh‚ d`h HrhZ
Hkjr-frCcr lhek iqf¥l eÍ d`k∑LVsfc¥kÍ ·tuj¥ MΩ;wVh‚ ds` dq`¥ inkÍ ij HrhZ ds` f¥, fofHUu jkT;kÍ ds` ik( v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ls fu|kZfjr izkÔi ij 27 vDVwcj] 2009 rd` vkosnu-i( vkefU(r fd`, x, gß\ mi¥C| fjfDr;kÍ eÍ ls 249 fjfDr;k∑ m®j iznsæ ds` v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ds` f¥,] 95 >kj[≥M ds`] 93 e÷; iznsæ ds`] 296 m®jk[≥M ds`] 48 N®hlxÈ< ds`] 198 fcgkj ds`] 81 jktLƒku ds`] 30 gfj;k.k ds` rƒk 20 fjfDr;k∑ fnY¥h ds` v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ds` f¥, gß\ bueÍ ls dq`N fjfDr;k∑ fofHUu oxksÛ ds` v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ds` f¥, fu;ekuqlkj vkjf{kr gß\ fjfDr;kÍ d`h la“;k ?V-cÈ< ld`rh gS\ æS{kf.d` ;ksX;rk%eSfV_d` ;k led`{k\ vk;q lhek%1 vxLr] 2009 d`ks 18–23 o"Z\ fofHUu eke¥kÍ eÍ vk;q lhek eÍ fu;ekuqlkj NwV mi¥C| gS\ bu inkÍ ij v˙;fƒZ;kÍ d`h HrhZ ˜∑pkbZ d`h tk∑p] nkSÈM] ækjhfjd` eki rkS¥] ækjhfjd` n{krk ijh{kk] f¥f[r ijh{kk rƒk fpfd`Rlk ijh{kk ds` vk|kj ij gksxh\ ækjhfjd` d`k;Zn{krk ijh{kk m®h.Z d`jus ok¥s v˙;fƒZ;kÍ d`ks gh f¥f[r ijh{kk eÍ cSBus d`h vuqefr iznku d`h tk,xh\ 100 vad`kÍ d`h vkWCtsfDVo Vkbi f¥f[r ijh{kk eÍ tuj¥ vos;juSl/ tuj¥ ukW¥st] ukW¥st vkWœ` ,¥hesUVjh eSƒseSfVDl] iSVUlZ d`ks ns[us o v¥x d`jus d`h ;ksX;rk d`ks rƒk fgUnh/vaxzsth ds` ew¥ Kku d`h ijh{kk ækfe¥ gS\ bl HrhZ ds` lEcU| eÍ vkosnu-i( ds` izkÔi o vU; foLr~r tkud`kjh gsrq jkstxkj lekpkj vƒok 21 flrEcj] 2009 d`k bf≥M;u ,Dl^sl ·ubZ fnY¥h‚ ns[Í\ mi;qZDr ijh{kk ds` f¥, mid`kj izd`kæu }kjk izd`kfær fuEuf¥f[r iqLrd`kÍ d`k v÷;;u d`jÍ% * mid`kj Hkjr-frCcr lhek iqf¥l œ`kslZ iqf¥l d`k∑LVsfc¥ 75/HrhZ ijh{kk ·¥s[d`}; # tSu ,oa æekZ‚ * mid`kj Hkjr-frCcr lhek iqf¥l œ`kslZ iqf¥l d`k∑LVsfc¥ HrhZ ijh{kk ·lEiknd` e≥M¥ lkekU; Kku niZ.‚ 99/2450

mid`kj izSfDVl odZ`-cqd` tuj¥ isij-I mid`kj tuj¥ isij-I ·MkW\ ¥k¥] tSu ,oa MkW\ ds`\ lh\ ofæÆB‚ mid`kj tuj¥ isij-I ·MkW\ fefƒ¥sæ ik≥Ms;‚ mid`kj bfrgkl ·isij-II‚ ·væksd` dq`ekj ik≥Ms;‚ mid`kj bfrgkl ·isij-II & III‚ ·lqjsæ dq`ekj ik≥Ms;‚ mid`kj bfrgkl ·isij-II‚ ·MkW\ ,\ ds`\ prqosZnh‚ mid`kj bfrgkl ·isij-III‚ ·MkW\ ,\ ds`\ prqosZnh‚ mid`kj bfrgkl ·isij-III‚ ·MkW\ eukst ifjgkj‚ mid`kj okf.T; ·isij-II‚ ·euq^d`kæ JhokLro ,oa ,e\lh\ xqIrk‚ mid`kj okf.T; ·isij-III‚ ·MkW\ ,¥\ ,u\ d`ks¥h‚ mid`kj Hwxks¥ ·isij-II‚ ·MkW\ ,e\ ,l\ fllksfn;k‚ mid`kj Hwxks¥ ·isij-III‚ ·MkW\ ,e\ ,l\ fllksfn;k‚ mid`kj izSfDVl odZ` cqd` Hwxks¥ ·isij-III‚ ·lat; xqIrk‚ mid`kj vFkZækL( ·isij-II‚ ·MkW\ vuqie vxzok¥‚ mid`kj fgUnh ·isij-II & III‚ ·MkW\ dq`ekj x.sæ‚ mid`kj fgUnh ·isij-II‚ ·vkÍd`kj ukƒ oekZ‚ mid`kj fgUnh ·isij-II‚ ·MkW\ fn¥hi ik≥Ms;‚ mid`kj fgUnh ·isij-III‚ ·MkW\ fn¥hi ik≥Ms;‚ mid`kj fgUnh ·isij-II & III‚ ·MkW\ fn¥hi ik≥Ms;‚ mid`kj fgUnh ·isij-II & III‚ ·MkW\ txnhæ æj.‚ mid`kj jktuhfr foKku ·isij-II‚ ·MkW\ væksd` dq`ekj‚ mid`kj jktuhfr foKku ·isij-III‚ ·MkW\ væksd` dq`ekj‚ mid`kj jktuhfr foKku ·isij-II‚ ·lqjsUê d`kSfæd`‚ mid`kj laLd~`r ·isij-II‚ ·MkW\ fefƒ¥sæ ik≥Ms;‚ mid`kj laLd~`r ·isij-III‚ ·MkW\ fefƒ¥sæ ik≥Ms;‚ mid`kj laLd~`r ·isij-II‚ ·MkW\ |esZUê dq`ekj f}osnh‚ mid`kj laLd~`r ·isij-III‚ ·MkW\ |esZUê dq`ekj f}osnh‚ mid`kj laxhr ·isij-II‚ ·MkW\ xqatu lDlsuk‚ mid`kj laxhr ·isij-II‚ ·MkW\ fuæk jkor‚ mid`kj laxhr ·isij-III‚ ·MkW\ fuæk jkor‚ mid`kj euksfoKku ·isij-II‚ ·Jherh lksuh tSu‚ mid`kj euksfoKku ·isij-III‚ ·MkW\ Mh\ lh\ izlkn‚ mid`kj fof| ·isij-II‚ ·eukst dq`ekj flag‚ mid`kj x~gfoKku ·isij-II‚ ·xk;(h flUgk‚ mid`kj x~gfoKku ·isij-III‚ ·xk;(h flUgk‚ mid`kj lektækL( ·isij-II‚ ·MkW\ th\ ,¥\ æekZ‚ mid`kj lektækL( ·isij-III‚ ·MkW\ th\ ,¥\ æekZ‚ mid`kj lektækL( ·isij-II & III‚ ·MkW\ th\ ,¥\ æekZ‚ mid`kj lektækL( ·isij-II‚ ·MkW\ fou; dq`ekj flUgk‚
mid`kj ^d`kæu] vkxjk–2

65/235/215/130/275/175/285/215/270/565/225/245/70/350/250/170/125/125/240/210/370/315/90/175/210/95/290/60/55/110/130/98/105/190/325/120/175/290/215/-

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izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/677

bl HrhZ ds` f¥, vk;ksftr d`h tkus ok¥h f¥f[r ^fr;ksfxrk ijh”k eÍ rhu ?≥Vs d`h vof| d`k ,d` ^'u-i( gksxk] ftleÍ fo"; ls lEcfU|r ^'ukÍ ds` vfrfjDr lkekU; lkoZtfud` {ks( ds` ;wfu;u cßd` vkWœ` tkxÔd`rk ds` ^'u gkÍxs\ bl HrhZ ds` lEcU| bf≥M;k eÍ f¥fid` lg-jksd`fÈM;kÍ ds` dq`¥ 1040 eÍ foLr~r tkud`kjh gsrq fuxe d`h osclkbV fjDr inkÍ ij HrhZ ds` f¥, ik( mEehnokjkÍ ls www.ongcindic.com. ns[Í\ vkosnu-i( vkWu¥kbu vkefU(r fd`, x, gß\ fod`¥kaxrk ok¥s v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ds` f¥, vkjf”r ds`Unzh; vkS»ksfxd` lqj{kk c¥ eÍ cSd`¥kWx fjfDr;k∑ Hh bueÍ ækfe¥ gß\ fofHUu jkT;kÍ ls d`k∑LVsfc¥kÍ æS”f.d` ;ksX;rk%·d`‚ Lukrd` vƒok ·thMh‚ d`h HrhZ led`{k ·[‚ vƒok d`e-ls-d`e 60 ^frær vad`kÍ ds` lkƒ 10 + 2 ijh”k m®h.Z ·fofHUu ds`Unzh; vkS»ksfxd` lqj{kk c¥ (CISF) eÍ eke¥kÍ eÍ æS”f.d` ;ksX;rk eÍ NwV‚\ d`EI;wVj fofHUu jkT;kÍ ls d`k∑LVsfc¥kÍ ·tuj¥ MΩ;wVh‚ d`k fu|kZfjr Kku Hh vko';d` gS\ vk;q lhek%lkekU; Js.h ds` v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ds` ds` dq`¥ 16 gtkj fjDr inkÍ d`h HrhZ ds` f¥, f¥, vk;q lhek 30 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks 18–28 ik( iq:" v˙;fFkZ;kÍ ls fu|kZfjr ^kÔi ij 4 o"Z gS\ fofHUu eke¥kÍ eÍ vk;q lhek eÍ uoEcj] 2009 rd` vkosnu-i( vkeaf(r fd`, fu;ekuqlkj NwV mi¥C| gS\ x, gß\ mi¥C| fjfDr;kÍ eÍ ls dq`N fjfDr;k∑ bl HrhZ gsrq vkosnu ds` f¥, v˙;fƒZ;kÍ fofHUu oxksÛ ds` v˙;fFkZ;kÍ ds` f¥, vkjf{kr gß\ d`ks 31 vDVwcj] 2009 rd` vkWu¥kbu vkosnu fjfDr;kÍ d`h la“;k ?V-cÈ< ld`rh gS\ d`juk gksxk\ HrhZ ds` f¥, ¥h tkus ok¥h ijh{kk æSf”d` ;ksX;rk%eSfV_d` ;k led`{k ijh{kk eÍ oLrqfuÆB fd`Le ds` nks iz'u-i( gkÍxs\ ig¥s m®h.Z\ ^'u-i( eÍ rdZ`æfDr] la“;kRed` vfH;ksX;rk] vk;q lhek%1 vxLr] 2010 d`ks 18–23 lkekU; tkxÔd`rk o vaxzsth Hk"k d`h 200 o"Z\ fofHUu eke¥kÍ eÍ vk;q lhek eÍ fu;ekuqlkj vad`kÍ d`h ijh{kk gksxh\ 50 vad`kÍ d`k nwljk ^'u-i( d`EI;wVj Kku d`h ijh”k d`k gksxk\ NwV mi¥C| gS\ bl HrhZ ds` rgrΩ v˙;fFkZ;kÍ d`k p;u ijh{kk d`h lEHkfor frfƒ 10 tuojh] 2010 ˜∑pkbZ d`h tk∑p] nkSÈM ijh{kk] ækjhfjd` eki gS\ bl HrhZ ds` lEcU| eÍ vkosnu-i( ds` rkS¥] 'kkjhfjd` n{krk ijh{kk] f¥f[r ijh{kk o izkÔi o vU; foLr~r tkud`kjh ds` f¥, jkstxkj fpfd`Rld`h; ijh{kk vkfn ds` vk|kj ij fd`;k lekpkj rƒk cßd` d`h osclkbV ns[Í\ tk,xk\ dq`¥ 100 vad`kÍ d`h oLrqfuÆB fd`Le d`h mi;qZDr ijh{kk ds` f¥, mid`kj izd`kæu f¥f[r ijh{kk eÍ lkekU; tkxÔd`rk/lkekU; }kjk izd`kfær cßd` D¥dZ ijh{kk ls lEcfU|r Kku] ^kjfEHd` xf.r d s ` Kku] fo'¥s"d`h; iqLrd`kÍ d`k v÷;;u d`jÍ\ vfH:fp vkSj ^s{k. vkSj fo'ks" iSVuZ d`h ;ksX;rk ds` lkFk-lkFk vaxzsth/fgUnh eÍ mEehnvks,uthlh eÍ vflLVÍV okjkÍ ds` ew¥ Kku d`h ijh”k gksxh\ bl HrhZ ds` VsDuhfæ;al d`h HrhZ lEcU| eÍ vkosnu-i( ds` ^kÔi o vU; foLr~r tkud`kjh ds` f¥, jkstxkj lekpkj lkoZtfud` ”s( ds` uojRu mi∂`e rs¥ ns[Í\ ,oa ^kd~`frd` xSl fuxe (ONGC) eÍ vflLVÍV mi;qZDr ijh”k ds` f¥, mid`kj ^d`kæu VsDuhfæ;u ·, –II ¥so¥‚ ds` in ij fu;qfDr }kjk ^d`kfær ds`Unzh; vkS»ksfxd` lq j ”k c¥ gsrq lq;ksX; mEehnokjkÍ ls fu|kZfjr ^kÔi ij vkosnu-i( 15 vDVwcj] 2009 rd` vkWu d`k∑LVsfc¥ HrhZ ijh”k iqLrd` d`k v÷;;u ¥kbu vkeaf(r fd`, x, gß\ bl HrhZ ds` rgrΩ ¥kHd`kjh gksxk\ iqLrd` d`k vaxzsth laLd`j. Hh mi¥C| fjDr inkÍ d`h dq`¥ la“;k 136 gS\ mi¥C| gS\ bueÍ 54 in vflLVÍV VsDuhfæ;u ^ksMDæu ●●● ds`] 18 in v\ Vs\ b¥sfDV_d`¥ ds`] 29 in v\ Vs\ baLV_weÍVsæu ds`] 31 in v\ Vs\ esds`fud`¥ æs" i~ÆB 672 d`k ds` o 4 in v\ Vs\ b¥sDV_kWfuDl ds` gß\ fofHUu oxksÛ ds` mEehnokjkÍ ds` f¥, fu;ekuqlkj vkj”. d`k ^ko|ku bl HrhZ ds` rgrΩ mi¥C| gS\ dq'rh fjfDr;kÍ d`h la“;k ?V cÈ< ld`rh gS\ æS”f.d` ;ksX;rk%fufnZÆV V_sMΩl eÍ 42 o"Z ds` vUrjk¥ ds` i'pkrΩ fo'o f(o"hZ; fMI¥ksek d`e-ls-d`e 60 ^frær ^kIrkad`kÍ ds` lkƒ ·fofHUu eke¥kÍ eÍ ^kIrkad` dq`'rh pSfEi;ufæi eÍ Hkjr ds` f¥, ^frær eÍ NwV mi¥C| gS‚\ jesæ dq`ekj us thrk d`ksbZ ind`%MsUekdZ` vk;q lhek%·31 fnlEcj] 2009 d`ks ‚ eÍ gfuÛx (Herning) eÍ flrEcj 2009 eÍ vf|d`re 30 o"Z\ fofHUu oxksÛ ds` f¥, vk;q lEiUu fo'o dq`'rh pSfEi;ufæi eÍ gfj;k.k lhek eÍ fu;ekuqlkj NwV mi¥C| gS\ ds` jesæ dq`ekj us 74 fd`xzk oxZ ·œz`hLVkb¥‚

;wfu;u cßd` eÍ f¥fid`h; fu;qfDr;k∑

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2009

jktkjke ¥{e. Hkjr ds` 20oÍ xzkaM ekLVj
psUubZ ds` ærjat f[¥kÈMh jktkjke ¥{e. us xzkaM ekLVj (GM) f[rkc ds` f¥, vgZrk flrEcj 2009 eÍ izkIr d`j ¥h gS\ bl f[rkc ds` f¥, viuk rhljk ukWeZ mUgkÍus flrEcj eÍ d`ks¥d`krk vksiu ærjat VwukZesUV eÍ izkIr fd`;k gS\ og Hkjr ds` 20 oÍ xzkaM ekLVj gkÍxs\ blls iwoZ 19 oÍ xzkaM ekLVj ,l\ fd`nEch ƒs] ftUgkÍus viuk rhljk xzkaM ekLVj ukWeZ ebZ 2009 eÍ izkIr fd`;k ƒk\

v{k; dq`ekj o dS`Vjhuk dS`œ` 34oÍ jkÆV_h; [s¥kÍ ds` czkaM ,EcslMj%ckW¥hoqM ds` v{k; dq`ekj o dS`Vjhuk dS`œ` d`ks uoEcjfnlEcj 2009 eÍ >kj[≥M eÍ gksus ok¥s 34oÍ jkÆV_h; [s¥kÍ d`k czkaM ,EcslMj cuk;k x;k gS\ >kj[≥M eÍ bu [s¥kÍ d`k vk;kstu 21 uoEcj –5 fnlEcj] 2009 ds` nkSjku jk∑ph] |uckn o teæsniqj eÍ gksuk gS\
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izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/678

pk∑n ij ikuh%lnh d`h egkure ¥xHx 4 vjc :i, d`h ifj;kstuk ds` vUrxZr pUnz;ku-1, 22 vDVwcj] 2008 [kst
fiN¥s pkj næd` ls ;gh |kj.k jgh gS fd` tc pk∑n ij t¥ ugÓ gS] rks thou d`gk∑ gksxk = pk∑n d`h lrg lw[h pVΩVkukÍ vkSj lw[s xMΩ<kÍ ls Hjh gqbZ gS\ pUnz;ku- 1 us bl ij fojke ¥xk fn;k ,oa bl vo|kj.k d`ks fuewZ¥ fl* d`j fn;k\ pUnz ; ku- 1 ds` lkƒ x;k Hkjr d`k ewu bEiSDV ^ksc ·,evkbZih‚ us pk∑n ij ikuh d`h d`ks pk∑n ds` f¥, jokuk gqvk ƒk\ ;g vius lkƒ 11 mid`j. Hh ¥s x;k ƒk\ bUgÓ `eÍ ls ,d` ƒk uklk d`k ewu feusjs¥kWth eSij ·,e-3), tks pUnz;ku ds` pUnzek d`h d`”k eÍ Lƒkfir gksus ds` ckn] pUnz;ku ls v¥x gksd`j pUnzr¥ ij mrjk ƒk\ bUgÓ 11 mid`j.kÍ eÍ ls ,d` mid`j. ƒk ‘ewu bEiSDV ^ksc’ ·,evkbZih‚] tks pUnz;ku-1 ds`

ekStwnxh d`k Bksl ^ek. i~Foh d`ks Hstk\ ;g [kst v^R;kfær gS vkSj lnh d`h lcls cÈMh [kst gS\ uklk ds` mid`j. ewu feusjs¥kWth eSij ·,e-3) us Hh bl [kst d`h iqfÆV d`j nh\ ;g mid`j. Hh pUnz;ku-1 ds` lkƒ gh pk∑n ij mrjk ƒk\ izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/679/4

^”si. ds` ¥xHx nks lIrkg ckn pUnz;ku ls v¥x gksd`j pUnzr¥ ij mrjk vkSj 25 feuV ds` Hhrj gh bljks d`ks lwpuk nh fd` pk∑n ij ikuh leqnz] >jus ;k rk¥kc ds` ckbZikl ltZjh d`ks ck;-ck; Ôi eÍ ugÓ gS] cfYd` [fut vkSj pVΩVkukÍ fud`V HfoÆ; eÍ ckbZikl ltZjh d`ks d`h lrg ij] fo»eku gS\ pk∑n d`h ˜ijh ck;-ck; d`gk tk lds`xk\ rc ≤n; jksx ds`

lrg ij ikuh gS\ ;g okÆi vkSj ueh ds` Ôi eÍ fo»eku gS\ ,d` Vu feVΩVh eÍ ¥xHx ,d` f¥Vj ikuh gS\ pk∑n d`h feVΩVh eÍ ikuh ds` lkƒ gh gkbM_kWfDl¥ ·,d` vkWDlhtu ijek.q vkSj ,d` gkbM_kstu ds` ijek.q ls cuk v.q‚ Hh ik, x, gß\ ok¯æxVu eÍ uklk ds` funsZæd` fte xzhu us d`gk] ∏pk∑n ij ikuh d`h [kst ds` f¥, ge bljks d`ks |U;okn nsrs gß\ bljks ds` ,evkbZih }kjk tqVkbZ xbZ lwpukvkÍ ls twu eÍ gh pk∑n ij ikuh d`h ekStwnxh d`k irk ¥x x;k ƒk\ pUnz;ku-1 }kjk tqVk, x, vk∑d`ÈMkÍ ds` fo'¥s". eÍ N# eghus ls rhu lk¥ d`k le; ¥x ld`rk gS\π ;g varfj” foKku d`h lcls cÈMh [kst gS\ pk∑n ij ikuh d`gk∑ ls vk;k = oSKkfud`kÍ d`k vkd`¥u gS fd` lkSj iou eÍ |ukosfær ^ksVkWu ·gkbM_kstu vk;u‚ gksrs gß] tks pUnzek d`h feVΩVh vkSj fæ¥kvkÍ eÍ fo»eku vkWDlhtu ls vfHf∂`;k d`jds` ikuh cukrs gß\ ikuh d`h vuqi¥C|rk vc rd` cÈMs vfH;kukÍ eÍ ck|k ƒh\ varfj” ;kf(;kÍ d`ks is;t¥ ds` lkƒ [k» inkƒksÛ ds` fjgkbM_sæu d`h leL;k vkrh ƒh\ nwljh cÈMh leL;k pUnzek ls okil ¥kSVus eÍ ¥xus ok¥s bÛ|u d`ks ¥sd`j ƒh\ bu nksukÍ leL;kvkÍ ds` d`kj. varfj” ;kf(;kÍ d`ks ikuh vkSj bÛ|u vius lkƒ ¥s tkuk iÈMrk ƒk] ftlls vfH;ku d`k varjk¥ lhfer d`juk iÈMrk ƒk\ pk∑n ij ikuh d`k irk ¥xus ij] varfj” ;kf(;kÍ d`h nksukÍ leL;k,a lekIr gks ld`rh gß\ vf|d` ek(k eÍ ikuh d`h lEHkouk ls ogk∑ d`kW¥ksfu;k∑ clkd`j tu-vkiwfrZ d`h tk ld`rh gS ,oa œ`l¥kÍ d`h ¯lpkbZ Hh gks ld`rh gS\ ikuh eÍ fo»eku gkbM_kstu d`ks v¥x d`j pUnzek ls okil vkus ds` f¥, bÛ|u ds` Ôi eÍ mi;ksx fd`;k tk ld`rk gS\ eax¥ ;k nwljs cÈMs vfH;kukÍ ds` f¥,] pUnzek ij varfj” ds`Unz Lƒkfir fd`;k tk ld`rk gS\ vc ;g irk ¥xkus d`h tÔjr gS fd` pk∑n ij ikuh fd`ruh ek(k eÍ gS vkSj bl ikuh d`ks euqÆ;kÍ ds` mi;ksx ds` ;ksX; dS`ls cuk;k tk, = pk∑n ij ekuo cfLr;k∑ clkus ds` f¥, oSKkfud`kÍ ds` lius d`ks ;ƒkƒZ eÍ cn¥us ds` f¥,] tks phtÍ tÔjh gß mueÍ ls ,d` ikuh d`ks ¥sd`j] rks fuf'pr gqvk tk ld`rk gS\ bl [kst ls pk∑n d`ks varfj” vfH;kukÍ ds` ,d` fBd`kus ds` Ôi eÍ mi;ksx d`jus d`h lEHkouk cÈ< xbZ gS\

¥k[kÍ jksfx;kÍ d`ks phjœ`kÈM ls eqfDr fe¥ tk,xh\ batsDæu ls nh xbZ nok gh muds` fn¥ ds` nnZ d`ks gesæk ds` f¥, nwj d`jus ds` f¥, i;kZIr gksxh\ btjk;¥ ds` rs¥ vohc fo'ofo»k¥; ds` oSKkfud`kÍ us ^ksVhu vk|kfjr ;g nok rS;kj d`h gS\ bl batsDæu d`ks ≤n; eÍ ¥xkd`j] ogk∑ ubZ |efu;k∑ fod`flr d`h tk ld`rh gß\ bl [kst ls ¥k[kÍ ≤n; jksfx;kÍ d`ks u;k thou fe¥us d`h lEHkouk gS\

ekuo ≤n;

≤n; jksx eÍ ≤n; |efu;k∑ ;k rks can gks tkrh gß] ;k fldq`ÈM tkrh gß vƒok fufÆ∂`; gks tkrh gß\ blls ≤n;k?kr gks tkrk gS\ rs¥ vohc fo'ofo»k¥; ds` Ldw`¥ vkWœ` esfMflu ds` MkW\ fczVu gkMhZ vkSj muds` æks| n¥ us bl ^ksVhu vk|kfjr batsDæu d`k fod`kl fd`;k gS\ tc bl batsDæu d`ks æjhj d`h fd`lh isæh eÍ ¥xk;k tkrk gS] rks ogk∑ jDr |efu;k∑ fod`flr gksus ¥xrh gß\ dq`N gh lIrkg eÍ bud`k iw.Z fod`kl gks tkrk gS vkSj blls jDrlapkj eÍ lq|kj gks tkrk gS\

œS`¥sxh d`ej rks fldq`ÈMsxk fnekx

d`ej ;k æjhj d`k eksVkik] æjhj vkSj efLrÆd` nksukÍ ds` LokLF; ds` f¥,] rjgrjg d`h tfV¥rk,a mRiUu d`jrk gS\ dS`f¥œ`ksfuZ;k fo'ofo»k¥; ds` ^ksœs`lj ikW¥ ƒkWelu ,oa mud`h Vhe ds` ,d` æks| ¥s[ ‘U;w lkbafVLV’ if(d`k eÍ ^d`kfær gqvk gS\ ls i~Foh d`ks cpk,xk blds` vuqlkj vkid`h d`ej ds` pkjkÍ vksj varfj” eÍ vufxur vkd`kæh; fi≥M Hze. d`jrs jgrs gß\ ;s rjg-rjg vkd`kj ,oa foLrkj ds` gß\ dq`N ”qnz xzg gß] rks dq`N |weds`rq vkSj dq`N NksVs-cÈMs pVΩVku\ gekjs lkSje≥M¥ eÍ eax¥ rƒk c~gLifr xzgkÍ d`h d`”kvkÍ ds` chp cÈMh la“;k eÍ ”qnz xzg fo»eku gß vkSj ;s lHh lw;Z d`h ifj∂`ek d`j jgs gß\ xgu ,oa lqnwj varfj” ds` ”qnz xzg Hh gekjs lkSje≥M¥ eÍ ?ql vkrs gß\ ,sls gh fd`lh ”qnz xzg d`h VDd`j ls i~Foh ij ls Mk;uklksjkÍ d`k fo¥ksiu gqvk ƒk\ ekuo efLrÆd` ogh [rjk vc Hh cuk gqvk gS\ fd`lh ”qnz mHjh pchZ vkids` efLrÆd` d`ks fld`ksÈM xzg ds` i~Foh ls Vd`jkus d`h fLƒfr eÍ] nsrh gS æks|d`rkZvkÍ us ik;k fd` efLrÆd` 1945 eÍ fgjksfæek eÍ vejhd`k }kjk fxjk, d`k og ”s(] tks cks| vkSj laKku ds` f¥, x, ijek.q ce d`h rq¥uk eÍ 10 gtkj izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/680

xquk vf|d` ˜tkZ fud`¥ ld`rh gS\ ,slh ?Vuk d`h iqujko~f® HfoÆ; eÍ Hh gks ld`rh gS\ vr#] ekuo lpsr gS vkSj ,slh ?Vuk d`ks jksd`us d`h fof|;kÍ ij fopkj d`j jgk gS\ fczfVæ oSKkfud`kÍ us ,d` varfj” ;ku d`k fMtkbu rS;kj fd`;k gS] tks ”qnz xzgkÍ d`h foukæd`kjh VDd`j ls i~Foh d`ks cpk,xk\ fczfVæ d`Eiuh ‘b,Mhl vkfLV_;e’ ds` ,d` æks| n¥ us bl varfj” ;ku ‘xzSfoVh V_SDVj’ d`ks cuk;k gS] ftls i~Foh ds` lkƒ ”qnz xzg d`h VDd`j gksus d`h vkæad`k gksus ij rSukr fd`;k tk,xk\ ;g ”qnz xzg d`k irk ¥xk ¥sxk vkSj bls vius lkƒ mÈMus d`h fLƒfr eÍ j[sxk\ ;ku bl ”qnz xzg d`ks viuh lrg ls 160 œ`hV d`h nwjh cuk, j[sxk\ ,slh fLƒfr eÍ 10 Vu otuh ;g ;ku ”qnz xzg ij gYd`k xq:Ro c¥ ¥xk,xk rƒk ”qnz xzg d`ks viuh vksj [Ópsxk\ d`bZ ds` cz©k≥M ds` fp( o"ksÛ eÍ |hjs-|hjs bld`k jkLrk cn¥rs gq, eku f¥;k tk, fd` vki 15 vjc o"Z ‘xzSfoVh V_SDVj’ ”qnz xzg ds` ekxZ d`ks ifjihNs p¥s tk,a] tc gekjs cz©k≥M d`ks ofrZr d`jus eÍ lœ`¥ gksxk\ i~Foh d`ks ”qnz vfLrRo eÍ vk, ek( ,d` vjc o"Z gh gq, ƒs] rks vki D;k ns[Íxs = d`gÓ d`ksbZ thou ugÓ] cl vkd`kæxaxkvkÍ d`k >qjeqV] ijLij Vd`jkrh vkd`kæxaxk,a] curs-fcxÈMrs lw;ksÛ rkjkÍ d`k [s¥\ bl le; ml lqnwj Hwrd`k¥ d`ks ns[uk lEHo ugÓ gS\ nwljh vksj uklk us 15 vjc lk¥ ig¥s ds` cz©k≥M d`h >¥d` ik ¥h gS\ uklk d`h æfDræk¥h varfj” nwjchu ‘gc¥’ ds` vfr laosnuæh¥ mid`j.kÍ us xgu varfj” eÍ ”qnz xzg ds` lkƒ-lkƒ 15 vjc o"Z ihNs d`h ;k(k d`h vkSj rc p¥rk xzSfoVh V_SDVj d`h l~fÆV d`h rLohj d`ks dS`n d`jus eÍ xzg d`h VDd`j ls cpkus ds` f¥, ;g lœ`¥rk ik ¥h gS\ gc¥ ds` fp(kÍ d`ks ns[d`j oSKkfud` pfd`r gß\ uklk us bl i;kZIr ,oa ^Hkoh rjhd`k ekuk tk jgk gS\ [kst d`k uke ‘Mhi œ`hYM’ j[k gS\ gc¥ ‘xzSfoVh V_SDVj’] HkSfrd`h ds` ew¥Hwr fl*kUr us uklk d`ks] tks fp( Hsts gß] mueÍ ,slh ij d`ke d`jrk gS\ ^R;sd` nzO;eku eÍ xq:Ro lSd`ÈMkÍ vkd`kæxaxk,a gß] tks ig¥s d`Hh gksrk gS] tks vklikl d`h oLrqvkÍ d`ks viuh vksj [Óprk gS\ fd`lh varfj”h; fi≥M ij ugÓ ns[h xbZ ƒÓ\ ¥Ecs c¥ ds` ¥xus ‘xzSfoVh V_SDVj’%”qnz xzgkÍ d`h VDd`j fi≥M le; rd` blgV tk,xk\ ls og vius ekxZ ls

egRoiw.Z gksrk gS] og eksVh d`ej ok¥s ,oa vU; eksVs ¥ksxkÍ eÍ NksVk gksrk gS\ ,sls ¥ksxkÍ d`k fnekx viuh vk;q ds` fglkc ls 16 lk¥ vf|d` cwÈ<k gksrk gS\ efLrÆd` d`k ;g ladq`pu ‘fMeÍfæ;k’ vƒkZrΩ euksHzaæ ls lEc* gksrk gS\ ;g æks| ml lansg d`h iqfÆV d`jrk gS fd` cÈ<rk otu efLrÆd` d`h fLƒfr eÍ cn¥ko d`k [rjk iSnk d`jrk gS\ oSls Hh æjhj eÍ cÈ<h gqbZ pchZ] ≤n;|efu;kÍ eÍ vojks| mRiUu d`jrh gS] tks efLrÆd` d`h d`ksfæd`kvkÍ rd` igq∑pus ok¥s jDr ,oa vkWDlhtu ds` lapj. d`ks d`e d`jrh gS\ œ`¥r#] esVkcksf¥Te eÍ gksus ok¥h d`eh ls efLrÆd` d`h d`ksfæd`k,a e~r gksus ¥xrh gß\ bl v÷;;u ds` f¥, æks|d`rkZvkÍ us 94 ¥ksxkÍ d`k p;u fd`;k ƒk\ gc¥ us f¥, 15 vjc lk¥ ig¥s

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(ck;ksfud`

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—Jherh pap¥ oekZ

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uke%Jherh pap¥ oekZ firk d`k uke%Jh jkelÔi ekrk d`k uke%Lo\ Jherh d~`Æ.k nsoh tUefrfƒ%31-08-1976

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Jherh pap¥%fookg ds` mijkUr ifr }kjk izsfjr d`jus ij o bl lsok d`h xfjek ,oa egRo d`k vkHkl d`jokus ij gh eß mlds` egRo d`ks tku ikbZ\ ^\ n\%og ”. d`c vk;k tc vkius flfo¥ lsokvkÍ eÍ dS`fj;j d`h lEHkouk,a r¥kæus d`k œS`l¥k f¥;k= Jherh pap¥%luΩ 2003 eÍ eßus flfo¥ lsokvkÍ ds` f¥, iz;kl d`jus d`k œS`l¥k fd`;k vkSj rHh ls rS;kjh izkjEH d`h\ ^\ n\%bl ijh”k eÍ cSBus d`k fu.Z; ¥sus ds` ckn vkid`k ig¥k d`ne D;k jgk= Jherh pap¥%loZizƒe eßus vius vuqÔi fo";kÍ d`k p;u fd`;k o mlds` vuqÔi lkexzh r¥kæ d`juh izkjEH d`h\ ^\ n\%cn¥rs gq, vkfƒZd` ifjn~'; eÍ futh ”s( eÍ vkt lsokvkÍ ds` ¥qHkous volj mi¥C| gksus ds` ckotwn vki flfo¥ lsokvkÍ eÍ cÈ<rh izfrLi|kZ ds` ckn Hh xEHhjrk ls rS;kjh eÍ ¥xh jgÓ\ fd`l pht us vkid`k tksæ cjd`jkj j[k=

ch\ ,\ —KUK, 1996 (67%) ,e\ ,\%GJU, fglkj; 1998 (69%) ch\ ,M\— ,e\ Mh\ ,l\ ;wuhoflZVh] vtesj; 2000 (71%)

Jherh pap¥%;g lœ`¥rk nwljs iz;kl eÍ izkIr gqbZ\ izƒe iz;kl eÍ næZuækL( fo"; ·nwljk fod`Yi‚ ij iwjh id`ÈM u gks ikus ds` d`kj. lœ`¥rk gkƒ ugÓ ¥xh\ ^\ n\%,sfPNd` fo";kÍ d`k pquko d`jrs gq, vkids` fopkj ,oa rdZ` vuqlkj D;k rRo egRoiw.Z gß vkSj D;k ugÓ= vkids` ,sfPNd` fo"; D;k ƒs ,oa buds` pquko d`k vk|kj D;k ƒk= D;k vkius lHh iz;klkÍ eÍ ,sfPNd` fo"; leku j[s= Jherh pap¥%,sfPNd` fo"; ds` pquko eÍ fo"; eÍ :fp] v÷;;u lkexzh d`h mi¥C|rk] ekud` o Lrjh; iq L rdÍ ` egRoiw.Z gksrh gß\ esjs ,sfPNd` fo"; (i) ¥ksd` izæklu o (ii) næZuækL( ƒs\ ¥ksd` izæklu fo"; eÍ :fp d`k d`kj. izæklu ds` fo"; d`ks iw.ZÔi ls tkuuk

ƒk\ næZuækL( ds` p;u d`k d`kj. blds` izfr :fp] fo"; d`k oSKkfud` n~fÆVd`ks. o blds` ikBΩ;dz`e d`k laf{kIr gksuk gS\ eßus vius nksukÍ iz;klkÍ eÍ vius ,sfPNd` fo"; leku gh j[s\ ^\ n\%bl ijh”k d`h rS;kjh D;k ,d` fu;ksftr d`k;Z∂`e ij vk|kfjr ƒh= D;k vkius vius f¥, d`ksbZ iz;kl/le; lhek j[h ƒh] ftleÍ vki bl ijh”k eÍ lœ`¥rk izkIr d`j ld`Ó= Jherh pap¥%th gk∑] ijh{kk d`h rS;kjh ,d` fu;ksftr d`k;Zdz`e ij vk|kfjr ƒh\ ^\ n\%viuh nSfud` fnup;kZ ds` dq`N d`k;ksÛ d`ks dz`ec* d`j crk,a] tks vkid`h lœ`¥rk eÍ lgk;d` jgs= Jherh pap¥%nSfud` d`k;ksÛ eÍ le; izcU|u d`k foæs" ÷;ku j[k\ ^\ n\%lkekU; v÷;;u d`h rS;kjh d`h D;k j.uhfr jgh= tSlk dq`N ijh”kfƒZ;kÍ eÍ ns[us eÍ vkrk gS fd` vad`kÍ ds` vk|kj ij ,sfPNd` fo";kÍ ij vis”kd~`r vf|d` ÷;ku nsrs gß] bl ckjs eÍ vkid`k D;k n~fÆVd`ks. gS= Jherh pap¥%lkekU; v÷;;u pw∑fd` vR;f|d` foLr~r gksrk gS] blhf¥, eßus iw.Zr;k ikBΩ;dz`e ds` vuqÔi viuk v÷;;u ds`fUnzr fd`;k\ esjk fopkj gS fd` lkekU; v÷;;u Hh mruk gh egRoiw.Z gS] ftruk ,sfPNd` fo";kÍ d`k v÷;;u\ ^\ n\%le; ^cU|u ·rS;kjh d`jrs le; ;k fœ`j ijh”k eÍ‚%le; ,d` egRoiw.Z d`kjd` gS\ D;k vkius bl nkSjku le; d`ks ¥sd`j d`ksbZ d`fBukbZ eglwl d`h= ;fn gk∑] rks dS`ls vkius bld`k lkeuk fd`;k= Jherh pap¥%vius rS;kjh ds` izkjfEHd` le; eÍ le; izcU|u ds` dz`e eÍ vius v÷;kiu d`k;Z o la;qDr ifjokj eÍ lek;kstu ds` p¥rs ƒksÈMh leL;k jgh] ijUrq |hjs-|hjs lHh d`k;ksÛ ds` f¥, mi;qDr le; lhek d`k fu|kZj. d`j iz;kl fd`;k] ftlls lHh d`fBukb;k∑ lekIr gks xbÛ\ ^\ n\%^kjfEHd` ijh”k ds` le; vkid`h D;k izkƒfed`rk,a jgÓ= izkjfEHd` ijh”k d`h lVhd` rS;kjh ds` f¥, fd`u foæs" phtkÍ d`k ÷;ku j[k vkSj dS`ls vkius usxsfVo ekfdÛ`x d`k lkeuk fd`;k= Jherh pap¥%izkjfEHd` ijh{kk ds` nkSjku oSd`fYid` fo"; ds` xwÈ< v÷;;u ds` lkƒ-lkƒ lkekU; v÷;;u ds` ikBΩ;dz`e d`ks v¥x-v¥x HkxkÍ eÍ ck∑Vd`j fo'¥s".kRed` v÷;;u fd`;k\ lelkef;d` ?VukvkÍ ij foæs" ÷;ku fn;k\ izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/682

O;fDrxr fo'ks"rk,a
vknæZ O;fâ` % ,\ ih\ ts\ vCnq¥ d`¥ke o Lokeh foosd`kuUn lc¥ i” % vkRefo'okl o n~È< fu'p;\ fucZ¥ i” % laosnuæh¥rk\ vkid`h :`fp;k∑ % (1) ikd` d`¥k] (2) jsfM;ks lquuk\

ds` f¥, mlh vuqÔi fo"; pquus pkfg,\ esjs fopkj ls xgu v÷;;u d`jrs gq, 1-2 o"Z rd` d`k le; ¥xuk pkfg,\ ^\ n\%vkids` vuqlkj foKku vkSj ekufod`h fo";kÍ eÍ ls fd`l fo"; ds` lkƒ iz;kl T;knk lgh gS= ,slh dq`N vo|kj.k,a gß fd` ekufod`h fo";kÍ eÍ lœ`¥rk ,oa foKku fo";kÍ ds` lkƒ vis{kkd~`r vf|d` vad` izkIr fd`, tk ld`rs gß\ vkids` bl ckjs eÍ D;k fopkj gß=

^\ n\%vkius eq“; ijh”k gsrq viuh j.uhfr eÍ D;k cn¥ko fd`,= Jherh pap¥%eq“; ijh{kk d`h rS;kjh ds` nkSjku vius izƒe iz;kl eÍ nwljs oSd`fYid` fo"; ds` d`kj. lœ`¥rk ugÓ fe¥ ikbZ\ vius nwljs iz;kl eÍ eßus viuh blh d`eh d`ks nwj d`jus d`k iz;kl fd`;k\ bl gsrq iratf¥ ds` |esZUnz lj d`k foæs" ekxZnæZu œ`¥nk;d` jgk\ mUgkÍus fo"; d`h xgjh le> fod`flr d`jus] oSKkfud` o fo'¥s".kRed` v÷;;u eÍ vR;f|d` lg;ksx o ekxZnæZu fn;k\ ^\ n\%vkius lkekU; v÷;;u d`h rS;kjh ds` f¥, d`kSu-d`kSulh i(-if(d`kvkÍ ,oa iqLrd`kÍ d`k v÷;;u fd`;k= Jherh pap¥%lkekU; v÷;;u gsrq eßus lekpkj-i(kÍ eÍ jktLƒku if(d`k] nSfud` HkLd`j] n fgUnw d`k foæs" v÷;;u fd`;k\ if(d`kvkÍ eÍ eßus foæs" Ôi ls izfr;ksfxrk niZ.] ;kstuk] dq`:{ks( vkfn d`k foæs" v÷;;u fd`;k\ ^\ n\%lk”kRd`kj d`h rS;kjh vkius dS`ls d`h vkSj vkid`k lk”kRd`kj d`c vkSj fd`l cksMZ eÍ ƒk= lk”kRd`kj dS`lk jgk vkSj fd`rus le; p¥k ,oa D;k-D;k iz'u iwNs x,= Jherh pap¥%lk{kkRd`kj gsrq lelkef;d`] lkekftd`-vkfƒZd` eqˆkÍ ij foæs" ÷;ku fn;k\ jktLƒku izæklfud` lsok gksus ds` d`kj. ;gk∑ RPSC eÍ esjk lk{kkRd`kj lh\ vkj\ pkS|jh o cSjok th ds` cksMZ eÍ ƒk\ lk{kkRd`kj eÍ esjk iznæZu esjh vkækvuqÔi ƒk rƒk ;g vk|s ?≥Vs rd` p¥k\ bl nkSjku eq>ls æjkccanh] efg¥k Lo;a lgk;rk lewgkÍ] efg¥k læfDrd`j.] fæ{kk d`k jkT; ds` fod`kl eÍ ;ksxnku] t¥ izcU|u vkfn fo";kÍ ij iz'u iwNs x,\ ^\ n\%fd`l æSf”d` Lrj ij flfo¥ lsokvkÍ d`h rS;kjh ds` ckjs eÍ lkspuk æqÔ d`juk pkfg,= vkids` vuqlkj bl ijh”k d`h iw.Z rS;kjh eÍ fd`ruk le; ¥xuk pkfg,= Jherh pap¥%flfo¥ lsokvkÍ d`h rS;kjh ds` fo"; eÍ iwoZ Lukrd` Lrj ls gh lkspuk izkjEH d`juk pkfg, rƒk Lukrd`

iqLrd`kÍ d`h lwph
izkjfEHd` ·,sfPNd`‚ ¥ksd` izæklu : (i) voLƒh egs'ojh] (ii) lqjsUnz d`Vkfj;k] (iii) ¥{ehd`ka r (THM), (iv) ch\ ,¥\ œ`fÈM;k eq“; ·,sfPNd`‚%I (i) voLƒh o voLƒh] (ii) lqjsUnz d`Vkfj;k] (iii) æekZ o lMkuk] (iv) ¥{ehd`kar (TMH), (v) Hokuh flag ·U;kl‚ ds` uksVΩl\ eq“; ·,sfPNd`‚%II ·næZuækL(‚ (i) gjsUnz izlkn flUgk] (ii) lhMh æekZ] (iii) osn izd`kæ oekZ\

Jherh pap¥%nksukÍ fo";kÍ eÍ fd`, x, iz;kl lgh gß\ egRoiw.Z ;g gS fd` vkid`h fo"; ij id`ÈM fd`ruh gS\ esjk ekuuk gS fd` vad` izkIr d`juk ;k lœ`¥rk izkIr d`juk fo"; d`h id`ÈM ij fuHZj d`jrk gS\ ^\ n\%vkids` bl ijh”k eÍ fgUnh ek÷;e d`ks ¥sd`j rS;kjh ,oa lœ`¥rk izkIr d`jus ds` ckjs eÍ D;k fopkj gß= Jherh pap¥%;g |kj.k vc fuewZ¥ gks xbZ gS fd` vaxzsth ek÷;e ls gh lœ`¥rk izkIr d`h tk ld`rh gS\ fgUnh ek÷;e ls Hh vPNs vad` o lœ`¥rk izkIr d`h tk ld`rh gS] cærsZ fo"; d`h m®e vfHO;fDr o Hk"k ij vPNh id`ÈM gks\ ^\ n\%flfo¥ lsok ijh”k d`h rS;kjh gsrq izfr;ksxh if(d`k,a fd`l izd`kj mi;ksxh gksrh gß= Jherh pap¥%izfr;ksxh if(d`k,a izsfjr d`jus ds` lkƒ-lkƒ fo";kÍ ds` pquko] mu ij id`ÈM gsrq j.uhfr fuekZ.] iqLrd`kÍ o ikBΩ; lkexzh d`k pquko bR;kfn eÍ lgk;d` gksrh gß\ ^\ n\%gk¥ gh eÍ izd`kfær ,d` lEekuh; laLƒk }kjk fd`, x, losZ{k. ds` vuqlkj æh"Z d`h 7 if(d`kvkÍ eÍ ls ,d` ,oa Hkjr eÍ lcls T;knk iÈ<h tkus ok¥h izfr;ksfxrk if(d`k ‘^fr;ksfxrk niZ.’ d`ks bu ekud`kÍ ds` fd`rus d`jhc ikrh gß= bld`ks vkSj vf|d` mi;ksxh cukus ds` f¥, d`ksbZ lq>ko nsuk pkgÍxh= æs" i~ÆB 685 ij

⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ vuqizsjd`

;qok izfrHk ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯

esjh lœ`¥rk d`k ew¥ea( Lokeh foosd`kuUn d`k vkÿku ‘mBks] tkxks vkSj ¥{; ^kfIr ls ig¥s er :`d`ks’ gS\
—oSHo JhokLro

flfo¥ lsok ijh”k] 2008 eÍ fgUnh ek÷;e ls 74oÍ Lƒku ij p;fur
la? ¥ksd` lsok vk;ksx d`h ^frfÆBr ijh”k eÍ mPp Lƒku ij p;fur gksd`j Jh oSHo JhokLro us fu#lUnsg ,d` vR;Ur xkSjoiw.Z mi¥fC| vftZr d`h gS] ftlds` f¥, og lHh ^æalk rƒk gekjh gkfnZd` c|kbZ ds` ik( gß\ ^fr;ksfxrk niZ. ds` lkƒ mud`h HÍVokrkZ ;gk∑ ew¥Ôi eÍ ^Lrqr gS\
^\ n\%flfo¥ lsok ijh”k eÍ ækunkj lœ`¥rk ij ^fr;ksfxrk niZ. ifjokj d`h vksj ls gkfnZd` c|kbZ\ Jh oSHo%th] |U;okn\ ^\ n\%D;k vkius fiN¥s o"ksÛ d`h ijh”k ds` VkWilZ ds` lk”kRd`kj iÈ<s = bu VkWilZ eÍ ls fd`lh ls vki ^Hkfor gq, = vius ifj.ke d`ks tkuus ls ig¥s vki VkWilZ ds` ckjs eÍ D;k lksprs ƒs = Jh oS H o%^fro"Z eß VkW i lZ ds ` lk”kRd`kj iÈ<rk ƒk\ ;s lk”kRd`kj gesæk esjs f¥, ^sj.klzksr jgs o bud`h enn ls eq>s viuh x¥fr;k∑ lq|kjus eÍ enn fe¥h\ esjk gesæk ls ekuuk ƒk fd` geeÍ ls gh ¥ksx] VkWilZ ds` Ôi eÍ p;fur gksrs gß\ vUrj ek( lgh j.uhfr d`k gksrk gS\ ^\ n\%D;k vki bl ^;kl eÍ viuh rS;kjh ,oa ijh”k eÍ fuÆiknu ls lUrqÆV ƒs vkSj lœ`¥rk ds` ^fr vkækoku ƒs = lœ`¥rk ds` bl lekpkj ij vkid`h D;k ^frf∂`;k jgh = Jh oSHo%th gk∑] eß viuh rS;kjh o ijh”k eÍ fuÆiknu ls iw.Zr# lUrqÆV ƒk\ foæs" rkSj ij lk”kRd`kj ds` mijkUr lœ`¥rk ds` ^fr iw.Zr# vk'oLr ƒk\ eq>s lœ`¥rk d`k æqH lekpkj esjs fe( Jh use¯lg (IRS) }kjk ^kIr gqvk\ vius Je d`k ^frœ`¥ ikd`j eq>s vR;f|d` ^lUurk gqbZ o eßus rRd`k¥ vius ifjokj d`ks œ`ksu ij lwfpr fd`;k\ ^\ n\%viuh l√¥rk d`k Js; fd`ld`ks nsuk pkgÍxs = Jh oSHo%lœ`¥rk d`Hh Hh fuokZr eÍ ^kIr ugÓ gksrh\ bleÍ vusd` ¥ksxkÍ d`k ;ksxnku gksrk gS] ijUrq eß viuh lœ`¥rk d`k eq“; Js; bZ'oj ds` lkƒ ekrk-firk] ifjokjhtu] xq:tu Jh fou; ¯lg ·÷;s; IAS)] Jh ef.d`kar ¯lg (The Study), Jh jkes'oj jk;] Jh fod`kl fnO;d`hfrZ ·n~fÆV‚ ,oa Jh lquh¥ VqVstk ·fc¥kliqj‚ ,oa fe(x.kÍ d`ks nsuk pkgw∑xk\ izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/683 vr# muls ^sj.k ikd`j esjk fu.Z;] n~È< lad`Yi eÍ cn¥ x;k ,oa 12oÓ ds` ckn eßus xf.r lad`k; NksÈMd`j d`¥k lad`k; ¥srs gq, ch\,\ eÍ ^osæ ¥s f¥;k\ ^\ n\%bl ijh”k eÍ cSBus d`k fu.Z; ¥sus ds` ckn vkid`k ig¥k d`ne D;k jgk = Jh oSHo%fu.Z; ¥sus ds` ckn eßus loZ^ƒe NCERT d`h iqLrd`kÍ d`k v÷;;u d`j viuh uÓo etcwr d`h\ lkƒ gh xzstq,æu ds` vius fo";kÍ d`k xEHhjrk ls v÷;;u fd`;k\

^fr;ksfxrk niZ. vius vki eÍ cstksÈM if(d`k gS rƒk fgUnh ek÷;e ds` v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ds` f¥, ojnku LoÔi gS\ blds` vfrfjDrkad` xq.o®kijd` lkexzh ls ifjiw.Z gß\ bld`h okf"Zd`h ijh”k ds` le; eÍ fjohtu d`h lHh vko';d` lkexzh mi¥C| d`jkrh gS\

……

O;fâ` ifjp;
uke%oSHo JhokLro firk d`k uke%Jh Î`Æ. dq`ekj JhokLro ekrk d`k uke%Jherh inek JhokLro tUefrfƒ%01–07–1981

^\ n\%flfo¥ lsok ds`o¥ ,d` gh ¥{; ƒk ;k fd`lh vkSj dS`fj;j fod`Yi ds` æSf”d` ;ksX;rk% f¥, lkƒ-lkƒ rS;kjh d`j jgs ƒs\ gkbZLdw`¥%Sant Xavier’s H. S. Jh oSHo%eßus N®hlxÈ< SLET ijh”k School, Ambikapur; Madhyamik m®h.Z d`j lgk;d` ^k÷;kid` ds` in d`ks Shiksha Mandal, Bhopal, (M.P.) oSd`fYid` dS`fj;j ds` Ôi eÍ rS;kj d`j ·1996, 82%) b≥VjehfM,V%Saraswati H. S. j[k ƒk\ School, Bilaspur; Madhyamik Shiksha ^\ n\%fd`l rjg vkSj d`c vkid`ks Mandal, Bhopal (M.P.) ·1998, 80·67%) flfo¥ lsokvkÍ d`h xfjek ,oa egRo d`k ch\,\%D. P. College, Bilaspur; vuqHo gqvk = Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur Jh oSHo%pw∑fd` esjs firk Jh Î`Æ. ·2001, 72·17%) ,e\,\%D. P. College, Bilaspur; dq`ekj JhokLro ·fjVk;MZ phœ` bathfu;j] Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur ¥ksd` fuekZ. foHkx] N®hlxÈ< æklu‚ jkT; æklu eÍ vf|d`kjh jgs gß\ vr# ·2003, 70·38%) cpiu ls gh flfo¥ lsod`kÍ ds` lEidZ` eÍ iwoZ p;u% (I) Distt. Jail Superintendent (May vkus d`k volj fe¥k] ftlus eq>s flfo¥ 2007)—MPPSC 2003 lsok d`ks viuk dS`fj;j cukus gsrq ^sfjr (II) Dy. S. P. (March 2008)— fd`;k\ MPPSC 2005 ^\ n\%og ”. d`c vk;k tc vkius (III) I.R.T.S. (May 2008)—IAS 07 flfo¥ lsokvkÍ eÍ dS`fj;j d`h lEHkouk,a (IV) I.A.S. (May 2009)—IAS 08 r¥kæus d`k œS`l¥k f¥;k = Jh oSHo%tc eß 12 oÓ d`”k eÍ ƒk] ^\ n\%cn¥rs gq, vkfƒZd` ifjn~'; rc esjh cÈMh cgu Jherh 'osrk JhokLro eÍ futh ”s( eÍ vkt lsokvkÍ ds` ¥qHkous ·tks orZeku eÍ Mh\,l\ih\ gß‚ us jkT; volj mi¥C| gksus ds` ckotwn vki flfo¥ lsok d`h rS;kjh æqÔ d`j nh ƒh\ flfo¥ lsokvkÍ eÍ cÈ<rh ^frLi|kZ ds` ckn

Hh xEHhjrk ls rS;kjh eÍ ¥xs jgs\ fd`l pht us vkid`k tksæ cjd`jkj j[k = Jh oSHo%flfo¥ lsokvkÍ ds` lkƒ tqÈMh fofo|rk,a] pqukSfr;kÍ ,oa ^frÆBk us esjk tksæ cjd`jkj j[k\ ^\ n\%;g lœ`¥rk fd`rus ^;klkÍ eÍ ^kIr d`h vkSj vki vius fiN¥s ^;klkÍ d`k fo'¥s". d`j fd`l fuÆd`"Z ij igq∑ps tgk∑ lœ`¥rk eÍ ck|k vkbZ = Jh oSHo%;s esjk rhljk ^;kl ƒk\ ^ƒe ^;kl eÍ eq“; ijh”k d`h rS;kjh lUrks"^n ugÓ gks ikbZ ƒh] tcfd` f}rh; ^;kl eÍ esjk lk”kRd`kj cgqr vPNk ugÓ jgk ƒk\ ^\ n\%,sfPNd` fo";kÍ d`k pquko d`jrs gq, vkids` fopkj ,oa rdZ` vuqlkj D;k rRo egRoiw.Z gß vkSj D;k ugÓ = vkids` ,sfPNd` fo"; D;k ƒs ,oa bud`k pquko fd`l vk|kj ij ƒk = D;k vkius lHh ^;klkÍ eÍ ,sfPNd` fo"; leku j[s = Jh oSHo%,sfPNd` fo";kÍ ds` pquko eÍ viuh :fp d`k foæs" ÷;ku j[uk pkfg,\ eßus xzstq,æu ds` le; gh viuh :fp ds` vk|kj ij rhu fo";kÍ d`k p;u fd`;k ƒk] ftueÍ ls nks fo"; ¥sd`j eßus flfo¥ lsok ijh”k eÍ lœ`¥rk ^kIr d`h gS\ th gk∑] esjs lHh ^;klkÍ eÍ ,sfPNd` fo"; leku ƒs\ ^\ n\%bl ijh”k d`h rS;kjh D;k ,d` fu;ksftr d`k;Z∂`e ij vk|kfjr ƒh = D;k vkius vius f¥, d`ksbZ ^;kl/le; lhek j[h ƒh ftleÍ vki bl ijh”k eÍ lœ`¥rk ^kIr d`j lds` = Jh oSHo%flfo¥ lsok d`h rS;kjh fuf'pr rkSj ij fu;ksftr d`k;Z∂`e ij vk|kfjr gksrh gS] pw∑fd` ^;klkÍ d`h la“;k pkj gS\ vr# eß d`e-ls-d`e ^;kl eÍ gh lœ`¥rk ^kIr d`juk pkgrk ƒk\ ^\ n\%viuh nSfud` fnup;kZ ds` dq`N d`k;ksÛ d`ks ∂`ec* d`j crk,a tks vkid`h lœ`¥rk eÍ lgk;d` jgs\ Jh oSHo%eßus d`ksbZ foæs" fnup;kZ ugÓ cuk j[h ƒh\ ojuΩ vius fl¥scl ·ikBΩ;∂`e‚ ds` vuqlkj ^R;sd` fnu gsrq ¥{; fu|kZfjr d`j fu;fer iÈ<kbZ d`h\ ^\ n\%lkekU; v÷;;u d`h rS;kjh d`h D;k j.uhfr jgh = tSlk dq`N ijh”kfƒZ;kÍ eÍ ns[us eÍ vkrk gS fd` vad`kÍ ds` vk|kj ij ,sfPNd` fo";kÍ ij vis”kd~`r vf|d` ÷;ku nsrs gß\ bl ckjs eÍ vkid`k D;k n~fÆVd`ks. gS = Jh oSHo%lkekU; v÷;;u ds` Hh egRoiw.Z 600 vad` gksrs gß\ vr# bld`h mis”k d`ks eß lgh ugÓ ekurk gw∑\ ^\ n\%le; ^cU|u%·rS;kjh d`jrs le; ;k fœ`j ijh”k eÍ‚%le; ,d` egRoizfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/684

iw.Z d`kjd` gS\ D;k vkius bl nkSjku le; d`ks ¥sd`j d`ksbZ d`fBukbZ eglwl d`h = ;fn gk∑] rks dS`ls vkius bld`k lkeuk fd`;k = Jh oSHo%pw∑fd` flfo¥ lsok d`h ^kjfEHd` o eq“; ijh”k ds` chp le; vUrjk¥ d`kœ`h d`e gksrk gS\ vr# le; ^cU|u ,d` egRoiw.Z pqukSrh gksrh gS\ vius iwoZ ^;klkÍ eÍ eq>s bl d`fBukbZ d`k lkeuk d`juk iÈMk ƒk\ vr# esjk ekuuk gS fd` flfo¥ lsok ^kjfEHd` ijh”k nsus ls iwoZ gh ,d` ckj eq“; ijh”k d`h rS;kjh d`j ¥suh pkfg,\

O;fDrxr fo'ks"rk,a
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^\ n\%^kjfEHd` ijh”k ds` le; vkid`h D;k ^kƒfed`rk,a jgÓ = ^kjfEHd` ijh”k d`h lVhd` rS;kjh ds` f¥, fd`u foæs" phtkÍ d`k ÷;ku j[k vkSj dS`ls vkius usxsfVo ekfdÛ`x d`k bld`k lkeuk fd`;k = Jh oSHo%^kjfEHd` ijh”k gsrq eßus lhfer iqLrd`kÍ d`k p;u fd`;k] ijUrq mud`k xgjkbZ ls v÷;;u fd`;k\ lkƒ gh foxr o"ksÛ ds` ^'u-i(kÍ d`ks T;knk-lsT;knk g¥ d`jus d`k ^;kl fd`;k\ ^\ n\%vkius eq“; ijh”k gsrq viuh j.uhfr eÍ D;k cn¥ko fd`, = Jh oSHo%eq>s eq“; ijh”k gsrq j.uhfr eÍ cn¥ko d`h d`ksbZ [kl vko';d`rk eglwl ugÓ gqbZ\ gk∑] ;fn fd`lh foæs" ”s( eÍ d`ksbZ d`eh eglwl gqbZ] rks mleÍ vko';d`rkuqÔi lq|kj d`j f¥,\ ^\ n\%vkius fucU| ds` f¥, D;k d`ksbZ foæs" rS;kjh d`h = vkius fd`l fo"; ij fucU| f¥[k ,oa ml fo"; d`ks gh pquus d`k D;k d`kj. ƒk = Jh oSHo%fucU| d`h rS;kjh gsrq eßus lekpkj-i(kÍ ds` lEiknd`h; o ekfld` i(if(d`kvkÍ d`k v÷;;u fd`;k ƒk\ eßus ‘vuqæklu d`k vƒZ gS lœ`¥rk o vjktd`rk d`k vƒZ foukæ gksrk gS’ fo"; ij fucU| f¥[k ƒk\’ eß bl fo"; ij vPNk fo'¥s". d`j ld`rk ƒk\ vr# eßus bl fo"; d`k pquko fd`;k\ ^\ n\%vkius lkekU; v÷;;u d`h rS;kjh ds` f¥, d`kSu-d`kSulh i(-if(d`kvkÍ ,oa iqLrd`kÍ d`k mi;ksx fd`;k =

Jh oSHo%lkekU; v÷;;u d`h rS;kjh ds` f¥, eßus NCERT d`h fd`rkckÍ] ^fr;ksfxrk niZ. ds` vfrfjDrkad` d`k v÷;;u fd`;k ƒk\ ^\ n\%lk”kRd`kj d`h rS;kjh vkius dS`ls d`h vkSj vkid`k lk”Rd`kj d`c vkSj fd`l cksMZ eÍ ƒk = lk”kRd`kj dS`lk jgk vkSj fd`rus le; p¥k ,oa D;k-D;k ^'u iwNs x, = Jh oSHo%pw∑fd` orZeku eÍ eß I.R.T.S. (IAS Allied) ds` ^fæ”. eÍ gw∑\ vr# bl o"Z eq>s lk”kRd`kj ds` f¥, foæs" rS;kjh d`k volj ugÓ fe¥k\ vr# eßus vius fe(kÍ ds` lkƒ gh ekWd` baVjO;w d`k xzqi fMLd`æu d`k lgkjk f¥;k\ ^\ n\%fd`l æSf”d` Lrj ij flfo¥ lsokvkÍ d`h rS;kjh ds` ckjs eÍ lkspuk æqÔ d`juk pkfg, = vkids` vuqlkj bl ijh”k d`h iw.Z rS;kjh eÍ fd`ruk le; ¥xuk pkfg, = Jh oSHo%lkekU; rkSj ij Lukrd` Lrj ij gh flfo¥ lsokvkÍ d`h rS;kjh ds` ckjs eÍ fuf'pr fu.Z; ¥s ¥suk pkfg,\ esjs vuqlkj ijh”k d`h iw.Z rS;kjh gsrq 1 ls 2 o"Z d`k le; i;kZIr gksrk gS\ ^\ n\%vkids` vuqlkj foKku vkSj ekufod`h fo";kÍ eÍ ls fd`l fo"; ds` lkƒ ^;kl T;knk lgh gS = ,slh dq`N vo|kj.k,a gß fd` ekufod`h fo";kÍ ls lœ`¥rk ,oa foKku fo";kÍ ds` lkƒ vis”kd~`r vf|d` vad` ^kIr fd`, tk ld`rs gß\ vkids` bl ckjs eÍ D;k fopkj gß = Jh oSHo%esjk ekuuk gS fd` :fpd`j fo";kÍ ds` lkƒ rS;kjh d`juh pkfg,\ ekufod`h ,oa foKku ds` fo";kÍ ls lEcfU|r mDr |kj.k,a feF;k gß o lHh fo";kÍ ls leku Ôi ls p;u gksrk gS\ ^\ n\%vkids` vuqlkj bl ijh”k eÍ fgUnh ek÷;e d`ks ¥sd`j rS;kjh ,oa lœ`¥rk ^kIr d`jus ds` ckjs eÍ D;k fopkj gß = Jh oSHo%flfo¥ lsok ijh”k eÍ vc ek÷;e d`ksbZ ck|k ugÓ jg xbZ gS ,oa fgUnh ek÷;e ds` fo»kfƒZ;kÍ d`k p;u ¥xkrkj cÈ<rk tk jgk gS o dq`N fo";kÍ d`ks NksÈMd`j ¥xHx lHh fo";kÍ eÍ fgUnh ek÷;e eÍ ^pqj lkexzh o xkbMÍl mi¥C| gS\ ^\ n\%D;k ifjokj d`h æSf”d`] vkfƒZd` vkSj tukafd`d`h; fLƒfr d`k ^Hko v÷;;u ij iÈMrk gS`= ;fn gk∑ rks dS`ls`= Jh oSHo%th gk∑] fuf'pr rkSj ij ;fn ifjokj d`h æSf”d`] vkfƒZd` vkSj tukafd`d`h; fLƒfr vuqdw`¥ gks] rks v÷;;u eÍ lqfo|k gksrh gS\ lkƒ gh fd`lh Hh ^frdw`¥ fLƒfr eÍ ifjokj ls lg;ksx fe¥rk gS] ijUrq lkƒ

gh O;fDrxr n~È<fu'p; o lad`Yi d`k Hh d`k D;k fd`lh Lrj ij mi;ksx fd`;k = vgeΩ ;ksxnku jgrk gS\ fiN¥s d`bZ o"ksÛ ls ijh”kfƒZ;kÍ us bUgÍ cgqr mi;ksx fd`;k gS vkSj ljkgk gS\ iqLrd`kÍ d`h lwph Jh oSHo%^kjfEHd` o eq“; ijh”k (List of Books) nksukÍ gh LrjkÍ ij eßus vfrfjDrkad`kÍ d`h lhfjt d`k mi;ksx fd`;k ƒk\ blls xq.^kjfEHd` o®kijd` lkexzh d`k HVd`ko lekIr gks Hkjrh; bfrgkl tkrk gS\ ● ^kphu Hkjr # ds`\ lh\ JhokLro] ^\ n\%‘^fr;ksfxrk niZ. okf"Zd`h’ NCERT, >k-Jhek¥h vkid`ks dS`lh ¥xh = ijh”k iwoZ vkius le● e÷;d`k¥hu Hkjr # NCERT, ,¥\ ih\ lkef;d`h ds` f¥, fd`ruk mi;ksxh ik;k = æekZ] lrhæ pUnzk blds` ^d`kæu d`k le;] bld`k vkd`kj ● vk|qfud` Hkjr # NCERT, ch\ ,¥\ xzksoj] fcfiu pUnzk ,oa bld`h lkexzh ds` ckjs eÍ fopkj O;Dr d`jÍ\ eq“; Jh oSHo%vPNk ^;kl gS\ o"ZHj d`h bfrgkl v»ru lkexzh ,d` txg mi¥C| gks tkrh ● ^kphu Hkjr%NCERT gS\ ^fr;ksxh œ`k¥rw d`h Hkx-nkSÈM ls cp ● e÷;d`k¥hu Hkjr%NCERT, ,¥\ ih\ tkrk gS\ æekZ ● vk|qfud` Hkjr%NCERT, fcfiu pUnzk ^\ n\%xq.o®k ds` iSekus ij ;fn 1 ● fo'o bfrgkl%tSu-ekƒqj ls 10 rd` vk∑dÍ` rks vki D;k Ld`ksj nsuk pkgÍxs = fgUnh lkfgR; Jh oSHo%‘^fr;ksfxrk niZ.’ ekfld` ● fgUnh lkfgR; d`k bfrgkl%MkW\ uxsUnz if(d`k—10 ^\ n\%flfo¥ lsok ijh”k d`h rS;kjh ‘^fr;ksfxrk niZ. vfrfjDrkad`’—10 gsrq ^fr;ksxh if(d`k,a fd`l ^d`kj mi;ksxh ‘^fr;ksfxrk niZ. okf"Zd`h’—8 gksrh gß = ^\ n\%vkid`h lœ`¥rk d`k ew¥ea( Jh oSHo%fuf'pr rkSj ij ^fr;ksxh D;k gS = if(d`k,a flfo¥ lsok d`h rS;kjh d`k Jh oSHo%Lokeh foosd`kuUn ds` d`ƒu] egRoiw.Z Hkx gß\ ^fr;ksfx;kÍ d`ks fujUrj ∏mBks] tkxks vkSj ¥{; ^kfIr ls ig¥s er v»ru ?VukvkÍ ls tksÈMs jgus ds` f¥, :d`ksπ d`ks gh eß viuh lœ`¥rk d`k ew¥bld`k d`ksbZ fod`Yi ugÓ gS\ ^\ n\%,d` ekud` dS`fj;j ,oa ea( ekurk gw∑\ ^\ n\%d`ksbZ lq>ko ;k lUnsæ vkxkeh ^fr;ksxh if(d`k eÍ xq.o®k ds` vk|kj ij D;k foæs" lkexzh ,oa lad`¥u d`h vis”k v˙;fƒZ;kÍ d`ks nsuk pkgÍxs = j[rs gß = Jh oSHo%fujUrj tqVs jgÍ] d`Hh fgEer u gkjÍ o gesæk ;kn j[Í% Jh oSHo%egRoiw.Z VkWfid`kÍ d`k lekosæ gksuk pkfg,\ rF;kRed` o fo'¥s".kRed` lsukuh d`jks `^;k. vH;] nksukÍ tkud`kfj;kÍ d`k lekosæ gksuk pkfg,\ Hkoh `bfrgkl rqEgkjk gS] xSj tÔjh vk∑d`ÈMkÍ d`k lad`¥u ugÓ gksuk ;s u[r æek ds` cq>rs gß] pkfg, ojuk blls ^fr;ksxh fnXHzfer gks lkjk vkd`kæ rqEgkjk gS\ ld`rs gß\ ^\ n\%vkids` mTTo¥ HfoÆ; ds` ^\ n\%gk¥ gh eÍ ^d`kfær ,d` f¥, gkfnZd` 'kqHd`keuk,a\ lEekuh; laLƒk }kjk fd`, x, losZ”. ds` Jh oSHo%th] cgqr-cgqr |U;okn\ vuqlkj æh"Z d`h 4 if(d`kvkÍ eÍ ls ,d` ,oa ●●● Hkjr eÍ lcls T;knk iÈ<h tkus ok¥h ^fr;ksfxrk if(d`k ‘^fr;ksfxrk niZ.’ d`ks æs" i~ÆB 682 d`k bu ekud`kÍ ds` fd`rus d`jhc ikrs gß = bld`ks vkSj vf|d` mi;ksxh cukus ds` f¥, Jherh pap¥%izfr;ksfxrk niZ. bl d`ksbZ lq>ko nsuk pkgÍxs = n~fÆV ls egRoiw.Z Lƒku j[rh gS\ ;g Jh oSHo%^fr;ksfxrk niZ. vius vki vius orZeku d`¥soj eÍ m®e gS\ eÍ cstksÈM if(d`k gS vkSj fgUnh ek÷;e ds` ^\ n\%lkekU; v÷;;u ,oa dq`N v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ds` f¥, ojnku LoÔi gS vkSj esjs ,sfPNd` fo";kÍ ds` vfrfjDrkad`kÍ d`h lhfjt ekud`kÍ ij d`kœ`h gn rd` [jh mrjrh gS\ d`k D;k fd`lh Lrj ij mi;ksx fd`;k= ^\ n\%lkekU; v÷;;u ,oa dq`N fiN¥s d`bZ o"ksÛ ls ijh”kfƒZ;kÍ us bud`k ,sfPNd` fo";kÍ ds` vfrfjDrkad`kÍ d`h lhfjt cgqr mi;ksx fd`;k vkSj ljkgk gS\ izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/685

Jherh pap¥%bu vfrfjDrkad`kÍ d`k iz;ksx eßus eq“; ijh{kk ds` nkSjku fd`;k] ftlds` d`kj. eß vius fo"; d`ks vf|d` fofo|rkiw.Z o fo'¥s".kRed` cukus eÍ lœ`¥ gqbZ\ ^\ n\%‘^fr;ksfxrk niZ. okf"Zd`h’ vkid`ks dS`lh ¥xh= ijh”k iwoZ vkius lelkef;d`h ds` f¥, fd`ruk mi;ksxh ik;k= blds` izd`kæu d`k le;] bld`k vkd`kj ,oa bld`h lkexzh ds` ckjs eÍ fopkj O;Dr d`jÍ\ Jherh pap¥%izfr;ksfxrk niZ. okf"Zd`h vR;f|d` mi;ksxh fl* gqbZ\ bld`h lgk;rk ls lHh lelkef;d` ?VukvkÍ ds` iquLeZj. eÍ lgk;rk fe¥h\ ^\ n\%vkid`h lœ`¥rk d`k ew¥ea( D;k gS= Jherh pap¥%lœ`¥rk ds` f¥, ¥xkrkj v÷;;u o fo";kÍ d`k oSKkfud` fo'¥s".kRed` v÷;;u] le; izcU|u vko';d` gS\ ^\ n\%d`ksbZ lq>ko ;k lansæ vkxkeh v˙;fƒZ;kÍ d`ks nsuk pkgÍxh= Jherh pap¥%v˙;fƒZ;kÍ ls d`guk pkgw∑xh fd` ¥{; ij utj j[Í] vlœ`¥rkvkÍ ls u ?cjk,a o v÷;;u d`ks fu;fer cuk, j[Í\
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æs" i~ÆB 680 d`k gLrkUrj. gksrk gS\ blls ;q* ;k nq?ZVukvkÍ eÍ gkƒ] iSj ;k vU; egRoiw.Z vax x∑ok pqds` ¥ksxkÍ d`ks gw-c-gw ck;ksfud` vax V_kalI¥kaV fd`, tkrs gß\ ck;ksfud` æjhj eÍ gksus ok¥h lHh jklk;fud`] tSfod` vkSj HkSfrd` f∂`;kvkÍ d`ks Î`f(e Ôi ls lkd`kj d`jus d`h bathfu;¯jx gS\ bu ck;ksfud` vaxkÍ eÍ lksukj] jsMkj] vYV_klkmaM vkSj d`EI;wVj lkbal d`h uohure rd`uhd`kÍ d`k Hh mi;ksx gksrk gS\ ck;ksfud` eSu ,d` rjg ls Î`f(e ekuo gksxk] ¥sfd`u mleÍ lHh vkarfjd` ,oa ckÌ] ekuoh; f∂`;k,a-^frf∂`;k,a gkÍxÓ\ fczfVæ d`Eiuh cdZ`¥s us csgn etcwr balkuh <k∑pk rS;kj fd`;k gS\ blls ig¥s oSKkfud` ck;ksfud` gkƒ] ck;ksfud` iSj ,oa ck;ksfud` vkbZ fod`flr d`j pqds` gß\ ,sls ck;ksfud` eSu eÍ] lkekU; O;fDr d`h rq¥uk eÍ vikj c¥ gksxk\ ck;ksfud` vax fcYdq`¥ ekuoh; vaxkÍ d`h rjg d`ke d`jrs gß vkSj fnekx ls lads`r xzg. d`jrs gß\
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og mixzg ftls fo'o ds` vU; NksVs N# mixzgkÍ ds` lkƒ 23 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks Hkjr }kjk ^”sfir fd`;k x;k\ % vkslulSV-2 ☛ iks¥j lSVs¥kbV ¥kWUp Oghd`¥ (PSLV-C14) d`ks Hkjr ds vkslulSV-2 (Oceansat-2) rƒk vU; fonsæh N# ¥?q mixzgkÍ ds` lkƒ Jhgfjd`ksVk ls 23 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks lœ`¥rkiwoZd` ^”sfir fd`;k gS\ vkslulSV-2 leqnz rƒk bld`k okrkoj. ij ^Hko d`k v÷;;u d`jsxk\ Hkjr d`k og ig¥oku ftlus flrEcj 2009 eÍ MsuekdZ` eÍ vk;ksftr fo'o dq`'rh pSfEi;ufæi eÍ d`kaL; ind` ^kIr fd`;k\ % jesæ dq`ekj ☛ gfj;k.k ds` js¥os eÍ d`k;ZjrΩ ig¥oku jesæ dq`ekj us gfuÛx ·MsuekdZ`‚ eÍ vk;ksftr fo'o dq`'rh pSfEi;ufæi eÍ 74 fd`xzk ≠`hLVkb¥ oxZ eÍ d`kaL; ind` thrus eÍ lœ`¥rk ^kIr d`h\ jesæ us 42 o"ksÛ ckn Hkjr d`ks bl ^d`kj d`h lœ`¥rk fn¥kbZ gS\ og Hkjrh; f∂`ds`V f[¥kÈMh ftls flrEcj 2009 eÍ fn, x, ds`LV_kW¥ vokMksÛ eÍ bafM;u f∂`ds`Vj vkWœ` n bZ;j 2008 d`k vokMZ ^kIr gqvk\ % xkSre xEHhj ☛ xkSre xEHhj us 2008 ds` ds`LV_kW¥ vokMksÛ eÍ bafM;u f∂`ds`Vj vkWœ` n bZ;j ·5 ¥k[‚ rƒk cSVΩlesu vkWœ` n bZ;j ·2 ¥k[‚ iqjLd`kj ^kIr fd`,\ vU; iqjLd`kjkÍ eÍ thoui;ZUr mi¥fC| ds` f¥, 5 ¥k[ d`k iqjLd`kj xqaMIik fo'oukƒ d`ks ^nku fd`;k x;k\ og ægj tgk∑ vkBok∑ ^oklh Hkjrh; fnol lEes¥u (2010) d`k vk;kstu ^Lrkfor gS\ % ubZ fnY¥h ☛ fonsækÍ eÍ jg jgs ^eq[ Hkjrh;kÍ d`k vkBok∑ ^oklh Hkjrh; fnol lEes¥u 7–9 tuojh] 2010 d`ks ubZ fnY¥h eÍ vk;ksftr fd`;k tk,xk\ 8 tuojh d`ks ^|kuea(h eueksgu ¯lg mnΩ?kVu rƒk 9 tuojh d`ks jkÆV_ifr Jherh ^frHk ikfV¥ lEes¥u d`k lekiu d`jÍxh\ og fœ`Ye ftlus flrEcj 2009 eÍ ?ksf"r 55oÍ jkÆV_h; fœ`Ye iqjLd`kjkÍ eÍ loZJsÆB œ`hpj fœ`Ye d`k iqjLd`kj ^kIr fd`;k gS\ % d`kaphojeΩ ☛ fo“;kr d`kaphojeΩ lkfÈM;kÍ ds` cqud`jkÍ d`h n;uh; fLƒfr ij cuh fœ`Ye ‘d`kaphojeΩ’ d`ks œ`hpj fœ`Ye Js.h eÍ loZJsÆB fœ`Ye ds` f¥, Lo.Z d`e¥ gsrq pquk x;k gS\ f^;næZu }kjk funsZfær ;g rfe¥ fœ`Ye eÍ Hwfed`k ds` f¥, ^d`kæ jkt d`ks loZJsÆB vfHusrk ds` iqjLd`kj ds` f¥, pquk x;k gS\ Hkjr d`k og fcf¥;MZlΩ f[¥kÈMh ftlus flrEcj 2009 eÍ fo'o isæsoj fcf¥;MZlΩ pSfEi;ufæi thrus eÍ lœ`¥rk ^kIr d`h\ % iad`t vkMok.h ☛ iad`t vkMok.h us flrEcj 2009 eÍ bax¥S≥M eÍ ¥hMΩl eÍ fo'o isæsoj fcf¥;MZlΩ pSfEi;ufæi thr ¥h\ xhr lsBh ds` ckn bl ^fr;ksfxrk d`ks thrus ok¥s og nwljs Hkjrh; gß\ iad`t vkMok.h d`ks vtqZu iqjLd`kj] jktho xka|h [s¥jRu iqjLd`kj rƒk inΩeJh (2009) ls lEekfur fd`;k tk pqd`k gS\ Hkjr d`k og eqDds`ckt ftlus flrEcj 2009 eÍ fo'o eqDds`ckth pSfEi;ufæi eÍ d`kaL; ind` thrk\ % fotÍnz ¯lg ☛ vks¥fEid` d`kaL; ind` fotsrk fotÍnz ¯lg us flrEcj 2009 eÍ bV¥h eÍ fe¥ku eÍ vk;ksftr fo'o ckW¯Dlx pSfEi;ufæi eÍ fefM¥osV oxZ eÍ d`kaL; ind` thrus eÍ lœ`¥ jgs\ fo'o pSfEi;ufæi eÍ ind` thrus ok¥s og ig¥s Hkjrh; gß\ Hkjr d`k og uxj tgk∑ flrEcj 2009 eÍ jkÆV_h; fcf¥;MZlΩ ,oa Luwd`j pSfEi;ufæi d`k vk;kstu fd`;k x;k\ % vkxjk ☛ 76oÓ usæu¥ fcf¥;MZlΩ ,oa Luwd`j pSfEi;ufæi d`k vk;kstu vkxjk eÍ fd`;k x;k\ bl vk;kstu eÍ iad`t vkMok.h] xhr lsBh lfgr nsæ ds` 190 f[¥kfÈM;kÍ us Hkx f¥;k\ Hkjr d`k og jkT; tgk∑ ;wjsfu;e [fut fud`k¥us d`ks ¥sd`j fookn cuk gqvk gS\ % es?k¥; ☛ es?k¥; eÍ 1984 eÍ [klh igkfÈM;kÍ eÍ lhek ds` lehi ¥xHx 9,500 Vu ;wjsfu;e [fut ds` H≥Mkj d`k irk p¥k ƒk\ ds`Unz ljd`kj us bls fud`k¥us ds` f¥, if'peh [klh ft¥s eÍ fd`¥sUx%fiUMÍxlksg¥kWUx ;wjsfu;e ^kstsDV (Kylleng-Pyndensohlong Uranium Project) rS;kj fd`;k gS ftld`k ogk∑ ,d` Nk( laxBu }kjk fojks| fd`;k tk jgk gS] ¥sfd`u ljd`kj bls d`k;kZfUor d`jus ds` f¥, n~È< lad`Yi gS\ Hkjr d`h og ckf¥d`k ftlus flrEcj 2009 eÍ vejhd`k eÍ vk;ksftr la;qDr jkÆV_ t¥ok;q ifjorZu lEes¥u d`ks fo'o ds` leLr cPpkÍ d`h vksj ls ^frfuf|Ro d`jrs gq, lEcksf|r fd`;k\ % ;qxjRuk JhokLro ☛ ¥[u˜ d`h 13 o"hZ; fd`æksjh ;qxjRuk JhokLro us la;qDr jkÆV_ t¥ok;q ifjorZu lEes¥u d`ks lEcksf|r fd`;k rƒk t¥ok;q ifjorZu ij Rofjr d`kjZokbZ d`jus d`k fuosnu fd`;k\ Hkjr ds` jktsUnz ipkSjh rƒk fonsæ ea(h ,l\,e\ Î`Æ.k us Hh lEes¥u d`ks lEcksf|r fd`;k\ t¥ok;q ifjorZu ij fnlEcj 2009 eÍ ,d` o~gnΩ lEes¥u vk;ksftr fd`;k tk jgk gS ftleÍ D;ksVks ^ksVksd`kW¥ tks 2012 eÍ lekIr gks jgk gS] ds` Lƒku ij ,d` ubZ t¥ok;q laf| ds` vfLrRo eÍ vkus d`h lEHkouk gS\ fo'o d`k og ig¥k pUnzek ij Hstk x;k mixzg ftlus ogk∑ ikuh gksus d`h iqfÆV flrEcj 2009 eÍ d`h\ % pUnz;ku-1 ☛ Hkjr fo'o d`k ig¥k ,slk nsæ cu x;k gS ftlds` ig¥s ewu feæu eÍ gh mls pUnzek ij ikuh [kstus d`k Js; fe¥k gS\ vDVwcj 2008 eÍ ^”sfir fd`, x, pUnz;ku-1 ij vejhd`k d`h ,tÍlh ‘uklk’ ds` ¥xs ,d` mid`j. ,e 3 (M 3) vƒkZrΩ ewu feujks¥kWth eSij 3 }kjk ,d`f(r fd`, x, vk∑d`ÈMkÍ ls oSKkfud`kÍ us ;g fuÆd`"Z fud`k¥k gS\ ikuh d`h ek(k feVΩVh ds` d`.kÍ eÍ vR;Ur vYi ek(k eÍ mifLƒr gS\

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og Lƒku tgk∑ th-20 nsækÍ d`h orZeku vkfƒZd` eanh ls mcjus ds` f¥, rhljh cSBd` flrEcj 2009 eÍ vk;ksftr d`h xbZ\ % fiVΩlcxZ ·vejhd`k‚ ☛ th-20 nsækÍ d`h fo'o vkfƒZd` eanh ls fuiVus ds` f¥, mik; [kstus ds` f¥, rhljk lEes¥u fiVΩlcxZ ·vejhd`k‚ eÍ flrEcj 2009 eÍ vk;ksftr fd`;k x;k\ blls iwoZ bl ^d`kj d`k ig¥k lEes¥u ok¯æxVu rƒk nwljk ¥anu eÍ lEiUu gks pqd`k gS\ bl lEes¥u eÍ ^|kuea(h eueksgu ¯lg us Hh Hkx f¥;k\ og ^fl* gkW¥hoqM vfHus(h tks flrEcj-vDVwcj 2009 eÍ ,d` fœ`Ye d`h æw¯Vx ds` f¥, Hkjr eÍ jgÓ\ % twf¥;k jkWcVZlΩ ☛ ,ds`Mseh vokMZ fotsrk gkW¥hoqM vfHus(h twf¥;k jkWcVZlΩ (Julia Roberts) us viuh ubZ ewoh ‘bZV] ^s] ¥o’ (Eat, Pray, Love) ds` f¥, Hkjr eÍ flrEcj-vDVwcj 2009 eÍ æw¯Vx d`h\ ;g fœ`Ye ,f¥tkcsƒ fxYcVZ d`h blh uke ls f¥f[r iqLrd` ij vk|kfjr gS] tks I;kj ,oa ækfUr d`h [kst eÍ bV¥h] Hkjr rƒk baMksusfæ;k xbZ ƒÓ\ twf¥;k jkWcVZlΩ fœ`Ye eÍ ,f¥tkcsƒ fxYcVZ d`h Hwfed`k fuHk jgh gS\ og nsæ tgk∑ ‘bClk’ (IBSA) ds` pkSƒs fæ[j lEes¥u d`k vk;kstu uoEcj 2009 eÍ ^Lrkfor gS\ % czkth¥ ☛ bafM;k] czkth¥ rƒk lkmƒ v≠`hd`k (IBSA) d`k pkSƒk fæ[j lEes¥u uoEcj 2009 eÍ czkth¥ eÍ ^Lrkfor gS\ bl lEes¥u eÍ vojks| eqDr O;kikj (Barrier-free trade) ij xEHhjrk ls fopkj fd`;k tk,xk\ ‘bClk’ d`k rhljk fæ[j lEes¥u luΩ 2008 eÍ ubZ fnY¥h eÍ vk;ksftr fd`;k x;k ƒk\ Hkjr d`k og Vsful f[¥kÈMh ftlus vius fonsæh f[¥kÈMh lkƒh ds` lkƒ fe¥d`j vejhd`h vksiu Vsful-2009 d`k ;qx¥ f[rkc thrk\ % f¥,aMj isl ☛ f¥,aMj isl rƒk pSd` x.jkT; ds` ¥qd`kl M¥ksgh d`h tksÈMh us flrEcj 2009 eÍ vejhd`h vksiu Vsful d`k ;qx¥ f[rkc thrk\ twu 2009 f¥,aMj isl rƒk ¥qd`kl M¥ksgh d`h tksÈMh us ≠`kalhlh vksiu d`k ;qx¥ f[rkc Hh thrk ƒk\ isl d`k ;g 10ok∑ xzk≥M L¥se ;qx¥ f[rkc gS\ rhu nsækÍ d`h flrEcj 2009 eÍ vk;ksftr og f∂`ds`V Δk~a[¥k ftleÍ ,d` eSp eÍ Hkjr ds` lfpu rÍnq¥d`j us ,d`fnolh; eSpkÍ eÍ viuk 44ok∑ ærd` cuk;k\ % d`kWEiSd` d`i f(d`ks.h; f∂`ds`V Δk~a[¥k ☛ Hkjr-U;wth¥S≥M-Jh¥ad`k ds` e÷; flrEcj 2009 eÍ [s¥h xbZ ,d`fnolh; eSpkÍ d`h d`kWEiSd` d`i f(d`ks.h; f∂`ds`V Δk~a[¥k d`k œ`kbu¥ eSp Hkjr o Jh¥ad`k ds` e÷; d`ks¥Ecks eÍ [s¥k x;k ftleÍ Hkjr fot;h jgk\ lfpu rÍnq¥d`j us œ`kbu¥ eSp eÍ 138 ju cukd`j viuk 44ok∑ ærd` iwjk fd`;k\ lfpu d`ks gh eSu vkWœ` n eSp rƒk eSu vkWœ` n lhfjÈt d`k iqjLd`kj Hh fe¥k\ flrEcj 2009 eÍ fnoaxr og vejhd`h Î`f" oSKkfud` ftUgÍ Hkjr eÍ vkbZ gfjr ∂`kfUr ds` f¥, Js; fn;k tkrk gS\ % MkW\ ukWjeu cksj¥kWx ☛ vejhd`h Î`f" oSKkfud` MkW\ ukWjeu cksj¥kWx }kjk xsgw∑ ds` vf|d` mit nsus ok¥s chtkÍ d`k fod`kl fd`;k ƒk ftuds` ^;ksx ls ,fæ;k rƒk ¥sfVu vejhd`k eÍ [k»kUu d`h d`eh d`ks nwj d`jus eÍ lœ`¥rk fe¥h\ Hkjr Hh muds` chtkÍ d`k ^;ksx d`jds` gfjr d`jus eÍ lœ`¥ jgk rƒk [k»kUu eÍ vkRefuHZjrk ^kIr d`h\ Hkjr us muds` bl ;ksxnku ds` f¥, mUgÍ luΩ 2006 eÍ inΩe foHw". nsd`j lEekfur fd`;k\ MkW\ cksj¥kWx d`ks 1970 eÍ uksc¥ iqjLd`kj nsd`j lEekfur fd`;k x;k\ og nsæ ftld`h lnL;rk jkÆV_e≥M¥ }kjk 1 flrEcj] 2009 ls fu¥fEcr d`j nh xbZ gS\ % fœ`th ☛ fœ`th eÍ fuokZfpr ljd`kj d`k lu 2006 eÍ r“rk i¥V d`j lsuk us l®k ij vf|d`kj d`j f¥;k ƒk\ jkÆV_e≥M¥ us ogk∑ iqu# pquko d`jkus ,oa ¥ksd`ra( d`h cgk¥h ds` f¥, psrkouh nsrs gq, fu¥Ecu d`h laLrqfr d`h ƒh\ ogk∑ d`h lSU; lefƒZr ≠ß`d` cSuhjke d`h ljd`kj }kjk fu;r le; lhek eÍ bl lanHZ eÍ d`ksbZ ^Hkoh ,oa ld`kjkRed` d`ne u mBkus ds` d`kj. jkÆV_e≥M¥ us 1 flrEcj] 2009 ls lnL;rk fu¥fEcr d`j nh\ og Hkjrh; fœ`Ye ftls bl o"Z fonsæh fœ`Ye oxZ eÍ vkWLd`j iqjLd`kjkÍ ds` f¥, vkf|d`kfjd` ^fofÆV gsrq p;fur fd`;k x;k gS\ % gfjæpUnzkph œS`DVjh ☛ nknk lkgc œ`kYds` }kjk ig¥h fœ`Ye ‘jktk gfjæpUnz’ ds` fuekZ. eÍ vkbÛ d`fBukb;kÍ ij vk|kfjr ejkBh fœ`Ye gfjæpUnzkph œS`DVjh (Harishchandrachi Factory) d`ks vkxkeh vkWLd`j iqjLd`kjkÍ ds` f¥, Hkjr d`h vkf|d`kfjd` ^fofÆV gsrq vkæk ikjh[ d`h v÷;”rk ok¥h twjh us pquk gS\ fœ`Ye ds` ¥s[d` ,oa funsZæd` ijsæ eksd`kæh (Paresh Mokashi) gß\ Lokal (2004) ds` ckn ;g nwljh ejkBh fœ`Ye gS ftls vkf|d`kfjd` Ôi ls pquk x;k gS\ nf”. v≠`hd`k d`h og ,ƒ¥hV ftlds` L(h ;k iq:" gksus d`ks ¥sd`j fookn cuk gqvk gS\ % d`kLVj lsesU;k ☛ nf”. v≠`hd`k d`h |kod` d`kLVj lsesU;k L(h ;k iq:" oxZ eÍ j[s tkus d`ks ¥sd`j fookn cuk gqvk gS\ d`kLVj lsesU;k (Caster Semenya) us cf¥Zu eÍ vxLr 2009 eÍ fo'o ,ƒ¥sfVd` pSfEi;ufæi eÍ 800 eh jsl eÍ Lo.Z ind` thrk ƒk\ lsesU;k ds` ¯¥x ijh”. d`h fjiksVZ vHh vkuh æs" gS\ os nks Hkjrh; O;fDr ftUgÍ phu ds` X¥ksc¥ VkbEl }kjk vk|qfud` phu ds` fuekZ. eÍ ;ksxnku nsus ok¥s fo'o ds` egkuΩ ¥ksxkÍ d`h lwph eÍ lfEef¥r fd`;k x;k gS\ % tokgj¥k¥ usgÔ rƒk jchUnzukƒ VSxksj ☛ phu d`h d`E;qfuLV ikVhZ ls lEc* ,d` lekpkj-i( X¥ksc¥ VkbEl }kjk ,sls 60 fonsæh O;fDr;kÍ d`h lwph tkjh d`h gS ftUgkÍus vk|qfud` phu ds` fuekZ. eÍ ;ksxnku fn;k gS\ lwph eÍ usgÔ d`k Lƒku 19ok∑ rƒk VSxksj d`k Lƒku 11ok∑ gS\ VSxkSj lwph eÍ ,d`ek( d`fo gS\ phu eÍ d`E;qfuLV vkUnks¥u d`h 60oÓ o"Zxk∑B 1 vDVwcj] 2009 d`ks eukbZ xbZ ftlds` mi¥{; eÍ ;g lwph tkjh d`h xbZ\
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izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/687

tkiku # pquko ifj.ke ds` fufgrkƒZ
tkiku eÍ vxLr 2009 ds` lalnh; pquko d`k ifj.ke vizR;kfær rƒk Hkjh m¥Vœs`j ok¥k fl* gqvk gS\ ;g rks pquko iwoZ ds` vuqekukÍ rƒk losZ{k.kÍ ls gh LiÆV gks x;k ƒk fd` tkiku eÍ dq`N u;k gksus tk jgk gS\ nsæ d`h turk l®k|kjh n¥ ds` usrkvkÍ ds` pkfjf(d` iru ,oa HzÆVkpkj d`ks vkSj vf|d` lgu d`jus ds` f¥, rS;kj ugÓ ƒh\ fo'o d`h nwljs uEcj d`h vƒZO;oLƒk ok¥k nsæ jktuhfrd` Ôi ls la;qDr jkT; vejhd`k ds` vuqpj ds` Ôi eÍ igpkuk tk,] ;g mlds` jkÆV_h; vgeΩ d`ks vkgr d`jrk ƒk\ oSf'od` vkfƒZd` lad`V d`h ekj rƒk eanh ls mRiUu csjkstxkjh us turk d`ks >d`>ksj d`j j[ fn;k ƒk\ ,d` fjiksVZ ds` vuqlkj] ‘‘xkSjr¥c gS fd` tkiku eÍ csjkstxkjh d`h nj fjd`kWMZ 5·7 izfrær ij igq∑p xbZ gS\ fiN¥s eghukÍ ds` vk∑d`ÈMkÍ ds` vuqlkj 3,59,000 tkikuh csjkstxkj ƒs\’’ gn rks rc gks xbZ tc pquko d`h iwoZ cs¥k eÍ tkiku ds` iz|kuea(h rkjks vlks ;g crkus ds` ctk; fd` mud`h ikVhZ csjkstxkjh rƒk xjhch d`h pqukSrh d`k lkeuk dS`ls d`jsxh] turk d`ks minsæ nsus ¥xs fd` xjhckÍ d`ks æknh ugÓ d`juh pkfg,\ bu ifjfLƒfr;kÍ eÍ nsæ ds` vUnj l®k|kjh n¥ fojks|h gok tksj id`ÈM jgh ƒh\ tkiku d`k ernkrk f¥cj¥ Mseksdzs`fVd` ikVhZ] ukSd`jækgkÍ rƒk cÈMs iw∑thifr;kÍ ds` cnuke xBtksÈM d`ks iqu# l®k ds` xf¥;kjkÍ eÍ ns[us ds` f¥, rS;kj ugÓ ƒk\ tkiku ds` ernkrkvkÍ d`h lksp d`k vuqeku ,d` ernkrk ds` bl d`ƒu ls ¥xk;k tk ld`rk gS%‘‘geÍ foi{kh n¥kÍ d`h uhfr;kÍ ls dq`N ¥suk-nsuk ugÓ gS] ge cl cn¥ko pkgrs gß\’’ Lo;a ,¥\ Mh\ ih\ ds` mik÷;{k ;ksæsfgns lqxk d`ks Lohd`kj d`juk iÈMk fd` vkt mud`h ikVhZ ftruh cnuke gS] mruh cnuke og 1955 ds` ckn vkSj d`Hh ugÓ jgh\ bl i~ÆBHwfe eÍ ;g rks r; ƒk fd` f¥cj¥ Mseksdzs`fVd` ikVhZ pquko gkjus tk jgh gS] fd`Urq mld`k ,d` rjg ls lwiÈMk ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/688 lkœ` gks tk,xk bld`h vkæk d`e ¥ksxkÍ d`ks gh ƒh\ fd`lh Hh n~fÆV ls fopkj fd`;k tk, Mseksdzs`fVd` ikVhZ vkWœ` tkiku us pquko eÍ vHwriwoZ lœ`¥rk izkIr d`h\ ;g lœ`¥rk bl n~fÆV ls vR;Ur egRoiw.Z gks tkrh gS fd` 2005 ds` lalnh; pquko eÍ d`ksbtqeks ds` d`fj'ekbZ usr~Ro ds` c¥ ij f¥cj¥ ikVhZ us Hkjh cgqer izkIr fd`;k ƒk\ bl ckj ifj.ke m¥V x;k\ Mseksdzs`fVd` ikVhZ us 480 lnL;kÍ ds` fup¥s lnu eÍ 308 lhV thrd`j ¥xHx nks-frgkbZ cgqer izkIr d`j f¥;k\ ;g vkækrhr lœ`¥rk ƒh\ ;fn 2005 eÍ f¥cj¥ ikVhZ d`h pqukoh lœ`¥rk d`k Js; ikVhZ ds` rRd`k¥hu usrk d`ksbtqeks d`ks x;k rks 2009 eÍ Mseksdzs`fVd` ikVhZ d`h lœ`¥rk d`k Js; mlds` usrk ;qfd`;ks gkrks;kek d`ks tkrk gS\ d`bZ jktuhfrd` i;Zos{kd` gkrks;kek d`ks d`fj'ekbZ usr~Ro d`h {kerk ds` f¥, d`ksbtqeks ds` led`{k ekurs gß\ ;qfd`;ks d`k tUe tkiku ds` ,d` izfrfÆBr jktuhfrd` ?jkus eÍ gqvk\ muds` firkeg bfpjks gkrks;kek f¥cj¥ Mseksdzs`fVd` ikVhZ ds` laLƒkid`kÍ eÍ ls ,d` ƒs rƒk iz|kuea(h ds` in d`ks Hh lqæksfHr d`j pq d s ` ƒs \ ;q f d`;ks us Hh viuk jktuhfrd` lœ`j f¥cj¥ ikVhZ ds` lnL; ds` Ôi eÍ gh vkjEH fd`;k ƒk\ 1990 rd` og bl ikVhZ ds` lkƒ tqÈMs jgs\ 1990 ds` næd` ds` vkjEH eÍ jktuhfrd` erHsn ds` p¥rs mUgkÍus rƒk f¥cj¥ ikVhZ ds` ,d` vU; izeq[ usrk bfpjks vkstkok us f¥cj¥ ikVhZ ls ukrk rksÈM f¥;k\ bu nks izeq[ usrkvkÍ ds` gVus ls l®k ij f¥cj¥ ikVhZ d`h ,d`kf|d`kfjd` id`ÈM d`etksj iÈMus ¥xh rƒk vYid`k¥ ds` f¥, og l®k ls ckgj gks xbZ\ f¥cj¥ ikVhZ d`ks NksÈMus ds` mijkUr ;qfd`;ks gkrks;kek us Mseksdsz`fVd` ikVhZ vkWœ` tkiku d`k xBu fd`;k rƒk muds` usr~Ro eÍ ikVhZ us 30 vxLr] 2009 ds` pquko eÍ ,sfrgkfld` lœ`¥rk izkIr d`h\ gkrks;kek d`h pqukoh lœ`¥rk d`k jkt turk d`h uCt igpkuus d`h mud`h {kerk

eÍ fNik gS\ ,d` tehuh usrk ds` Ôi eÍ og eglwl d`j jgs ƒs fd` turk cn¥ko pkgrh gS vkSj blf¥, mud`k pqukoh ukjk ƒk%‘‘cn¥ko ds` f¥, ernku d`jks\’’ bl ukjs us turk d`h okLrfod` bPNk d`ks vfHO;Dr d`j mld`h HkoukvkÍ d`ks >ad~`r d`jus d`k d`ke fd`;k rƒk mlus tksjnkj <ax ls cn¥ko ds` i{k eÍ ernku d`j Mseksdzs`fVd` ikVhZ d`ks væZ ij rƒk f¥cj¥ ikVhZ d`ks œ`æZ ij igq∑pk fn;k\ gkrks;kek d`ks viuh thr d`k iw.Z fo'okl ƒk rƒk pquko ls ig¥s vius d`k;Zd`rkZvkÍ d`ks lEcksf|r d`jrs gq, mUgkÍus d`gk ƒk%‘‘;g pquko ,sfrgkfld` cn¥ko ¥k,axs rƒk ubZ ihÈ<h nsæ ds` bfrgkl d`h ubZ bckjr f¥[sxh\’’ mud`h ;g HfoÆ;ok.h v{kjæ# lR; fl* gqbZ\ pquko ifj.ke vkus ds` mijkUr gkrks;kek us tkiku d`h turk d`ks ‘cn¥ko’ ds` f¥, ernku d`jus ds` f¥, |U;okn fn;k\ iz'u ;g mBrk gS fd` ftl ‘cn¥ko’ d`k ukjk gkrks;kek us fn;k rƒk ftls ernkrk us rgs-fn¥ ls Lohd`kj fd`;k mld`k rkRi;Z D;k gS= ;qfd`;ks gkrks;kek ds` vuqlkj ;g cn¥ko f(vk;keh gS\ loZizƒe rks ;g ifjorZu ds` f¥, LiÆV tuknsæ gS\ nwljs bld`k vƒZ gS fd` tkiku eÍ turk d`h izHql®k ds` lkj rRo d`ks cn¥k tk,\ bld`k vfHizk; ;g gS fd` ¥ksd` izæklu eÍ turk d`h lkƒZd` Hkxhnkjh gks\ rhljs] gkrks;kek ds` vuqlkj cn¥ko d`k rkRi;Z gS f¥cj¥ Mseksdzs`fVd` ikVhZ }kjk 50 o"Z ds` æklud`k¥ eÍ Lƒkfir cnuke O;oLƒk d`ks cn¥d`j ubZ O;oLƒk d`k;e d`h tk,\ ;g ubZ O;oLƒk muds` vuqlkj iqjkru rƒk uwru ds` laxe ds` Ôi eÍ gksxh\ bl f(vk;keh cn¥ko d`h tusPNk d`ks Bksl Ôi nsuk rƒk gd`hd`r eÍ cn¥uk d`ksbZ vklku d`ke ugÓ gS\ ftl jktuhfrd` n¥ d`ks ;g d`ke d`juk gS] og ,d` lqLƒkfir n¥ ugÓ gS\ Mseksdzs`fVd` ikVhZ vHh Hh fuekZ. d`h izfdz`;k ls xqtj jgh gS\ bruk gh ugÓ bl ikVhZ d`ks ljd`kj p¥kus d`k Hh d`ksbZ vuqHo ugÓ gS\ f¥cj¥ ikVhZ ds` usrk rkjks vlks us rks bl vuqHoghurk d`ks pqukoh eqˆk cukus d`k Hh vlœ`¥ iz;kl fd`;k\ vr# gkrks;kek d`ks ,d` lkƒ nks pqukSrhiw.Z d`k;ksÛ d`k lEiknu d`juk gS\ ig¥k d`k;Z gS viuh ikVhZ d`ks lgh vƒksÛ eÍ ikVhZ cukuk rƒk nwljk d`k;Z gS tkiku eÍ ,d` uwru jkT; O;oLƒk d`k fuekZ. d`juk\ nksukÍ gh pqukSfr;k∑ cgqr cÈMh gß] bl rF; ls gkrks;kek voxr gß\ uwru tkiku ds` fuekZ. ds` d`k;Z d`ks nwjnfæZrk d`k ifjp; nsrs gq, mUgkÍus nwljkÍ ls lg;ksx ¥srs gq, d`jus d`k fu.Z; f¥;k gS\ blf¥,

fup¥s lnu eÍ LiÆV Hkjh cgqer gksus ij Hh mUgkÍus xBcU|u ljd`kj cukus d`h ?ks".k d`h\ mUgkÍus d`gk fd`%‘‘nks-frgkbZ cgqer ds` ckn Hh og vke lgefr ds` vk|kj ij d`ke d`jus d`h d`ksfææ d`jÍxs\’’ gkrks ; kek ljd`kj d`k ,ts ≥ Mk vkS j izkƒfed`rk,a D;k gß] ;g Hh LiÆV gksrk tk jgk gS\ gkrks;kek ds` vuqlkj] ‘‘nqfu;k d`h uEcj nks vƒZO;oLƒk tkiku d`ks orZeku eÍ tkjh eanh ls cpk, j[uk gekjh lcls cÈMh pqukSrh gS\’’ bruh gh cÈMh pqukSrh fæ{kk rƒk jkstxkj d`h fLƒfr eÍ lq|kj d`juk gS\ f¥cj¥ ikVhZ d`h ljd`kjkÍ us tkiku d`ks la;qDr jkT; vejhd`k d`k vuqpj cukd`j j[ fn;k\ gkrks;kek tkikuvejhd`k lEcU|kÍ d`ks iqu# ifjHkf"r d`juk pkgrs gß\ ;g d`ksbZ vklku d`ke ugÓ gksxk\ bruk gh d`fBu d`ke gksxk phu-tkiku lEcU|kÍ d`ks u;k Bksl vk|kj iznku d`jus d`h viuh bPNk d`ks okLrfod`rk eÍ cn¥uk\ vfUre iz'u ;g gS fd` D;k bl cn¥ko d`ks] ftls dq`N jktuhfrd` i;Z os{kd`kÍ us ‘jktuhfrd` lqukeh’ d`k uke fn;k gS] dz`kfUr d`gk tk ld`rk gS= tokgj¥k¥ usgÔ fo'ofo»k¥; eÍ vUrjkZÆV_h; dw`Vuhfr ds` izksœs`lj iqÆisæ iar d`k LiÆV er gS%‘‘dz`kfUr ugÓ gS] tkiku eÍ ;g cn¥ko\’’ mud`k ekuuk gS% ‘‘njvl¥ tkiku eÍ jktuhfr gks] lekt gks ;k vƒZO;oLƒk] cqfu;knh cn¥ko ;k d`ksbZ ubZ æqÔvkr csgn eqf'd`¥ gS\’’ izksœs`lj iar ds` vuqlkj tkikuh pfj( gh ÔfÈ<;kÍ rƒk ijEijk ls fpids` jgus d`k gS\ ‘‘tkiku ijEijk d`k iqtkjh rƒk ifjorZu d`ks Vk¥us ok¥k gS\’’ rƒk ‘‘d`ÈMok lp ;g gS fd` tkikuh tuekul us mxz jkÆV_okn rƒk vgad`kjh uL¥okn d`ks d`Hh iwjh rjg [kfjt ugÓ fd`;k\’’ og ;g Hh d`grs gß fd` ‘‘vR;k|qfud` le>h tkus ok¥h tkikuh cgqjkÆV_h; d`Eifu;kÍ d`k d`kWiksZjsV d`Ypj Hh lkearh-leqjkbZ laLd`kj d`h uÓo ij gh fVd`k gS\’’ tkikuh tuekul eÍ fd`lh Hh izd`kj d`h dz`kfUrd`kfjrk ds` vHko d`ks js[kafd`r d`jus ds` lkƒ gh iqÆisæ iar ;g crkuk ugÓ Hw¥rs fd`%‘‘gkrks;kek d`k mu ewY;kÍ] fl*kUrkÍ ;k fopkjkÍ ls d`ksbZ cqfu;knh erHsn ugÓ gS] ftu ij vc rd` ogk∑ d`h ljd`kj d`ke d`j jgh ƒh\’’ vius blh fo'¥s". ls mUgkÍus fuÆd`"Z fud`k¥k fd` ‘‘dq`¥ fe¥kd`j vkæ; ;g gS fd` tkiku ds` gk¥ ds` pquko d`ks fd`lh dz`kfUrd`kjh cn¥ko ds` lw(ikr ds` Ôi eÍ ugÓ ns[k tk ld`rk\’’ izksœs`lj iar ds` fuÆd`"Z fd`l lhek rd` lR; gß] bld`k œS`l¥k vkus ok¥s fnukÍ eÍ tkiku d`k bfrgkl d`jsxk\ ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/689

vHh rks bruk gh d`gk tk ld`rk gS fd` tkiku eÍ ‘cn¥ko’ ds` uke ij l®k d`k gLrkUrj. 50 o"Z ds` nh?Zd`k¥ ds` mijkUr gqvk gS\ tkiku d`h turk ‘cn¥ko’ pkgrh

gS\ u;k ækld` oxZ ‘cn¥ko’ ¥kus ds` f¥, izfrc* gS\ cn¥ko D;k Ôi xzg. d`jrk gS%lrgh vƒok cqfu;knh] og vHh HfoÆ; ds` xHZ eÍ gS\

la;qDr jkT; vejhd`k # vœz`hd`h uhfr mlh iqjkuh ¥hd` ij
cjkd` vks c kek ds ` la ; q D r jkT; vejhd`k d`k jkÆV_ifr pqus tkus ij vœz`hd`k egk}hi d`h turk eÍ izlUurk d`h ¥gj nkSÈM xbZ ƒh\ mld`h izlUurk nks d`kj.kÍ ls ƒh\ ,d`] la;qDr jkT; vejhd`k ds` izƒe v'osr jkÆV_ifr d`h tÈMÍ vœz`hd`k egk}hi ls tqÈMh ƒÓ\ vr# egk}hi ij muds` f¥, ‘viuRo’ d`h Hkouk ekStwn ƒh\ nwljs] vœz`hd`k ds` usrk vkSj turk ;g vk'kk d`jrs ƒs fd` ifjorZu ds` ukjs ds` lkƒ l®k eÍ vk, vksckek vœz`hd`h jkÆV_kÍ ds` izfr iwoZxkeh jkÆV_ifr cqæ d`h opZLooknh uhfr d`ks Hh ifjofrZr d`jÍxs\ vœz`hd`k egk}hi ij cqæ izæklu d`h uhfr d`k lkj fuEu æCnkÍ eÍ O;Dr fd`;k tk ld`rk gS%‘‘vœz`hd`k ds` izkd~`frd` lalk|ukÍ d`k nksgu rƒk ogk∑ ij lSfud` vçkÍ d`h Lƒkiuk\’’ vius bl mˆs'; d`h iwfrZ ds` f¥, cqæ ljd`kj }kjk mBk;k x;k lcls egRoiw.Z d`ne ƒk%2007 eÍ ‘la;qDr jkT; vejhd`k-vœz`hd`k d`ekaM’ d`h Lƒkiuk\ vœz`hd`kWe d`h Lƒkiuk ds` ihNs tks mˆs'; d`ke d`j jgs ƒs] mUgÍ ÿkbV gkml ls tkjh fd`, x, ,d` oDrO; eÍ LiÆV fd`;k x;k ƒk\ ;g mˆs'; rhu ƒs%(i) egk}hi ij iztkra( d`ks c¥ iznku d`juk] (ii) vœz`hd`k ds` lkƒ la;qDr jkT; vejhd`k ds` lqj{kk lg;ksx d`ks lqn~È< d`juk rƒk (iii) vœz`hd`k egk}hi ij la;qDr jkT; ds` fe( jkT;kÍ d`h {kerkvkÍ d`ks vkxs cÈ<kuk\ ;g ?ksf"r mˆs'; gkƒh ds` fn[kus ds` nk∑r d`h rjg ƒs\ vl¥h mˆs'; ƒk vœz`hd`k ds` izkd~`frd` lalk|ukÍ d`k fu;U(.\ 2003 eÍ gh cqæ us ¥{; fu|kZfjr d`j f¥;k ƒk fd` la;qDr jkT; }kjk vk;kfrr rs¥ d`k 25% vœz`hd`k egk}hi ls izkIr d`juk gS\ jkÆV_ifr cuus ls iwoZ gh cjkd` vksckek vœz`hd`k d`ek≥M d`h uhfr d`ks Lohd`kj d`j pqds` ƒs\ mud`k ekuuk ƒk fd` ‘‘,slh ifjfLƒfr;k∑ vk,axh] tks ek∑x d`jÍxh fd` ?krd` æfDr ds` lkƒ vkrad` ds` fo:`* ;q* d`jus ds` f¥, vœz`hd`k egk}hi ij la;qDr jkT; vius lg;ksxh jkT;kÍ ds` lkƒ fe¥d`j d`ke d`js\ vœz`hd`k eÍ la?"Z d`jus ok¥h ,d`hd~`r d`ekaM ds` gksus ls bl d`ke eÍ lqfo|k gksxh\’’ bl rjg vksckek d`h utj eÍ vœz`hd`k-;w\ ,l\ d`ekaM ‘vkrad` ds` fo:* oSf'od` ;q*’ eÍ ,d` gfƒ;kj ds` Ôi eÍ gS\ ,slh fLƒfr eÍ d`ksbZ vk'p;Z ugÓ gS fd` vksckek-izæklu us vœz`hd`k d`ekaM ds` f¥, vkoafVr |ujkfæ d`ks cÈ<kd`j nksxquk d`j fn;k gS rƒk vœz`hd`k egk}hi ij p¥kbZ tk jgh vkrad` fojks|h ifj;kstuk ij [pZ d`h tk jgh |ujkfæ eÍ Hh o~f* d`j nh\ ;g d`ne bl n~fÆV ls foæs" egRo j[rk gS fd` bls ml le; mBk;k x;k] tcfd` fo'o ds` vU; HkxkÍ eÍ bu enkÍ ij fd`, tk jgs O;; eÍ la;qDr jkT; us Hkjh d`VkSrh d`h gS\ vœz`hd`k egk}hi ij la;qDr jkT; d`h fo®h; lgk;rk ls ¥kHkfUor gksus ok¥s jkT;kÍ eÍ izeq[ jkT; gß%bƒksfi;k] pkM rƒk Hwe÷;js[h; fxuh\ bu rhukÍ gh jkT;kÍ eÍ iztkra( ds` Lƒku ij loZl®koknh ljd`kjÍ d`ke d`j jgh gß\ ;g rF; la;qDr jkT; ds` ml nkos d`h iks¥ [ks¥ nsrk gS] ftlds` vuqlkj mld`k ¥{; egk}hi ij iztkra( d`ks etcwr d`juk gS\ pkM rƒk fxuh rs¥ mRiknd` jkÆV_ gß rƒk bƒksfi;k vius {ks( eÍ la;qDr jkT; ds` lSfud` larjh d`h Hwfed`k d`k fuoZgu fuÆBkiwoZd` d`j jgk gS\ tgk∑ rd` vkrad` ds` fo:* ;q* ls lEcfU|r ifj;kstukvkÍ d`k lEcU| gS] cjkd` vksckek d`h ljd`kj mu ij foæs" ÷;ku ns jgh gS\ pk¥w o"Z ds` ctV eÍ V_kal-lgkjk d`km≥Vj VsjfjTe ikVZujfæi rƒk bZLV vœz`hd`u LV_sVsftd` buhfl;sfVo uked` ifj;kstukvkÍ ds` f¥, 4 d`jksÈM 20 ¥k[ MkW¥j vkoafVr fd`, x, gß\ bueÍ izƒe ifj;kstuk d`gÓ vf|d` egRoiw.Z gS] mlds` ek÷;e ls la;qDr jkT; d`k tqÈMko pkM] ukbtj] ukbthfj;k] lsusx¥] ek¥h] V;wuhfæ;k] eksjDd`ks] vYthfj;k vkfn jkT;kÍ ds` lkƒ gksrk gS\ jkÆV_ifr vksckek us viuh vœz`hd`k egk}hi d`h ig¥h ;k(k ds` f¥, lksple>d`j ?kuk d`ks pquk\ ;g if'pe vœz`hd`k eÍ la;qDr jkT; d`h cÈ<rh :fp d`k lwpd` gS\ if'pe vœz`hd`h jkÆV_kÍ ij ÷;ku ds`fUnzr d`jus ds` nks eq“; d`kj. gß\ ,d`] vœz`hd`k egk}hi ij la;qDr jkT; d`h lSfud` xfrfof|;kÍ d`k lapk¥u eq“;r#

ftcwfr (Djibouti) ds` lSfud` vçs ls gksrk gS] tks blh {ks( eÍ gS rƒk nks] vf|d`kaæ if'pe vœz`hd`h jkÆV_ rs¥ mRiknd` ,oa fu;kZrd` jkÆV_ gß\ ?kuk eÍ Hh O;kolkf;d` iSekus ij rs¥ mRiknu vkjEH gks x;k gS\ la;qDr jkT; d`h rs¥ mRiknd` {ks( d`ks fu;U(. eÍ j[us d`h uhfr txtkfgj gS\ d`gus d`ks rks vksckek d`h ?kuk ;k(k d`k mˆs'; ‘‘lc-lgkjk vœz`hd`k eÍ vius lokZf|d` fo'oluh; fe( rƒk ikVZuj ds` lkƒ vejhd`k ds` fj'rkÍ d`ks etcwr d`juk gS\’’ fd`Urq okLrfod` mˆs'; vœz`hd`kWe d`k egk}hi ij eq“;k¥; Lƒkfir d`jus gsrq vçk rƒk mlds` lEes¥u ds` f¥, estcku jkÆV_ d`h r¥kæ d`juk rƒk ?kuk d`ks blds` f¥, rS;kj d`juk gS\ ;w\ ,l\-vœz`hd`h d`ekaM vHh rd` vœz`hd`k egk}hi ij ugÓ igq∑p ld`h gS] D;kÍfd` d`ksbZ Hh vœz`hd`h jkÆV_ mld`h estckuh ds` f¥, rS;kj ugÓ gqvk gS\ cqæ izæklu us Hjiwj iz;kl ukbthfj;k d`ks vœz`hd`kWe ds` lkƒ tksÈMus ds` f¥, fd`;k] fd`Urq lœ`¥ ugÓ gq,\ vœz`hd`k d`h jktuhfr ij utj j[us ok¥s i;Zos{kd`kÍ d`k ekuuk gS fd` vksckek d`h ?kuk ;k(k d`k mˆs'; ml jkÆV_ d`ks vœz`hd`kWe d`k fgLlk cuus ds` f¥, rS;kj d`juk gS\ lEHkouk ;gh gS fd` ?kuk eÍ

vksckek ds` iz;kl d`k ogh gJ gksxk] tks ukbthfj;k ds` lEcU| eÍ cqæ ds` iz;kl d`k gqvk\ ukbthfj;k d`h rjg ?kuk Hh xqVfujis{k vkUnks¥u d`k lnL; gS rƒk lSfud` xBcU|u ls nwj jguk xqVfujis{k vkUnks¥u d`k cqfu;knh fl*kUr gS\ ?kuk eÍ vius ,d` Hk". eÍ vksckek us nks Vw d ` æCnkÍ eÍ d`gk] ‘‘gekjk m®jnkf;Ro gS mud`k leƒZu d`juk] tks {ks( eÍ ftEesnkjkuk <ax ls d`ke d`jrs gß rƒk mud`ks v¥x-ƒ¥x d`juk] tks ,slk ugÓ d`jrs\ vejhd`k blh uhfr d`k gh ik¥u d`jsxk\’’ d`gus d`h tÔjr ugÓ fd` ;gk∑ ftEesnkjkuk <ax ls d`ke d`jus d`k rkRi;Z gS la;qDr jkT; vejhd`k d`h |qu ij ukpuk rƒk xSj-ftEesnkj vkpj. d`h ifjHk"k gS la;qDr jkT; vejhd`k d`k fojks|\ blh vk|kj ij bƒksfi;k d`k lSU;oknh-rkukækgh futke ftEesnkj d`h Js.h eÍ vkrk gS rƒk ftEckCos d`h iztkrkfU(d` ljd`kj ij xSj-ftEesnkj gksus d`k BIik ¥xk gS\ vksckek ljd`kj ftEckCos ds` fo:* izfrcU|kÍ d`ks tkjh j[ jgh gS\ blh rjg ekuoh;rk ds` uke ij lwMku ij ncko cuk;k tk jgk gS\ bl rjg vksckek d`h vœz`hd`h uhfr d`ks ubZ cksr¥ eÍ iqjkuh æjkc d`gk tk

ld`rk gS\ vœz`hd`k egk}hi ij og vius iwoZxkeh ds` uDæs-d`ne ij p¥ jgs gß\ og Hw¥ tkrs gß fd` vœz`hd`h turk mud`h opZLooknh uhfr d`ks viuh izHql®k ij ge¥k rƒk uomifuosæokn ds` Ôi eÍ ns[rh gS rƒk fd`lh Hh lwjr eÍ vœz`hd`kWe d`ks Lohd`kj ugÓ d`jsxh\ fojklr ds` Ôi eÍ cqæ d`h vœz`hd`k uhfr d`ks vaxhd`kj d`j vksckek ;g lqfuf'pr d`j jgs gß fd` bl egk}hi ij og mrus gh v¥ksd`fiz; gks tk,a] ftrus cqæ ƒs\ ●●●

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oSf'od` fo®h; lad`V ls (Lr fu|Zu nsæ

flrEcj 2008 eÍ la ; q â ` jkT; vejhd`k eÍ ^d`V gq, fo®h; lad`V d`h ¥iVkÍ d`h xehZ vc ¥xHx fo'o ds` lHh nsækÍ eÍ eglwl gksus ¥xh gS\ fo'o cßd` ds` Lrj ij oSf'od` lqLrh ds` foLr~r fo'¥s". ls ;qâ` tkjh ‘oSf'od` fod`kl fo® fjiksVZ – 2009 ds` ,d` vkd`¥u ds` vuqlkj fo'o ds` fu|Zu nsækÍ d`h vƒZO;oLƒkvkÍ d`ks oSf'od` eanh (Global Recession) ls ,d` fV_f¥;u MkW¥j ls Hh vf|d` d`h gkfu mBkuh iÈMsxh\ fo'o cßd` ds` vk∑d`ÈMs nækZrs gß fd` fo®h; lad`V ds` d`kj. fod`klæh¥ fo'o d`h vksj ekSfnzd` ^okg%fonsæh ^R;” fuosæ] iksVZœ`ksf¥;ks fuosæ] vuqnku ,oa lgk;rk vk|s ls Hh d`e jg x, gß\ la\ jk\ vejhd`k rƒk fczVsu d`h vƒZO;oLƒkvkÍ eÍ lq|kj ·mRƒku‚ ds` lads`r fe¥us ds` ckotwn vUrjkZÆV_h; iw∑th ds` vHko ds` p¥rs fo'o ds` fu|Zu nsæ vis”kÎ`r ¥Ech vof| rd` vkfƒZd` eanh eÍ œ∑`ls jgÍxs] D;kÍfd` bu nsækÍ d`h ljd`kjkÍ] lkoZtfud` ,oa futh d`Eifu;kÍ ds` ikl fuosæ gsrq okafNr lalk|u gh ugÓ gkÍxs\ oSf'od` lqLrh d`k lokZf|d` ^frdw`¥ ^Hko v≠`hd`h] ds`Unzh; ,oa iwohZ ;wjksih; rƒk ¥kfru vejhd`h nsækÍ ij iÈM jgk gS\ rsth ls fod`flr gks jgh vƒZO;oLƒkvkÍ tSlsfd` phu rƒk Hkjr ij oSf'od` eanh d`k ^Hko vis”kÎ`r dq`N d`e ld`¥ ?js¥w mRikn eÍ fxjkoV gS\ bu nksukÍ nsækÍ d`h fod`kl nj vHh Hh lexz Ôi ls oSf'od` ld`¥ ?js¥w 6·5 ^frær ls ˜ij cus jguk bud`h mRikn ds` o"Z 2009 eÍ ?Vd`j 2·9 ^frær vkfƒZd` lqn~È<rk d`k ^rhd` gS\ jg tkus d`h lEHkouk gS rƒk fo'o O;kikj

eÍ 10 ^frær rd` d`h d`eh vk ld`rh gS\ ;wjksi rƒk ds`Unzh; ,fæ;k eÍ ld`¥ ?js¥w mRikn eÍ 5 ^frærkad` rd` d`h d`eh vk,xh\ ;fn vkus ok¥s fnukÍ eÍ vƒZO;oLƒkvkÍ eÍ dq`N mRƒku gksrk gS] rks o"Z 2010 eÍ ld`¥ ?js¥w mRikn d`h fod`kl nj 1·6 ds` Lrj  MkW\ ';ke lqUnj ¯lg pkSgku ij fLƒj gks lds`xh\ mi–lgkjk ”s( eÍ fod`kl nj gkf¥;k o"ksÛ eÍ 5·7 ^frær ds` Lrj ij jgus ds` ckn o"Z 2009 eÍ ek( opuc*rk,a iwjh ugÓ d`j ik,\ bl ckjs eÍ fo'o cßd` ds` le~f* lewg (Prospects oSf'od` fo®h; lad`V ds` f¥, Group) ds` funsæd` gßl fVej d`h fVIi.h m®jnk;h d`kj. vius vki eÍ d`kœ`h egRoiw.Z gS\ ∏vfLƒjrk ☛ iquHqZxrku ”erk ds` vkd`¥u ds` fcuk d`h fd`lh nwljh ¥gj d`ks jksd`us ds` f¥, cÈMs iSekus ij m|kj nsuk\ uhfr;kÍ d`ks Rofjr Ôi ls fo®h; ”s(d` ☛ d`etksj fuosæ fu.Z;u\ lq|kjkÍ ,oa fu|Zure nsækÍ d`h lgk;rk ij ☛ uhph okLrfod` C;kt njkÍ ,oa i;kZIr ds`fUnzr gksuk pkfg,π rj¥rk ds` ckjs eÍ vfr fo'okl rƒk fo'o cßd` ds` vkd`¥u ds` vuqlkj lq[kHkl\ luΩ 2009 eÍ fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`h fod`kl ☛ fofu;ked` vlœ`¥rk,a\ nj 1·2 ^frær jgus d`k vuqeku gS] ☛ cßd` ^æklu d`h nqcZ¥rk,a\ tcfd` bu nsækÍ d`h fod`kl nj o"Z 2007 ☛ c~grΩ vkfƒZd` vlUrq¥u\ ,oa 2008 eÍ ∂`eæ# 8 ^frær ,oa 5·9 ^frær jgh] ¥sfd`u ;fn fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ oSf'od` fo®h; lad`V ls fuiVus ds` oxZ ls Hkjr rƒk phu d`ks ckgj d`j ds` f¥, fod`flr ,oa fod`klæh¥ fn;k tkrk gS] rks o"Z 2008 eÍ æs" fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`h fod`kl nj 6 ^frær nsækÍ d`h ^kƒfed`rk,a ;k ^fr O;fâ` vk; ds` Ôi eÍ 0·6 ^frær ☛ ?js¥w m|kj nsus d`h ^f∂`;k rƒk iw∑th jg tkrh gS ] ftlds ` ifj.keLoÔi ds` vUrjkZÆV_h; ^okg d`ks tkjh j[us fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ eÍ cÈMs iSekus ij jkstxkj d`k G–20 lewg d`k vk'oklu\ voljkÍ eÍ Ökl rƒk cgqr cÈMh la“;k eÍ ☛ mHjrh cktkjh vƒZO;oLƒkvkÍ ds` ¥ksxkÍ ds` fu|Zurk ed`ÈMtk¥ eÍ œ∑`l tkus lE^Hq ,oa fuxfer m|kj ¥sus ok¥kÍ d`h ckÌ fo®h; vko';d`rkvkÍ d`ks d`h vkæad`k gS\ lEHor# foxr nks næd`kÍ iwjk d`juk\ eÍ ,slk ig¥h ckj gks jgk gS] tcfd` fujis” ,oa lkis” nksukÍ gh Ôi ls fu|Zurk ☛ fu|Zu nsækÍ d`ks lgk;rk rƒk lgL(kCnh fod`kl ¥{;kÍ (MDGs) ds` ^lkj eÍ o~f* gks jgh gS tks lh|s–lh|s d`ks iwjk d`jus ls tqÈMh opuc*rkvkÍ oSf'od` lqLrh d`k ifj.ke gS\
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fuosæ ^okgkÍ eÍ Hkjh fxjkoV
oSf'od` eanh ds` nkSjku okLrfod` ld`¥ ?js¥w mRikn d`h okf"Zd` lao~f* nj oSf'od` fod`kl fo® fjiksVZ–2009 ds` ·^frær eÍ ∂`;æfâ` lerk ij vk|kfjr‚ vuqlkj fu|Zu nsækÍ d`ks fuo¥ futh iw∑th 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 ^okg o"Z 2007 eÍ 1·2 fV_f¥;u MkW¥j ls 41 ^frær ?Vd`j o"Z 2008 eÍ 0·707 la;qâ` jkT; vejhd`k 2·0 1·0 – 3·0 1·8 2·5 fV_f¥;u MkW¥j gh jg x;k\ fjiksVZ ds` tkiku 2·3 – 0·7 – 6·8 1·0 2·0 vuqlkj o"Z 2009 eÍ ;g ^okg 0·363 phu 13·0 9·0 6·5 7·5 8·5 fV_f¥;u MkW¥j gh jg tk,xk\ fod`flr Hkjr 9·0 6·1 5·1 8·0 8·5 nsækÍ }kjk fu|Zu nsækÍ d`ks fn, tk jgs vuqnku nf”. v≠`hd`k 5·1 3·1 – 1·5 2·6 4·1 rƒk vkfƒZd` lgk;rk jkfæ;k∑ futh iw∑th czkth¥ 5·7 5·1 – 1·1 2·5 4·1 fuosæ eÍ gks jgh d`eh d`h HjikbZ ugÓ d`j esfDld`ks 3·3 1·4 – 5·8 1·7 3·0 ik,axh\ th–8 nsækÍ ds` nks nsækÍ% ≠`kal rƒk Ôlh ifjla? 8·1 5·6 – 7·5 2·5 3·0 bV¥h d`ks bl ckr ds` f¥, Hkjh vk¥kspuk fo'o 3·8 1·9 – 2·9 2·0 3·2 d`k lkeuk d`ju iÈMk gS fd` fu|Zu nsækÍ d`ks lgk;rk fn, tkus ds` eke¥s `eÍ os viuh lzksr% fo'o cßd` # oSf'od` fod`kl fo® fjiksVZ – 2009 ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/691

1·0 ^frær ij jg tk,xh] D;kÍfd` bu nsækÍ ds` fonsækÍ eÍ d`k;Zjr Jfed`kÍ }kjk Lonsæ Hsts tkus ok¥s vUrj.kÍ ,oa fonsæh ^R;” fuosæ vUr^zZokgkÍ eÍ Hkjh fxjkoV vk,xh\ ,fæ;k eÍ oSf'od` eanh d`k lcls ?krd` ^Hko ƒkb¥S≥M ij iÈMk gS tgk∑ 2008 ds` vfUre (Sekl eÍ ld`¥ ?js¥w mRikn eÍ 20 ^frær ls vf|d` d`h fxjkoV ntZ d`h xbZ gS\ bl fjiksVZ ds` ¥s[d`kÍ eÍ ls ,d` ealwj nS¥keh d`k rks ;gk∑ rd` d`guk gS fd` geÍ ;g le> ¥suk pkfg, fd` bl tSlk lad`V blls ig¥s Hh iSnk gh ugÓ gqvk\

oSf'od` fo®h; lad`V d`k mnΩxe (Origin)
fo®h; cktkjkÍ ds` |jkæk;h gksus rƒk oSf'od` eanh d`k ew¥ (Origin) 2003–04 d`h rsth
(Boom) eÍ Nqik gS\ 2003–04 d`h rsth ☛ vkSlr oSf'od`

ds` rRo% fod`kl nj%5·0 ^frær ·1970 ds` næd` ds` ckn ls lokZf|d` iks".h;

oSf'od` eanh rƒk vkS»ksfxd` mRiknu
oSf'od` eanh d`k ^Hko vc fofuekZ.h ”s(d` rƒk muds` oSf'od` O;kikj ij Hh iÈMus ¥xk gS\ 2008 ds` vfUre (Sekl eÍ oSf'od` vkS»ksfxd` mRiknu eÍ v^R;kfær Ôi ls 5 ^frær d`h fxjkoV ntZ d`h xbZ\ ·okf"Zd` Ôi ls 21 ^frær d`h fxjkoV‚ mPp vk; nsækÍ eÍ 2009 ds` ig¥s (Sekl ·tuojh–ekpZ 2009‚ eÍ vkS»ksfxd` mRiknu fiN¥s o"Z d`h blh vof| d`h rq¥uk eÍ 17·3 ^frær rƒk fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ eÍ 2·3 ^frær d`e gks x;k\ iw∑thxr oLrqvkÍ d`k mRiknu d`jus ok¥s fo'o ds` nsækÍ eÍ ls tkiku eÍ vkS»ksfxd` mRiknu ekpZ 08 ds` eqd`kc¥s ekpZ 2009 eÍ 34 ^frær] teZuh eÍ 22 ^frær rƒk nf”. d`ksfj;k eÍ 12 ^frær rd` uhsps fxj x;k\

fonsæh ^R;” fuosæ eÍ Hkjh fxjkoV
fo'o cßd` d`h vkæad`k gS fd` o"Z fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ eÍ fonsæh ^R;” fuosæ eÍ 30 ^frær d`h fxjkoV ls ;g 385 fcf¥;u MkW¥j ds` Lrj ij vk tk,xk] tks ld`¥ ?js¥w mRikn eÍ 1 ^frær rd` d`h fxjkoV ¥k,xk\ luΩ 1986 d`h rq¥uk eÍ fonsæh ^R;” fuosæ eÍ ;g fxjkoV 10 ^frær ds` ¥xHx gksxh\ ,slk gksus d`k ^eq[ d`kj. cgqjkÆV_h; d`Eifu;kÍ }kjk fonsæh ^R;” fuosæ d`h fLƒfr eÍ cÈMs iSekus ij Lƒk;h rƒk vrj¥ vkfLr;kÍ eÍ fuosæ d`juk gS] fd`Urq vkfƒZd` lad`V d`h fLƒfr eÍ blds` fofuosæ d`jus eÍ d`fBukbZ gksuk LokHkfod` gS\ o"Z 2008 eÍ lao~f* nj eÍ oSf'od` fxjkoV ls ¥xHx lHh cgqjkÆV_h; d`Eifu;kÍ d`h ¥kH^nrk eÍ d`eh vkbZ gS] ogÓ d`Bksj lk[ nækvkÍ rƒk d`etksj oSf'od` ek∑x us foLrkj d`jus d`h cgqjkÆV_h; d`Eifu;kÍ d`h ”erk rƒk bPNk nksukÍ d`ks gh lhfer d`j fn;k gS\ oSf'od` Lrj ij oLrqvkÍ d`h d`herkÍ eÍ gks jgh fxjkoV us fonsæh ^R;” fuosæ ^okg d`ks grksRlkfgr fd`;k gS\ ˜tkZ ”s( d`h vusd` d`Eifu;kÍ us viuh fuosæ ;kstukvkÍ d`ks Lƒfxr d`j fn;k gS\ `oSf'od`
2009 eÍ

nj‚ bfDoVh d`herkÍ ,oa oLrqvkÍ d`h d`herkÍ eÍ rsth d`k nkSj\ tksf[e jfgr C;kt njkÍ eÍ Hkjh fxjkoV%la;qâ` jkT; vejhd`k eÍ œs`Mj¥ d`ks" d`h nj 2001 eÍ 6 ^frær ls ?Vd`j 2003 ds` e÷; eÍ 1 ^frær ds` Lrj ij vk xbZ\ ☛ vf|d` tksf[e;qâ` vkfLr;kÍ d`h ek∑x eÍ o~f*\ ☛ fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ ds` iw∑th ^okg eÍ fjd`kWMZ Lrj d`h o~f*\ ☛ mHjrs–cktkj ckW≥MkÍ ij œS`¥ko fldq`ÈMrk x;k\ ☛ vfHjf”r mid`j.kÍ ,oa lajpuk;qâ` (Structured) fo®h; mRiknkÍ lfgr fo®h;u vfHuohd`j. fo®h; lad`V d`h mRif® ds` vU; d`kjd`% ☛ fofu;ked` laLƒkvkÍ ds` lad`V d`ks le>us eÍ vlœ`¥rk\ ☛ ‘Nk;k c߯d`x ^.k¥h’ (Shadow Banking System). ☛ cßd`kÍ ds` Lo;a ds` ewY;kad`ukÍ ij fofu;ksxd`kÍ d`h vfrfuHZjrk\ fo®h; lad`V d`k ^kjEH% ☛ la;qâ` jkT; vejhd`k ds` vkokl ”s( eÍ oSf'od` vkfLr d`herkÍ eÍ o~f* ·la;qâ`` jkT; vejhd`k d`k vkokl d`her lwpd`kad` o"Z 2000 ds` ig¥s (Sekl ls o"Z 2006 ds` nwljs (Sekl d`h vof| eÍ nksxquk gks x;k\‚ ☛ 2006 eÍ vkoklh; vkfLr;kÍ d`h d`herkÍ eÍ fxjkoV d`k nkSj ^kjEH\ ☛ vkoklh; vkfLr;kÍ ds` Lokeh )`.nkrkvkÍ }kjk )`. u pqd`k;k tkuk\ ☛ cÈMs iSekus ij vkoklh; vkfLr;kÍ d`h ?Vh d`herkÍ ij fc∂`h\ ☛ vkoklh; vkfLr;kÍ d`h d`herÍ loksZPp Lrj ls fxjd`j ,d`-frgkbZ Lrj ij vk xbÛ\ ☛ la;qâ` jkT; vejhd`k] ;w\ ds`\] teZuh] ≠`kal] uhnj¥S≥M] vkLV_sf¥;k ,oa d`ukMk ds` vusd` fo®h; laLƒkukÍ d`ks la;qâ` jkT; vejhd`k d`h lc–^kbe vkfLr;kÍ eÍ Hkjh gkfu\ ☛ ekftZu ek∑x d`ks iwjk d`jus ds` f¥, fo®h; laLƒkukÍ }kjk vkfLr;kÍ d`h |ÈMk|ÈM fc∂`h\ ☛ ?kVs d`ks iwjk d`jus rƒk ¥xkrkj fxjrs iw∑th vuqikrkÍ d`ks cuk, j[us ds` f¥, cßd`kÍ }kjk vkfLr;kÍ d`h fc∂`h\ ☛ cßd`kÍ d`k fnokf¥;k gks tkuk\
☛ ☛

fuosæd` ^k;# fod`flr ,oa fod`klæh¥ ☛ vUrjkZÆV_h; fo®h; fofu;ked` <k∑ps eÍ nsækÍ eÍ jkÆV_h;d`j. d`h uhfr;kÍ d`ks ¥sd`j cÈMs iSekus ij lq|kj ¥k, tkus d`h Hh vkæafd`r gS\ vko';d`rk gS\

oSf'od` fo®h; lad`V ds` ifj.ke

fod`klæh¥ ,oa fu|Zu nsækÍ ij la”si eÍ oSf'od` lad`V fuEuf¥f[r fo®h; lad`V d`k ^Hko
la;qâ` jkT; vejhd`k rƒk vU; fod`flr nsækÍ eÍ eglwl fd`, x, fo®h; lad`V ds` ^kjfEHd` nkSj eÍ rsth ls mHjrh vusd` vƒZO;oLƒkvkÍ tSlsfd` phu rƒk Hkjr us fuEuf¥f[r d`kjd`kÍ/mik;kÍ d`h lgk;rk ls Lo;a d`ks bl lad`V ls cpus eÍ lœ`¥rk ^kIr d`h\ ☛ fonsæh d`jÍlh m|kj d`ks lhfer d`jus ok¥h mUur uhfr;kÍ d`k d`k;kZUo;u« ☛ Lƒkuh; ckW≥M cktkjkÍ ds` fod`kl d`ks ^ksRlkgu« ☛ eqnzkLœ`hfr d`h nj eÍ d`eh« ☛ jktd`ks"h; ?kVs eÍ d`eh« ☛ fonsæh fofue; ^kjf”r fuf|;kÍ eÍ o~f*\ æs" i~ÆB 694 ij

ÔikÍ eÍ ifj¥f”r gqvk gS% ☛ fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ eÍ d`k;Zjr fuxe xEHhj fo®h; d`fBukb;kÍ d`k lkeuk d`j jgs gß« ☛ cÈMs iSekus ij ckÌ fo®h;u vko';d`rkvkÍ ij fuHZj nsæ Hqxrku lUrq¥u leL;k d`k lkeuk d`j jgs gß\ ☛ uhph vk; ok¥s nsækÍ ds` ikl fo®h; lad`V ls fuiVus ¥k;d` lalk|u gh ugÓ gß\ ☛ foLrkjoknh uhfr;kÍ gsrq lEHkO;rk fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ eÍ egRoiw.Z <ax ls v¥x–v¥x gS\ ☛ oSf'od` lqLrh ls ckgj fud`¥us ds` f¥, vUrjkZÆV_h; uhfr leUo; d`h Hwfed`k vfr egRoiw.Z gksxh\

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/692

vkfƒZd` ¥s[

[k» inkƒksÛ d`h cÈ<rh d`herÍ] lw[k vkSj lekosæh fod`kl
vi.kZ Hkj}kt ;kstukd`k¥ ds` ig¥s rhu næd`kÍ ds` nkSjku jkÆV_h; vk; d`h ‘fgUnw fod`kl nj’ ·^ks\ jkt Î`Æ.k d`h vo|kj.k‚ ds` ckn] 80 ds` næd` d`h ‘lsD;w¥j fod`kl nj’ vkSj foxr nks næd`kÍ ds` nkSjku ntZ d`h xbZ\ mPp fod`kl nj ds` lkƒ Hkjrh; vƒZO;oLƒk vkt fo'o d`h rsth ls fod`flr gks jgh vƒZO;oLƒkvkÍ eÍ ls ,d` gS\ lexz Ôi ls Hkjrh; vƒZO;oLƒk d`h lqn~È<rk blh rF; ls ^ekf.r gks tkrh gS fd` o"Z 2008 vkSj vc 2009 eÍ] tgk∑ fo'o d`h vusd` fod`flr-fod`klæh¥ vƒZO;oLƒk,a] la;qDr jkT; vejhd`k tfur ,sfrgkfld` eanh d`k fæd`kj gksd`j vfr uhph ;k )`.kRed` fod`kl nj ntZ d`j jgh gß ] ogÓ Hkjrh; vƒZ O ;oLƒk eÍ o"Z 2008-09 eÍ 6 ^frær ls vf|d` d`h fod`kl nj ntZ d`h xbZ gS\ bruk gh ugÓ] o"Z 2009-10 d`h nwljh frekbZ eÍ fofuekZ.h ”s(d` us tks mRlkgo*Zd` ifj.ke fn, gß] mlls vƒZO;oLƒk ds` fœ`j ls mPp fod`kl nj d`h iVjh ij vkus d`h lEHkouk,a ^c¥ gks xbZ gß] ¥sfd`u vc vf|Î`r rkSj ij ljd`kj] fu;kstud`rkZvkÍ] uhfr-fuekZrkvkÍ rƒk vƒZækfL(;kÍ us Lohd`kj d`j f¥;k gS fd` Hkjr d`k fod`kl fd`lh Hh ^kp¥ ds` vk|kj ij lekosæh ugÓ gS\ mPp fod`kl nj d`k ¥kH ‘Vid`u ^Hko fl*kUr’ ds` vuqlkj lekt ds` lcls fup¥s ik;nku ij cSBs ¥ksxkÍ rd` ugÓ igq∑p ld`k gS\ gS\ ljd`kjh ;k xSj-ljd`kjh vk∑d`ÈMs] tks d`gÍ] bleÍ d`ksbZ lUnsg ugÓ gS fd` Hkjrh; lekt ds` ,d` cÈMs oxZ d`h cqfu;knh lqfo|kvkÍ rd` igq∑p vfr lhfer gS\

[k»kUukÍ d`h d`eh rƒk [k» inkƒksÛ d`h d`herkÍ eÍ o~f* rƒk lw[k

oSf'od` ,oa ?js¥w nksukÍ gh LrjkÍ ij d`her ^o~f®;kÍ eÍ ,d` fojks|kHkl ns[us d`ks fe¥ jgk gS\ o"Z 2008-09 ds` ^ƒe (Sekl eÍ ntZ d`h xbZ eqnzkLœ`hfr d`h ˜∑ph nj Hkjr eÍ lekIr gks xbZ gS\ twu 2009 eÍ ƒksd` ewY; lwpd`kad` vk|kfjr eqnzk Lœ`hfr d`h nj )`.kRed` (–) 1·73 ds` fup¥s Lrj ij igq∑p xbZ] ¥sfd`u blds` Bhd` foijhr miHksDrk ewY; lwpd`kad`kÍ ·xzkeh. Jfed`kÍ ds` f¥, miHksDrk ewY; lwpd`kad`] Î`f" Jfed`kÍ ds` f¥, miHksDrk ewY; lwpd`kad`] vkS»ksfxd` Jfed`kÍ ds` f¥, miHksDrk ewY; lwpd`kad` rƒk ægjh xSjækjhfjd` Je d`kexkjkÍ ds` f¥, miHksDrk ewY; lwpd`kad`‚ ij vk|kfjr eqnzkLœ`hfr d`h nj 8–10 ^frær ds` chp cuh gqbZ gS\ [k» inkƒksÛ%vuktkÍ ·xsgw∑] pko¥] eDd`k] cktjk] nk¥kÍ] fr¥gukÍ] œ`¥kÍ] lfCt;kÍ] phuh-xqÈM] vkfn d`h d`herkÍ eÍ o~f* d`k nkSj tkjh gS\ o"Z 2009 eÍ ekulwu d`h o"kZ lkekU; ls d`e gksus ds` d`kj. iatkc] gfj;k.k] m®j ^nsæ] jktLƒku] vkU|z ^nsæ] d`ukZVd` rƒk xqtjkr vkSj egkjkÆV_ ;kstuk vk;ksx ds` vuqlkj nsæ d`h ds` vusd` ”s(kÍ eÍ lw[k iÈM tkus ls [jhœ` 28 ^frær tula“;k o"Z 2004-05 eÍ d`h œ`l¥kÍ d`h le; ls cqokbZ ugÓ gks ikbZ\ fu|Zurk js[k ls uhps jg jgh gS\ fu|Zurk tgk∑ cqokbZ gks Hh xbZ] ogk∑ mud`k mRiknu ds` ifjek. vkSj ?krd`rk d`k vuqeku uhpk jgus d`h vkæad`k gS\ pko¥ lfgr ¥xkus ds` f¥, ^|kuea(h d`h vkfƒZd` [jhœ` d`h vU; œ`l¥kÍ d`k mRiknu ;fn ijkeæZnk(h ifj"nΩ ds` iwoZ v÷;” ^ks\ fiN¥s o"Z d`h rq¥uk eÍ bl o"Z fxjrk gS] lqjsæ rÍnq¥d`j d`h v÷;”rk eÍ xfBr tksfd` lqfuf'pr gS] rks [k» inkƒksÛ d`h d`k;Zn¥ us tks ekud` fu|kZfjr fd`, gß] d`herkÍ eÍ vkSj Hh vf|d` o~f* gksus d`h muds` vk|kj ij o"Z 2004-05 eÍ gh nsæ vkæad`k gS\ Hkjr tS l s Î`f" ^|ku ns æ eÍ d`h 38 ^frær tula“;k fu|Zurk js[k ls uhps jg jgh ƒh\ Hkjr ljd`kj ds` xzkeh. [k»kUukÍ d`h d`eh gksus ls tc ?js¥w fod`kl ea(k¥; }kjk fofHUu d`k;Z∂`ekÍ ds` cktkj eÍ [k» inkƒksÛ d`h d`herkÍ eÍ o~f* f¥, fu|Zurk js[k ls uhps jgus ok¥s gksus ¥xrh gS\ bl fo"e fLƒfr ls fuiVus ifjokjkÍ d`ks fpfÕr d`jus ds` f¥, ,u\lh\ ds` f¥, ljd`kj bu ¯tlkÍ ds` vk;kr d`h lDlsuk d`h v÷;”rk eÍ xfBr lfefr d`k ?ks".k d`jrh gS\ vk;kr d`h ?ks".k gksrs gh vkd`¥u gS fd` nsæ d`h 50 ^frær [k» inkƒksÛ ds` vUrjkZÆV_h; cktkj eÍ tula“;k fu|Zurk js[k ls `uhps jg jgh rRd`k¥ mNk¥ vkus ¥xrk gS\ orZeku eÍ ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/693

Hh ,slk gh gks jgk gS\ xsgw∑] pko¥] nk¥Í rƒk phuh d`h vUrjkZÆV_h; d`herkÍ eÍ 18–63 ^frær rd` d`h o~f* gks xbZ gS\ lw[k ls Î`f" ”s(d` d`h fod`kl nj eÍ ,d` ls MsÈ< ^frærkad` rd` d`h d`eh vk ld`rh gS\ bld`k lh|k ^Hko nsæ d`h nks-frgkbZ ls vf|d` tula“;k d`h okLrfod` vk; eÍ d`eh ds` Ôi eÍ ifj¥f”r gksxk] D;kÍfd` xzkeh. ”s(kÍ d`h vf|laa“; tula“;k ds` thou;kiu rƒk vk; vtZu d`k ^eq[ lzksr Î`f" gh gS\ eke¥k pkgs [k» inkƒksÛ d`h d`herkÍ eÍ gks jgh o~f* d`k gks ;k fœ`j lw[k ds` ifj.keLoÔi Î`f" ,oa lgk;d` f∂`;k,a ”s(d` eÍ mRiknu eÍ d`eh vkus d`k\ nksukÍ gh Ôi eÍ bld`h ekj vkfƒZd` n~fÆV ls d`etksj oxksÛ ij gh iÈMsxh\ ml voLƒk eÍ lekosæh fod`kl ds` ¥{; d`ks ^kIr d`j ikuk ¥xHx vlEHo gks tk,xk\ Hkjr ljd`kj ds` uhfr-fuekZ. rƒk jktuhfrK/vƒZækL(h nkok d`j jgs gß fd` laxfBr ”s(d` ij lw[k d`k ^Hko lhfer jgsxk vkSj lexz Ôi ls ld`¥ ?js¥w mRikn eÍ lw[k ds` d`kj. ekew¥h-lh d`eh vk,xh\ blls jkT;kÍ eÍ vleku Ôi ls forfjr ægjh laxfBr vƒZO;oLƒk eÍ jg jgh tula“;k jkgr eglwl d`j ld`rh gS] ¥sfd`u uhfr fuekZrkvkÍ ds` ikl xzkeh. ”s(d` ds` f¥, nsus d`ks D;k gS = foæs" rkSj ij mu jkT;kÍ eÍ ftud`h vƒZO;oLƒk eq“; Ôi ls Î`f" ij fuHZj gS\

jkÆV_h; xzkeh. jkstxkj xkjUVh ;kstuk rƒk lekosæh fod`kl
lekt ds` d`etksj oxksÛ d`ks lokZf|d` jkgr igq∑pk ld`us ok¥k d`k;Z∂`e jkÆV_h; xzkeh. jkstxkj xkjUVh ;kstuk gS] tks lekosæh fod`kl d`h vo|kj.k d`ks lkƒZd` d`jrh gS\ foiUurk eÍ thou;kiu d`jus ok¥kÍ d`ks lkekftd`-vkfƒZd` lqj”k d`k lokZf|d` lVhd` mik; mUgÍ vk; l~tud`kjh jkstxkj usVodZ` ds` vUrxZr ¥kus d`k gS\ tc ¥ksxkÍ d`ks jkstxkj fe¥sxk] rks mud`h vk; rƒk miHksx Lrj eÍ o~f* gksxh vkSj os LokHkfod` Ôi ls fu|Zurk-csjktxkjhdq`iks". ds` dq`p∂` ls ckgj fud`¥ ldÍ`xs\ lw[k-^Hkfor ”s(kÍ eÍ Î`f" d`k;ksÛ eÍ d`eh vk tkus ls jkÆV_h; xzkeh. jkstxkj xkjUVh ;kstuk tSls jkstxkj l~tud`kjh ;kstukvkÍ eÍ d`ke ek∑xus ok¥kÍ d`h la“;k eÍ o~f* gksxh\ bueÍ ls fd`rus ¥ksxkÍ d`ks jkstxkj fe¥sxk vkSj blls fd`rus ¥ksx laiks".h; vk|kj ij ,d` vPNk thou;kiu O;rhr d`jus eÍ l”e gkÍxs] ;g cgl d`k ,d` eqnΩnk gks ld`rk gS] ¥sfd`u orZeku ifjfLƒfr;kÍ eÍ tks lqLiÆV rkSj ij fn[kbZ ns jgk gS] og ;g fd` lekosæh fod`kl

vHh Hh] vusd` ¥ksxkÍ ds` f¥, ,d` fnok eqgS;k d`jk ik jgh gß vkSj u csjkstxkjh LoIu tSlk gh gS\ H®k ns ik jgh gß\ blds` foijhr ,slh Hh xzke iapk;rÍ gß] foæs" Ôi ls egkuxjkÍ] ,oa jkÆV_h; xzkeh. jkstxkj xkjUVh ;kstuk] uxjkÍ ds` vkl-ikl] ftuds` ikl vkoafVr lS*kfUrd` Ôi ls ,d` vknæZ d`k;Z∂`e gS] |u d`k mi;ksx ugÓ gks ik jgk gS\ ,slh ¥sfd`u blds` f∂`;kUo;u rƒk mi¥fC|;kÍ xzke iapk;rkÍ ds` vf|d`kaæ ;qok ,oa d`k tks fp( fofHUu jkT;kÍ eÍ mHj d`j d`kexkj ægjkÍ eÍ tkd`j jkstxkj ^kIr d`j lkeus vk jgk gS] og d`ksbZ cgqr vf|d` ¥srs gß\ muds` f¥, vdq`æ¥ Jfed` ds` f¥, mRlkgo*Zd` ugÓ gS\ foæs" rkSj ij m®j ns; U;wure etnwjh nj ij d`ke d`juk ^nsæ tSls cÈMs jkT;kÍ eÍ\ m®j ^nsæ eÍ o"Z v¥kHd`kjh gS\s 2009-10 ds` ^ƒe 6 ekg eÍ ^fr ifjokj vkSlru 41 fnu d`k gh d`ke fe¥ ld`k fo®h; lekosæu rƒk lekosæh tcfd` d`kuwuu iwjs o"Z eÍ d`e-ls-d`e 100 fod`kl lekosæh fod`kl d`k ,d` ^eq[ la?Vd` fnu d`k d`ke fe¥us d`k ^ko|ku gS\ bl fo®h; lekosæu (Financial Inclusion) vof| eÍ m®j ^nsæ ljd`kj d`ks 3,244 d`jksÈM :i, ds`Unz ljd`kj ls fe¥s] ¥sfd`u gS\ fo®h; lekosæu ls rkRi;Z lekt ds` ek( 1,610 d`jksÈM :i, gh [pZ fd`, tk lHh oxksÛ] foæs" Ôi ls vkfƒZd` n~fÆV ls lds`\ m®j ^nsæ eÍ ds`o¥ 26,144 ifjokj d`etksj oxksÛ d`ks mud`h vko';d`rk ds` ,sls gß ftUgÍ pk¥w fo® o"Z eÍ 100 fnu d`k vuqÔi lk[-lqfo|k eqgS;k d`jkus] cpr jkstxkj fe¥ ld`k gS\ bld`h rq¥uk eÍ cßd` tSlh lqfo|k mi¥C| d`jkus« chek vkU|z ^nsæ eÍ 4,94,436 ifjokjkÍ] jktLƒku vkfn d`jkd`j] mUgÍ lkekftd` lqj”k eÍ 3,28,756 ifjokjkÍ] egkjkÆV_ eÍ 56,781 usVodZ` ds` rgrΩ ¥kus ls gS\ foxr o"ksÛ eÍ ifjokjkÍ d`ks 100 fnu d`k jkstxkj fe¥k\ 8–9 ^frær okf"Zd` d`h fod`kl nj ntZ jkÆV_h; jkstxkj xkjUVh ;kstuk eÍ lkekftd` d`jds` Hkjrh; vƒZO;oLƒk eÍ cßd` lk[ laijh”k ·lksæ¥ vkWfMV‚ d`jk, tkus d`k forj. eÍ 25 ^frær ls vf|d` d`h o~f* Hh ^ko|ku gS] rkfd` bl d`k;Z∂`e d`k gqbZ gS\ ;g ,d` ,slk lqvolj ƒk ftleÍ ewY;kad`u xq.koxq. vk|kj ij fd`;k tk gkfæ, ij jgs ¥ksxkÍ d`ks eq“; |kjk eÍ ¥k;k lds`\ bl n~fÆV ls m®j ^nsæ eÍ 49·73 tk ld`rk ƒk\ vusd` lwpd` nækZrs gß fd` ^frær ifjokjkÍ d`k gh lksæ¥ vkWfMV ,slk ugÓ fd`;k tk ld`k\ d`e-ls-d`e fd`;k tk ld`k] tcfd` flfDd`e eÍ 100 fo®h; ”s(d` eÍ rks fcYdq`¥ gh ugÓ\ ekpZ ^frær] rfe¥ukMq eÍ 99·89 ^frær] 2008 rd` d`h vof| ds` f¥, nsæ ds` >kj[≥M eÍ 99·87 ^frær] N®hlxÈ< eÍ vuqlwfpr cßd`kÍ ds` okf"Zd` v÷;;u ls 95·87 ^frær] e÷; ^nsæ eÍ 94·7 ^frær] lEcfU|r Hkjrh; fjÈtoZ cßd` d`h ,d` fjiksVZ egkjkÆV_ eÍ 90·25 ^frær] mÈMhlk eÍ eÍ vƒZO;oLƒk d`h mPprj fod`kl nj ds` 82·01 ^frær] vkU|z ^nsæ eÍ 81·58 nkSjku Hh fo®h; lekosæu ds` ¥{; d`ks ^frær iapk;rkÍ eÍ ‘ujsxk’ d`k lksæ¥ ^kIr u d`j ikus d`ks Lohd`kj fd`;k x;k gS\ vkWfMV fd`;k pqd`k gS\ tgk∑ rd` ‘ujsxk’ ds` Hkjr eÍ vuqlwfpr okf.fT;d` cßd`kÍ f∂`;kUo;u eÍ vk jgh folaxfr;kÍ d`k ^'u d`h ek( 40 ^frær æk[k,a gh xzkeh. gS] rks jkstxkj ek∑xus ok¥kÍ ds` tkWc d`kMZ ”s(kÍ eÍ gß] tgk∑ nsæ d`h 70 ^frær ls u cuus] tkWc d`kMZ xzke ^|kukÍ }kjk vius vf|d` tula“;k fuokl d`jrh gS\ blds` ikl j[us] œ`thZ tkWc d`kMZ cukd`j Hqxrku foijhr 17·8 ^frær æk[k,a nsæ ds` egk^kIr d`j ¥sus] dq`¥ vkoafVr |ujkfæ eÍ ls uxjh; ”s(kÍ eÍ gß\ vuqlwfpr okf.fT;d` 50 ^frær ls vf|d` |ujkfæ HkSfrd` cßd`kÍ ds` dq`¥ tek [krkÍ eÍ ls 28 ^frær lkeku ij [pZ fd`, tkus] cks¥sjks tSlh [krs xzkeh. ”s( d`h æk[kvkÍ eÍ rƒk ek( xkfÈM;k∑ ∂`; d`j f¥, tkus] iwjs o"Z ,d` 23 ^frær [krs egkuxjh; æk[kvkÍ eÍ gß\ fnu d`k Hh jkstxkj l~ftr u gksus ij Hh blds` ckotwn nsæ eÍ forfjr dq`¥ cßd` jkstxkj lgk;d`kÍ d`ks 24-24 gtkj :i, lk[ d`k 57·1 ^frær egkuxjh; lewg ds` d`k Hqxrku d`j fn, tkus] jkstxkj u ns fgLls eÍ vk;k gS\ blds` vfrfjDr 15·9 ikus ij csjkstxkjh H®k d`k Hqxrku u ^frær cßd` lk[ æs" uxjh; ”s(kÍ ds` fgLls fd`, tkus tSlh vusd` fæd`k;rÍ lkeus vk eÍ xbZ gS\ bl ^d`kj dq`¥ forfjr cßd` jgh gß\ d`gus d`ks rks ‘ujsxk’ ,d` ek∑x lk[ d`k 83 ^frær lk[ 27·8 ^frær lapkf¥r (Demand Driven) d`k;Z∂`e gS\ tula“;k ok¥s ægjh ”s( ds` fgLls eÍ tkrk vƒkZrΩ d`ke ek∑xus ok¥s ^R;sd` O;fDr d`ks gS] tcfd` 72·2 ^frær tula“;k ds` fgLls ljd`kj d`kuwuu 100 fnu d`k jkstxkj eÍ ek( 17 ^frær lk[ gh vkrh gS\ cßd` eqgS;k d`jkus ds` f¥, ck÷; gS] ¥sfd`u lk[ d`k ”s(h; forj. Hh vleku gS\ vusd` xzke iapk;rÍ ,slh gß] tks |ukHko ds` vle lfgr lEiw.Z iwoksZ®j ”s( d`ks foxr d`kj. ek∑xs tkus ij Hh u rks jkstxkj o"ksÛ eÍ ftruh lk[ ^kIr gqbZ gS og nsæ ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/694

ds` ds`o¥ ,d` jkT;%m®j ^nsæ eÍ forfjr cßd` lk[ ds` ,d`-pkSƒkbZ ls Hh d`e gS\ bl o"Z d`k lw[k ”s(h; ·HkSxksf¥d`‚ ,oa ”s(d` vlekurkvkÍ d`ks cÈ<k,xk] ig¥s ls Hh vf|d`\ ,sls eÍ j.uhfrd`kjkÍ ds` f¥, ld`¥ ?js¥w mRikn eÍ la“;kRed` Ôi ls o~f* d`jus d`k ¥{; ^kIr d`jus ls vf|d` vko';d` fod`kl d`ks vf|d` lekosæh cukuk gksuk pkfg,\ xzkeh. vkSj ægjh ”s(kÍ ds` chp ¥xkrkj pkSÈMh gksrh [kbZ d`ks iwoZ jkÆV_ifr MkW\ ,\ih\ts\ vCnq¥ d`¥ke }kjk lq>k, x, ‘iwjk’ ·xzkeh. ”s(kÍ eÍ ægjh lq[-lqfo|k,a eqgS;k d`jkuk‚ ekWM¥ eÍ fufgr gS] tks lEiks".h; vk|kj ij jkstxkj eqgS;k d`jkrs gq, ekuo fod`kl ds` mPp Lrj ^kIr d`jk ld`rk gS\ ●●● æs" i~ÆB 692 d`k mi;qZâ` mik;kÍ ds` ckn Hh |hjs–|hjs fod`flr nsækÍ ds` fo®h; lad`V ds` ^Hko fod`klæh¥ ,oa fu|Zu nsækÍ ij ifj¥f”r gksus ¥xs\ ;g lad`V fuEuf¥f[r ekxksÛ ls gksrs gq, fod`klæh¥ rƒk fu|Zu vƒZO;oLƒkvkÍ rd` igq∑pk\ ☛ fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`h leqnzikjh; fo®h; vkfLr;kÍ ds` v¿;Z (Value) eÍ Hkjh fxjkoV vkafæd` Ôi eÍ O;qRiUud`kÍ ds` d`kjksckj eÍ futh ”s(d` d`h gkfu;kÍ ds` }kjk« ☛ fonsæh cßd`kÍ }kjk m|kj fn, tkus] vUrjkZÆV_h; iw∑th cktkjkÍ rƒk fonsæh ^R;” fuosæ rd` fod`klæh¥ ,oa fu|Zu nsækÍ d`h igq∑p mY¥s[uh; Ôi ls [jkc gksrh xbZ« ☛ fod`klæh¥ rƒk fu|Zu nsækÍ ds` fu;kZrkÍ ds` ifjek. rƒk d`herkÍ eÍ fxjkoV« ☛ oLrq fu;kZrkÍ ij vR;f|d` fuHZjrk] pk¥w [krs ds` ?kVs rƒk cÈMs iSekus ij fonsæh )`.kÍ ds` cks> ok¥s nsækÍ ij lad`V d`k vf|d` ^Hko\

lad`V ls cpus ds` mik;
;g rF; LiÆV Ôi ls Lohd`kj fd`;k tkus ¥xk gS fd` cktkjh æfâ`;kÍ d`ks vR;f|d` ;k iw.ZÔi ls [q¥k NksÈM nsuk gh vf|d`re d`Y;k. d`k »ksrd` ugÓ gS\ tksfd` iSjsVks vuqdw`¥re d`h ekU;rk gS\ bl ^d`kj ds` lad`V ls fuiVus d`h lokZf|d` læâ` j.uhfr fofu;ked` <k∑ps d`ks vR;f|d` etcwr cukus rƒk mls lkafof|d` æfâ`;kÍ ls ¥Sl fd`, tkus d`h gks ld`rh gS\ fod`klæh¥ rƒk fu|Zu nsækÍ d`ks viuh vkfƒZd` fLƒfr d`ks ÷;ku eÍ j[d`j gh uhfr;kÍ d`ks viukuk pkfg,\ mPp vk; oxZ nsækÍ d`k va|kuqd`j. d`Hh Hh ?krd` gks ld`rk gS tSlk fd` orZeku eÍ gks jgk gS\ ●●●

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la;qDr jkÆV_ la? # laxBu ,oa d`k;Z 

}kjk laLƒk ls fud`k¥k tk ld`rk gS\ pw∑fd` lnL;kÍ d`k fuÆd`klu ,d` egRoiw.Z ^'u gS\ blds` f¥, lqj”k ifj"nΩ ds` 9 lnL;kÍ d`h ld`kjkRed` lgefr rƒk egklHk d`k fu.Z; nks-frgkbZ lnL;kÍ ds` cgqer ls gksuk pkfg,\

la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` vax
MkW\ v:`.ksn; cktis;h ,oa vatf¥ f(ikBh i( ij gLrk”j fd`, ƒs] ;k lsu≠`kaflLd`ks eÍ pkVZj ij gLrk”j d`jds` mld`h iqfÆV d`h ƒh\ nwljk la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`h lnL;rk mu lHh jkÆV_kÍ d`ks Hh mi¥C| gks ld`rh gS] tks ækfUrf^; gkÍ ,oa pkVZj eÍ fo'okl j[rs gkÍ] tks pkVZj }kjk fu|kZfjr d`®ZO;kÍ d`ks Lohd`kj d`jrs gkÍ ,oa ftud`ks ;g laLƒk bu d`®ZO;kÍ d`k ik¥u d`jus ds` mi;qâ` le>rh gS\ egklHk ds` nks-frgkbZ cgqer vkSj lqj”k ifj"nΩ ds` 15 lnL;kÍ eÍ ls 9 lnL;kÍ d`h LohÎ`fr ls ftleÍ 5 Lƒk;h lnL; vo'; gks la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`h lnL;rk ^kIr gksrh gS\ lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`h flœ`kfjæ ij gh egklHk fd`lh jkT; d`ks lnL;rk ^nku d`j ld`rh gS\ bl ij lqj”k ifj"nΩ ds` 5 Lƒk;h lnL;kÍ d`ks fu"s|kf|d`kj d`k vf|d`kj ^kIr gS\ la;qâ` jkÆV_ ds` N# ^eq[ vax gß\

^ƒe fo'o ;q* (1914 –18) d`h foHhf"d`k ls (Lr gks d`j fo'o ds` jkÆV_kÍ us ækfUr o lqj”k Lƒkfir d`jus ds` f¥, fe¥d`j jkÆV_ la? d`k fuekZ. fd`;k ƒk] tks vius mˆs'; eÍ vlœ`¥ jgs vkSj 20 o"ksÛ ds` ckn gh nwljs fo'o ;q* (1939–45) d`h foHhf"d`k ls fo'o d`ks iqu# jâ`jaftr gksuk iÈMk\ bl jâ`jaftr bfrgkl ds` iqujkorZu ls fo'o d`ks cpkus ds` f¥, fo'o d`h rRd`k¥hu egkæfâ`;kÍ us f}rh; fo'o ;q* d`h lekfIr ds` iwoZ gh ^;kl æqÔ d`j fn;k ƒk\ la;qâ` jkT; vejhd`k ds` lsu≠`kaflLd`ks uxj eÍ tuojh 1942 d`ks fczVsu] lksfo;r la?] phu rƒk vU; 26 fe( jkÆV_kÍ ds` ^frfuf|;kÍ d`k ,d` lEes¥u gqvk ftleÍ ;g fu.Z; gqvk fd` ;s jkÆV_ lfEef¥r gksd`j |qjh jkÆV_kÍ d`k lkeuk d`jÍxs\ bl laxBu d`ks la;qâ` jkÆV_ vƒok ;wukbVsM usæUl d`k uke vejhd`k ds` rRd`k¥hu jkÆV_ifr ‘≠Í`d`f¥u Mh ÔtosYV’ ds` }kjk ^nku fd`;k x;k\ 1 twu] 1945 d`ks lsu≠`kaflLd`ks eÍ la;qâ` jkÆV_kÍ d`k lEes¥u gqvk rks blds` lnL;kÍ d`h la“;k 50 gks pqd`h ƒh\ bl lEes¥u eÍ la;qâ` jkÆV_ ds` ?ks".ki( d`ks vfUre Ôi fn;k x;k vkSj la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`h vkSipkfjd` Lƒkiuk blds` vLƒk;h eq“;k¥; ¥sd` lSDlsl vejhd`k eÍ gqbZ\ vf|d`kj-i( ij 50 jkÆV_kÍ ds` ^frfuf|;kÍ }kjk 26 twu] 1945 d`ks gLrk”j fd`, x,\ vkf|d`kfjd` Ôi ls la;qâ` jkÆV_ laa? 24 vDVwcj] 1945 d`ks vfLrRo eÍ vk;k] rc blds` lnL;kÍ d`h la“;k 51 ƒh\ 1946 ls la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`k ^|ku d`k;kZ¥; U;w;kWdZ` eÍ gS\ orZeku eÍ blds` lnL; nsækÍ d`h la“;k 192 gS\

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egklHk la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` ^eq[ vaxkÍ eÍ ls lcls cÈMk vkSj egRoiw.Z vax gS\ egklHk ds` fo"; eÍ fofHUu fo}kukÍ us d`gk gS% vkbds`¥ cxZj%∏;g fo'o d`k mUeqâ` vUr#d`j. gS\π æweka%∏;g lalkj d`h uxj lHk gS\π ok≥MsucxZ%∏bls fo'o d`h ¥?q laln d`h laKk nh ƒh\π la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` leLr lnL;kÍ d`ks egklHk eÍ cSBus d`k vf|d`kj gS\ bld`k vf|osæu lk|kj.r# o"Z eÍ ,d` ckj gksrk gS\ ;g gjo"Z flrEcj eÍ nwljs eax¥okj ls ¥sd`j f∂`lel fnol rd` gksrk gS\ blds` foæs" vf|osæu Hh gksrs gß\ pkVZj ds` vf|d`kj ”s( ds` vUrxZr lHh fo";kÍ ij fopkj d`jus d`k bls vf|d`kj gksrk gS\ egklHk eÍ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` lHh lnL;kÍ d`ks ^frfuf|Ro ^kIr gS\ ^R;sd` jkÆV_ d`ks vf|d`re 5 ^frfuf| Hstus d`k vf|d`kj gS] ¥sfd`u ^R;sd` jkÆV_ d`k ds`o¥ `,d` gh

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la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`h vkf|d`kfjd` Hk"k,a
la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` lHh eq“; nLrkost rƒk egklHk] lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`h cSBd`kÍ d`k fooj. N# vkf|d`kfjd` Hk"kvkÍ% phuh] vaxzsth] ≠Í`p] Ôlh] Lisfuæ vkSj vjch Hk"k eÍ ^d`kfær gksrk gS\

la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`h lnL;rk
la;qâ` jkÆV_ ds` pkVZj eÍ nks ^d`kj d`h lnL;rk d`k mY¥s[ fe¥rk gS\ ^ƒe os nsæ tks ^kjfEHd` lnL; gß ftUgkÍus 1`tuojh] 1942 d`ks la;qâ` jkÆV_ ds` ?ks".k ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/695/5

lkewfgd` O;oLƒk }kjk vUrjkZÆV_h; ækfUr ,oa lqj”k d`k;e j[uk vkSj vk∂`ked` ^o~f®;kÍ d`ks fu;a(. eÍ j[uk\ 2. vUrjkZÆV_h; fooknkÍ d`k ækfUriw.Z lek|ku d`juk\ 3. jkÆV_kÍ ds` vkRefu.Z; vkSj mifuosæokn fo?Vu d`h ^f∂`;k d`ks xfr nsuk\ 4. lkekftd`] vkfƒZd`] lkaLÎ`frd` ,oa ekuoh; ”s(kÍ eÍ vUrjkZÆV_h; lg;ksx d`ks ^ksRlkfgr ,oa iqÆV d`juk\ la? us nks vU; ¥{; Hh fu|kZfjr fd`, gß\ os gß% ‘fujL(hd`j.’ vkSj ‘ubZ vUrjkZÆV_h; vkfƒZd` O;oLƒk’ d`h Lƒkiuk\ fl*kUr%la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` pkVZj d`h |kjk 2 eÍ blds` fuEuf¥f[r ekSf¥d` fl*kUr crk, x, gß% 1. bld`k ^|ku vk|kj NksVs–cÈMs lc nsækÍ d`h lekurk vkSj loksZPp l®k d`k fl*kUr gS\ 2. lc lnL;kÍ ls ;g vkæk j[h tkrh gS fd` os pkVZj }kjk mu ij ¥kxw gksus ok¥s nkf;RokÍ d`k ik¥u iwjh bZekunkjh ls d`jÍxs\ 3. lHh lnL; vUrjkZÆV_h; >xÈMkÍ d`k fuiVkjk ækfUriw.Z lk|ukÍ ls d`jÍxs\ 4. lHh jkÆV_ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` mˆs';kÍ ds` ^frdw`¥ d`ksbZ d`k;Z ugÓ d`jÍxs\ os fd`lh nsæ d`h LorU(rk d`k guu d`jus d`h ;k vk∂`e. d`jus d`h u rks |ed`h nÍxs vkSj u ,slk d`k;Z d`jÍxs\ 5. d`ksbZ Hh nsæ pkVZj ds` ^frdw`¥ d`ke d`jus ok¥s nsæ d`h lgk;rk ugÓ d`jsxk\ 6. la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? bld`k lnL; u cuus ok¥s jkT;kÍ ls Hh vUrjkZÆV_h; ækfUr vkSj lqj”k cuk, j[us ok¥s fl*kUr d`k ik¥u d`jk,xk\ 7. la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? fd`lh nsæ ds` ?js¥w eke¥kÍ eÍ gLr”si ugÓ d`jsxk\

er gksrk gS\ pkgs og d`ksbZ cÈMk jkT; gks ;k NksVk jkT; gks\ egRoiw.Z ^'ukÍ ij egklHk ds` fu.Z; mifLƒr ,oa ernku d`jus ok¥s lnL;kÍ ds ` nks-frgkbZ cgqer ls gkÍxs vkSj vU; ^'ukÍ ij fu.Z; mifLƒr ,oa ernku d`jus ok¥s lnL;kÍ ds` lk|kj. cgqer }kjk fd`;k tk,xk\

lqj”k ifj"nΩ # laxBu ,oa Hwfed`k
jkÆV_ la? ds` vuqHokÍ us la;qâ` jkÆV_ ds` fuekZrkvkÍ ds` efLrÆd` eÍ ;g |kj.k mRiUu d`j nh ƒh fd` lewps fo'o leqnk; ds` vUnj ,d` ik∑p egkæfâ`;kÍ d`k Hh leqnk; fo»eku gS] ftud`h fe(rk ,oa erSD; ij gh fo'o d`h ækfUr ,oa lqj”k d`k;e jg ld`rh gS\ œ`¥r# la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` fuekZrkvkÍ us fo'o laLƒk d`h lEiw.Z æfâ` lqj”k ifj"nΩ eÍ fufgr d`j nh\ lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`ks lqj”k d`k igjsnkj ekuk tkrk gS\ egklHk d`h vis”k lqj”k ifj"nΩ cgqr gh NksVk lnu gS] ijUrq mld`h æfâ` egklHk d`h vis”k cgqr O;kid` gS\ ;fn egklHk ekuork d`h loksZPp æfâ` d`k ^frfuf|Ro d`jrh gS] rks lqj”k ifj"nΩ fo'o d`h loksZPp æfâ` d`k ^frfuf|Ro d`jrh gS\ jktuhfrd` fo";kÍ eÍ lq j ”k ifj"nΩ la ; q â ` jkÆV_ la ? d`k d`k;Zik¥d`h; vax gS\ lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`ks la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`k vax d`gk tkrk gS\ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` pkVZj ds` v÷;k; 5 ds` vuqlkj lqj”k ifj"nΩ ds` ew¥r# ik∑p Lƒk;h vkSj N# vLƒk;h dq`¥ X;kjg lnL; gksrs gß] ijUrq flrEcj 1965 eÍ pkVZj ds` laæks|u }kjk vLƒk;h lnL;kÍ d`h la“;k cÈ<kd`j nl d`j nh xbZ\ rnuqlkj egklHk us fu.Z; f¥;k fd` 10 vLƒk;h lnL;kÍ eÍ ls 5 ,fæ;kbZ v≠`hd`h jkT;kÍ eÍ ls] 1 iwohZ ;wjksi eÍ ls 2, nf”. vejhd`k o æs" 2 if'peh ;wjksi o vU; jkT;kÍ eÍ ls gksus pkfg,\ bl ^d`kj lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`h dq`¥ lnL; la“;k 15 gks xbZ\ blds` ik∑p Lƒk;h lnL; phu] ≠`kal] xzsV fczVsu] Ôl rƒk la;qâ` jkT; vejhd`k gß\ vLƒk;h lnL;kÍ d`k fuokZpu egklHk vius nks-frgkbZ cgqer ls nks o"Z ds` f¥, d`jrh gS\ lqj”k ifj"nΩ jkÆV_ d`k fujarj d`k;Z d`jus ok¥k fud`k; gS\ ;g Lƒk;h Ôi ls d`k;Z d`jus ok¥k fud`k; gS\ ;g Lƒk;h Ôi ls l( eÍ jgrh gS\ bld`h cSBd` 14 fnu eÍ ,d` ckj gksrh gS vkSj ;fn vUrjkZÆV_h; ækfUr ,oa lqj”k d`ks [rjk mRiUu gks tk, rks bld`h cSBd` vYi lwpuk ij vƒkZrΩ 24 ?≥Vs d`h lwpuk ij cq¥kbZ tk ld`rh gS\ lqj”k ifj"nΩ eÍ ^R;sd` lnL; jkT; d`k ,d`–,d` ^frfuf| la? ds` eq“; d`k;kZ¥; eÍ cuk jgrk gS\ ^f∂`;k lEcU|h eke¥kÍ eÍ fu.Z; ds` f¥, 9 erkÍ d`h vko';d`rk gksrh gS\ egÂoiw.Z eke¥kÍ ij fu.Z; ds` f¥, 9 Lohd`kjkRed` erkÍ ds` lkƒ ;g Hh vko';d` gS fd` ik∑pkÍ Lƒk;h lnL; Hh ml fu.Z; ls lger gkÍ bl ^d`kj ^R;sd` Lƒk;h lnL; d`ks lHh egRoiw.Z fo";kÍ ij fu"s|kf|d`kj ^kIr gS] ijUrq lkƒ gh ;g Hh fu;e gS fd` >xÈMs ls lEcfU|r lnL; ernku ugÓ d`jrk gS\

egklHk ds` d`k;Z
1.

,sfPNd` d`k;Z%blds` vUrxZr ækfUr d`h Lƒkiuk\ vUrjkZÆV_h; ækfUr ds` [rjs d`ks nwj d`juk vkSj lqj”k rƒk fujL(hd`j. ds` f¥, leLr nsækÍ ds` lg;ksx d`h psÆVk gS\

vfuok;Z d`k;Z
la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? vk;-O;; ikl d`juk\ lqj”k ifj"nΩ rƒk vU; laLƒkvkÍ o laxBukÍ d`h fjiksVZ ij fopkj d`juk\ 3. U;kl ifj"nΩ ij fujh”. j[uk\ 4. vUrjkZÆV_h; lg;ksx ds` mˆs';kÍ ls vkfƒZd`] lkekftd`] lkaLÎ`frd` fæ”k rƒk LokLF; ds` lEcU| eÍ v÷;;u o tk∑p-iÈMrk¥ d`jokuk rƒk rnΩfo";d` flœ`kfjæÍ d`juk\ 5. ^R;sd` O;fâ` d`ks fcuk tkfr] ¯¥x] Hk"k o |eZ ds` ekuo vf|d`kj rƒk ekSf¥d` LorU(rk d`k mi;ksx d`jus eÍ lgk;rk nsuk\ egklHk viuk d`k;Z lapk¥u 6 eq“; lfefr;kÍ }kjk d`jrh gS] tks bl ^d`kj gß% (1) jktuhfrd` ,oa lqj”k lfefr] (2) vkfƒZd` vkSj fo® lfefr] (3) lkekftd`] ekuoh; ,oa lkaLÎ`frd` lfefr] (4) U;kl lfefr] (5) ^æklfud` ,oa ctV lfefr] (6) d`kuwuh lfefr\
1. 2.

lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`k eq“; d`k;Z fo'o ækfUr ,oa lqj”k gS\ blds` vfrfjâ` u, jkÆV_kÍ d`ks la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`h lnL;rk ^nku d`juk] egklfpo d`k p;u] vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥; ds` U;k;k|hækÍ d`h fu;qfâ` vkfn ,sls d`k;Z gß\ ftUgÍ lqj”k ifj"nΩ egklHk ds` lkƒ fe¥d`j d`jrh gS vkSj ck÷;d`kjh ^Hko j[rh gS lqj”k ifj"nΩ vius vkUrfjd` eke¥kÍ d`k Lo;a fu.Z; d`jrh gS\ lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`k mˆs'; ækfUr d`h Lƒkiuk ekuk x;k gS\ lqj”k ifj"nΩ ig¥s rks fookn d`ks ^LrkokÍ }kjk g¥ d`juk pkgrh gS] mlds` ckn vkfƒZd` ^frcU| ¥xkus ij fopkj d`jrh gS vkSj vUr eÍ lSfud` d`k;Zokgh d`h æfâ` ,oa vf|d`kj d`k ^;ksx d`j ld`rh gS\ pkVZj us lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`ks vf|Î`r fd`;k gS fd` og ækfUr d`h Lƒkiuk ds` f¥, t¥] ƒ¥ rƒk uH lsuk d`k ;ƒk mfpr ^;ksx d`j lds`\ pkVZj eÍ la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`h lsuk d`k d`gÓ mY¥s[ ugÓ gS\ lqj”k ifj"nΩ ds` ikl ;g vf|d`kj vo'; gS fd` og lnL; jkÆV_kÍ ls fd`lh Hh le; mls lsuk mi¥C| d`jkus ds` f¥, d`g ld`rh gS\ lqj”k ifj"nΩ læL( lsukvkÍ d`ks mi;ksx eÍ ¥kus d`h ;kstuk,a ,d` lSfud` LVkœ` lfefr (Military Staff Committee) d`h l¥kg ls cuk,xh\ ;g lSfud` LVkœ` lfefr lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`ks fuEu fo";kÍ eÍ lgk;rk vkSj ijkeæZ nsxh%vUrjkZÆV_h; ækfUr vkSj lqj”k d`ks cuk, j[us d`h lSfud` vko';d`rk,a] bl lfefr ds` v|hu lsukvkÍ d`k ^;ksx vkSj d`eku æL(kÍ d`k fu;U(. ,oa lEHkfor fu#æL(hd`j.\ bl lfefr ds` lnL; lqj”k ifj"nΩ ds` Lƒk;h lnL;kÍ d`k lkefjd` lapk¥u lSfud` LVkœ` lfefr ds` gkƒ eÍ gksxk vkSj ;g ifj"nΩ ds` v|hu gksxh\

fu"s|kf|d`kj
fu"s|kf|d`kj d`k ^Lrko lcls ig¥s vejhd`h jkÆV_ifr ÔtosYV us ;kYVk fæ[j lEes¥u eÍ j[k ƒk\ fu"s|kf|d`kj d`k vk|kj ;g fopkj ƒk fd` m®jnkf;Ro rƒk vf|d`kj ijLij lEcfU|r gksus pkfg,\ ;g ew¥r# nks |kj.kvkÍ ij vk|kfjr gS\ ^ƒe fd` fd`lh Hh læL( d`k;Zokgh eÍ mud`k Hkj ^|kur# egkæfâ`;kÍ d`ks ogu d`juk iÈMsxk\ ifj.keLoÔi ifj"nΩ ds` bu lnL;kÍ ls ;g vkæk d`juk vO;kogkfjd` gksxk fd` os viuh lsukvkÍ d`ks mu d`k;Zokfg;kÍ ds` f¥, ^nku d`jÍxs ftuds` fd` fojks| eÍ os gß\ nwljk la? d`ks viuh æfâ` ds` f¥, egkæfâ`;kÍ ds` ijLij lg;ksx ij fuHZj jguk pkfg,\ ;fn og lg;ksx vi;kZIr jgrk gS\ rc læL( lqj”k lEcU|h O;oLƒk,a Hh vo'; gh vlœ`¥ gks tk,axh\ loZ^ƒe fu"s|kf|d`kj d`k ^;ksx 16 œ`jojh] 1946 d`ks lksfo;r la? us fd`;k ƒk\

NksVh vlsEc¥h
ifj"nΩ eÍ Lƒk;h lnL;kÍ ds` mxz fojks| vkSj ohVks ds` ^;ksx ds` d`kj. ,slk xfrjks| mRiUu gks x;k fd` lqj”k ifj"nΩ ds` }kjk ;q* vkSj vk∂`e.kÍ d`h vkæad`kvkÍ ls H;Hhr fo'o d`ks uohu ifjfLƒfr d`k lkeuk d`jus ds` f¥, 13 uoEcj] 1947 d`ks vUrfje lfefr uked` ,d` lgk;d` vax Lƒkfir fd`;k\ bls NksVh vlsEc¥h d`gk tkrk gS\ ;g egklHk d`k lkekU; vf|osæu u gksus d`h næk eÍ mlds` vf|d`kj ”s( eÍ vkus ok¥s ^'ukÍ ij fopkj d`jrh gS\ egklHk ds` ^R;sd` lnL; d`ks bleÍ ,d` lnL; Hstus d`k vf|d`kj gS\vkjEH eÍ ;g nks ckj ,d` o"Z ds` f¥, cukbZ xbZ ƒh\ uoEcj 1949 eÍ bls fuf'pr vof| ds` f¥, iqu#Lƒkfir fd`;k x;k\ luΩ 1952 ds` ckn bld`h d`ksbZ cSBd` ugÓ gqbZ gS\
1947 eÍ lqj”k

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/696

nksgjk fu"s|kf|d`kj (Double Veto jkÆV_ ds` pkVZj ^f∂`;k lEcU|h vkSj egRoiw.Z fo";kÍ eÍ Hsn rks d`jrk gS] ijUrq mld`h LiÆV O;k“;k ugÓ d`jrk gS\ ^f∂`;k lEcU|h eke¥kÍ ds` vfrfjâ` fd`lh Hh fo"; eÍ fu.Z; ds` le; Lƒk;h lnL;kÍ eÍ ls d`ksbZ Hh ud`kjkRed` er ^nku d`j ld`rk gS vkSj bl ^d`kj fu.Z; ¥sus ls jksd`rk gS\ ;g æfâ` ig¥h ohVks d`h æfâ` d`g¥krh gS\ nwljs ohVks d`k ^'u ml le; mBrk gS] tcfd` lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`ks ;g r; d`juk gksrk gS fd` fo"; ^f∂`;k lEcU|h gS ;k ugÓ\ ;g d`k;Z fof|d` ugÓ gS vr# bl ij fu.Z; ¥srs oâ` 9 lnL;kÍ ds` er Hh lfEef¥r gksrs gß\ bl ^'u ds` fu|kZj. eÍ Lƒk;h lnL; nwljs ohVks (Second Veto) d`k ^;ksx d`j ld`rs gß\ nksgjh ohVks æfâ` ds` d`kj. egkæfâ`;kÍ d`ks ,slh æfâ` ^kIr gks tkrh gS ftlds` }kjk os lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`h fd`lh Hh d`k;Zokgh d`ks jnΩn d`jok ld`rh gS\ fu"s|kf|d`kj d`h vk¥kspuk%ohVks d`h O;oLƒk ds` d`kj. lqj”k ifj"nΩ eÍ cÈMs jkÆV_kÍ d`k vkf|iR; te x;k gS vkSj cgqer d`k d`ksbZ egÂo ugÓ jgk x;k gS\ ohVks ds` ^;ksx ls lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`k d`ksbZ Hh Lƒk;h lnL; fd`lh Hh d`k;Zokgh d`ks foœ`¥ d`j ld`rk gS vkSj fo'o ¥ksd`er d`h mis”k d`j ld`rk gS\ ohVks ds` d`kj. lqj”k ifj"nΩ ækfUr vkSj lqj”k d`h O;oLƒk d`ks iwjk d`jus] ohVks egkæfâ`;kÍ d`h fujadq`ærk d`h LoPNUnrk d`k ifj.ke gS\ blds` lEcU| eÍ f(Xos¥h us d`gk%∏ohVks ds` d`kj. la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? uiaqld` gS\ ;g egkæfâ`;kÍ ds` la?"Z }kjk i”ikr xzLr d`j fn;k x;k gS\π fu"s|kf|d`kj d`h vko';d`rk%lqj”k ifj"nΩ ls ohVks d`h O;oLƒk d`ks gVk nsus ls leL;k d`k lek|ku ugÓ gks ld`rk gS\ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`h lœ`¥rk ds` f¥, ;g vR;Ur vko';d` gS fd` ækfUr ,oa lqj”k d`h Lƒkiuk ds` f¥, egkæfâ`;kÍ ds` chp ikjLifjd` lg;ksx gks\ egkæfâ`;kÍ ds` lg;ksx ds` fcuk lkewfgd` O;oLƒk lEHo ugÓ gS\ ohVks d`bZ ckj vUrjkZÆV_h; fooknkÍ ds` ækfUriw.Z g¥ d`jus eÍ ojnku Hh fl* gqvk gS\ ohVks d`k ^;ksx cÈMh æfâ`;k∑ ,d`nwljs ij vadq`æ cuk, j[us ds` f¥, d`jrh gß\ ohVks la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`h leLr d`k;Zokfg;kÍ d`ks ^Hkfor ugÓ d`jrk\ la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`h foæs" ,tsfUl;k∑ vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥;] U;kl ifj"nΩ] vkfƒZd` rƒk lkekftd` ifj"nΩ ,oa egklHk eÍ ohVks d`h O;oLƒk ugÓ gS\ ;fn ge ohVks jfgr lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`h d`Yiuk d`jÍ rks geÍ vkHkl gksxk fd` fd`lh cÈMs væqH d`ks jksd`us ds` f¥, NksVs væqH ds`
Power)%la;qâ`

Ôi eÍ ohVks d`h ,d` vko';d`rk gS\ blds` vfrfjâ` ækfUr ds` f¥, ,d`rk ^Lrko LohÎ`r gksus ,oa ¥?q vlsEc¥h d`h Lƒkiuk ls ohVks d`k egRo xkS. iÈM x;k gS\ vc ohVks d`k ^Hko eq“; Ôi ls lnL;rk ds` lEcU| eÍ jg x;k gS ftlls la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`k d`ksbZ d`ke :d` ugÓ ld`rk\ ohVks ds` d`k;e jgrs gq, Hh egklHk }kjk cgqr ls d`kekÍ d`ks lEiUu d`jk;k tk ld`rk gS\

U;kl ifj"nΩ d`ks vius mˆs';kÍ eÍ viwoZ lœ`¥rk fe¥h gS\ ifj"nΩ d`h lcls cÈMh mi¥fC| gS fd` vf|d`kaæ U;kl ^nsæ 15–20 o"ksÛ d`h vYi vof| eÍ gh LorU( gks x,\ orZeku eÍ U;kl ifj"nΩ d`k d`k;Z ¥xHx lekIr gks x;k gS\

lfpok¥;
lfpok¥; la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`k ,d` ^æklfud` vax gS\ ;g ,d` Lƒk;h laLƒk gS ftld`k d`ke fujUrj p¥rk jgrk gS\ lfpok¥; eÍ egklfpo vkSj vU; d`eZpkjh gksrs gß\ egklfpo d`h fu;qfâ` 5 o"ksÛ ds` f¥, lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`h flœ`kfjæ ij egklHk }kjk gksrh gS\ ;g la? d`k eq“; ^æklfud` vf|d`kjh gksrk gS\ egklHk }kjk cuk, x, fofu;ekÍ ds` vuqlkj egklfpo lfpok¥; ds` d`eZpkfj;kÍ d`h fu;qfâ` d`jrk gS\ lfpok¥; la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`k ,d` o~gr ^æklfud` rU( gS] ftls vkB Hkxks eÍ laxfBr fd`;k gS% (1) lqj”k ifj"nΩ lEcU|h d`k;ksÛ d`k foHkx] (2) vkfƒZd` foHkx] (3) lkekftd` d`k;ksÛ d`k foHkx] (4) U;kl ,oa Loækflrs®j ”s(kÍ eÍ lwpuk foHkx] (5) lkoZtfud` lwpuk foHkx] (6) lEes¥u rƒk fo®h; lsok foHkx] (7) ^æklfud` rƒk fo®h; lsok foHkx] (8) fof| foHkx\

U;kl ifj"nΩ
la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` pkVZj ds` 8 oÍ v÷;k; eÍ U;kl ifj"nΩ ds` ckjs eÍ f¥[k gqvk gS\ pkVZj ds` vuqPNsn 75 ds` vuqlkj la;qâ` jkÆV_ vius vf|d`kj ”s( ds` vUrxZr U;kl ^nsækÍ ds` ^æklu vkSj fu;a(. ds` f¥, ,d` vUrjkZÆV_h; U;kl O;oLƒk Lƒkfir d`jsxk] tks le>kSrkÍ }kjk lEikfnr gksxh\ pkVZj ds` vuqlkj U;kl i*fr ds` pkj mˆs'; gß% 1. vUrjkZÆV_h; ækfUr vkSj lqj”k d`ks cÈ<kuk\ 2. ¥ksxkÍ d`h jktuhfrd`] vkfƒZd`] lkekftd` vkSj fæ”k lEcU|h mUufr eÍ lg;ksx nsuk] Loæklu ;k LorU(rk ds` ∂`fed` fod`kl eÍ lgk;rk nsuk\ 3. tkfr] ¯¥x] lcds ` f¥, ekuoh; vf|d`kjkÍ vkSj eww¥ LorU(rkvkÍ ds` ^fr vkLƒk cÈ<kuk vkSj mueÍ ;g Hko txkuk fd` lalkj ds` lc ¥ksx ,d`-nwljs ij fuHZj gß\ 4. lkekftd`] vkfƒZd` vkSj okf.T; lEcU|h eke¥kÍ eÍ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` lnL;kÍ ds` vkSj muds` ukxfjd`kÍ ds` ^fr lekurk ds` O;ogkj d`k fo'okl fn¥kuk\ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? us jkÆV_ la? d`h es≥MsV O;oLƒk ds` Lƒku ij U;kl i*fr d`ks xzg. fd`;k vkSj mlds` lapk¥u ds` f¥, U;kl lfefr d`k fuekZ. fd`;k\ U;kl i*fr d`k ew¥ fl*kUr ;g gS fd` bl le; dq`N fiNÈMs gq, vYifod`flr vkSj vkfne næk ok¥s ^nsækÍ ds` fuoklh bl ;ksX; ugÓ gß fd` os vius nsæ d`k æklu Lo;a d`j ldÍ`\ bUgÍ nwljs fod`flr vkSj mUur nsækÍ d`h lgk;rk visf”r gS\ l˙; nsækÍ d`k ;g nkf;Ro gS fd` os muds` fod`kl eÍ iwjh lgk;rk nÍ vkSj tc rd` ;s viuk æklu Lo;a d`jus eÍ leƒZ ugÓ gks tkrs] rc rd` bud`h vkSj muds` fgrkÍ d`h ns[Hk¥ bUgÍ U;kl ;k vekur le>rs gq, d`jÍ\ bu æfDr;kÍ }kjk ;g d`k;Z la;qDr jkÆV_ la? ds` fu;a(. eÍ gksuk pkfg,\ la;qDr jkÆV_ la? d`h U;kl i*fr d`k ”s( mifuosæokn vkSj lkezkT;okn }kjk ijk|hu cuk, x, lHh ”s(kÍ ds` f¥, gS\

vkfƒZd` rƒk lkekftd` ifj"nΩ
vUrjkZÆV_h; ækfUr ds`o¥ jktuhfrd` fooknkÍ ds` lek|ku ij gh fuHZj ugÓ d`jrh gS ojuΩ vUrjkZÆV_h; vkfƒZd`] lkekftd` vkSj mlls lEcfU|r vU; leL;kvkÍ ds` lEcU| eÍ mfpr vkSj ^Hkoiw.Z d`k;Zokgh ij gh fuHZj d`jrh gS\ jktuhfrd` fLƒjrk ds` vfrfjâ` lkekftd` fLƒjrk vkSj vkfƒZd` lUrks" Hh vUrjkZÆV_h; ækfUr vkS j lqj”k d`h Lƒkiuk ds` f¥, tÔjh gS\ ^kjEH eÍ bl ifj"nΩ eÍ 18 lnL; gksrs ƒs\ le;– le; ij pkVZ j eÍ la æ ks | u d`j blds` lnL;kÍ d`h la“;k eÍ o~f* d`h xbZ\ orZeku eÍ vkfƒZd` ,oa lkekftd` ifj"nΩ d`h lnL; la“;k 54 gks xbZ gS\ ;g ,d` Lƒk;h laLƒk gS] ijUrq blds` ,d`-frgkbZ lnL; ^fro"Z in eqâ` gksrs jgrs gß\ ^R;sd` lnL; d`h vof| 3 o"Z gksrh gS] ijUrq vod`kæ xzg. d`jus ok¥k lnL; iqu# fuokZfpr gks ld`rk gS\ ifj"nΩ eÍ ^R;sd` lnL; d`ks ds`o¥ ,d` er nsus d`k vf|d`kj gksrk gS\ bleÍ fu.Z; mifLƒr ,oa ernku eÍ Hkx ¥sus ok¥s lnL;kÍ ds` lk|kj. cgqer }kjk f¥, tkrs gß\ egklHk d`h Hk∑fr lnL; jkT;kÍ eÍ ls gh ,d` lnL; bld`k lHkifr fuokZfpr gksrk gS\ vkfƒZd` vkSj lkekftd` ifj"nΩ gj lk¥ 5 lIrkg d`k ,d` egRoiw.Z l( vk;ksftr

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/697

egklfpo
la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` egklfpo d`h fu;qfâ` lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`h laLrqfr ij egklHk }kjk d`h tkrh gS\ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` ^æklfud` d`k;ksÛ ds` m®jnkf;Ro ds` vfrfjâ` egklfpo d`ks dq`N jktuhfrd` æfâ`;k∑ Hh ^kIr gß\ vuqPNsn 99 ds` rgrΩ tc egklfpo d`ks vUrjkZÆV_h; ækfUr vkSj lqj”k ds` ^fr ;fn fd`lh ^d`kj d`h vkæad`k mRiUu gksrh gS] rks egklfpo ml vksj lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`k ÷;ku vkd`f"Zr d`jk ld`rk gS\ egklfpo] la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` f∂`;kd`¥kikÍ d`h okf"Zd` fjiksVZ Hh rS;kj d`jrk gS rƒk egRoiw.Z eqnΩnkÍ ij c¥ nsrk gS\ mu ij vius fopkj O;â` d`jrk gS rƒk leqfpr laLrqfr;k∑ Hh d`jrk gS\ vkt d`h cn¥rh gqbZ fLƒfr;kÍ eÍ egklfpo d`k in jktuhfrd` vf|d` gks x;k gS\ ftlds` ihNs vf|d`kj ;qâ` pkVZj ^eq[ Ôi ls m®jnk;h ekuk tk ld`rk gS\ vuqPNsn 100 ds` rgrΩ og vius d`®ZO;kÍ d`k fuokZg d`jrs le; vU; vUrjkZÆV_h; laxBukÍ ls vko';d`rk iÈMus ij lg;ksx Hh ^kIr d`j ld`rk gS\ egklfpo laLƒk d`k eq“; ^æklfud` vf|d`kjh gksrk gS bl gSfl;r ls egklfpo egklHk] lqj”k ifj"nΩ] vkfƒZd` rƒk lkekftd` ifj"nΩ rƒk U;kl ifj"nΩ d`h lHh cSBd`kÍ eÍ Hkx ¥srk gS rƒk og lHh d`k;Z lEikfnr d`jrk gS] tks bu vaxkÍ }kjk bls lkSis tkrs gß\ egklfpo laLƒk ds` d`k;Z d`h okf"Zd` fjiksVZ egklHk d`ks ^sf"r d`jrk gS\ vU; vaxkÍ }kjk lkßis x, rd`uhd`h d`k;ksÛ d`ks Hh egklfpo lEikfnr d`jrk gS\ egklfpo ij la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`k fo®h; m®jnkf;Ro Hh gS\ ctV d`k lapk¥u lqpk: Ôi ls gks jgk ;k ugÓ bld`k lEiw.Z m®jnkf;Ro egklfpo ij gksrk gS\ og la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`h lHh fuf|;kÍ d`k vfHj”d` gS vksj muds` O;; ds` f¥, m®jnk;h gß\ egklfpo la? ds` ^frfuf| ds` Ôi eÍ d`k;Z d`jrk gS\ fofHUu vfHd`j.kÍ ,oa ljd`kjkÍ ds` lkƒ okrkZvkÍ eÍ og la? d`k ^frfuf|Ro d`jrk gS vkSj la? d`h vksj ls d`jrk gS\ vkt ds` ifj^s{; eÍ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` egklfpo d`k in fnu-^frfnu jktuhfrd` gksrk tk jgk gS] D;kÍfd` ,d` vksj la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` lnL;kÍ eÍ vR;Ur lc¥ lnL; gS] rks dq`N vR;Ur fucZ¥ dq`N vR;f|d` le~*æk¥h gS] rks dq`N vR;Ur d`etksj\ ,slh fLƒfr egklfpo ;fn vius jktuf;d` foosd` d`k ^;ksx u d`js rks og la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` ew¥ mˆs';kÍ d`h ^kfIr ls HVd` ld`rk gS\ vr# ;fn ^æklfud` d`k;ksÛ eÍ mld`h Hwfed`k ,d` vkjEHd` tSlh gS] rks jktuhfrd` ”s( eÍ mld`h Hwfed`k e÷;Lr okrkZd`rkZ vkSj erSD; fuekZrk ds` leku gS\

la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` egklfpo
egklfpokÍ ds` uke f(Xos¥h Msx gSej lksYM ;wƒkaV dq`rZ okYnghe tsfo;j isjsl fM D;w¥j cqrjl cqrjl ?k¥h d`ksœ`h vUuku cku d`h-ewu lEcfU|r nsæ ukosZ LohMu E;kaekj vkfLV_;k isÔ felz ?kuk n\ d`ksfj;k le;
1946 – 53 1953 – 61 1961 – 71 1972 – 81 1982 – 91 1992 – 96 1997 – 2006 2007 ls vc rd`

vejhd`k ds` fiNÈMs gq, nsækÍ d`ks nh xbZ rd`uhd`h lgk;rk rƒk ekuoh; vf|d`kjkÍ d`h ?ks".k bld`h ^eq[ lœ`¥rk,a ekuh tkrh gß\ ;g laLƒk d`Y;k.d`kjh laLƒk cuk nsrh gS\ æj.kfƒZ;kÍ jkT;foghu O;fâ`;kÍ] Vs_M ;wfu;ukÍ ds` vf|d`kjkÍ] nklrk rƒk csxkj tSlh lekt fojks|h d`k;Zokfg;kÍ ij ifj"nΩ }kjk ^Lrqr fopkj–foeæZ gksrk jgrk gS\ ifj"nΩ us vius ,d` ^Lrko }kjk fd`lh Hh jkÆV_h; uL¥h; rƒk |kfeZd` leqnk; d`ks iw.Zr;k lekIr d`jus ds` ^;kl d`ks voS| ?ksf"r d`j fn;k gS\ vkfƒZd` ,oa ^kof|d` lgk;rk rƒk ;kstukvkÍ ls fiNÈMs gq, jkÆV_kÍ d`k fod`kl bl ifj"nΩ d`k mˆs'; gS\ ;g vko';d` mid`j.kÍ] ;U(kÍ] eæhukÍ] HoukÍ] lÈMd`kÍ ,oa canjxkgkÍ d`ks mi¥C| d`jkd`j O;kikj m»ksx rƒk Î`f" d`h mUufr eÍ lg;ksx nsrh gS\ ;»fi bls vkfƒZd` ,oa lkekftd` fo";kÍ ij fo|ku cukus d`h ”erk ^kIr ugÓ gS\ rƒkfi blus ekuo tkfr ds` mRƒku ,oa mls lq[h thou ^nku d`jus d`h fnæk eÍ ^æaluh; d`k;Z fd`;k gS\ la;qâ` jkÆV_ ck¥ fuf|] la;qâ` jkÆV_ æj.kƒhZ fuf|] rd`uhd`h lgk;rk lfefr] ;wjksi ds` f¥, vkfƒZd` vk;ksx] ,fæ;k o lqnwjiwoZ ds` f¥, vkfƒZd` vk;ksx] ¥SfVu vejhd`k ds` f¥, vkfƒZd` vk;ksx] v≠`hd`k ds` f¥, vkfƒZd` vk;ksx] la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`ksfj;kbZ iqufuZekZ. vfHd`j. vkSj vkfƒZd` fod`kl ds` f¥, foæs" fuf| lcus lEiw.Z fo'o d`h vkfƒZd` ,oa lkekftd` mUufr ds` f¥, egkuΩ ;ksxnku fn;k gS\

vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥;
la;qâ` jkÆV_ ds` fofHUu fud`k;kÍ eÍ vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥; d`k egRoiw.Z Lƒku gS\ ;g la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`k vfHUu vax gS\ la;qâ` jkÆV_ ds` lHh lnL; vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥; ds` lnL; gksrs gß\ vUrjkZT;h; fooknkÍ d`ks lq¥>kus ds` vfrfjâ` ;g ,d` ijkeæZnk;h d`k;Z Hh d`jrk gS\ bld`k eq“;k¥; gsx ·uhnj¥S≥M‚ eÍ gS\ bls fo'o d`k loksZPp U;k;k¥; ugÓ ekuk tk ld`rk\ tc rd` fd`lh fo"; eÍ vU;ƒk visf”r u gks rc rd` blds` fu.Z; Hh vfuok;Z Ôi ls ck÷;d`kjh ugÓ gksrs gß\ blds` lkƒ gh d`ksbZ Hh nsæ viuk fookn blds` le” j[us ds` f¥, ck÷; ugÓ gS\ vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥; d`h Lƒkiuk gsx eÍ 3 v^S¥] 1946 d`ks gqbZ ƒh\ vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥; d`k lafo|ku 70 vuqPNsnkÍ eÍ gS\ la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`h |kjk 92 ds` vuqlkj vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥; d`k xBu gqvk\ vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥; d`h ttkÍ d`h la“;k 15 j[h xbZ gS\ ;s U;k;k|hæ vius eÍ ls gh ,d` lHkifr rƒk milHkifr d`ks 3 o"Z ds` f¥, pqurs gß\ U;k;k|hækÍ d`k pquko

d`jrh gS \ bu l(kÍ d`k ckjh–ckjh ls U;w;kWdZ` vkSj tsusok eÍ vk;kstu gksrk gS\ blds` vfrfjâ` ;g U;w;kWdZ` eÍ nks laxBukRed` l(kÍ d`k Hh vk;kstu d`jrh gS\ eq“; l( ds` nkSjku ,d` mPpLrjh; cSBd` vk;ksftr d`h tkrh gS ftleÍ efU(;kÍ ds` lkƒ ofjÆB vf|d`kjh Hh Hkx ¥srs gß\ bl cSBd` eÍ egRoiw.Z vkfƒZd` lkekftd` eqnΩnkÍ ij ppkZ d`h tkrh gS\ vkfƒZd` vkSj lkekftd` ifj"nΩ vUrjkZÆV_h;] vkfƒZd`] lkekftd`] lkaLÎ`frd`] æSf”d`] LokLF; rƒk lEcfU|r eke¥kÍ ij v÷;;u d`j ld`rh gS rƒk bl fo"; eÍ egklHk la;qâ` jkÆV_ ds` lnL;kÍ rƒk fofæÆV vfHd`j.kÍ d`ks fjiksVZ ns ld`rh gS\ vuqPNsn 65 ds` vuqlkj ;g egklHk d`h flœ`kfjækÍ ds` f∂`;kUo;u ds` lEcU| eÍ ,sls ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/698

d`k;Z d`j ld`rh gS] tks mld`h vf|d`kfjrk eÍ vkrs gks vkSj og mu nwljs lHh d`k;ksÛ d`ks d`j ld`rh gS] tks la;qâ` jkÆV_ ds` pkVZj eÍ vU;( fn, x, gß vƒok egklHk }kjk mls lkßis x, gß\ vkfƒZd` ,oa lkekftd` ifj"nΩ ds` ^eq[ d`k;ksÛ eÍ ls ,d` fofHUu fofæÆV vfHd`j.kÍ d`h xfrfof|;kÍ eÍ leUo; d`juk Hh gS\ oLrqr# xjhckÍ] ?k;¥kÍ rƒk vfæf”rkÍ d`h lgk;rk d`jds` vkfƒZd` ,oa lkekftd` ifj"nΩ fo'o ækfUr d`h Lƒkiuk eÍ lgk;rk d`jrh gS\ ;g lHh ^d`kj ds` ¥ksxkÍ ds` thou eÍ lq|kj d`jus d`k ^;Ru d`jrh gS\ vkfƒZd` vkSj lkekftd` ifj"nΩ us vusd` ”s(kÍ eÍ ljkguh; d`k;Z fd`;k gS\ foæs"r# blds` rƒk fofæÆV lfefr;kÍ ds` rRoko|ku eÍ ,fæ;k] v≠`hd`k vkSj ¥SfVu

lqj”k ifj"nΩ rƒk egklHk }kjk 9 o"Z ds` f¥, fd`;k tkrk gS\ U;k;k|hækÍ d`ks vusd` foæs"kf|d`kj lkßis tkrs gß\ U;k;k¥; ds` lEeq[ okfn;kÍ ds` ^frfuf| ijkeæZnkrk vkSj od`h¥kÍ d`ks Hh LorU(rkiwoZd` d`k;Z d`jus d`h NwV nh tkrh gS\ U;k;k¥; d`h x.iwfrZ 9 j[h xbZ gS\ U;k;k¥; ds` lHh fu.Z; cgqer ls f¥, tkrs gß\ cgqer u gksus ij lHkifr d`k fu.kZ;d` er ekU; gksrk gS\ U;k;k¥; d`h Hk"k ≠ß`p rƒk vaxzsth gS\ U;k;k¥; ds` le” ^Lrqr eqd`nekÍ eÍ oknh vkSj ^froknh ds`o¥ jkÆV_ gh gks ld`rs gß\ U;k;k¥; d`k [pZ lnL; nsæ nsrs gß\ [pZ d`k fd`ruk fgLlk fd`l nsæ d`k nsuk gS ;g egklHk r; d`jrh gS\ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` okf"Zd` ctV eÍ U;k;k¥; d`k ctV Hh lfEef¥r jgrk gS\ ;»fi U;k;k¥; d`k Lƒk;h d`k;kZ¥; gsx eÍ gS\ rƒkfi eqd`nes d`h lquokbZ nwljs nsæ eÍ Hh gks ld`rh gS\ vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥; d`k ”s(kf|d`kj fuEuf¥f[r rhu oxksÛ eÍ foHkftr fd`;k tk ld`rk gS% 1. ,sfPNd` ”s(kf|d`kj (Voluntary Jurisdiction)%vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥; d`h lafof| d`h |kjk 36 ds` vuqlkj U;k;k¥; mu lHh eke¥kÍ ij fopkj d`j ld`rk gS ftud`ks lEcfU|r jkT; U;k;k¥; ds` lEeq[ ^Lrqr d`js\ 2. vfuok;Z ”s(kf|d`kj (Compulsory Jurisdiction)%jkT; Lo;a ?ks " .k d`jds` bu ”s(kÍ eÍ U;k;k¥; ds` vko';d` ”s(kf|d`kj d`ks Lohd`kj d`j ¥srk gS\ ;s gß%laf| d`h O;k“;k] vUrjkZÆV_h; d`kuwu ds` ”s( ls lEcfU|r lHh eke¥s] fd`lh ,sls rF; d`k vfLrRo ftlds` fl* gksus ij fd`lh vUrjkZÆV_h; d`®ZO; d`k mY¥a?u le>k tk, rƒk fd`lh vUrjkZÆV_h; fof| ds` mY¥a?u ij ”friwfrZ d`k Ôi vkSj ifj.ke\ 3. ijkeækZRed` ”s(kf|d`kj (Advisory Jurisdiction)%egklHk ;k lq j ”k ifj"nΩ fd`lh Hh d`kuwuh ^'u ij vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥; d`k ijkeæZ ek∑x ld`rh gS\ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` nwljs vax rƒk foæs" vfHd`j. Hh muds` vf|d`kj ”s( eÍ mBus ok¥s d`kuwuh ^'ukÍ ij U;k;k¥; d`k ijkeæZ ^kIr d`j ld`rs gß\ ijkeæZ ds` f¥, laLƒk ck÷; ugÓ gksrh gS\ pkVZ j ds ` fu;ekÍ ds ` vuq l kj vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥; oknkÍ d`k fu.Z; d`jus eÍ vUrjkZÆV_h; fof| d`k ^;ksx d`jrk gS] tks fuEuf¥f[r gß% 1. lkekU; vƒok fofæÆV iwoZ vUrjkZÆV_h; laf|;k∑ vkSj le>kSrs ftud`ks oknxzLr i” Lohd`kj d`jrs gkÍ\ ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/699

os vUrjkZÆV_h; ijEijk,a vkSj jhfrfjoktÍ ftUgÍ lkekU;r;k ^;ksx eÍ ekuk tkrk gks\ 3. l˙; jkÆV_kÍ }kjk ekU;rk ^kIr d`kuwukÍ ds` lkekU; fl*kUr\ 4. fHUu–fHUu jkÆV_kÍ ds` os®kvkÍ vkSj U;k;k|hækÍ }kjk fn, x, fu.Z;\ ;»fi vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥; ds ` fu.Z;kÍ ds` ihNs d`ksbZ ck÷;d`kjh æfâ` ugÓ gS fœ`j Hh tc ls blus tUe f¥;k gS blds` }kjk vusd` vUrjkZÆV_h; eke¥kÍ d`ks lq¥>k;k tk pqd`k gS\

2.

la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? # fo'o ækfUr
la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`k loksZifj mˆs'; gS fo'o ækfUr ,oa lqj”k d`ks cuk, j[uk gS\ pkVZj eÍ vuqPNsn 33 ls 38 rd` vUrjkZÆV_h; fooknkÍ ds` ækfUr iw.Z le>kSrs d`h O;oLƒk,∑ d`h xbZ gß\ tc ls la? d`h Lƒkiuk gqbZ gS rc ls vkt rd` vUrjkZÆV_h; ækfUr ,oa lqj”k lEcU|h vusd` fookn blds` le” ¥k, x, gß\ bu fooknkÍ d`ks lq¥>kus eÍ ;»fi la? lnSo lœ`¥ ugÓ gqvk gS rƒkfi vusd` ckj ;q* d`h lEHkoukvkÍ d`ks Vk¥d`j fo'o–ækfUr d`h fnæk eÍ mlus mY¥s[uh; Hwfed`k fuHkbZ gS\ ^kjEH ls gh la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? us jkÆV_kÍ ds` vkilh fooknkÍ rƒk x~g;q*kÍ d`ks vius ækafr ^;klkÍ ,oa vfH;kukÍ }kjk nwj d`jus d`h psÆVk d`h gS\ pkgs og d`ksfj;k leL;k jgh gks ;k vjc-btjkb¥ la?"Z] ;eu ,oa ;wxksL¥kfo;k d`k x~g;q* gks ;k ¥scuku] d`kaxks ,oa lkb^l lad`V] jksMsfæ;k eÍ ækfUr Lƒkiuk d`k ^'u gks ;k lksekf¥;k d`h fod`V fLƒfr la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? lnSo ækfUr Lƒkiuk d`jus gsrq ^frc* jgk gS\ bl lanHZ eÍ d`EcksfM;k eÍ d`jk;k x;k ækfUr le>kSrk mY¥s[uh; gS] ¥sfd`u vkfƒZd` lhferrkvkÍ] ?Vrh jktuhfrd` ^frc*rkvkÍ rƒk d`e gksrs lSU; lg;ksx ls ;g fo'o laLƒk d`bZ LƒkukÍ ij ækfUr Lƒkiuk d`jus eÍ vlœ`¥ jgh\ vl¥ eÍ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`h bl foœ`¥rk d`k ^eq [ d`kj. vUrjkZÆV_h; leL;kvkÍ d`k lSfud` gLr”si ls lek|ku d`jus d`h lksp gS\ vko';d`rk bl ckr d`h gS fd` lSfud` gLr”si d`h ctk; ;ƒkƒZoknh ,oa larqf¥r uhfr viuk,\ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ,d` ,slh laLƒk gS] tgk∑ fooknkÍ ds` fuiVkus ds` f¥, ,d` vksj rks fopkj-foeæZ fd`;k tk ld`rk gS nwljh vksj ;q* d`h lh fLƒfr;kÍ ,oa lEHkfor fLƒfr;kÍ ds` fujkd`j. ds` f¥, ^LrkokÍ ds` Ôi eÍ mik; lq>k, tkrs gß\ ;»fi la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`k laxBu ,d` ljd`kj d`k laxBu ugÓ gS vkSj u gh bld`h d`k;Z^.k¥h gh ljd`kjh gS fœ`j Hh ;g vius lnL;kÍ ds`

lg;ksx ls tks d`nkfpr vkt fo'o ;q*kÍ d`ks ,d` ^d`kj ls vekU; Lohd`kj d`j pqds` gß\ i;kZIr Ôi ls fookn d`h fLƒfr ij fu;a(. ikus] mld`k fujkd`j. d`jus ;k mls foLr~r fookn d`k ”s( u cuus nsus ds` f¥, vk|kj ^Lrqr d`jrk gS\ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? us la?"Z d`k d`bZ fLƒfr;kÍ eÍ tSls fd` d`kaxks vkSj lkb^l eÍ ækfUr j”k ds` ”s( eÍ egRoiw.Z ;ksxnku fn;k gS\ blh ^d`kj d`bZ vUrjkZÆV_h; fooknkÍ eÍ Hkjr-ckaX¥knsæ fooknkÍ rƒk if'pe ,fæ;k lad`V eÍ mlds` fopkj–foeæZ ,oa l¥kg-eæfojs ds` ek÷;e ls gk¥kr d`h xgekxgeh d`ks d`e d`jus d`h Hw f ed`k fuHkbZ gS \ vœ`xkfuLrku ls lksfo;r lSfud`kÍ d`h okilh ds` ckjs eÍ tusok le>kSrk (1988), bjkd`-bZjku ;q* fojke le>kSrk (1988), ukehfc;k d`h LorU(rk lEcU|h le>kSrk (1988), vaxks¥k ls D;wckbZ lSfud`kÍ d`h okilh ds` f¥, i;Zos”d`kÍ d`k n¥ rS;kj d`juk vkfn\ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`h 16 ækfUr lsuk,a fofHUu ”s(kÍ eÍ rSukr gß\ 1945 ls vc rd` la? d`h ns[js[ eÍ ¥xHx 172 ”s(h; la?"ksÛ d`k funku ækfUriw.Z le>kSrkÍ }kjk fd`;k tk pqd`k gS\ vius 64 o"Z d`h d`k¥kof| eÍ d`EcksfM;k] ukehfc;k] v¥ lYokMksj] ekstkfEcd` tSls 45 nsækÍ eÍ fuÆi” pquko d`jokd`j ¥ksd`rU( d`h Lƒkiuk eÍ la? us lg;ksx fn;k gS\ nf”. v≠`hd`k eÍ jaxHsn d`ks lekIr d`jus d`h fnæk eÍ la? d`ks vHwriwoZ lœ`¥rk fe¥h gS\ blds` v¥kok la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` eq“;k¥; d`k viuk fofæÆV okrkoj. gS\ mlds` d`kWœ`h gkml ¥kmt vkSj xf¥;kjkÍ eÍ ijLij fojks|h i”kÍ ds` ^frfuf| pkgs vupkgs vkil eÍ fe¥ tkrs gß\ bl rjg fojksf|;kÍ ds` chp laokn lEidZ` iwjh rjg VwVrk ugÓ gS\ bu vukSipkfjd` lEidZ` ds` ifj.keLoÔi d`Hh-d`Hh dq`N æad`kvkÍ d`k fuokj. gks tkrk gS ;k ruko d`e gks tkrs gß\ vr# la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? vUrjkZÆV_h; fooknkÍ d`ks mxz gksus ls jksd`us ds` f¥, ,d` lsŒVh okYo (Safety Valve) d`k d`ke d`jrk gS\

la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` le” pqukSfr;k∑
fo'o ;q* ds` jâ`jaftr bfrgkl ds` iqujkorZu ls fo'o d`ks cpkus ds` f¥, fo'o d`h rRd`k¥hu egkæfâ`;kÍ us la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`h Lƒkiuk d`h\ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? us fo'o ækfUr vkSj lqj”k Lƒkfir d`jus ds` fofHUu vUrjkZÆV_h; fooknkÍ d`k lek|ku fd`;k] ¥sfd`u cgqr ls eke¥kÍ eÍ ;g d`ksbZ egRoiw.Z Hwfed`k ugÓ fuHk ld`k\ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` fo'o jkT; cuus eÍ fofHUu pqukSfr;k∑ mlds` lEeq[ fo»eku gß% 1. la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` ,d` fo'o jkT; cuus eÍ lcls cÈMh pqukSrh vejhd`k

}kjk Lƒkfir ,d`|zqoh; O;oLƒk gS\ vejhd`k }kjk la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`ks vius fe( jkÆV_kÍ ds` lg;ksx ls vius œ`k;ns ds` f¥, bLrsek¥ d`jus d`h ^o~f® la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` vkSfpR; ij lokf¥;k fuæku ¥xk jgh gS\ bjkd` ,oa ;wxksL¥kfo;k ds` eke¥s eÍ vejhd`k us ftl rjg ls la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`k bLrsek¥ fd`;k gS mlls fo'o ds` fod`klæh¥ ,oa v*Zfod`flr jkÆV_kÍ d`h utj eÍ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` i”ikr jfgr Hwfed`k d`h Nfo igq∑ph gS\ 2. la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`k vkfƒZd` Ôi ls fod`flr nsækÍ foæs"d`j vejhd`k ij fuHZj jguk bl laLƒk ds` i”ikr jfgr jgus d`h lEHkouk d`ks d`e d`j nsrk gS\ vejhd`k }kjk la? d`ks vius ctV eÍ d`eh d`jus tSls funsZæ nsus ls la? d`h oSf'od` eqf[;k d`h Nfo ij |Dd`k ¥xrk gS vkSj ;g blds` d`etksjh d`ks mtkxj d`j nsrk gS\ 3. la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`h lcls cÈMh d`eh bld`h viuh lsuk d`k vHko gksuk gS\ blds` lnL; nsækÍ ds` lf∂`; lg;ksx foæs"d`j lSU; æfâ` ls etcwr nsækÍ ds` lg;ksx ij fuHZj jguk iÈMrk gS\ blls la? lgh le; ij u rks ;q* jksd` ld`rk gS vkSj ugÓ ækfUr Lƒkiuk d`k d`k;Z gh le; ij d`j ld`rk gS\ 4. vUrjkZÆV_h; jktuhfrd` fo'¥s"d`kÍ d`k ekuuk gS fd` tc rd` la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`h egklHk d`ks vf|d`kj ugÓ fn;k tk,xk vkSj tc rd` lqj”k ifj"nΩ eÍ vf|d` nsækÍ d`ks ækfe¥ d`jds` bls ^tkrkaf(d` æD¥ ugÓ nh tk,xh rc rd` la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ,d` fo'o jkT; cuus ds` ¥k;d` ugÓ cu lds`xk\ 5. la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? viuh laxBukRed` ijsækfu;kÍ ds` lkƒ–lkƒ fo'oHj eÍ rsth ls cÈ<rs vkrad`okn] ”s(h;rkokn vkSj vkilh oSeuL;rk ds` d`kj. Hh fo'o jkT; cuus d`h lEHkouk ”h. gks tkrh gS\ bu pqukSfr;kÍ ds` lkƒ–lkƒ dq`N ,sls Hh lads`r gß tks ;g lEHkouk,a ^Lrqr d`jrs gß fd` vkus ok¥s fnukÍ eÍ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ,d` fo'o jkT; cu tk,xk\ ijek.q v^lkj laf|] i;kZoj. leL;k ds` funku ds` f¥, lkewfgd` ^;kl fo'o ds` vkfƒZd` Ôi ls ,d` lw( eÍ c∑|us] [rjukd` æL(kÍ ds` f[¥kœ` cÈ<rh tuHkouk] ifjogu ,oa lapkj ds` ”s( eÍ vkbZ ∂`kfUr vkfn ds` d`kj. vkt lEiw.Z fo'o ,d` ‘oSf'od` xk∑o’ (Global Village) eÍ ifjofrZr gksrk tk jgk gS\ lHh rjg ds` oSf'od` lg;ksx eÍ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`h cÈ<rh Hwfed`k vc ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/700

bl rF; d`ks mtkxj d`jrh gS] tgk∑ vkt lEiw.Z fo'o la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` usr~Ro eÍ ,d` lw( eÍ c∑|rk tk jgk gS] ogÓ la? d`h Hwfed`k vc ,d` oSf'od` eqf[;k d`k Ôi ¥srk tk jgk gS\ ,slh fLƒfr eÍ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? ds` ,d` fo'o jkT; cuus d`h lEHkouk cÈ< tkrh gS\

la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? rƒk Hkjr
Hkjr d`h Hwfed`k%la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`h ækfUr Lƒkiuk d`h xfrfof|;kÍ eÍ Hkjr d`h egRoiw.Z ,oa ljkguh; Hwfed`k d`ks ns[rs gq, bld`h lnL;rk d`h nkosnkjh ls bud`kj ugÓ fd`;k tk ld`rk gS\ fiN¥s ik∑p næd`kÍ eÍ gq, T;knkrj egRoiw.Z d`k;Z∂`ekÍ eÍ Hkjr d`h Hkxhnkjh fe¥rh gS\ Hkjr us fiN¥s 1950 ds` næd` eÍ d`ksfj;k] d`EcksfM;k] fo;ruke] flokbZ o ¥scuku vkfn nsækÍ eÍ gqbZ d`k;Zokgh eÍ fgLlk f¥;k gS\ orZeku lUnHZ eÍ ^eq[ d`k;Zokfg;kÍ] tSls bjkd`–bZjku] vaxks¥k] ukehfc;k] bjkd`–dq`oSr] ;wxksL¥kfo;k] d`EcksfM;k] lksekf¥;k] jokaMk vkfn eÍ Hh læâ` Hwfed`k,a fuHkbZ gß\ 1. loZ^ƒe 1953 eÍ d`ksfj;k ds` ;q* ds` le; Hkjrh; lSfud`kÍ d`ks ;q* ds` dS`fn;kÍ d`h ftEesokjh ls fuiVus gsrq rVLƒ nsækÍ ds` ^R;korZu vk;ksx ds` v÷;” d`h Hwfed`k fuHkbZ\ 2. tq¥kbZ 1954 eÍ b≥Mksusfæ;k ”s( ls lEcfU|r tsusok le>kSrs ds` vUrxZr Hkjr d`ks baMksusfæ;k ”s( ds` fu;a(. ,oa fujh”. ds` f¥, xfBr vUrjkZÆV_h; vk;ksx ds` v÷;” d`h Hwfed`k fuHkbZ\ 3. 1960–63 eÍ d`kaxks eÍ ækfUr d`h Lƒkiuk ds` f¥, Hkjr d`h ,d` LorU( fczxsM d`ks d`k;Z lkßik x;k] ftls ftEesnkjhiwoZd` fuHk;k\ 4. lcls ^eq[ d`k;Z œ`jojh 1992 eÍ lrhæ ukafc;kj d`ks ;wxksL¥kfo;k eÍ la;qâ` jkÆV_ lqj”k lsuk d`k d`ekaMj fu;qâ` fd`;k x;k\ blds` vfrfjâ` 50 o"ksÛ eÍ Hkjr us la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`h 23 ækfUr Lƒkiuk d`h xfrfof|;kÍ eÍ Hkx f¥;k gS\ Hkjr ækfUr lsuk d`k lgh f∂`;kUo;u d`h Hwfed`k d`ks ns[rs gq, bld`h fo'oHj eÍ ljkguk gqbZ gS\ blds` vfrfjâ` Hkjr us la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`h fofHUu xfrfof|;kÍ eÍ viuk ;ksxnku fn;k% ^ƒe] Hkjr us la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`h Lƒkiuk eÍ Hkxhnkjh] mlds` vknæksÛ ,oa mˆs';kÍ ds` ^fr opuc*rk] ækfUriw.Z <ax ls fooknkÍ d`k g¥ d`jus rƒk fo'o ds` fofHUu ”s(kÍ ækfUr Lƒkiuk ij c¥ nsd`j blds` laLƒkxr <k∑ps ds` fu|kZj.] d`k;kZUo;u rƒk fod`kl d`h ^f∂`;k d`ks cÈ<k;k gS\ f}rh;] Hkjr us Ôl o v≠`hd`k ds` jkÆV_kÍ d`ks

mifuosæokn ds` paxq¥ ls LorU( d`jk;k\ r~rh;] Hkjr us ;gk∑ ij ^pf¥r jaxHsn] xjhch] csjkstxkjh rƒk vfæ”k d`ks nwj d`jds` bu jkÆV_kÍ d`ks ækfUr ^f∂`;k ds` egRo d`ks le>kus rƒk ml ij ve¥ d`jus ;ksX; cuk;k\ prqƒZ] loZ^ƒe Hkjr us fujL(hd`j. o æL( fu;a(. d`h ^f∂`;k eÍ lf∂`; Hwfed`k fuHkbZ rƒk gfƒ;kjkÍ ls eqâ` fo'o d`h d`Yiuk d`ks lkd`kj cuk;k\ iape] jktuSfrd` ds` lkƒ vkfƒZd` le~f*] lekurk ,oa U;k; gsrq ubZ vkfƒZd` fo'o O;oLƒk ds` fuekZ. eÍ Hh lf∂`; ;ksxnku fn;k\ NBk] orZeku la?"ksÛ ls fuiVus gsrq la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`h ækfUr O;oLƒk d`h xfrfof|;kÍ eÍ O;kid` Lrj ij lg;ksx ds` ek÷;e ls jkT;kÍ ds` chp ruko ok¥s ”s(kÍ eÍ ækfUr Lƒkfir d`jus ds` ^;kl fd`,\

Hkjr d`k lqj”k ifj"nΩ eÍ Lƒk;h lnL;rk d`k nkok
fo'o ds` vf|d`kaæ nsæ la;qâ` jkÆV_ ds` lokZf|d` ^Hkoh vax] lqj”k ifj"nΩ ds` lq|kj ,oa foLrkj d`h Hh ek∑x d`j jgs gß\ fo'o ds` dq`N nsæ lqj”k ifj"nΩ ds` foLrkj d`h ek∑x ds` lkƒ–lkƒ bl ifj"nΩ d`h lnL;rk ds` f¥, viuk nkok ^Lrqr d`j jgs gß\ ,sls nsækÍ eÍ Hkjr Hh ,d` gS\ Hkjr us lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`h Lƒk;h lnL;rk ds` f¥, nkok d`jus ds` ∂`e eÍ fuEuf¥f[r rdZ` fn, gß% 1. ¥xHx ,d` vjc tula“;k ds` lkƒ Hkjr fo'o d`k nwljk lcls cÈMk tula“;k ok¥k nsæ gS\ 2. lqj”k ifj"nΩ eÍ fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`k ^frfuf| ugÓ gS\ fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ ,oa xqVfujis” vkUnks¥u ds` LokHkfod` usrk gksus ds` d`kj. Hkjr d`ks lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`k Lƒk;h lnL; cuuk pkfg,\ 3. lq j ”k ifj"nΩ eÍ lHh ”s ( kÍ d`ks ^frfuf|Ro fn;k tkuk pkfg,] blf¥, nf”. ,fæ;k ”s( ls Hkjr d`ks ;g Lƒku ^kIr gksuk pkfg,\ 4. HkSxksf¥d` n~fÆV ls Hh Hkjr d`kœ`h foæk¥ nsæ gS\ 5. viuh LorU(rk ds` ckn ls Hkjr us gesæk vUrjkZÆV_h; lnΩHko ,oa ækfUr Lƒkiuk ds` d`k;Z eÍ la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? d`k leƒZu ,oa lg;ksx fd`;k gS\ 6. orZeku fo'o vkfƒZd` O;oLƒk eÍ Hkjr d`k Lƒku NBk gS\ bl d`kj. Hh Hkjr d`ks Lƒk;h lnL;rk fe¥uh pkfg,\ vr# la;qâ` jkÆV_ la? eÍ Hkjr d`h fLƒfr rƒk Hkjr ds` ækfUriw.Z d`k;ksÛ d`ks ns[rs gq, lqj”k ifj"nΩ eÍ bls Lƒk;h lnL;rk fe¥uh pkfg,\
●●●

lkekftd` ¥s[

efg¥k lkf|d`kfjrk gsrq oSf'od` ig¥
oSf'od` Lrj ij ¥ksd`rkaf(d` O;oLƒk tSls-tSls lqn~È< gksrh xbZ] efg¥kvkÍ d`ks iq:"kÍ ds` led`” ¥kus d`h eqfge eÍ Hh rsth vkrh xbZ\ fof| ,oa U;k; ds` le” lekurk] ¥ksd` lsokvkÍ eÍ fu;qfDr gsrq leku volj] fopkj vfHO;fDr] fuokl] jkstxkj vkfn d`h LorU(rk ikfjokfjd` lEif® eÍ fgLlsnkjh] fu.Z;u ds` ^R;sd` Lrj ij lekurk] [ku-iku] jgu-lgu] fæ”k vkfn ds` ”s( eÍ lekurk vkfn eke¥kÍ eÍ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks u ds`o¥ iq:"kÍ ds` cjkcj ¥k;k x;k] oju tgk∑ d`gÓ vko';d`rk ƒh] ogk∑ muds` lEeku ,oa fuÆBk d`h j”k ds` f¥, foæs" ^ko|ku Hh fd`, x,\ oSf'od` Lrj ij fd`, x, ^;klkÍ d`k ¥s[k-tks[k rkf¥d`k-1 eÍ ^Lrqr fd`;k x;k gS\

fo'o eÍ efg¥k vf|d`kjkÍ d`h fLƒfr 

vuhæ Hlhu

∏;( uk;ZLrq iwtrs jeUrs r( nsorkπ vƒkZrΩ tgk∑ efg¥k d`h iwtk gksrh gS] ogk∑ nsork clrs gß\ iwtk d`k vƒZ lEeku ls gS\ rkRi;Z ;g gS fd` tgk∑ efg¥k d`k lEeku gksrk gS] ogk∑ lq[ ,oa le~f* d`k okl gksrk gS\ efg¥k ls gh ?j] ifjokj] lekt curk gS vkSj nsæ rjDd`h d`jrk gS\ efg¥k csVh] cgu] iRuh] ek∑ Hh gS vkSj nsoh Hh\ ¥sfd`u ?j-ifjokj] leqnk; d`h ifjlEif®;kÍ eÍ efg¥kvkÍ d`h fgLlsnkjh

ek( 10-20 ^frær gh gS\ lkekftd`] vkfƒZd`] jktuhfrd` vkfn lHh ”s(kÍ eÍ efg¥kvkÍ ds` lkƒ HsnHko fd`;k tkrk gS\ lkjs fo'o eÍ ¥ksd`rkaf(d` ^.k¥h vk|kfjr æklu O;oLƒk viuk, tkus ds` ckotwn efg¥kvkÍ d`ks iq:"kÍ ds` led`” vf|d`kj ^kIr ugÓ gS\ muds` ekuokf|d`kjkÍ d`k guu fd`;k tkrk gS rƒk mud`k vkfƒZd` ,oa nSfgd` æks". fd`;k tkrk gS\

rkf¥d`k-1 # oSf'od` Lrj ij efg¥k vf|d`kjkÍ ds` fod`kl d`k ?Vuk∂`e
∂`\la\
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

o"Z
1792 1857 1869 1890 1893 1901 1903 1908 1913 1913 1916 1917 1918 1920 1927 1945 1946 1948 1952 1959 1966

nsæ d`k uke fczVsu vejhd`k fczVsu vejhd`k U;wth¥S≥M vkLV_sf¥;k œz`kal vejhd`k ukWosZ vejhd`k d`ukMk Hkjr fczVsu vejhd`k Hkjr bV¥h vUrjkZÆV_h; Lrj ij vUrjkZÆV_h; Lrj ij la;qDr jkÆV_ la? Jh¥ad`k la;qDr jkÆV_ la?

22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

1971 1974 1975 1975 1975

fLoVΩtj¥S≥M œz`kal la;qDr jkÆV_ la? la;qDr jkÆV_ la? la;qDr jkÆV_ la?

?Vuk fooj. vk|qfud` ukjhoknh vkUnks¥u d`h laLƒkid` esjh oqYLVu ∂S`IV d`h efg¥k vf|d`kjkÍ ij iqLrd` ‘foUMhds`æu vkWœ` nh jkbVΩl vkWœ` oheu’ ^d`kfær gqbZ\ U;w;kWdZ` ægj ds` ¥ksmj bZLV b¥kds` eÍ æks". ,oa cng¥ ls (Lr efg¥kvkÍ us vf|d`kjkÍ ds` f¥, 8 ekpZ] 1857 d`ks cxkor d`h\ blh le; ls ^fro"Z 8 ekpZ d`ks fo'o eÍ ‘efg¥k fnol’ euk;k tkrk gS\ efg¥k vf|d`kjkÍ ij ts\ ,l\ fe¥ d`h iqLrd` ‘lCtsDæu vkWœ` oheu’ ^d`kfær\ jkÆV_h; efg¥k laxBu d`h Lƒkiuk\ fo'o eÍ loZ^ƒe U;wth¥S≥M eÍ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks erkf|d`kj ^kIr gqvk\ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks erkf|d`kj ^kIr gqvk\ œz`kal d`h eSMe D;wjh ukscs¥ iqjLd`kj ^kIr d`jus ok¥h ^ƒe efg¥k cuh\ ‘baVjusæu¥ oheu jkbVΩl ,¥k;al’ d`h Lƒkiuk gqbZ\ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks erkf|d`kj ^kIr gqvk\ usæu¥ oheu ikVhZ d`h Lƒkiuk\ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks erkf|d`kj ^kIr\ ‘oheu bafM;u ,lksfl,æu’ vƒkZrΩ efg¥kvkÍ d`k Hkjrh; la? d`h Lƒkiuk\ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks erkf|d`kj ^kIr ·tcfd` o;Ld` erkf|d`kj 1928 eÍ ^kIr gqvk‚\ 19oÍ lafo|ku laæks|u }kjk vejhd`k eÍ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks erkf|d`kj ^kIr gqvk\ ‘vkW¥ bf≥M;k oheu ¥hx’ d`h Lƒkiuk\ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks erkf|d`kj ^kIr gqvk\ la;qDr jkÆV_ la? }kjk ‘LVsVΩl vkWœ` ohel’ ds` uke ij ,d` d`ehæu d`k xBu\ la;qDr jkÆV_ d`h egklHk us 10 fnlEcj] 1948 d`ks ekuokf|d`kjkÍ d`h lkoZHkSfed` ?ks".k-i( Lohd`kj fd`;k\ ?ks".k-i( ds` vusd` vuqPNsnkÍ eÍ efg¥k vf|d`kjkÍ d`k mY¥s[ gS\ la;qDr jkÆV_ la? d`h egklHk us efg¥kvkÍ ds` jktuhfrd` vf|d`kjkÍ ds` fu;ekÍ d`ks ikfjr fd`;k\ fo'o d`h ‘^ƒe efg¥k ^|kuea(h’ ds` Ôi eÍ ,l\ H≥Mkjuk;ds` pquh xbZ\ la;qDr jkÆV_ egklHk }kjk ‘flfo¥ vkSj jktuhfrd` vf|d`kjkÍ ij vUrjkZÆV_h; ^lafonk’ rƒk ‘vkfƒZd`] lkekftd` vkSj lkaLd~`frd` vf|d`kjkÍ ij vUrjkZÆV_h; ^lafonk’ fnlEcj 1966 eÍ Lohd`kj d`h xbZ] tcfd` ;g nksukÍ ^lafonk,a 1976 eÍ ^Hkoh gks ld`Ó\ ^lafonkvkÍ ds` d`bZ vuqPNsn efg¥k vf|d`kjkÍ ls lEcfU|r gß\ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks erkf|d`kj ^kIr gqvk\ œz`kal d`h lheksu n cqvk ukjh eqfDr vkUnks¥u d`h v÷;” pquh xbÛ\ efg¥kvkÍ ds` mRƒku gsrq ‘vUrjkZÆV_h; æks| ,oa ^fæ”.’ laLƒku d`h Lƒkiuk la;qDr jkÆV_ egklHk }kjk d`h xbZ\ fo'o eÍ vUrjkZÆV_h; efg¥k lEes¥u vk;ksftr fd`;k x;k\ ig¥k fo'o efg¥k lEes¥u tq¥kbZ 1975 eÍ eSfDld`ks eÍ vk;ksftr fd`;k x;k\

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/701

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

1975 1975–85 1976 1979 1980 1985 1992 1993 1994 1995 2001 2002 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2006

la;qDr la;qDr la;qDr la;qDr

jkÆV_ jkÆV_ jkÆV_ jkÆV_

la? la? la? la?

la;qDr jkÆV_ la? la;qDr jkÆV_ la? Hkjr Hkjr Ôl la;qDr jkÆV_ la? Hkjr vUrj lalnh; la? ckaX¥knsæ dq`oSr teZuh ¥kbcsfj;k Hkjr cgjhu

o"Z 1975 ‘vUrjkZÆV_h; efg¥k o"Z’ ds` Ôi eÍ euk;k x;k\ efg¥kvkÍ ds` f¥, ‘la;qDr jkÆV_ næd`’ ds` Ôi eÍ euk;k x;k\ efg¥kvkÍ gsrq ‘la;qDr jkÆV_ fod`kl fuf|’ d`h Lƒkiuk d`h xbZ\ efg¥kvkÍ ds` fo:* lHh ^d`kj ds` HsnHko d`h lekfIr ij ^lafonk la;qDr jkÆV_ egklHk }kjk 18 fnlEcj] 1979 d`ks Lohd~`r d`h xbZ vkSj flrEcj 1981 eÍ ¥kxw gks xbZ\ f}rh; fo'o efg¥k lEes¥u tq¥kbZ 1980 eÍ d`ksisugsxu ·MsuekdZ`‚ eÍ vk;ksftr fd`;k x;k\ r~rh; fo'o efg¥k lEes¥u tq¥kbZ 1985 eÍ uSjksch ·d`hfu;k‚ eÍ vk;ksftr fd`;k x;k\ Hkjr eÍ jkÆV_h; efg¥k vk;ksx d`k xBu\ lafo|ku ds` 73oÍ ,oa 74oÍ laæks|u }kjk iapk;rh jkt laLƒkvkÍ rƒk Lƒkuh; uxj fud`k;kÍ eÍ ,d`frgkbZ in efg¥kvkÍ ds` f¥, vkjf”r d`jds` fu.Z;u eÍ mud`h Hkxhnkjh lqfuf'pr d`h xbZ\ ohesu vkWœ` ,fæ;k uked` vkUnks¥u d`h uÓo j[h xbZ\ prqƒZ fo'o efg¥k lEes¥u 1995 eÍ isb¯px ·phu‚ eÍ vk;ksftr fd`;k x;k\ ‘efg¥k læfDrd`j. o"Z’ ds` Ôi eÍ euk;k x;k\ vUrj lalnh; la? ds` ,d` vuqeku ds` vuqlkj o"Z 2002 eÍ tkjh fjiksVZ vuqlkj fo'o eÍ dq`¥ lkalnkÍ eÍ efg¥kvkÍ d`k ds`o¥ 14·7 ^frær gS\ laln d`h dq`¥ 300 lhV eÍ ls 45 lhVÍ efg¥kvkÍ ds` f¥, vkjf”r d`h xbÛ\ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks erkf|d`kj ^kIr gqvk\ ,ats¥k edsZ`¥ teZuh d`h ^ƒe efg¥k pkal¥j cuÓ\ ,s¥u tkWgUlu lj¥hœ` vœz`hd`k eÍ jkÆV_ifr ds` in ij fu;qDr gksus ok¥h ^ƒe efg¥k cuÓ\ Hkjr eÍ ?js¥w ¯glk ls efg¥kvkÍ d`h lqj”k ^nku d`jus ok¥k ?js¥w ¯glk vf|fu;e] 2005 ikfjr\ tklse v¥ d`kojh [kÈMh nsæ eÍ efg¥k U;k;k|hæ fu;qDr gksus ok¥h ^ƒe efg¥k cuÓ\

iq:" nksukÍ d`ks leku osru fn;k tkuk vfuok;Z d`j fn;k x;k gS\ n–26 (1)%^R;sd d`ks la;qDr jkÆV_ la? ds` pkVZj d`h ● vuqPNsd`k vf|d`kj ^kIr` gSO;fDrd`efæ”k tks ^Lrkouk eÍ d`gk x;k gS fd` ∏ge la;qDr ls-d`e ^kjfEHd` vkSj ekSf¥d` voLƒk jkÆV_ ds` ¥ksx ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙ ew¥Hwr ekuokf|d`kjkÍ eÍ fu#æqYd` gksxh\ bl ^d`kj ?ks".keÍ ekuo d`h xfjek vkSj egRo eÍ rƒk L(h i( eÍ lekt ds` ^R;sd` O;fDr d`ks iq:" ds` leku vf|d`kjkÍ eÍ vkLƒk O;Dr fæ”k ^kIr d`jus d`k vf|d`kj gS] d`jrs gß˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙\π bl ^d`kj pkVZj eÍ pkgs og L(h gks ;k iq:"\ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks lekurk ds` vf|d`kj d`h ?ks".k d`h xbZ gS\ ekuokf|d`kjkÍ ds` efg¥kvkÍ d`h ^fLƒfr ij vk;ksx lkoZHkSfed` ?ks".k-i(] 1948 d`ks lHh ·n d`ehæu vkWu n LVsVl vkWœ` lnL; jkÆV_kÍ }kjk bld`k lEeku d`jus ds` ohesu‚ f¥, ck÷; fd`;k x;k gS\ bl ?ks".k-i( vkfƒZd` ,oa lkekftd` ifj"nΩ }kjk ds` d`bZ vuqPNsnkÍ eÍ efg¥k vf|d`kjkÍ d`k 1946 eÍ ;g vk;ksx Lƒkfir fd`;k x;k\ mY¥s[ fe¥rk gS ftueÍ ^eq[ bl ^d`kj vk;ksx lEiw.Z fo'o eÍ efg¥kvkÍ d`h gS% lekurk d`h fnæk eÍ d`h xbZ ^xfr d`h ● vuqPNsn– 2 %^R;sd` O;fDr bl tk∑p ,oa jktuhfrd`] vkfƒZd`] lkekftd` ?ks".k-i( eÍ of.Zr lHh vf|d`kjkÍ ”s(kÍ eÍ fL(;kÍ ds` vf|d`kjkÍ d`ks cÈ<kus ds` vkSj Lora(rkvkÍ d`k gd`nkj gS\ bleÍ f¥, flœ`kfjæÍ d`jrk gS\ orZeku eÍ vk;ksx ew¥oaæ] o.Z] ¯¥x] |eZ] jktuhfr] ds` 45 lnL; gß\ vk;ksx us leLr fo'o eÍ jkÆV_h;rk] lkekftd` mnΩHo] lEif®] efg¥kvkÍ d`h fLƒfr ds` lEcU| eÍ vk∑d`ÈMs tUe ;k vU; ^fLƒfr ds` vk|kj ij ,d`f(r fd`, rƒk ekuokf|d`kjkÍ d`h lkoZHkSfed` ?ks".k rS;kj d`jus eÍ enn d`h\ d`ksbZ HsnHko ugÓ fd`;k tk,xk\ ● vuqPNsn–16 (1)%o;Ld` iq:"kÍ vkSj efg¥kvkÍ gsrq la;qDr jkÆV_ fod`kl fL(;kÍ d`ks ew¥oaæ] jkÆV_h;rk ;k |eZ fuf| ·;wukbVsM usæal Mso¥ieÍV ds` d`kj. fd`lh lhek ds` fcuk] fookg œ`≥M œ`kWj ohesu‚ d`jus vkSj dq`VqEc Lƒkfir d`jus d`k ;g ,d` LoSfPNd` fuf| gS] tks vf|d`kj gS\ efg¥kvkÍ ds` ekuokf|d`kjkÍ] muds` vkfƒZd` ● vuqPNsn–23 (2)%^R;sd` O;fDr d`ks rƒk jktuhfrd` lc¥hd`j. vkSj ¥ßfxd` fd`lh HsnHko ds` fcuk] leku d`k;Z lekurk d`ks ^ksRlkfgr d`jus ok¥s u, <ax ds` f¥, leku osru d`k vf|d`kj gS\ ds` d`k;Z∂`ekÍ d`k leƒZu ,oa rd`uhd`h vƒkZrΩ leku d`k;Z ds` f¥, fL(;k∑ ,oa lgk;rk nsrh gS\ efg¥kvkÍ gsrq la;qDr

la;qDr jkÆV_ la? ,oa efg¥k vf|d`kj

jkÆV_ fod`kl fuf| rhu ^eq[ ”s(kÍ eÍ d`k;Z d`jrh gS] tks bl ^d`kj gS% ● æklu] usr~Ro vkSj fu.Z; ^f∂`;k eÍ efg¥kvkÍ d`h Hkxhnkjh cÈ<kuk« ● fod`kl d`ks vf|d` lekurkiw.Z cukus ds` f¥, efg¥kvkÍ ds` ekuokf|d`kjkÍ d`ks cÈ<kok nsuk« ● m»fe;kÍ rƒk mRiknd`kÍ ds` Ôi eÍ efg¥kvkÍ d`h vkfƒZd` ”erk d`ks etcwr cukuk\

flfo¥ vkSj jktuhfrd` vf|d`kjkÍ ij vUrjkZÆV_h; ^lafonk ,oa efg¥k vf|d`kj
flfo¥ vkSj jktuhfrd` vf|d`kjkÍ ij vUrjkZÆV_h; ^lafonk d`ks la;qDr jkÆV_ la? d`h egklHk us fnlEcj 1966 eÍ Lohd~`fr nh vkSj ;g ^lafonk 23 ekpZ] 1976 ls ¥kxw gks xbZ\ ^lafonk ds` d`bZ vuqPNsn efg¥k vf|d`kjkÍ ls lEcfU|r gS ftueÍ ^eq[ bl ^d`kj gß% ● vuqPNsn–2 (1) ds ` vuq l kj lHh jkT; vius ”s( eÍ bl ^lafonk eÍ Lohd~`r vf|d`kjkÍ d`ks fcuk ^tkfr jax] ¯¥x] Hk"k] |eZ˙˙˙˙˙ ds` vk|kj ij fcuk HsnHko vf|d`kjkÍ ds` lEeku d`jus d`k opu nsrk gS\ ● vuqPNsn–3 ds` vuqlkj ^lafonk eÍ fn, x, lHh flfo¥ vkSj jktuhfrd` vf|d`kjkÍ d`k ¥kH mBkus ds` f¥, iq:" o fL(;kÍ d`ks leku vf|d`kj gkÍxs\

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/702

rkf¥d`k 2 # fo'o ds` ^eq[ nsækÍ ds` lafo|kukÍ ds` vUrxZr efg¥kvkÍ ds` vf|d`kj
∂`\la\
1.

nsæ d`k lafo|ku Hkjr (1950)

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

D;wck (1976) phu (1982) rqd`hZ (1982) nf”. d`ksfj;k (1987) czkth¥ (1988) iqrZxk¥ (1989) vYthfj;k (1989) d`ks¥fEc;k (1991) m®j d`ksfj;k (1992) gaxjh (1994) ;w∂s`u (1994) ikiqvk U;wfxuh (1995) vtjcstku (1995) cs¥kÔl (1996)

lafo|ku d`k vuqPNsn efg¥kvkÍ ds` f¥, mi;ksxh ^ko|ku vuqPNsn 14–32 efg¥kvkÍ d`ks d`bZ vf|d`kj ^kIr gß ftueÍ ^eq[ gß%lekurk d`k vf|d`kj] LorU(rk d`k vf|d`kj] æks". ds` fo:* vf|d`kj] |kfeZd` Lora(rk d`k vf|d`kj ,oa fæ”k lEcU|h vf|d`kj vkfn\ vuqPNsn 39 ·?‚ L(h-iq:" nksukÍ ds` f¥, leku d`k;Z ds` f¥, leku osru d`h O;oLƒk d`h xbZ gS\ vuqPNsn 42 efg¥kvkÍ ds` f¥, ^lwfr lgk;rk d`k vf|d`kj\ vuqPNsn 46 efg¥k ,oa iq:" d`ks vkfƒZd`] jktuhfrd`] lkekftd` ,oa ikfjokfjd` fo";kÍ eÍ leku vf|d`kj ^kIr gS\ vuqPNsn 49 ifr-iRuh d`ks ifjokj fu;kstu d`k O;ogkj eÍ ¥kus d`k vknsæ fn;k x;k gS\ vuqPNsn 41 jkT; d`k d`®ZO; gS fd` og ifjokj ds` d`Y;k. ,oa fu;kstu ds` f¥, efg¥kvkÍ ,oa iq:" ds` f¥, fæ”k ^nku d`js\ vuqPNsn 36 bl vuqPNsn }kjk fookg ,oa ikfjokfjd` thou ds` f¥, efg¥k ,oa iq:" d`ks leku vf|d`kj ^nku fd`, x, gß\ vuqPNsn 226 efg¥k ,oa iq:" nksukÍ vius ifjokj fu;kstu ds` f¥, fu.Z; ¥sus gsrq Lora( gS\ vuqPNsn 67(2) jkT; d`k d`®ZO; gS fd` og efg¥k ,oa iq:"kÍ ds` f¥, ;g vf|d`kj ^nku d`js fd` og ifjokj fu;kstu d`h T;knk-ls-T;knk tkud`kjh ^kIr d`js\ vuqPNsn 28 lHh ukxfjd` d`kuwu ds` lkeus leku gS pkgs og efg¥k gks ;k iq:"\ vuqPNsn 43 efg¥k ,oa iq:" d`ks leku vf|d`kj ,oa volj ^kIr gS\ vuqPNsn 62 efg¥kvkÍ d`ks lekt eÍ iq:" ds` leku Lrj ^kIr\ vuqPNsn 66 efg¥kvkÍ ,oa iq:"kÍ d`ks lkekftd`] jktuhfrd`] vkfƒZd` ,oa lkaLd~`frd` ”s(kÍ eÍ lekurk d`h xkj≥Vh ^nku d`h xbZ gS\ vuqPNsn 25 efg¥k ,oa iq:" d`ks leku vf|d`kj ^kIr\ vuqPNsn 2 fookg ds` ckjs eÍ efg¥k ,oa iq:" d`ks leku vf|d`kj\ vuqPNsn 25 efg¥k ,oa iq:" d`ks leku vf|d`kj ^kIr\ vuqPNsn 32 ifr ,oa iRuh d`ks ifjokj eÍ leku vf|d`kj ^kIr\
1.

vuqPNsn–23 (2) ds` vuqlkj fookg ;ksX; vk;q ds` iq:"kÍ vkSj fL(;kÍ ds` fookg d`jus vkSj dq`VqEc cukus ds` vf|d`kj d`ks ekU;rk nh tk,xh\ blh ^d`kj ds` ^ko|ku vkfƒZd`] lkekftd` vkSj lkaLd~`frd` vf|d`kjkÍ d`h vUrjkZÆV_h; ^lafonk eÍ Hh fd`, x, gß\

2.

vUrjkZÆV_h; efg¥k o"Z o næd` d`h ?ks".k
efg¥kvkÍ ds` fod`kl ds` lUnHZ eÍ iwjs fo'o ls efg¥k mRƒku vkSj fod`kl ds` ^fr psruk txkus ds` f¥, la;qDr jkÆV_ egklHk us o"Z 1975 d`ks ‘vUrjkZÆV_h; efg¥k o"Z’ ?ksf"r fd`;k\ blds` rhu mˆs'; LiÆV fd`,%loZ^ƒe] iq:" vkSj efg¥kvkÍ d`ks lekurk d`k ntkZ nsuk] f}rh; fo'o ækfUr Lƒkiuk d`h fnæk eÍ efg¥k lg;ksx ^kIr d`juk ,oa r~rh;] fod`kl d`k;Z eÍ fL(;kÍ d`k ;ksxnku\ vUrjkZÆV_h; efg¥k o"Z d`ks ‘fV_C;wu’ ds` uke ls Hh tkuk tkrk gS\ bleÍ ^ƒe fo'o d`k;Z ;kstuk cukbZ xbZ vkSj efg¥k lekurk ds` f¥, efg¥k næd` (1975–1985) d`h ?ks".k d`h xbZ\ efg¥k o"Z ds` d`k;Z∂`ekÍ d`ks ubZ fnæk vkSj lg;ksx ds` fcUnq ij c¥ nsrs gq, buds` fuEuf¥f[r d`k;Z∂`e cuk, x,] tks bl ^d`kj gß% izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/703

3. 4.

5. 6.

efg¥kvkÍ d`ks f}rh; Js.h d`k ukxfjd` u le>d`j ,d`leku ukxfjd` le>k tkuk pkfg,\ ukjh ds` lkƒ tUetkr] tkfrxr] |eZ] jkÆV_xr HsnHko d`h lekfIr gsrq lkƒZd` ^;kl\ lkekftd` vU;k; lekIr gksuk pkfg,\ fo'o ækfUr eÍ efg¥kvkÍ d`h vf|d`kf|d` lk>snkjh lqfuf'pr gksuh pkfg,\ nsæ o lekt ds` fuekZ. eÍ efg¥kvkÍ d`h vkf|d`kf|d` lk>snkjh gksuh pkfg,\ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks iq:"kÍ ds` leku ntkZ ^kIr gksuk pkfg,\

efg¥kvkÍ ds` fo:`* lHh ^d`kj ds` HsnHko d`h lekfIr ij ^lafonk
la;qDr jkÆV_ d`h egklHk }kjk 18 fnlEcj] 1979 d`ks Lohd~ ` r vkS j 3 flrEcj] 1981 ls ^Hkoh bl lafonk d`ks efg¥k vf|d`kjkÍ d`ks fnæk eÍ eh¥ d`k iRƒj ekuk tkrk gS\ vc rd` 166 ns æ bl ^lafonk ij gLrk”j d`j pqds` gß\ ^lafonk eÍ ^Lrkouk lfgr dq`¥ 30 vuqPNsn gß\ ;g ^lafonk vUrjkZÆV_h; Ôi ls Lohd`k;Z fl*kUrkÍ ,oa lHh txg ij efg¥kvkÍ d`ks leku vf|d`kj `^nku d`jus

ds` mik;kÍ d`ks lHh nsækÍ }kjk oS|kfud` Ôi ls Lohd~`fr ^kIr ,oa ck÷;rkiw.Z vfH¥s[ gß\ ;g ^lafonk ,d` ,slk loZekU; vfH¥s[ gS] tks% ● efg¥kvkÍ ds` fo:* fd`, tkus ok¥s HsnHko d`ks lekIr d`jus ds` f¥, ljd`kjkÍ ls d`kuwu cukus d`h vis”k d`jrk gS\ ● efg¥kvkÍ d`h oSokfgd` ^fLƒfr d`ks ns[s fcuk lHh ”s(kÍ tSls%lkekftd`] vkfƒZd`] lkaLd~`frd`] jktuhfrd` ,oa ukxfjd` eÍ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks leku vf|d`kj ^nku d`jus d`h eqfge p¥kuk\ ● HsnHko d`ks iSnk d`jus ok¥s ;k cÈ<kok nsus ok¥h lkekftd` ,oa lkaLd~`frd` fLƒfr;kÍ d`ks ifjofrZr d`jus ds` f¥, ;kstuk,a ¥kxw d`juk\ ● efg¥kvkÍ d`ks eq“; |kjk ls ckgj j[us d`h ^o~f®;kÍ ij jksd` ¥xkuk\ ● iq:"kÍ ,oa efg¥kvkÍ eÍ cjkcjh ¥kus ds` f¥, Lƒk;h o vLƒk;h rkSj ij mik; lq>kuk\ ● efg¥kvkÍ ds` lHh ^d`kj ds` O;kikj vkSj mud`h os';ko~f® ls æks". d`ks lekIr d`jus ds` f¥, fof|-fuekZ. lfgr lHh mi;qDr mik; d`juk\

efg¥k vf|d`kjkÍ d`h tkx~fr gsrq efg¥kvkÍ gsrq laoS|kfud` ^ko|ku fo'o efg¥k lEes¥u LorU(rk ds` ckn efg¥kvkÍ d`h lkekftd`] jktuhfrd` vkSj vkfƒZd` Ôi ls fod`kl
efg¥k d`Y;k. d`h Hkouk d`ks loksZifj ds` leku volj ^nku d`jus ds` f¥, lafo|ku eÍ dq`N foæs" O;oLƒk,a d`h xbZ gß\ ekurs gq, la;qDr jkÆV_ la? d`h ig¥ ls lafo|ku ds fofHUu vuqPNsnkÍ vkSj mueÍ fd`, x, efg¥kvkÍ gsrq ^ko|ku bl ^d`kj gß% fo'o Lrj ij efg¥k vf|d`kjkÍ d`h tkx~fr lafo|ku d`k efg¥kvkÍ ds` f¥, mi;ksxh ^ko|ku gsrq ,oa efg¥kvkÍ d`ks U;k; fn¥kus d`h fnæk vuqPNsn eÍ fo'o efg¥k lEes¥ukÍ d`h æqÔvkr gqbZ\ vuqPNsn 14 jkT; fd`lh Hh O;fDr d`ks d`kuwu ds` le” lekurk ;k d`kuwu ds` la;qDr jkÆV_ ds` rRoko|ku eÍ 1975–95 leku laj”. ls oafpr ugÓ d`jsxk pkgs og efg¥k gks ;k iq:"\ ds` o"ksÛ eÍ fo'o Lrj ij pkj fo'o efg¥k vuqPNsn 15(3) efg¥kvkÍ ,oa cPpkÍ d`ks dq`N foæs" lqfo|k ^nku d`h xbZ gS\ lEes¥ukÍ d`k vk;kstu fd`;k x;k] tks bl vuqPNsn 16 ¥ksd` lsokvkÍ eÍ fcuk HsnHko ds` volj d`h lekurk\ ^d`kj gS% vuqPNsn 19 leku Ôi ls vfHO;fDr d`h LorU(rk\
1.

^ƒe fo'o efg¥k lEes¥u] 1975 ·eSfDld`ks‚ ● o"Z 1975 d`ks vUrjkZÆV_h; efg¥k o"Z\ ● 1975–1985 næd` d`ks vUrjkZÆV_h; efg¥k næd`\ ● efg¥k d`Y;k. gsrq iapo"hZ; ;kstuk\ 2. f}rh; fo'o efg¥k lEes ¥ u] 1980 ·d`ksisugsxu‚ 3. r~rh; fo'o efg¥k lEes¥u] 1985 ·uSjksch‚ 4. prqƒZ fo'o efg¥k lEes¥u] 1995 ·ch¯tx‚

vuqPNsn 23-24 vuqPNsn 39 ·?‚ vuqPNsn vuqPNsn vuqPNsn vuqPNsn ·u‚

ukjh ∂`;-fo∂`; rƒk csxkj ^ƒk ij jksd`\ L(h-iq:" nksukÍ d`ks leku d`k;Z ds` f¥, leku osru d`h O;oLƒk d`h xbZ gS\ 42 efg¥kvkÍ ds` f¥, ^lwfr lgk;rk\ 47 ¥ksd` LokLF; eÍ lq|kj d`juk ljd`kj d`k nkf;Ro\ 51 d` ·î‚ ^R;sd` ukxfjd` d`k d`rZO; gksxk fd` og ˙˙˙˙˙ ,slh ^ƒkvkÍ d`k R;kx d`js tks fL(;kÍ ds` lEeku ds` fo:* gS\ 243 ·?‚ iapk;rh jkt ,oa uxjh; laLƒkvkÍ eÍ 73oÍ 74oÍ laæks|u ds` ek÷;e ls efg¥kvkÍ gsrq vkj”. d`h O;oLƒk\

efg¥kvkÍ ls lEcfU|r ^eq[ vf|fu;e efg¥k,a ,oa fo'o ekuokf|d`kj Hkjrh; laln }kjk efg¥kvkÍ d`h fLƒfr lq|kjus ds` f¥, le;-le; ij vusd` lEes¥u] fo;uk vf|fu;e ikfjr fd`, x,] ftueÍ ^eq[ bl ^d`kj gß%
la;qDr jkÆV_ }kjk ^k;ksftr vc rd` d`k lcls cÈMk vUrjkZÆV_h; ekuokf|d`kj lEes¥u ·ftleÍ 170 ls vf|d` nsækÍ] 850 xSj-ljd`kjh laxBukÍ rƒk i;Zos”d`kÍ us fgLlk f¥;k‚ 25 twu] 1993 d`ks vkfLV_;k d`h jkt|kuh fo;uk eÍ lEiUu gqvk\ lEes¥u eÍ mu lHh ekuokf|d`kjkÍ d`h iquiqZfÆV d`h xbZ] tks 1948 ds` lkoZHkSfed` ?ks".k-i( eÍ ækfe¥ gS\ lEes¥u ds` lekiu l( eÍ fo;uk ?ks".k ikfjr d`h xbZ\ blds` vUrxZr efg¥kvkÍ vkSj cPpkÍ ds` ekuokf|d`kj lkoZHkSfed` ekuo vf|d`kjkÍ d`k ,d` vfHUu vkSj vfoHkT; vax gS\ lEes¥u eÍ ljd`kjkÍ] laLƒkvkÍ] vUrj-ljd`kjh vkSj xSj-ljd`kjh laxBukÍ ls efg¥kvkÍ ds` ekuokf|d`kjkÍ d`h laj”. vkSj lao*Zu ds` ^;klkÍ d`ks rst d`jus d`k vkÿku fd`;k x;k\ lEes¥u eÍ ,d` ubZ O;oLƒk viukrs gq, efg¥kvkÍ ds` fo:* ¯glk ij fjiksVZ d`jus gsrq ,d` fjiksVZd`rkZ d`h fu;qfDr d`h xbZ\
vf|fu;ekÍ d`k fooj. ckxku Je vf|fu;e] 1951 [ku vf|fu;e] 1952 foæs" fookg vf|fu;e] 1954 fgUnw m®jkf|d`kj vf|fu;e]
1956

vuSfrd` O;kikj fuokj. vf|fu;e] 1956 ^lwfr ^lqfo|k vf|fu;e]
1961

Bsd`k Je vf|fu;e] 1970 leku ikfjJfed` vf|fu;e]
1976

ck¥-fookg fu"s| vf|fu;e]
1976

Hkjr eÍ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks ^kIr vf|d`kj
efg¥kvkÍ ds` vf|d`kjkÍ d`h ^kfIr ds` ”s( eÍ Hkjr eÍ Hh ¥Ecs la?"Z d`h d`gkuh gS\ lfn;kÍ ls Hkjr eÍ inkZ ^ƒk] ngst ^ƒk] lrh ^ƒk] vf|d`kj foghurk] :fÈ<okfnrk lekt d`k vax jgk ƒk] ijUrq mUuhloÓ ærkCnh eÍ if'peh fæ”k ds` vkxeu ds` œ`¥LoÔi efg¥k vf|d`kjkÍ d`h ek∑x tksj id`ÈMus ¥xh rƒk efg¥kvkÍ d`h fæ”k d`ks cÈ<kok fn;k tkus ¥xk\ Hkjr eÍ 1915 ls 1927 ds` chp d`bZ efg¥k laxBukÍ d`h Lƒkiuk gqbZ rƒk Lora(rk ds` ckn ljd`kj }kjk efg¥kvkÍ d`h fLƒfr d`ks lq|kjus ds` f¥, d`bZ laoS|kfud` o d`kuwuh d`ne mBk, x,\ izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/704

vUrjkZfT;d` ^oklh d`eZd`kj vf|fu;e] 1979 os';ko~f® fuokj. vf|fu;e]
1986

L(h vfæÆV fuÔi. fu"s| vf|fu;e] 1986 ngst fu"s| vf|fu;e] 1986 lrh fu"s| vf|fu;e] 1987 73ok∑ o 74ok∑ laæks|u vf|fu;e] 1992 ^lo iwoZ funku rd`uhd` vf|fu;e] 1994 ?js¥w ¯glk ls efg¥kvkÍ d`h lqj”k gsrq vf|fu;e] 2005

mˆs';/^ko|ku efg¥k d`feZ;kÍ d`ks vius cPpkÍ d`ks nw| fi¥kus ds` f¥, vod`kæ fn;k tkuk\ Hwfexr [kukÍ eÍ efg¥kvkÍ ds` fu;kstu ij jksd` ¥xkuk\ d`ksbZ efg¥k viuk |eZ cn¥s fcuk fd`lh Hh |eZ ds` O;fDr ls fookg d`j ld`rh gS\ bl vf|fu;e ds` }kjk efg¥kvkÍ d`ks iSr~d` lEif® eÍ vf|d`kj fn;k x;k gS\ os';kx~g p¥kus ;k ifjlj d`ks os';kx~g ds` Ôi eÍ ^;qDr d`jus nsus ij n≥M d`h O;oLƒk\ d`k;Z fnol ds` 80 fnu iw.Z gksus ij efg¥k d`feZ;kÍ d`ks xHZikr gsrq vko';d` Ôi ls vod`kæ rƒk fpfd`Rlk d`h O;oLƒk\ efg¥k Jfed`kÍ ls ckxkukÍ eÍ ^kr# 6 cts ls lk;a 7 cts ds` chp 9 ?≥Vs ds` ckn d`ke d`jkus ij ^frcU|\ leku d`k;Z ds` f¥, efg¥kvkÍ d`ks Hh iq:"kÍ ds` leku ikfjJfed` d`h O;oLƒk\ lafo|ku }kjk fu|kZfjr d`e mez d`h ckf¥d`kvkÍ ds` fookg ij ^frcU|\ dq`N foæs" fu;tuh eÍ efg¥kvkÍ ds` f¥, v¥x ls ækSpk¥; ,oa Luku?jkÍ d`h O;oLƒk d`juk\ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks vuSfrd` d`k;ksÛ eÍ nq:i;ksx d`jus ok¥kÍ ij ^frcU|\ efg¥kvkÍ ds` v'¥h¥ ^næZu ij ^frcU| ¥xkuk\ fookg eÍ ngst ds` ¥su-nsu ij ^frcU| d`h O;oLƒk\ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks ifr d`h e~R;q ds` ckn lrh gksus ij ^frcU|\ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks f(Lrjh; iapk;rh o uxj ikf¥d`kvkÍ eÍ ,d`frgkbZ vkj”. d`h O;oLƒk\ xHkZoLƒk eÍ ckf¥d`k Hzw. d`h igpku d`jus ij jksd` ¥xkus d`h O;oLƒk\ ifr ;k lkƒ jgus ok¥s fd`lh Hh iq:" ;k mlds` lEcfU|;kÍ d`h ¯glk ;k ^rkÈMuk ls iRuh ;k lkƒ jg jgh fd`lh Hh efg¥k d`ks lqj”k ^nku d`juk\

Hkjrh; n≥M lafgrk ds` vUrxZr efg¥k vf|d`kjkÍ d`h lqj”k gsrq O;oLƒk
Hkjrh; n≥M lafgrk efg¥k d`h lqj”k] leku xfjek ds` lkƒ jgus ds` f¥, ;fn mlds` lkƒ d`ksbZ nqÆd`eZ d`jrk gS] rks Hkjrh; n≥M lafgrk mls n≥M fn¥kus ds` f¥, O;oLƒk d`jrh gS] tks bl ^d`kj gß%
Hkjrh; n≥M lafgrk ngst e~R;q L(h d`h lEefr ds` fcuk xHZikr d`kfjr d`juk vkSjr d`h æk¥hurk Hax d`jus d`h eaæk ls tcnZLrh d`juk vigj.] Hxkuk ;k vkSjr d`ks æknh ds` f¥, etcwj d`juk ukckf¥x ¥ÈMd`h d`ks d`Cts eÍ j[uk c¥kRd`kj ig¥h iRuh ds` thfor gksrs gq, nwljh æknh d`juk |ks[k|ÈMh ls æknh d`h jLe iwjh d`juk ifr ;k mlds` fj'rsnkjkÍ }kjk vkSjr ij ∂w`jrk efg¥k d`h æk¥hurk d`ks viekfur d`jus d`h eaæk ls viæCn d`guk ;k v'¥h¥ gjd`rÍ d`juk\ |kjk
304 ch 313 354 366 366 , 376 494 496 498 , 509

jkÆV_h; efg¥k vk;ksx
jkÆV_h; efg¥k vk;ksx d`h Lƒkiuk 31 tuojh] 1992 d`ks jkÆV_h; efg¥k vk;ksx vf|fu;e] 1990 ds` }kjk nh xbZ\ vk;ksx eÍ ,d` v÷;” ,oa ik∑p lnL; vkSj ,d` lnL; lfpo gksrk gS] ftud`h fu;qfDr ds`Unzh; ljd`kj d`jrh gS\ v÷;” ,oa lnL;kÍ d`k d`k;Zd`k¥ rhu o"Z d`k gksrk gS\ orZeku eÍ vk;ksx d`h v÷;”k Jherh fxjtk O;kl gß\ jkÆV_h; efg¥k vk;ksx ds` ^eq[ d`k;Z bl ^d`kj gß% ·d`‚ efg¥kvkÍ ds` f¥, lafo|ku vkSj vU; fof|;kÍ ds` v|hu micfU|r j”ksik;ks ls lEcfU|r lHh fo";kÍ d`k vUos". vkSj ijh”k d`juk« ·[‚ mu j”ksik;kÍ ds` d`k;Zd`j. ds` ckjs eÍ ^fro"Z ds`Unzh; ljd`kj d`ks fjiksVZ nsuk« ·x‚ ,slh fjiksVksÛ eÍ efg¥kvkÍ d`h næk lq|kjus ds` f¥, la? ;k fd`lh jkT; }kjk mBk, x, j”ksik;kÍ ds` ^Hkoh f∂`;kUo;u ds` f¥, flœ`kfjæ d`juk« ·?‚ la f o|ku vkS j vU; fof|;kÍ ds ` micU|kÍ ds` efg¥kvkÍ ls lEcfU|r vfr∂`e. ds` eke¥kÍ d`ks leqfpr ^kf|d`kfj;kÍ ds` le” mBkuk« ·î‚ efg¥kvkÍ ds` fo:* foHsn vkSj vR;kpkjkÍ ls lEcfU|r leL;kvkÍ d`k v÷;;u ;k vUos". d`juk vkSj ck|kvkÍ d`k irk ¥xkuk« ·p‚ efg¥kvkÍ ds` lkekftd` vkfƒZd` fod`kl d`h ;kstuk ^f∂`;k eÍ Hkx ¥suk« ·N‚ la? vkSj fd`lh jkT; ds` v|hu efg¥kvkÍ ds` fod`kl d`h ^xfr d`k ewY;kad`u d`juk« ·t‚ fd`lh ts¥] lq|kj x~g] efg¥kvkÍ d`h laLƒk ;k vfHj”k ds` vU; Lƒku d`k tgk∑ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks cUnh ds` Ôi eÍ j[k tkrk gS fujh”. d`juk ;k d`jokuk vkSj d`k;Zokgh gsrq vko';d` gks] lEcfU|r ^kf|d`kfj;kÍ ls ckrphr d`juk« ·>‚ d`ksbZ vU; fo"; ftls ds`Unzh; ljd`kj fufnZÆV d`js\ jkÆV_h; efg¥k vk;ksx ds` v¥kok d`bZ jkT;kÍ eÍ Hh efg¥k vk;ksx d`k xBu gks pqd`k gS\ blds` v¥kok ljd`kj }kjk efg¥kvkÍ ds` læfDrd`j. gsrq jkÆV_h; uhfr ds` Ôi eÍ ‘efg¥k læfDrd`j. uhfr% 2001’ cukbZ xbZ gS] tks efg¥kvkÍ ds` pgqeq[h fod`kl d`k ekxZ ^æLr d`jrh gS\ æs" i~ÆB 719 ij

vf|d`re ltk/n≥M vkthou d`kjkokl vkthou d`kjkokl 2 o"Z 10 o"Z 10 o"Z 2 ls 10 o"Z/mez dS`n 7 o"Z 7 o"Z 3 o"Z 1 o"Z

efg¥kvkÍ ls lEcfU|r fod`kl ;kstuk,a
Hkjr ljd`kj }kjk efg¥kvkÍ ds` f¥, d`bZ fod`kl d`k;Z∂`e ,oa d`Y;k.d`kjh ;kstukvkÍ d`k lapk¥u fd`;k tk jgk gS] rkfd` muds` thou Lrj eÍ lq|kj vk lds` vkSj fod`kl d`k;ksÛ eÍ mud`h vf|d`-ls-vf|d` Hkxhnkjh lqfuf'pr gks lds`\ ljd`kj }kjk efg¥kvkÍ ls lEcfU|r p¥kbZ tk jgh ^eq[ ;kstuk,a bl ^d`kj gß%
∂`\la\
1.

;kstukvkÍ d`k uke o"Z MΩokd`jk ;kstuk (DWCRA) 1982

2. 3. 4.

ukSjkM ^fæ”. ;kstuk fd`æksjh ckf¥d`k ;kstuk ekr~ ,oa fææq LokLF; d`k;Z∂`e efg¥k le~f* ;kstuk

1989 1992 1992

5. 6.

1993

jkÆV_h; efg¥k d`ks" d`h 1993 ;kstuk,a (1) )`. ;kstuk (2) )`. ^ksRlkgu ;kstuk (3) Lo lgk;rk lewg ;kstuk (4) foi.u fo® ;kstuk 7. jkÆV_h; ekr~Ro ¥kH ;kstuk 1994
8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

;kstukvkÍ d`k mˆs'; xzkeh. efg¥kvkÍ d`ks Lojkstxkj ds` volj mi¥C| d`jkrs gq, muds` LokLF;] fæ”k] iks"kgkj vkSj fææqvkÍ d`h ns[Hk¥ d`jus tSlh ew¥Hwr lsok,a ^nku d`juk\ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks O;olk;kÍ tSls njh] d`k¥hu] C¥kWd` ¯^¯Vx] fpd`u vkfn ls lEcfU|r ^fæ”. nsuk\ xzkeh. xjhc ifjokjkÍ d`h ckf¥d`kvkÍ d`ks mfpr LokLF; vkSj fæ”k d`h O;oLƒk d`juk\ fææqvkÍ vkSj ekrkvkÍ d`ks iks"kgkj mi¥C| d`jkd`j lqjf”r ekr~Ro ,oa Vhd`kd`j. vkfn ds` ek÷;e ls fææq o e~R;q nj eÍ d`eh ¥kuk\ xzkeh. efg¥kvkÍ eÍ cpr d`h vknr Mk¥uk vkSj mUgÍ læDr d`juk\ xjhch d`h js[k ls uhps ds` ifjokj d`h efg¥kvkÍ eÍ vkfƒZd`] lkekftd` ifjorZu ¥kus ds` f¥, mRiknu ds` f¥, )`. lEcU|h lqfo|k,a mi¥C| d`jkd`j mud`h vk; cÈ<kuk\ xjhch js[k ls uhps d`h efg¥kvkÍ d`ks ^lwfr ds` f¥, vkfƒZd` lgk;rk ^nku d`juk\ xzkeh. vkSj ægjh cLrh d`h efg¥kvkÍ d`ks vkfƒZd` Ôi ls Loko¥Ecu ^nku d`juk\ xzkeh. efg¥kvkÍ d`h Hkxhnkjh eÍ o~f* d`juk ,oa mUgÍ tkxÔd` d`juk\ xjhch js[k ls uhps ds` ifjokjkÍ eÍ tUe ¥sus ok¥h ckf¥d`k d`h ek∑ d`ks ikSfÆVd` vkgkj] ckf¥d`k d`h fæ”k gsrq lgk;rk ^nku d`juk\ efg¥kvkÍ d`ks Lo;a lgk;rk lewgkÍ ds` ek÷;e ls vkfƒZd` o lkekftd` Ôi ls læDr cukuk\ efg¥kvkÍ ds` vf|d`kjkÍ ds` f¥, la?"Z d`jus ok¥h efg¥kvkÍ d`ks jkÆV_h; iqjLd`kjkÍ ls lEekfur d`j ^ksRlkgu nsuk\ ;g iqjLd`kj fo“;kr ik∑p efg¥kvkÍ%nsoh vfgY;kckbZ] jkuh ¥{ehckbZ] thtkckbZ] jkuh xSnsUY;w tsf¥;kax vkSj d`ukxh ds` uke ls fn;k tkrk gS\

bafnjk efg¥k ;kstuk

1995

xzkeh. efg¥k fod`kl ;kstuk 1996 ckf¥d`k le~f* ;kstuk efg¥k LoæfDr ;kstuk L(h æfDr iqjLd`kj ;kstuk
1997 1998 2000

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/705

dS`fj;j ¥s[

,e\ch\,\ # ,d` ^frfÆBr isæk 

MkW\ vks\ ih\ æekZ

vLlh ds` næd` rd` fæ”k txrΩ eÍ ‘foKku lad`k;’ d`h i~ÆBHwfe ok¥s fo»kƒhZ d`ks lokZf|d` lEekutud` n~fÆV ls ns[k tkrk ƒk vkSj ml le; ^R;sd` ekrk–firk vius cPps d`ks MkWDVj ;k bathfu;j cukus ds` f¥, ^;Ruæh¥ jgrk ƒk\ fd`Urq uCcs ds` næd` ls ^kjEH gq, oS'ohd`j. ds` nkSj eÍ ‘^cU| fo";’ d`h vksj lHh d`k :>ku fujUrj cÈ<rk tk jgk gS\ le; p∂` ds` ifjofrZr ifjosæ eÍ tSls–tSls fuxe laLÎ`fr (Corporate Culture) d`k ^Hko cÈ<rk tk jgk gS] oSls–oSls ^cU| vkSj blls lEc* fofæÆV ikBΩ;∂`ekÍ d`h ¥ksd`f^;rk vuojrΩ Ôi ls cÈ<rh tk jgh gS\ bu ikBΩ;∂`ekÍ eÍ ,e\ ch\ ,\ vƒkZrΩ
(Master of Business Administration– MBA) vkSj blds` led`” ekU;rk ^kIr

ikBΩ;∂`ekÍ ;ƒk% ,e\ ,e\ ,l\] ,e\ vkbZ\ ch\ ,e\] ih\ th\ ih\ ,e\] ,e\ Vh\ ,e\] ,e\ lh\ ,e\ vkfn eÍ nkf[¥k ¥sus ds` f¥, fo»kfƒZ;kÍ d`k gqtwe meÈM jgk gS] ogÓ nwljh vksj bu ikBΩ;∂`ekÍ d`ks ifjiw.Z d`j vkSipkfjd` fMxzh gkfl¥ d`jus ok¥s fo»kfƒZ;kÍ d`h ek∑x fujUrj cÈ<rh tk jgh gS\ O;kolkf;d` fl*kUrkÍ vkSj ^cU|d`h; d`kSæ¥ ij vk|kfjr ,e\ch\,\ d`h fMxzh tgk∑ ,d` vksj fo»kƒhZ d`ks oS;fâ`d` O;olk; vkSj Lojkstxkj ds` f¥, mR^sfjr d`jrh gS] ogÓ nwljh vksj ljd`kjh ;k futh ;k xSj ¥kHd`kjh laxBukÍ d`h ^cU|u leL;kvkÍ d`k oSKkfud` o Rofjr lek|ku [kstus ds` ¥k;d` Hh cukrh gS\ Lukrd`ks®j Lrj ds` ikBΩ;∂`ekÍ eÍ lokZf|d` ^frÆBk ^kIr d`jus ok¥k ,e\ ch\ ,\ d`k ikBΩ;∂`e fo»kfƒZ;kÍ d`ks ¥{;kÍ vkSj mi¥fC|;kÍ ds` ^fr lexz vkSj O;ofLƒr n~fÆVd`ks. ^nku d`jus ds` lkƒ–lkƒ mueÍ vkRe–lEiUurk (Self Enrichment) d`k ekSf¥d` vk|kj Hh l~ftr d`jrk gS\ vk|qfud` ^cU| fæ”. laLƒkuÍ ,e\ ch\ ,\ vkSj blds` led`” ikBΩ;∂`ekÍ eÍ fofæfÆVd`j. ij vk|kfjr d`kslsZt ,oa isilZ ij T;knk ÷;ku ds`fUnzr d`j jgh gß] œ`¥LoÔi ,d` v˙;ƒhZ viuh vfH:fp vkSj ;ksX;rk ds` vuqlkj foi.u ^cU|] fo®h; ^cU|] ekuo lalk|u ^cU|] lkexzh ^cU|] ∂`; ;k fo∂`; ;k mRiknu ^cU|] d`k;kZ¥; ^cU| vkfn eÍ ^osæ ¥sd`j isæsoj d`kSæ¥ ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/706

eÍ vfHo~f* d`j ld`rk gS\ vktd`¥ mi;qZDr f∂`;kRed` ^cU| fo";kÍ d`ks m»ksx foæs" ds` lkƒ tksÈMd`j vfr fofæfÆVd`j. ij vk|kfjr ikBΩ;∂`ekÍ d`k ^p¥u Hh fujUrj cÈ<rk tk jgk gS tSls%ekcZ¥ m»ksx eÍ lkexzh ^cU|u vƒok isV_ksf¥;e m»ksx eÍ foi.u ^cU|u vkfn\ m»ksx foæs" d`h fofæÆV leL;kvkÍ vkSj pqukSfr;kÍ d`k lE;d` lek|ku [kstus ok¥s fofæÆV vkSj isæsoj ^cU|d`kÍ d`h ek∑x Hh fujUrj cÈ<rh tk jgh gS\ vkfƒZd` foI¥o ls (Lr Hkjr tSls vusd` fod`klksUeq[h jkÆV_kÍ eÍ ^fæf”r isæsoj ^cU|d`kÍ d`h cÈ<rh gqbZ vuojr ek∑x d`ks ns[rs gq, ;g d`gk tk ld`rk gS fd` v÷;;uæh¥] ifjJeh vkSj egRokd`ka”h fo»kƒhZ ^cU| fo"; d`h lq^frfÆBr Lukrd`ks®j fMxzh vƒkZrΩ ,e\ch\,\ d`h fMxzh gkfl¥ d`jus d`k fu.Z; ¥s ld`rs gß rƒk m®e dS`fj;j d`h æqÔvkr d`jds` vius HfoÆ; d`ks mTTo¥ o lqugjk cuk ld`rs gß\

^cU| d`k;Z∂`e d`k ^fæ”. fn;k tkrk gS ftls PGPM–Post Graduate Programme in Management ds` uke ls iqd`kjk tkrk gS\ oSf'od` ^cU| txrΩ eÍ mPp xq.o®k ds` lkƒ ¥ksd`f^;rk ds` ^freku js[kafd`r d`jus ok¥s bl ikBΩ;∂`e d`ks Hkjrh; fo'ofo»k¥;kÍ }kjk ^nku d`h tkus ok¥h ,e\ ch\ ,\ d`h fMxzh ds` led`” ekU;rk ^kIr gS\ nsæ d`h lHh vkbZ\ vkbZ\ ,elΩ ds` }kjk ih\ th\ ih\ ,e\ eÍ ^osæ nsus ds` f¥, ‘dS`V’
(Common Admission Test–CAT)

uked` ^osæ ijh”k d`k vk;kstu fd`;k tkrk gS\ ftleÍ Lukrd` fMxzh|kjd` cSB ld`rk gS\ rRi'pkrΩ v˙;ƒhZ d`ks lewg–ifjppkZ vkSj O;fâ`xr lk”kRd`kj ds` f¥, vkefU(r fd`;k tkrk gS vkSj dq`¥ esfjV ds` vk|kj ij ^osæ fn;k tkrk gS\ ^R;sd` o"Z tq¥kbZ ls ^kjEH gksus ok¥s uohu l(Ω ds` f¥, dS`V d`h ijh”k foxr o"Z ds` uoEcj ekg eÍ gh vk;ksftr d`j ¥h tkrh gS\ mY¥s[uh; gS fd` nsæ d`h vU; vusd` ^cU|d`h; ^fæ”. laLƒkukÍ }kjk ^osæ nsus ds` f¥, dS`V eÍ vftZr esfjV Ld`ksj d`ks gh vk|kj ekuk tkrk gS\ dS`V ^osæ ijh”k eÍ Verbal Ability
and Reading Comprehension; Problem Solving and Quantitative Aptitude; Data Interpretation and Data Sufficiency vkfn ls lEcfU|r ^'u iwNs

^osæ ^f∂`;k
vkt nqfu;k Hj ds` fctusl Ldw`¥kÍ rƒk ^cU| ^fæ”. laLƒkukÍ }kjk ,e\ ch\ ,\ d`k ikBΩ;∂`e fofo| LoÔikÍ ;ƒk% f}o"hZ; ,e\ch\,\] ,d`o"hZ; ,e\ch\,\] vkWu ¥kbu o nwjLƒ fæ”k% ,e\ch\,\] bZ%,e\ch\,\ vkfn eÍ lapkf¥r fd`;k tkrk gS\ bueÍ ^osæ ekin≥M Hh fHUu–fHUu gksrs gß] d`ksbZ laLƒk jkÆV_ ;k jkT;Lrjh; ^osæ ijh”k d`h esfjV ds` vk|kj ij ^osæ nsrh gS\ ogÓ nwljh vksj vusd` laLƒku viuh ^frÆBk d`ks d`k;e cuk, j[us ds` mˆs'; ls Lo;a }kjk vk;ksftr ijh”k eÍ m®h.Z fo»kfƒZ;kÍ d`ks gh ^osæ nsrh gß\ Hkjr eÍ ,e\ch\,\ d`k ^fæ”. ^nku d`jus ok¥s lHh laLƒkukÍ d`ks nks oxksÛ eÍ foHkftr fd`;k tk ld`rk gS\ ^ƒe oxZ eÍ nsæ d`h lkr æh"Z ^cU| laLƒku gß tks vgenkckn] cßx¥qÔ] d`ks¥d`krk] ¥[u˜] d`ksf>d`ksM ·d`kf¥d`V‚] bUnkSj vkSj fæ¥kax eÍ fLƒr gß\ bu laLƒkukÍ d`ks Hkjrh; ^cU| laLƒkukÍ vƒkZrΩ Indian Institutes of Management–IIM’s ds ` uke ls iqd`kjk tkrk gS\ lEiw.Z fo'o eÍ viuh fofæÆV igpku j[us ok¥h bu Hkjrh; ^cU| laLƒkukÍ ds` }kjk nks–o"hZ; iw.Zd`kf¥d`

tkrs gß\ gk¥ gh eÍ nsæ d`h lkrkÍ vkbZ\ vkbZ\ ,elΩ }kjk tkjh foKfIr ds` vuqlkj uoEcj 2009 eÍ vk;ksT; ‘dS`V’ ijh”k vc vkWu¥kbu <ax ls vk;ksftr d`h tk,xh] ftl Computer Based Test–CBT ds` uke ls iqd`kjk tkrk gS\ 10 fnu ds` f¥, nsæ ds` 25 ægjkÍ eÍ vk;ksT; ‘vkWu ¥kbu–dSS`V’ eÍ rhu ¥k[ ls vf|d` fo»kfƒZ;kÍ ds` cSBus d`h lEHkouk gS\ f}rh; oxZ eÍ mu ^fæ”. laLƒkukÍ] fo'ofo»k¥;kÍ] d`kW¥stkÍ d`ks lfEef¥r fd`;k tkrk gS tks ^osæ gs r q ;k rks Lo;a d`h ijh”k d`k vk;kstu d`jrh gß vƒok All
India Management Aptitude Testing Service–AIMATS }kjk vk;ksftr ‘esV’ (Management Aptitude Test–MAT) eÍ

vftZr ^kIrkad`kÍ ds` vk|kj ij ^osæ nsrh gß\ bl ijh”k d`k vk;kstu jkÆV_h; Lrj ds` lkƒ–lkƒ jkT; Lrj ij Hh fd`;k tkrk gS\ ‘esV’ d`h ijh”k ^fro"Z œ`jojh] ebZ] flrEcj vkSj fnlEcj eÍ vk;ksftr d`h tkrh gS] ftleÍ Data Analysis; Maths; Data
Sufficiency; Intelligence and Critical Reasoning; Language Comprehension; Indian and Global Environment

vkfn fo";kÍ ij ^'u iwNs tkrs gß\

jkstxkj lEHkouk,a
vkt lEiw.Z fo'o eÍ ‘^cU|’ d`ks lkekftd` o vkfƒZd` mUufr d`h egRoiw.Z cqfu;kn ds` Ôi eÍ Lohd`kj fd`;k tk jgk gS rƒk ‘lœ`¥ ^cU| O;oLƒk’ d`ks ^xfr ds` i;kZ; ds` Ôi eÍ ekU;rk fe¥ pqd`h gS\ vkt ^cU| d`kSæ¥ ds` c¥ ij gh Hw¥ o lq|kj fof|] vaxwBs d`k fu;e] inkƒZoknh n~fÆVd`ks. vkfn d`ks gVkuk lEHo gks ik;k gS\ vk|qfud` ^cU|d` oSKkfud` vuqla|ku] fo'¥s". o fuoZpu ds` vk|kj ij leL;kvkÍ d`k lVhd` lek|ku [kstrk gS rƒk O;ogkjoknh n~fÆVd`ks. vkSj ^.k¥h fpUru ij c¥ nsrk gS\ gk¥kafd` Hkjr eÍ ipkl ds` næd` eÍ ^cU| fæ”k d`k chtkjksi. gks x;k ƒk] fd`Urq bl ”s( eÍ uohu ;qx d`k v˙;qn; ml le; gqvk tc uCcs ds` næd` eÍ ,¥\ ih\ th\ vo|kj.k (Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globlization Concept)

ij vk|kfjr oSf'od` ¥gj d`k vuqlj. d`jrs gq, nsæ eÍ vkfƒZd` lq|kj d`k;Z∂`ekÍ d`k æqHkjEH fd`;k x;k\ bu d`k;Z∂`ekÍ d`ks xfr nsus ds` f¥, ¥xHx ^R;sd` ”s(%c߯d`x] chek] ifjogu] lapkj] m»ksx] cktkj] Î`f"] O;kikj vkfn eÍ ^fæf”r ^cU|d`kÍ d`h vko';d`rk eglwl d`h xbZ vkSj nsæ eÍ ^cU| fæ”k ds` fod`kl o foLrkj ij c¥ fn;k x;k\ ifj.ker# jkÆV_ ,oa jkT; Lrj ij ^cU| fo"; eÍ Lukrd` o Lukrd`ks®j Lrj d`h fæ”k nsus ok¥h laLƒkukÍ d`k rk∑rk lk ¥x x;k\ vkt gekjs ns æ eÍ Hh ^cU|d`h; Kku d`ks ,d` ‘lqO;ofLƒr fo";’ ds` Ôi eÍ ekU;rk fe¥ pqd`h gS rƒk ;g rsth ls isæsd`j. d`h fnæk eÍ d`ne cÈ<k jgk gS\ orZeku le; eÍ gekjs nsæ eÍ 800 ls Hh vf|d` ,sls laLƒku gß] tks ^cU| fo"; eÍ fMxzh ;k fMI¥ksek ;k lfVZfœ`ds`V d`kslZ d`k lapk¥u d`j jgs gß vkSj ^fro"Z pk¥hl gtkj ^fæf”r ^cU|d`kÍ d`ks jkstxkj ^kIr gks jgk gS\ ,d` losZ ds` vuqlkj gk¥kafd` vkt Hkjr vkS»ksfxd`okn vkSj rd`uhd`h dq`æ¥rk rƒk lsok n”rk ds ` ekxZ ij vxzlj gks pqd`k gS] fœ`j Hh ;gk∑ ds` Î`f"] O;kikj] chek] ifjogu] c߯d`x vkfn ”s( fod`flr jkÆV_kÍ d`h rq¥uk eÍ ^Hkoh ^cU|u ds` vHko eÍ fiNÈMs gq, gß\ vr# bu ”s(kÍ d`k okafNr fod`kl d`jus gsrq l”e] dq`æ¥ o ^fæf”r ^cU|d`kÍ d`ks rS;kj d`juk le; d`h ek∑x cu pqd`h gS\ bl d`Vq lR; d`ks n~fÆVxr j[rs gq, fuf'pr Ôi ls ;g d`gk tk ld`rk gS fd` Hkjr eÍ dq`æ¥ ^cU|d`kÍ d`h ek∑x cuh gqbZ gS rƒk HfoÆ; eÍ blds` d`bZ xquk cÈ<us d`h lEHkouk gS\ ,d` ^cU| fopkjd` ds` erkuqlkj vkt gekjs nsæ eÍ fod`kl tÔjrkÍ d`ks iwjk d`jus ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/707

ds` f¥, ^fro"Z d`jhc ,d` ¥k[ ^fæf”r ^cU|d`kÍ d`h tÔjr gS] tcfd` nsæ eÍ ^fro"Z ds`o¥ 40 gtkj ^cU|d` gh rS;kj gksrs gß\ vr# LiÆV gS fd` vkus ok¥s le; eÍ ^fæf”r ^cU|d`kÍ d`h ek∑x vkSj cÈ<sxh\ orZeku ^frLi|kZRed` ifjosæ eÍ viuk cktkj fgLlk cÈ<kus] ^frÆBk eÍ vfHo~f* d`jus rƒk m®jthfork d`ks d`k;e j[us ds ` f¥, cgqjkÆV_h; d`Eifu;kÍ] vkS»ksfxd` lewgkÍ] okf.fT;d` o fo®h; laLƒkukÍ] chek d`Eifu;kÍ vkfn ds` }kjk ^fæf”r o n” ^cU|d`kÍ d`ks vR;Ur gh vkd`"Zd` ikfjJfed` fn;k tkrk gS\ ^frfÆBr fæ”. laLƒkukÍ ls ,e\ch\,\ o blds` led`” fMxzh ¥sus ok¥s v˙;ƒhZ okafNr okf"Zd` iSds`t ¥sus eÍ lœ`¥ gks jgs gß\ nwljh vksj lk|kj. fo'ofo»k¥; ;k d`kW¥st ls ,e\ ch\ ,\ d`jus ok¥s v˙;fƒZ;kÍ d`ks eanhd`k¥ ds` mijkUr Hh 3 ls 4 ¥k[ :\ d`k okf"Zd` iSds`t fe¥ jgk gS\ rRi'pkrΩ vuqHo vkSj ;ksX;rk eÍ vfHo~f* gksus ij mPp inkÍ ij ^eksæu gks tkrk gS rƒk ikfjJfed` o lk|u–lqfo|k,a cÈ< tkrh gß\ xkSjr¥c rF; ;g Hh gS fd` tks fo»kƒhZ ,e\ ch\ ,\ ;k led`” Lukrd`ks®j ikBΩ;∂`e ds` ek÷;e ls ^cU| fæ”k vftZr d`jus d`h vfH¥k"k j[rs gß mUgÍ dS`V ;k eSV ;k vU; ^os æ ijh”k d`h lEiw.Z tkud`kjh d`jrss gq, ijh”k iSVuZ vkSj p;u ^f∂`;k ls lEcfU|r ^R;sd` Hkx d`h ifjiw.Z rS;kjh d`juh pkfg,] rkfd` mUgÍ m®e ^fæ”. laLƒku eÍ nkf[¥k fe¥ lds`\ ^frfÆBr laLƒku ls fæ”k ^kIr d`jds` os u ds`o¥ vkfƒZd` n~fÆV ls cfYd` lkekftd` lEeku d`h n~fÆV ls Hh mPp ^cU|d` ;k vf|æklh vf|d`kjh cu ld`rs gß vkSj vius m®e dS`fj;j d`k liuk lkd`kj d`j ld`rs gß\

ijh”k d`k ekg%February, May, September
and December

^'u–i( d`h lajpuk vkSj tk∑p–fo";%
☛ ☛ ☛ ☛ ☛ Data Analysis and Data Sufficiency Mathematics Intelligence and Critical Reasoning Language Comprehension Indian and Global Environment osclkbV%www.aima-ind.org XAT (XLRI Aptitude Test)

laLƒku d`k uke tks ijh”k vk;ksftr d`jrh gS%Xavier Labour Research Institute,
Jamshedpur

ijh”k d`k ekg%January ^'u–i( d`h lajpuk vkSj tk∑p–fo";%
☛ ☛ ☛ Quantitative Ability and Reasoning Decision Making Verbal Ability and Reading Comprehension ☛ Essay Writing osclkbV%www.xlri.edu. CET (Common Entrance Test)

laLƒku d`k uke tks ijh”k vk;ksftr d`jrh gS%Institutions of Maharashtra ijh”k d`k ekg%February ^'u–i( d`h lajpuk vkSj tk∑p–fo";%
☛ ☛ ☛ Verbal Ability and Verbal Reasoning Reading Comprehension Problem Solving and Data Interpretation ☛ Logical Reasoning & Visual Reasoning osclkbV%www.dte.org.in/mba FMS (Test for Faculty Management Studies)

,e\ch\,\ vkSj led`” ikBΩ;∂`ekÍ d`h ^eq[ ^osæ ijh”k,a ,d` utj eÍ
CAT (Common Admission Test)

laLƒku d`k uke tks ijh”k vk;ksftr d`jrh gS%Delhi University ijh”k d`k ekg%January ^'u–i( d`h lajpuk vkSj tk∑p–fo";%

laLƒku d`k uke tks ijh”k vk;ksftr d`jrh ☛ Verbal Ability and Reading Comprehension gS%lHh Hkjrh; ^cU| laLƒkuÍ [IIMs] ☛ Logical Reasoning ijh”k d`k ekg%November ☛ Quantitative Aptitude and Data Interpretation ^'u–i( d`h lajpuk vkSj tk∑p–fo";% ☛ Verbal Ability and Reading Com- osclkbV%www.fms.edu
prehension Problem Solving and Quantitative Aptitude ☛ Data Interpretation and Data Sufficiency osclkbV%www.catiim.in ☛ MAT (Management Aptitude Test) SNAP (Symbosis National Aptitude Test)

laLƒku d`k uke tks ijh”k vk;ksftr d`jrh gS%P.G. Institutions of Symbosis University : SIBM, SICSR, SIMS, SCMHRD, SIG etc. ijh”k d`k ekg%December

laLƒku d`k uke tks ijh”k vk;ksftr d`jrh ^'u–i( d`h lajpuk vkSj tk∑p–fo";% gS%All India Management Aptitude ☛ General English
Testing Serivce [AIMATS]

æs" i~ÆB 723 ij

vkUrfjd` lqj”k lEcU|h ¥s[

uDl¥okn # vkUrfjd` lqj”k d`ks pqukSrh
·N®hlxÈ< ds` foæs" lUnHZ eÍ‚ 

MkW\ xq¥kc pUnz ¥f¥r ,oa MkW\ eksuw dq`æokgk dq`N ”s(kÍ eÍ œS`¥k gqvk gS] tSls% vkU|z ^nsæ] e÷; ^nsæ] fcgkj] N®hlxÈ<] rfe¥ukMq] egkjkÆV_ ,oa mÈMhlk vkfn\ uDl¥oknh laxBukÍ ds` ikl dq`æ¥ lwpukra(] foæs" ^fæ”. ,oa vR;k|qfud` æL( ^.k¥h Hh gS\ vkt c;k¥hl lk¥ ckn Hh uDl¥oknh ¯pxkfj;k∑ Hkjr ds` pk¥hl œ`hlnh HkSxksf¥d` ”s( eÍ œS`¥ pqd`h gß\ [qfœ`;k ,tÍlh jkW d`k vkd`¥u crkrk gS fd` bl oâ` Hkjr eÍ d`jhc 20,000 uDl¥h mxzoknh lf∂`; gß\

if'pe caxk¥ ds` fl¥hxqÈMh lEHkx ds` ,d` NksVs ls xk∑o uDl¥okÈMh ls lkB ds` næd` eÍ fd`lku vkUnks¥u ds` Ôi eÍ æqÔ gq, la?"Z d`ks uDl¥h vkUnks¥u d`h laKk ls vfHfgr fd`;k tkrk gS\ 1967 eÍ tgk∑ vkfnokfl;kÍ us Hw–Lokfe;kÍ ds` f[¥kœ` gfƒ;kj mBk f¥, ƒs\ blds` ckn ;g vkUnks¥u tax¥ eÍ vkx d`h rjg nsæ ds` vU; HkxkÍ eÍ Hh œS`¥ x;k\ nsæ ds` dq`N HkxkÍ ds` loZJsÆB vkSj cÈMs cqf*eku ¥ksxkÍ us ?j vkSj fæ”. laLƒkvkÍ d`ks NksÈMd`j bl vkUnks¥u ls vius d`ks tksÈM f¥;k vkSj mUgkÍus ,d` ubZ lkekftd` O;oLƒk ds` lius ns[s\ Lok|hurk ^kfIr ds` nks næd` ds` ckn Hh Hkjr d`h vkcknh d`k ,d` cÈMk rcd`k fd`lku] Jfed` vkSj vkfnoklh æks". d`k fæd`kj gks jgk ƒk\ ,slk eglwl fd`;k x;k fd` ækfUriw.Z rjhd`kÍ ls tÔjh ifjorZu ugÓ vk ik,axs] D;kÍfd` fufgr LokƒksÛ ds` gkƒ eÍ l®k vkSj m»ksxkÍ d`k fu;U(. cuk gqvk gS vkSj [sfrgj oxZ ij ^eq[r# lkearh id`ÈM cuh gqbZ gS\ mud`k fopkj ƒk fd` bu lcls NqVd`kjk ikus d`k ,d`ek( rjhd`k ƒk% læL( ∂`kfUr\ Lok|hu Hkjr ds` bfrgkl eÍ uDl¥okÈMh d`k vkUnks¥u ek( ,d` fd`lku ,oa Hwfeghu oxZ d`h tkx~fr d`k gh ,d` vkUnks¥u ugÓ ƒk] cfYd` Hkjrh; lekt ds` ∂`kfUrd`kjh ifjorZu gsrq d`E;qfuLV ∂`kfUrd`kfj;kÍ us phu eÍ gqbZ d`E;qfuLV ∂`kfUr ls lcd` lh[rs gq, ¥sfuuokn] ekDlZokn vkSj ekvksRls rqax d`h fopkj|kjk d`ks viuk ^Lƒku fcUnq ekuk\ lkeUrokn d`ks lekIr d`jus gsrq lkE;okn d`k ;g la?"Z ml le; mxz gqvk tc Hwfeghu fd`lku ,oa misf”r lkekftd` oxZ us bld`k nkeu ƒke f¥;k\ Hkjh Hw¥] HVd`ko] H;] HkxeHkx ,oa HÈMkl ls Hjs vlarqf¥r rƒk jkT; ^æklu }kjk vHwriwoZ neu] ncko ,oa mRihÈMu ds` ckotwn uDl¥oknh xfrfof|;kÍ d`k fl¥fl¥k tkjh jgk\ viuh vusd` Hw¥kÍ ds` d`kj. uDl¥okn vius ew¥ Lƒku if'pe caxk¥ eÍ rks cgqr vf|d` iui ugÓ ld`k] fd`Urq tgk∑ uDlf¥;kÍ ds` fNius ,oa dw`V;kstuk cukus gsrq tax¥ ,oa ?kVh ”s( foæs" Ôi ls mi¥C| gß] ogk∑ vf|d` iuik vkSj vkt Hh bld`k vkrad` ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/708

uDl¥h vkUnks¥u
uDl¥okÈMh ls æqÔ gqvk uDl¥h vkUnks¥u 1970 ds` e÷; vkSj 1971 ds` chp uDl¥h ¯glk d`h n~fÆV ls vius pje ij ƒk\ le>k tkrk gS fd` bl vof| eÍ ¥xHx 4,000 okjnkrÍ gqbÛ\ lE^fr bl nkSj d`ks mPp Lrj ds` oxZ la?"Z vkSj Nkikekj ;q* d`h æqÔvkr ekuk x;k\ bl vkUnks¥u ds` usrk pk:` etwenkj d`k vuqeku ƒk fd` ∏Hkjr d`k gj d`ksuk ,d` Tok¥keq[h cu pqd`k gS\ ;g œw`Vus gh ok¥k ƒk vkSj Hkjr eÍ cgqr T;knk mƒ¥–iqƒ¥ d`h lEHkouk ƒh\π ;gh ÷;ku eÍ j[rs gq, mUgkÍus vius lnL;kÍ d`k vkÿku fd`;k\ mud`k lUnsæ ƒk ∏la?"Z d`k d`gÓ Hh vkSj gj txg foLrkj d`jks\π ;g u flœZ` d`kuwu vkSj O;oLƒk ds` f¥, pqukSrh ƒs] cfYd` blls nsæ d`h ¥ksd`rkaf(d` ^f∂`;k d`ks Hh [rjk ƒk\

d`k d`kj. cu x;k gS \ [q n d`ks uDl¥okÈMh d`h iSnkbæ crkus ok¥s tkus fd`rus NksVs vkSj cÈMs laxBu N®hlxÈ<] fcgkj] >kj[≥M] mÈMhlk] vkU|z ^nsæ] m®j ^nsæ vkSj egkjkÆV_ eÍ lf∂`; gß vkSj mud`h vk∂`e. æS¥h fujUrj isæsojkuk gksrh tk jgh gS\ ;wih, ds` jkÆV_h; U;wure lk>k d`k;Z∂`e eÍ d`gk x;k ƒk fd` ds`Unz ljd`kj uDl¥h ¯glk d`ks d`kuwu O;oLƒk d`h leL;k ugÓ ekurh\ bls lkekftd`– vkfƒZd` leL;k ds` Ôi eÍ lq¥>kus d`h tÔjr gS tc rd` vkfƒZd` vlekurk,a nwj ugÓ gkÍxh] uDl¥oknh vkUrfjd` ækfUr Hax d`jrs jgÍxs vkSj vfLƒjrk iSnk d`jrs jgÍxs\ v÷;;ukÍ ls irk p¥rk gS fd` nsæ ds` fu|Zure ¥ksx usik¥ ls lVs fcgkj d`h lhek ls ¥sd`j vkU|z ^nsæ ds` jk;¥ lhek rd` d`h uDl¥okn ^Hkfor i±h eÍ lads`fUnzr gß\ tc rd` mud`h fæd`k;rkÍ d`k Rofjr fucVku ugÓ gks tkrk] mud`k vlUrks" vkSj vk∂`ksæ uDl¥okfn;kÍ d`ks ˜tkZ ^nku d`jrk jgsxk\ lE^fr uDl¥h leL;k ls fuiVus ds` f¥, d`k;kZfUor d`h tk jgh j.uhfr;kÍ] okrkZvkÍ d`k d`ksbZ ld`kjkRed` ifj.ke lkeus ugÓ vk;k gS\ uDl¥okn us iSnkbæh oâ` ls vkt rd` bruh vf|d` nwjh r; d`j ¥h gS fd` lS*kfUrd` Ôi ls leL;k lq¥>kus d`h ckr O;kogkfjd` Ôi eÍ ¥kxw gksuk vk'p;Ztud` ,oa lUnsgkLin lh ^rhr gksrh gS\ fœ`j Hh vkUrfjd` lqj”k d`k x¥k ?kÍVrh mâ` leL;k d`ks lq¥>kus eÍ D;k–D;k vkSj fd`l Lrj ds` ^;kl fd`, x, vkSj vHh fd`, tkus d`h vko';d`rk gS vkfn rF;kÍ ds` ^d`kæ eÍ bl fo"; ij fopkj d`jus d`h egrh vko';d`rk gS\ uDl¥okn ^Hkfor jkT;kÍ d`h leL;k ds` lEcU| eÍ ds`Unz }kjk cq¥kbZ xbZ vusd` cSBd`kÍ eÍ ;g ckr lkeus vkbZ gS fd` uDl¥h vkUnks¥u ds` f[¥kœ` p¥k, x, vfH;kukÍ ds` nkSjku ^k;# ds`Unz jkT; [qfœ`;k ,tÍfl;kÍ ds` chp leUo; d`h d`eh ikbZ tkrh gS] ftlls vfH;ku ij cqjk vlj iÈMrk gS\ bu cSBd`kÍ d`k ld`kjkRed` ifj.ke ;g gqvk fd` ds`Unz us ;g LiÆV d`j fn;k fd` og fofHUu jkT;kÍ d`h ^frjks|h j.uhfr;kÍ ds` f∂`;kUo;u d`h fuxjkuh d`jsxh] ¥sfd`u ifj.ker# vc rd` ds`Unz ljd`kj d`h Hwfed`k v|ZlSfud` c¥kÍ d`ks Hstus] jkT;kÍ d`ks lqj”k lEcU|h O;; d`k Hqxrku d`jus rƒk iqf¥lra( ds` vk|qfud`hd`j. rd` lhfer ƒh] ogÓ uDl¥okn ^Hkfor jkT;kÍ ds` eq“;eaf(;kÍ ds` lEes¥u d`ks lEcksf|r d`jrs gq, ^|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg us d`gk fd` ∏uDl¥h leL;k ls fuiVus d`h gekjh j.uhfr ds` nks LrEH gkÍxs% ig¥k]

orZeku eÍ N®hlxÈ< ds` 18 ft¥kÍ eÍ ls N# ft¥s rks iwjh rjg uDlf¥;kÍ ds` paxq¥ eÍ gß\ ftueÍ cLrj] ljxqtk ds` v¥kok narsokÈMk] chtkiqj] ukjk;.iqj] txn¥iqj tSls ft¥s ^eq[ gß] tgk∑ uDlf¥;kÍ d`k gh jkt p¥rk gS\ dq`N gn rd` d`kads`j vkSj jk;xÈ< eÍ Hh uDlf¥;kÍ d`h iSB gS\ uDl¥h neup∂` d`ks ifj^s{; eÍ j[ ljd`kj us Lohd`kj d`j f¥;k gS fd` uDl¥okn ls ^Hkfor nsæ ds` 160 ft¥kÍ ds` dq`N fgLls ‘eqâ` ”s(’ ljh[s cu x, gß vkSj ogk∑ ^æklu vkSj iqf¥l O;oLƒk tSls jkT; ds` d`k;ksÛ d`ks uDl¥oknh vatke nsus ¥xs gß\ uDl¥okn vc rd` d`k nsæ d`k vds`¥k lcls cÈMk vkUrfjd` lqj”k pqukSrh

^Hkoh iq f ¥l ^frf∂`;k lqfuf'pr d`juk vkSj lkƒ gh lkƒ nwljk] oapuk vkSj v¥xko ds` cks| d`ks d`e d`juk\π ^|kuea(h us js[kafd`r fd`;k fd` ∏iqf¥l vuqf∂`;k vko';d` gS] D;kÍfd` lkoZtfud` O;oLƒk d`k;e j[us ds` jkÆV_h; nkf;Ro ds` f¥, ;g tÔjh gS] ¥sfd`u ^Hkoh iqf¥l vuqf∂`;k d`k vfH^k; Hkjrh; æklu O;oLƒk d`ks ∂w`j cukuk ugÓ gS\π vr# loZfofnr gS fd` pkj næd` ls Hh vf|d` le; ls p¥h vk jgh bl leL;k d`ks tÈM ls m[kÈM œÍ`d`us d`k lkƒZd` ^;kl vHh rd` ugÓ fd`;k x;k gS] ftlls ;g vkUrfjd` lqj”k lEcU|h pqukSrh mRiUu gqbZ gS\ ftu d`kj.kÍ ls nsæ eÍ uDl¥okn d`ks cÈ<kok fe¥k] nqHkZX; ls os lHh vkt Hh ekStwn gß\ lekt eÍ O;kIr oxZHsn ds` lkƒ xjhch ,oa csjkstxkjh Hh ,d` ^eq[ d`kj. gS\ Hwfe lq|kj d`k;Z∂`ekÍ ij bZekunkjh ls ve¥ ugÓ fd`;k x;k\ vkfnokfl;kÍ ds` lkƒ vPNk O;ogkj ugÓ gks jgk gS\ uDl¥okn vkt bl d`kj. ftUnk gS D;kÍfd` gekjs lekt eÍ vlUrks" ,oa fo”ksH ds` d`kj. ckd`k;nk cus gq, gß\ tc rd` Hw[] mRihÈMu] ncko] ngær] ihÈMk ,oa jkstxkj oafpr vkcknh jgsxh\ rc rd` vlarks" vkSj vjktd`rk ,sls vkUnks¥ukÍ d`ks tUe nsrh jgsxh\ tgk∑ rd` uDl¥oknh xqVkÍ d`h ^Î`fr d`k ^'u gS] rks u rks os v¥xkooknh gß] u gh vkrad`oknh gß vkSj u gh mUgÍ lgh Ôi eÍ mxzokfn;kÍ d`h Js.h eÍ j[k tk ld`rk gS\ mud`k fo'okl vo'; gh ¥ksd`rkaf(d` O;oLƒk eÍ ugÓ gS\ ?ksf"r rkSj ij os ∂`kfUr d`jus fud`¥s gß] ¥sfd`u os Lo;a bl lok¥ d`k tokc ugÓ ns ld`rs fd` dq`N funksZ" ¥ksxkÍ d`h gR;k d`jds` os ¥ksx d`kSulh ∂`kfUr d`j ¥Íxs\ uDl¥okfn;kÍ d`h utj eÍ mud`k og gj O;fâ` nq'eu gS tks orZeku ¥ksd`rkaf(d` O;oLƒk eÍ fo'okl j[rs gß] ds`Unz ljd`kj us uDl¥ leL;k d`ks vkUrfjd` lqj”k ds` f¥, lcls cÈMh pqukSrh ekuk gS\ ljd`kj bl d`kuwu O;oLƒk ds` lkƒ–lkƒ lkekftd`–vkfƒZd` fiNÈMsiu ls tqÈMh leL;k ekurh gS\ blf¥, nksukÍ LrjkÍ ij leL;k ls fuiVus ds` ^;kl d`jus gkÍxs vƒkZrΩ ,d` vkSj uDl¥oknh ¯glk ls n~È<rkiwoZd` fuiVus d`h j.uhfr] rks nwljh vksj fod`klkRed` ig¥qvkÍ ij laosnuæh¥ n~fÆVd`ks. viukuk gksxk\ lYok tqMqe ·uDl¥ fojks|h ^fr∂`kfUr‚ N®hlxÈ< ds` cLrj lEHkx eÍ ^Hkoh vkfnokfl;kÍ ds` f¥, ?j okilh d`k ljd`kjh vfH;ku gS] bls vkSj ^Hkoh cukd`j N®hlxÈ< ds` vU; uDl¥ ^Hkfor HkxkÍ eÍ p¥kuk gksxk vkSj ftld`h lœ`¥rk vU; jkT;kÍ d`ks Hh ld`kjkRed` Ôi ls ^Hkfor d`jsxh\ ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/709

uDl¥h leL;k ew¥r# lkekftd`– vkfƒZd` vYi fod`kl] æks". vkSj mRihÈMu ls tqÈMh leL;k gS] blf¥, cUnwd` vkSj lSfud`kÍ ds` c¥ ij bld`k lek|ku lEHo u gksxk\ blds` f¥, fod`kl ds` ¥kH vkSj U;k; d`ks fup¥s Lrj rd` igq∑pkuk gksxk\ jkT; ljd`kjkÍ d`ks Hwfe lq|kj d`k;Z∂`ekÍ d`ks rsth ls ¥kxw d`juk gksxk\ jkÆV_h; tutkrh; uhfr eÍ vkfnokfl;kÍ ds` vf|d`kjkÍ d`h leqfpr O;oLƒk d`jus ds` lkƒ fiNÈMs rƒk nwjnjkt ds` b¥kd`kÍ eÍ ;qok oxZ d`ks jkstxkj eqgS;k d`jkuk gksxk\ lE^fr ljd`kj us mâ` leL;k ls fuiVus ds` f¥, ,d` O;kid` pkSng lw(h; ;kstuk rS;kj d`h gS\ bu lcd`ks lgh ld`kjkRed` næk–fnæk fe¥s blds` f¥, ljd`kj d`ks ckrphr d`h vPNh ig¥ d`juh gksxh lkƒ gh ekvksokfn;kÍ d`ks ig¥s gfƒ;kjkÍ d`k leiZ. d`jus ds` f¥, jkth d`juk gksxk\ ljd`kj us ;fn lPps eu ls mi;qZâ` rF;kÍ ij ld`kjkRed` n~fÆVd`ks. viukuk vkjEH fd`;k rks uDl¥h okLro eÍ ¥ksd`rkaf(d` O;oLƒk eÍ ækfe¥ gks ld`rs gß\ Hkjr eÍ fiN¥s ,d` næd` ls uDl¥h ¯glk eÍ vf|d` o~f* gqbZ gS\ o"Z 2008 eÍ uDl¥ ^Hkfor jkT;kÍ eÍ 1591 ?Vuk,a uDl¥h ¯glk d`h ntZ gqbÛ\ bu ?VukvkÍ eÍ 490 ukxfjd` ekjs x, vkSj 231 lqj”kd`ehZ æghn gq,\ bu vk∑d`ÈMkÍ eÍ ds`o¥ N®hlxÈ< eÍ 620 ?Vuk,a gqbÛ] ftueÍ 157 ukxfjd` vkSj 85 lqj”k d`ehZ ekjs x,\ uDlf¥;kÍ d`h ckÔnh lqjaxkÍ us ftruh tkuÍ N®hlxÈ< jkT; eÍ ¥h gß] mruh vkSj d`gÓ ugÓ\ N®hlxÈ< ds` cLrj o ljxqtk ds` lkƒ vU; uDl¥ ^Hkfor ”s(kÍ eÍ fo|ku lHk;h o lalnh; pquko lEiUu d`jkuk lcls d`fBu gS\ ;gk∑ iqf¥l d`feZ;kÍ ls ¥sd`j jktusrk rd` lHh lnSo uDlf¥;kÍ ds` fuækus ij jgrs gß\ ^Hkfor b¥kd`kÍ eÍ ljd`kj H¥s gh H;eqâ` ernku d`h vih¥ d`jrh jgs] ernkrkvkÍ d`ks uDlf¥;kÍ ds` bækjs d`k gh bartkj jgrk gS\ cfgÆd`kj d`h ?ks".k gqbZ rks cfgÆd`kj gh gksxk\ pquko cfgÆd`kj d`h ?ks".k d`h vkÈM eÍ os dq`N mEehnokjkÍ d`k leƒZu d`jrs gß\ usrkvkÍ vkSj uDlf¥;kÍ d`h lk∑B–xk∑B d`h [cjÍ vc ubZ ugÓ jg xbZ gß\ id`ÈMs x, uDl¥h d`ek≥MjkÍ us bld`k [q¥klk fd`;k gS\ N®hlxÈ< d`k iqf¥l <k∑pk cgqr d`etksj gS\ jkÆV_h; vkSlr ^fr 100 oxZ fd`eh ij 54 iqf¥l d`feZ;kÍ d`k gS] ¥sfd`u jkT; d`k Lrj blls cgqr uhps gS\ nwjnjkt ds` ƒkus Vs¥hœ`ksu ls ugÓ tqÈMs gß\ lE^fr lqj”k <k∑ps ls tqÈMs lok¥ vHh Hh vuq®fjr gß] ogÓ lEHkfor lek|ku ds` Ôi eÍ d`kuwu d`k lgkjk f¥;k tk jgk gS\

ukxfjd` vf|d`kj laxBu blls vlger gß] muds` fopkj eÍ N®hlxÈ< tu lqj”k vf|fu;e] 2006 [kfe;kÍ ls Hjk gqvk gS\ ^|kuea(h us eq“;eaf(;kÍ ls d`gk gS fd` os eke¥s d`ks xEHhjrk ls ¥Í\ ;g Hh d`gk fd` ∏geÍ lHh mi¥C| lk|ukÍ ls uDl¥oknh c¥kÍ d`h jhÈ< rksÈMus d`h tÔjr gS\π ogÓ x~ g ea ( k¥; mxz o kn cÈ < us ds ` d`kj. ‘^æklfud` vkSj jktuhfrd` laLƒkvkÍ d`h vi;kZIrrk ekurk gS\ dq`¥ fe¥kd`j ljd`kj ds` f¥, ckrphr gh ,d` vPNh ig¥ gks ld`rh gS\ gk¥kafd` ljd`kjh vk∑d`ÈMkÍ ds` eqrkfcd` uDl¥ ^Hkfor ”s(kÍ ds` nk;js eÍ dq`N d`eh vkbZ gS] bl ij larks" tkfgj d`jrs gq, ds`Unzh; x~g lfpo us d`gk fd` fod`kl ij ÷;ku fn, tkus ls jkT;kÍ d`ks bl cqjkbZ d`ks fu;af(r d`jus eÍ enn fe¥sxh\ mUgkÍus d`gk fd` ftu jkT;kÍ eÍ vkS»ksxhd`j. ds` d`kj. ¥ksxkÍ d`ks foLƒkfir gksuk iÈM jgk gS] ogk∑ iquokZl d`h csgrj uhfr;k∑ cukbZ tkuh pkfg,\ mUgkÍus d`gk fd` ljd`kj d`k n~fÆVd`ks. ;g gS fd` okeiaƒh mxzokfn;kÍ d`ks lkekftd` eq“;|kjk eÍ ¥k;k tk,\ 2007 eÍ 11 jkT;kÍ ds` 510 ls T;knk ƒkuk ”s( uDl¥ ^Hkfor ekus x, ƒs] orZeku eÍ flœZ` 400 ƒkuk ”s( gh uDl¥ ^Hkfor ekus tk jgs gß\ ljd`kj us d`gk fd` vxj uDl¥oknh gfƒ;kj Mk¥s nÍ rks ljd`kj muds` lkƒ ckrphr d`ks rS;kj gS\ mUgkÍus lHh ^Hkfor jkT;kÍ ls vkU|z ^nsæ d`h rjg ∏vkRe leiZ. uhfrπ rS;kj d`jus d`ks d`gk\ ljd`kj vkSj O;oLƒk fojks|h ¯gld` tuk∂`ksæ ds` ihNs igpku d`k lad`V vkSj vkRe lEeku d`k ^'u Hh ækfe¥ gS\ bl n~fÆVd`ks. ls lHh jkT; ljd`kjkÍ d`ks lkekftd` ,oa vkfƒZd` ifjorZu d`h ^f∂`;k eÍ vYila“;d`kÍ d`h leqfpr Hkxhnkjh lqfuf'pr d`jus eÍ O;fâ`xr Ôi ls ÷;ku nsuk pkfg,\ ljd`kjh ,tÍfl;kÍ] foæs"d`j d`kuwu ¥kxw d`jkus ok¥h ,tÍfl;kÍ d`ks leqnk; ds` usrkvkÍ ds` lkƒ vkReh; lEcU| j[us pkfg, vkSj mud`h ¯prkvkÍ ij leqfpr laosnuæh¥rk fn[kuh pkfg,\ uDl¥oknh leL;k vkt vds`¥s N®hlxÈÈ< jkT; d`h leL;k ugÓ gS] cfYd` blus d`bZ Hkjrh; jkT;kÍ d`h ,d` lkef;d` vkUrfjd` lqj”k leL;k d`k Ôi vf“r;kj d`j f¥;k gS\ blf¥, vko';d`rk bl ckr d`h gS fd` bls orZeku d`h vge leL;k ds` Ôi eÍ ns[k tk, vkSj uklwj cu pqds` bl jksx d`k u, fljs ls lHh jkT;kÍ ds` nwjnæhZ lefUor lg;ksx ls b¥kt fd`;k tk,\ lE^fr nwjnæhZ mik;kÍ ls uDl¥h fopkj|kjk d`ks œS`¥us ls jksd`k tk ld`rk gS vkSj mxzokn d`k Lƒk;h lek|ku fud`¥ ld`rk gS\

N®hlxÈ< jkT;
1 uoEcj] 2000 d`ks xfBr N®hlxÈ< jkT; ew¥r# ,d` xzkeh. jkT; gS] ;gk∑ tula“;k d`k forj. vleku gS\ jkT; d`h 79·90% tula“;k jkT; ds` xk∑okÍ eÍ fuokl d`jrh gS\ jkT; ds` vkfnoklh ft¥kÍ% ljxqtk] cLrj rƒk jk;xÈ< eÍ xzkeh. tula“;k vf|d` gS\ jkT; d`h 20·09% tula“;k uxjkÍ eÍ fuokl d`jrh gS\ ¯¥xkuqikr d`h n~fÆV ls ;gk∑ d`h tula“;k eÍ efg¥kvkÍ rƒk iq:"kÍ d`h la“;k cjkcj–cjkcj gS\ N®hlxÈ< jkT; d`h tula“;k d`k ¥xHx ,d` frgkbZ Hkx vuqlwfpr tutkfr d`h tula“;k d`k gS] ftlds` vk|kj ij N®hlxÈ< d`ks ,d` tutkfr cgq¥ jkT;’ d`gk tkrk gS\ jkT; eÍ fuokljr 43 vuqlwfpr tutkfr;kÍ eÍ ^eq[ tutkfr ‘xkÍM’ gS\ fiNÈMh tkfr;kÍ ds` N# foæs" lewg vfHd`j. gß\ fiNÈMh tkfr ds` v¥kok vuqlwfpr tkfr;kÍ] tutkfr;kÍ eÍ fuj”jrk] vkfƒZd` fiNÈMkiu] jgu–lgu d`h d`etksj fLƒfr] csjkstxkjh ,oa vLi~';rk tSlh vusd` leL;k,∑ fo»eku gß\ o"Z 2001 d`h tux.ukuq l kj N®hlxÈ< jkT; d`h lk”jrk nj 64·7% gS] ftueÍ iq:" lk”jrk nj 77·4% rƒk efg¥k lk”jrk nj 51·9% gS\ jkT; ds` vusd` ,sls ft¥s gß\ tgk∑ d`h lk”jrk nj nsæ d`h lk”jrk nj ls d`e gS\ d`dZ` js[k ij fLƒr gksus ds` d`kj. ;g xeZ ^nsæ gS rƒk o"kZ d`h ^Î`fr mÆ. d`fVca|h; ekulwuh gS\ |ku N®hlxÈ< d`h eq“; œ`l¥ gS\ ˜tkZ ”s( bl jkT; d`h vƒZO;oLƒk eÍ fod`kl d`k vxznwr gS\

}kjk gkƒ eÍ f¥;k x;k gS] ¥sfd`u ;g ^;kl leL;k funku ds` f¥, i;kZIr ugÓ gS\ ebZ–twu] 2005 ls N®hlxÈ< ds` if'peh cLrj ds` vfrlaosnuæh¥ uDl¥h ”s(kÍ eÍ uDlf¥;kÍ ds` fo:* vkfnoklh xzkeh.kÍ d`k tu–tkxj. vfH;ku ·l¥ok tqMqe‚ ^kjEH gqvk\ nUrsokÈMk ft¥s ds` HSjexÈ<] cksn¥h] us¥lukj] dq`V:] d`ksrjkik¥] ds`ædq`rq¥] iY¥sckek] chtkiqj o vU; uDl¥h xzkekÍ eÍ ;g vfH;ku ,d` tu∂`kfUr ds` Ôi eÍ ns[k tk jgk gS\ vkfnokfl;kÍ ds` bl vfH;ku d`ks N®hlxÈ< iqf¥l o Hkjrh; lsuk d`h dq`N cVkf¥;u o orZeku eÍ ukxk¥S≥M ls cq¥kbZ xbZ Lisæ¥ œ`kslZ d`k iw.Z lg;ksx fe¥ jgk gS\

uDl¥okn # vkUrfjd` lqj”k d`ks pqukSrh
uDl¥h leL;k vkUrfjd` lqj”k d`h lcls cÈMh pqukSrh gS] D;kÍfd` ;g d`kuwu– O;oLƒk ls tqÈMh leL;k gS\ ds`Unz ,oa jkT; ljd`kjkÍ us uDl¥ ^Hkfor ”s(kÍ d`h næk– fnæk d`ks n~fÆVxr j[ xjhckÍ] csjkstxkjkÍ] cslgkjk ¥ksxkÍ] vke|kjk ls fo¥x vfæf”rkÍ vkSj vYi fæf”r ¥ksxkÍ ds` fufgrkƒZ vusd` ;kstukvkÍ] Î`"d` lsok ds`UnzkÍ ,oa vkS»ksfxd` fod`kl ds`UnzkÍ d`k ^kÔi rS;kj d`j ^Hkfor jkT;kÍ eÍ Hstk] ijUrq ^æklfud` Lrj ij uDlf¥;kÍ ds` fojks|oæ] ;kstuk,a lgh fnæk eÍ d`k;kZfUor ugÓ gks ik jgh gß\ uDlf¥;kÍ d`ks muds` ”s(kÍ eÍ vusd` jktuhfrd` n¥kÍ usrkvkÍ d`k laj”. ^kIr gS\ ftuds` lgkjs jktuhfrd` n¥ viuh– viuh jksVh lÍd` jgs gß\ lE^fr vU; n¥h; ljd`kjkÍ d`h ;kstukvkÍ d`k fojks|h n¥ ¥kxw d`jus vkSj d`jokus ij tksj Mk¥rs gß uDlf¥;kÍ ds` fojks| vkSj vkrad` ds` vkxs ;kstuk,a rks D;k] ubZ–ubZ vkS»ksfxd` d`Eifu;k∑ vius d`ks Lƒkfir ugÓ d`j ik jgh gß\ ^æklfud` Lrj ij cÈMs ls cÈMs vf|d`kjh bu uDl¥ ^Hkfor ”s(kÍ eÍ tkus ls cpuk pkg jgs gß] d`gus d`k rkRi;Z viuh tku ds` ^fr H;krqj gß\ lhekikj ls uohure gfƒ;kjkÍ ds` v¥kok eknd` inkƒksÛ d`h ^kfIr d`ks uDlf¥;kÍ us viuk O;olk; cukd`j jkT; eÍ ‘H; d`k vkrad`’ Lƒkfir d`j fn;k gS\ bUgÍ vke |kjk eÍ ¥kus ds` vƒd` ^;kl foœ`¥ gks x, gß\ ^Hkfor ”s(kÍ eÍ ¥ksd` lHk ;k fo|ku lHk ds` pquko d`jokuk\ lh\ vkj\ ih\ ,œ`\] jkT; d`h iqf¥l o [qfœ`;k ,tÍfl;kÍ us eq“; leL;k ekuk gS\ lE^fr vke |kjk ls foijhr uDlf¥;kÍ d`ks lgh næk–fnæk fe¥s] blds` f¥, ljd`kj d`ks uDlf¥;kÍ ls vkeus–lkeus d`h ckrphr d`h ig¥ d`juh gksxh\ mUgÍ ig¥s gfƒ;kjkÍ

d`k leiZ. d`jus ds` f¥, jkth d`juk gksxk\ blds` lkƒ gh jkT; eÍ fLƒr uDl¥h ,oa xSj uDl¥h d`h igpku d`juk vR;Ur vko';d` gS\ tkfr] |eZ vkSj Hk"k d`k HsnHko fd`, fcuk nsæHfâ` d`ks laj”. nsuk gksxk vkSj nsænzksgh d`ksbZ Hh gks mls nf≥Mr d`juk gksxk\ uDl¥h xfrfof|;kÍ d`h lwpuk nsus ok¥kÍ d`ks laj”. nsus ds` lkƒ–lkƒ lafnX| O;fâ`;kÍ ij utj j[uh gksxh\ vkt N®hlxÈ< eÍ jkT; ^æklu] ft¥k ^æklu vkSj Lƒkuh; ^æklu eÍ vusd` ,sls vf|d`kjh/ inkf|d`kjh gß tks uDl¥okfn;kÍ d`h lgk;rk d`jrs gß\ iqf¥l vkSj ukxfjd`kÍ ds` euksc¥ d`ks cÈ<kus ds` f¥, tks Hh O;fâ` uDl¥okfn;kÍ d`ks id`ÈMok,] muls la?"Z d`js] gfƒ;kj ds` H≥Mkj id`ÈMok,\ ,sls O;fâ`;kÍ d`ks lEekfur ,oa iqjLÎ`r d`juk pkfg,\ ljd`kj us ;fn lPps eu ls mi;qZâ` rF;kÍ ij ld`kjkRed` n~fÆVd`ks. viukuk vkjEH fd`;k rks uDl¥h okLro eÍ ¥ksd`rkaf(d` O;oLƒk eÍ ækfe¥ gks ld`rs gß\
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N®hlxÈ< jkT; eÍ Lƒkfir jkstxkj d`k;kZ¥;kÍ eÍ uoEcj 2007 rd` 1·83 ¥k[ csjkstxkjkÍ }kjk iath;u d`jk;k x;k\ xzkeh. ”s(kÍ eÍ jkstxkj mi¥C| d`jkuk ,oa [k»kUu d`h lqj”k ds` lkƒ–lkƒ lkeqnkf;d` lkekftd` ,oa vkfƒZd` ifjlEif®;kÍ d`k l~tu rƒk v|kslajpuk fod`kl] xzkeh. fu|Zu] vdq`æ¥ Jfed` ftUgÍ jkstxkj d`h vko';d`rk gS] d`ks jkstxkj mi¥C| d`jkuk orZeku eÍ foæs" vko';d`rk ,oa leL;k gS\ bl ¥{;ijd` n~fÆVd`ks. ds` vk|kj ij N®hlxÈ< ds` xzkeh. ”s(kÍ eÍ fofHUu jkstxkjijd` ,oa xjhch mUew¥u d`k;Z∂`e p¥k, tk jgs gß\ blds` vUrxZr lEiw.Z xzkeh. jkstxkj ;kstuk] bfUnjk vkokl ;kstuk] ^|kuea(h xzkeksn; ;kstuk] v|kslajpuk lgk;rk vkfn d`ks O;kid` Lrj ij lapkf¥r fd`;k tk jgk gS\ vusd` jkstxkjijd` d`k;Z∂`ekÍ ds` vUrxZr o"Z 2006–07 eÍ 78,084 xjhc ifjokjkÍ d`ks ekuo fnolkÍ d`k jkstxkj mi¥C| d`jk;k x;k\ fd`lkukÍ d`h vkfƒZd` fLƒfr eÍ lq|kj ds` f¥, vkSj [srh d`ks vf|d`–ls–vf|d` ¥kHnk;d` cukus ds` mˆs'; ls jkT; eÍ jktho fd`lku ferku vfH;ku Î`f" foHkx ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/710

Useful for Various Competitive Exams. and Professional Courses
By : Dr. L. M. Prasad

Code No. 1673

Price : Rs. 75/-

UPKAR PRAKASHAN, AGRA-2
● E-mail : publisher@upkar.in ● Website : www.upkar.in

jktuhfrd` ¥s[

Hkjrh; jkÆV_oknh fpUru
MkW\ ';ke lqUnj ¯lg pkSgku jktuhfr] |eZ] næZu] fæ”k vkfn ds` ”s( eÍ Hkjr d`k vR;f|d` xkSjoe;h bfrgkl jgk gS\ oSfnd`d`k¥ ,oa mlds` ckn m®j–oSfnd`d`k¥ eÍ iqÆi–iY¥for o.ZO;oLƒk rƒk vkJe O;oLƒk d`k vk|kj oSKkfud` gS\ ftls fo'o ds` vusd` euhf";kÍ us Lohd`kj fd`;k gS\ ^kphud`k¥ ds` uk¥Unk ,oa r”fæ¥k fo'ofo»k¥; mPp fæ”k ds` fo'ofo“;kr ds`Unz jgs gß\ ik'pkR; fopkjkÍ ij vk|kfjr vk|qfud` lkekftd` foKkukÍ% jktuhfrækL(] vƒZækL(] lektækL(] fæ”kækL(] ekuoækL( vkfn eÍ ;fn Hkjrh; fopkjkÍ d`ks mfpr Lƒku ugÓ fe¥k gS] rks bld`k ^eq[ d`kj. Hkjr ij 800 ls vf|d` o"ksÛ rd` fonsæh ækld`kÍ d`k æklu gksuk jgk gS\ foæs" rkSj ij vaxzsth Hk"k ds` fopkjd`kÍ us Hkjr] Hkjroaæh ,oa Hkjrh;rk d`ks gs; n~fÆV ls ns[k gS\ Hkjr ds` ^kphu bfrgkl ds` v÷;;u ls ik'pkR; fo}kukÍ us nks egRoiw.Z fuÆd`"Z fud`k¥s] ftls eSDlew¥j ds` æCnkÍ eÍ O;â` fd`;k tk ld`rk gS\ ∏Hkjr nkæZfud`kÍ d`k nsæ gS rƒk Hkjrh;kÍ eÍ d`Hh Hh jkÆV_h;rk d`h Hkouk ugÓ jgh\π eSDlew¥j bl ^d`kj d`h fVIi.h d`jrs le; lEHor;k ;g Hw ¥ x, fd` lezkVΩ pUnzxqIr ls ¥sd`j vd`cj egku rd` rƒk vaxzstkÍ ds` æklu ds` fo:* luΩ 1857 ds` Lora(rk laxzke vkUnks¥u vkSj mlds` ckn vuojr Ôi ls p¥s jkÆV_oknh vkUnks¥u eÍ v[≥M Hkjr d`k tks LoÔi mHjrk gS og if'pe ds` rƒkd`fƒr [ks[¥s jkÆV_okn d`h rq¥uk eÍ d`gÓ vf|d` JsÆBrj gS\ vUrj ds`o¥ bruk gS fd` Hkjrh; jkÆV_okn tgk∑ viuh HkSxksf¥d` lhekvkÍ ds` Hhrj Lo;a d`ks ds`fUnzr d`jus rd` lhfer jgk gS ogÓ if'pe d`k jkÆV_okn] foLrkjokn] lkezkT;okn rƒk mifuosæokn d`k ^rhd` jgk gS\ 16oÓ ,oa 17oÓ ærkCnh ds` nkSjku ;wjksih; jkÆV_okn d`k fod`kl l?u oLrq mRiknu ,oa fo'o okf.T; d`h lao~f* ls tqÈMk jgk gS\ vkS»ksfxd` ∂`kfUr us if'peh jkÆV_kÍ }kjk vkfƒZd` ,oa jktuhfrd` æfâ` xzg. d`jus d`h ^f∂`;k d`ks rst d`j fn;k\ vBkjgoÓ rƒk mUuhloÓ ærkCnh ds` ^kjfEHd` o"ksÛ eÍ ,fæ;kbZ nsæ vkfƒZd` ,oa jktuhfrd` voufr d`k fæd`kj gqvk] lkekftd` tÈMrk ,oa lkaLÎ`frd` fxjkoV us Hkjrh; næZu ,oa fopkj|kjk d`h ped` d`ks |wfe¥ d`j fn;k\ ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/711/6 bleÍ d`ksbZ lUnsg ugÓ fd` Hkjr eÍ vaxzsth nklrk vkSj fonsæh vk∂`kUrkvkÍ }kjk Hkjrh;kÍ d`k vkfƒZd`] jktuhfrd`] lkekftd` æks". fd`, tkus ds` ifj.keLoÔi mUuhloÓ ærkCnh eÍ Hkjr eÍ iqutkZxj. d`h tks ¥gj p¥h mlus vk|qfud` Hkjrh; jkÆV_okn ds` mRƒku eÍ egRoiw.Z Hwfed`k fuHkbZ\ ftl ^d`kj bV¥h ds` iqutkZxj. rƒk teZuh ds` lq|kjoknh vkUnks¥ukÍ us ;wjksih; jkÆV_okn ds` f¥, ckSf*d` vk|kj rS;kj fd`;k] Bhd` mlh ^d`kj Hkjr ds` fofHUu lekt lq|kjd`kÍ%jktk jkeeksgu jk;] bZ'ojpUnz fo»klkxj] egkRek xka|h] ,suh cslÍV] xksik¥Î`Æ. xks[¥s] T;ksfrck œq`¥s vkfn rƒk |eZxq:vkÍ%Lokeh foosd`kuUn] Lokeh n;kuUn ljLorh vkfn ds` fopkjkÍ ,oa minsækÍ us ns æ eÍ ,d` Lok;®æklh ,oa Lo–fu.Z;kuqdw`¥ jktuhfrd` O;oLƒk d`h fo»ekurk ds` f¥, bPNk txk;h] tks vkxs p¥d`j jkÆV_oknh vkUnks¥u eÍ ifjofrZr gks xbZ\ Hkjrh; Hkouk eÍ mRiUu gqbZ tkx~fr næZu] |eZ ,oa laLÎ`fr ds` ”s( eÍ l~tukRed`rk ds` Ôi eÍ ifj¥f”r gqbZ vkSj vUrr# vfuok;Z Ôi ls jktuhfrd` Lo– tkxÔd`rk d`k vk|kj cuh\ Hkjrh; fopkj ew¥ Ôi ls uSfrd` rƒk vk÷;kfRed` vis”kvkÍ ls ifjiw.Z ƒs\

Hkjrh; iqutkZxj. vkSj jkÆV_okn
lks¥goÓ ,oa l(goÓ ærkCnh eÍ mitk ;wjksih; iqutkZxj. I¥sVks] vjLrw ,oa flljks ds` fuÆd`"ksÛ d`h ifjofrZr lkekftd`–jktuhfrd` ifjfLƒfr;kÍ eÍ u, fljs ls mud`h O;k“;k ek( ugÓ ƒk ojuΩ og Lora( ,oa ck|kjfgr ckSf*d` tk∑p d`ks vius vki eÍ ækfe¥ fd`, gq, ƒk\ isV_kæ (1304–1374) ,oa cksd`kfl;ks (1313–1375) us ekuothou ds` egRo ,oa tfV¥ ekuoh; vfLrRo d`ks vƒZiw.Zr# le>k;k rks ,jslel (1466– 1536) us ekuorkokn ij ^d`kæ Mk¥k\ ÷;ku nsus ok¥h ckr ;g gS fd` Hkjr eÍ iqutkZxj. vkUnks¥u ;wjksih; iqutkZxj. d`h rq¥uk eÍ vf|d` ^c¥ ƒk\ jktk jk|kd`kUr nso (1784–1867) us laLÎ`r Hk"k ds` egkuΩ xzUƒ æCn d`Yinzqe ·ik∑p [≥M‚ eÍ osnkÍ] mifu"nkÍ] xhrk rƒk iqjk.kÍ d`h eg®k d`ks iquLƒkZfir fd`;k\ mUuhloÓ ærkCnh ds` vfUre rhu næd`kÍ eÍ Hxoku

¥k¥ bUnzth] jkeÎ`Æ. xksik¥ H≥Mkjd`j] jktsUnz¥k¥ fe( rƒk ck¥xaxk|j fr¥d` us lkezkT;oknh fopkj|kjk d`k [ks[¥kiu fl* d`jus d`k ^;kl fd`;k rHh ls Hkjrh; iqjkru fopkjkÍ d`k v÷;;u eqq“;r;k jkÆV_oknh fopkj|kjk ls vuq^kf.r jgk\ jkÆV_oknh fopkj|kjk ds` fopkjd`kÍ us Vh\ ,p\ gDl¥s] MkfoZu] fe¥ ,oa LisUlj ds ` fopkjkÍ ls ^Hkfor uo–fæf”r Hkjrh;kÍ ds` vk÷;kRe fojks|h rƒk jkÆV_oknh fojks|h fopkjkÍ d`ks ,d` fljs ls ud`kj fn;k\ iqutkZxj. d`h ;g Hkouk jktuhfrd` rƒk vkfƒZd` n~fÆV ls æfâ`æk¥h mn≥M ik'pkR; l˙;rk }kjk ^Lrqr d`h tk jgh pqukSfr;kÍ ds` fo:* ,d` ^frf∂`;k ƒh\ if'pe d`h eæhuh l˙;rk rƒk Hkjr d`h gtkjkÍ o"Z iqjkuh lkaLÎ`frd` ,oa |kfeZd` l˙;rk ds` chp ds` bl la?"Z ls Hkjr eÍ ,d` ,sls uohu jkÆV_okn d`k mn; gqvk ftlus egkRek xka|h] tokgj ¥k¥ usgÔ] xksik¥ Î`Æ. xks[¥s] ck¥xaxk|j fr¥d`] vjfoUn ?ks"] ¥k¥k ¥ktir jk;] fofiu pUnz ik¥ ds` usr~Ro eÍ lR;] v¯glk vkSj lR;kxzg tSls uSfrd` gfƒ;kjkÍ ds` c¥ ij rkRd`kf¥d` nkSj ds` lokZf|d` æfâ`æk¥h vk∂`kUrkvkÍ fczrkfu;kÍ d`ks Hkjr NksÈMus ij ck÷; d`j fn;k\ fczrkuh æklu ds` ^kjfEHd` nkSj eÍ Hkjr eÍ jkÆV_oknh fopkj|kjk ds` mn; eÍ rhu rRokÍ us lokZf|d` egRoiw.Z Hwfed`k fuHkbZ\ ^ƒe jktk jkeeksgu jk; (1772– 1833), nsosUnzukƒ Bkdq`j (1817–1905) rƒk ds`æopUnz lsu (1838–1884) ds` usr~Ro eÍ cz©lekt vkUnks¥u us lkaLÎ`frd`] ekuorkoknh rƒk lkekftd` d`k;ksÛ eÍ caxk¥ eÍ egRoiw.Z Hwfed`k fuHkbZ\ cz©lekt vkUnks¥u ,d`rRookn] ckSf*d` foosd`æh¥rk] mifu"nkÍ ds` ,d`Rookn] tSls foæq* Hkjrh;okn ds` lkƒ–lkƒ bZlkf;r d`h vPNkb;kÍ d`ks Hh vius eÍ lekfgr fd`, gq, ƒk\ cz©lekt us Hkjrh; lekt d`h tÈMrk ij ^gkj fd`;k\ bld`h lcls cÈMh nsu ;g d`gÓ tk ld`rh gS fd` blus vk|qfud` Hkjr ,oa Hkjrh;rk ds` fuekZrkvkÍ%txnhæ pUnz clq] jfoUnzukƒ Bkdq`j] cztsUnzukƒ L;k¥ rƒk fofiu pUnz ik¥ d`ks ^Hkfor fd`;k\ f}rh; Hkjrh; jkÆV_okn ds` fuekZ. eÍ vk;Zlekt ,d` vU; ^eq[ vkUnks¥u jgk\ 10 v^S¥] 1875 d`ks Lokeh n;kuUn ljLorh }kjk Lƒkfir vk;Zlekt us ‘osnkÍ d`h vksj p¥ks’ d`k ukjk fn;k\ mUgkÍus c¥ nsd`j d`gk fd` osnkÍ–mifu"nkÍ–iqjk.kÍ d`k v÷;;u d`jus d`k vf|d`kj lHh ukxfjd`kÍ d`ks gS\ Lokeh n;kuUn d`h d`k¥t;h Î`fr ‘lR;kƒZ ^d`kæ’ eÍ fgUnw |eZ eÍ O;kIr dq`jhfr;kÍ ij ^gkj `fd`;k x;k\ ¥k¥k

galjkt rƒk J*kuUn us ∂`eæ# Mh\ ,\ oh\ d`kW¥st] ¥kgkSj rƒk xq:dq`¥ d`kaxÈMh] gfj}kj d`h Lƒkiuk d`h\ ckn eÍ m®j Hkjr ds` vU; ægjkÍ eÍ ik'pkR; vaxzsth fo»k¥;kÍ ds` lekukUrj Mh\ ,\ oh\ d`kW¥stkÍ d`h Lƒkiuk d`h tks jkÆV_okn d`h fnæk eÍ ,d` cÈMk d`ne ƒk\ r~rh; jkeÎ`Æ. ijegal rƒk muds` fæÆ; Lokeh foosd`kuUn us oSfnd` ¥s[kÍ ,oa ;wjksih; næZu nksukÍ ds` chp lkeatL; Lƒkfir d`jus d`k ^;kl fd`;k\ foosd`kuUn us luΩ 1893 eÍ fæd`kxks |eZ-laln eÍ vkRefuHZjrk] lqn~È<rk ,oa fo'ocU|qRo d`k lansæ fn;k\ ¥k¥k ¥ktir jk; rƒk lqHk" pUnz cksl us Lokeh foosd`kuUn d`ks caxk¥h jkÆV_okn d`k uk;d` nsonwr crk;k\ jkÆV_oknh fopkj|kjk caxk¥] m®jh Hkjr rƒk iatkc rd` gh lhfer ugÓ jgh\ blus nf”. eÍ enzkl eÍ ohjjk?okpk;Z] lqCckjko iqUrq¥w jax…;k uk;Mw] th\ lqcz©≥;e v…;j ds` usr~Ro eÍ vk÷;kfRed` rƒk ckSf*d` Ôi ls ^Hko Mk¥k\ egkjkÆV_ eÍ jkÆV_okn d`k mn; lektlq|kj oknh vkUnks¥ukÍ rƒk fæ”k ds` ^lkj ds` Ôi eÍ gqvk\ T;ksfrck œq`¥s us 1873 eÍ lR;æks|d` lekt d`h Lƒkiuk d`h\ luΩ 1867 eÍ ds`æopUnz lsu us ^kƒZuk lekt d`h Lƒkiuk d`h\ vkj\ th\ H≥Mkjd`j] egknso xksfoUn jkukMs] ,u th pUnkojd`j us ^kƒZuk lekt ds` ek÷;e ls fo|ok iqufoZokg] vUrtkZrh; fookg rƒk ,d`nwljs ds` lkƒ [ku–iku ds` lEcU|kÍ d`ks fod`flr d`jus tSls lq|kjoknh mik;kÍ ds` lkƒ–lkƒ fu|ZukÍ ,oa oafprkÍ ds` mRƒku gsrq d`k;Z fd`;k\ lekt lq|kjkÍ ds` f¥, lrrΩ ^;Ruæh¥ jgs vkj\ th\ H≥Mkjd`j us u ds`o¥ lkjs Hkjr eÍ ojuΩ fo'oHj eÍ ,d` egkuΩ nkæZfud` ,oa laLÎ`r ds` fo}kuΩ ds` Ôi eÍ vikj “;kfr vftZr d`h\

Hkjr d`h x.ra(kRed` æklu O;oLƒk rƒk jkÆV_okn
vaxzsth æklud`k¥ ds` nkSjku vkSj mlds` ckn] ik'pkR; ¥s[d`kÍ ,oa muls ^Hkfor Hkjrh; fopkjd`kÍ us vius ¥s[kÍ/ æks|i(kÍ us ;g fl* d`jus d`k ^;kl fd`;k fd` Hkjr eÍ jkT; ;k Lonsæ d`k Hko d`Hh txk gh ugÓ vkSj fd`lh jktuhfrd` lafo|ku d`k fod`kl rks og oSpkfjd` |jkr¥ ij Hh ugÓ d`j ik;k\ Hkjrh;kÍ d`ks æklu d`jus d`k Kku ugÓ ƒk rƒk Hkjrh; ækld`kÍ d`k eq“; ÷;s; d`j olw¥uk rƒk viuh ^tk ij ^paMre c¥ ^;ksx d`juk ƒk\ bl ^d`kj d`h feF;ko|kj.kvkÍ d`k m®j Hkjrh; fopkjd`kÍ us fn;k\ ,\ lh\ nkl us vius ,d` ¥s[ (1907) eÍ rkfdZ`d` <ax ls d`gk fd` ∏;g ekuuk x¥r gksxk ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/712

fd` fgUnw LosPNkpkjh æklu ds` v˙;Lr jgs gß vkSj bl nsæ eÍ ,d` lqLiÆV æfâ` ds` Ôi eÍ ¥ksd`ra( d`k vfLRo d`Hh ugÓ jgk ……… tks jktra ( ^kphu Hkjr eÍ œw`¥k–œ`¥k] og fujadq`æ ugÓ] cfYd` lhfer jktra( ƒk\π ik'pR; fopkjd` Hw¥ tkrs gß fd` ¥ks d ` d`Y;k.d`kjh jkT; d`h vo|kj.k d`k ew¥ ‘jkejkT;’ d`h vo|kj.k eÍ fufgr gS\ Hkjr ds` tuekul ds` eu eÍ jps–cls Jh jke us ftl ^d`kj d`h æklu-^.k¥h fod`flr d`h oSlh vkt rd` d`gÓ Hh fod`flr ugÓ gks ikbZ\ Jhjke jktk ·ækld`‚ vo'; ƒs] ¥sfd`u muds` f¥, viuh ^tk ·lkekU; |ksch‚ ds` fopkjkÍ d`k egRo d`e ugÓ ƒk\ d`kæh ^lkn tk;lok¥ ds` 1912–1915 ds` chp ‘ekMuZ fjO;w’ eÍ ^d`kfær jkÆV_oknh ¥s[kÍ d`k lad`¥u luΩ 1924 eÍ ‘fgUnw ikWf¥Vh’ eÍ ^d`kfær gqvk ftleÍ mUgkÍus ;g fl* d`jus d`k ^;kl fd`;k fd` ^kphu Hkjr d`k jktuhfrd` È<k∑pk ,ƒÍl ds` uxj x.ra(kÍ vkSj vaær# fczrkuh æklu-^.k¥h ds` gh vuqÔi ƒk\ bleÍ ikSj rƒk tkuikn tSlh tulHk,a ƒÓ tks jkT; æfâ` ij vadq`æ j[rh ƒÓ\…… ;s fud`k; mu laLƒkvkÍ ls vf|d` mUur ƒÓ ftu ij vk|qfud` fLoVΩtj¥S≥M ;k la;qâ` jkT; vejhd`k xoZ d`jrk gS\…… fgUnqvkÍ }kjk d`h xbZ laoS|kfud` ^xfr d`ks ekr nsus d`h ckr rks nwj] mld`h cjkcjh Hh lEHor# d`ksbZ ^kphu jkT; O;oLƒk ugÓ d`j ld`rh …… mud`h ·fgUnqvkÍ‚ æklu-^.k¥h d`k Lof.Ze ;qx ek( vrhr d`h pht ugÓ gS] cfYd` ;g HfoÆ; eÍ Hh fufgr gS\π 1916–1925 ds` chp ‘ekMuZ fjO;w’] ‘fgUnqLrku fjO;w’ rƒk ‘bf≥M;u ,ÍfVDosjh’ eÍ jkÆV_oknh fopkjkÍ ls vksr^ksr brus vf|d` ¥s[ ^d`kfær gq, fd` mUuhloÓ ærkCnh ds` fd`lh vU; d`k¥[≥M eÍ ^d`kfær ugÓ gq,\ ch\ vkj\ vkj\ nhf”rkj us viuh MkWDVjsV ƒhfll ij vk|kfjr iqLrd` ‘fgUnw ,MfefuLV_sfVo bULVhVΩ;wæUl’ eÍ d`gk fd` nsæ d`h HkSxksf¥d` v[≥Mrk rƒk fnfXot; }kjk d`U;kdq`ekjh ls fgek¥; rd` ds` Hw–Hkx d`k p∂`orhZ ækld` cuus ds` ^R;sd` jktk ds` vknæZ d`ks ns[rs gq, bl ckr eÍ d`ksbZ lUnsg ugÓ jg tkrk fd` bl nsæ eÍ ^c¥ jkÆV_oknh Hkouk fo»eku ƒh\ vkfƒZd`–jktuhfrd`–lkekftd` fopkjkÍ eÍ Hkjrh;rk d`h ckr lokZf|d` læâ` rjhds` ls egknso xksfoUn jkukMs us d`gh\ mUgkÍus us vius fucU| ∏,sls vkWu bf≥M;u bd`ukW f eDlπ eÍ Hkjr d`h vkfƒZ d ` leL;kvkÍ ds` lek|ku ds` f¥, Hkjrh; mikxe viukus d`h od`k¥r d`h rƒk blds` f¥, ,Me fLeƒ] MsfoM fjd`kMksZ

rƒk ts\ ,l\ fe¥ ds` fl*kUrkÍ d`h lkƒZd`rk ij ^'ufpÕ ¥xk fn;k\

Hkjrh; jkÆV_h; d`kaxzsl rƒk jkÆV_okn
luΩ 1885 eÍ Hkjrh; jkÆV_h; d`kaxzsl d`h Lƒkiuk d`ks vk|qfud` Hkjr eÍ jkÆV_okn rƒk Lora(rk ds` bfrgkl eÍ lokZf|d` vkUnks¥ud`kjh ?Vuk ekuk tkrk gS\ d`kaxzsl ds` I¥sVœ`keZ ls gh nknkHkbZ uSjksth] ck¥xa x k|j fr¥d`] fofiupUnz ik¥] lqHk"pUnz cksl] ¥k¥k ¥ktir jk;] tokgj¥k¥ usgÔ rƒk egkRek xka|h tSls okLrfod` jkÆV_oknh fopkjd` Hkjr ds` jktuhfrd`–lkekftd`–vkfƒZd` œ`¥d` ij mHjs\ bueÍ ls lokZf|d` fofæÆV rƒk ekSf¥d` ;ksxnku egkRek xka|h d`k ekuk tk ld`rk gS\ ^kjfEHd` nkSj eÍ egkRek xka|h H¥s gh d`fri; ik'pkR; fopkjd`kÍ ds` fopkjkÍ ls ^Hkfor jgs gkÍ] ¥sfd`u 1893 ls 1914 rd` nf”. v≠`hd`k eÍ jaxHsn d`h uhfr ds` fo:* vaxzstkÍ d`h ljd`kj ds` fo:* mud`k vkUnks¥u rƒk 1915 ls 1948 rd` Hkjr eÍ fczrkuh æklu ds` fo:* Hkjr d`h Lora(rk ds` f¥, muds` la?"Z ds` vk;ke vfHuo rƒk vuwBs ƒs\ muls ig¥s bud`k ^;ksx fd`lh vkSj us ugÓ fd`;k\ d`k¥kUrj eÍ r~rh; fo'o ds` vusd` ijk|hu nsækÍ ds` vkUnks¥u eÍ xka|hth ds` vknæksÛ d`ks viuk;k rƒk Lora(rk gkfl¥ d`h\ xka|hth ds` fopkjkÍ rƒk vknæksÛ d`ks v”jæ# viukus ok¥kÍ eÍ nf”. v≠`hd`k ds` v'osr usrk usYlu e≥Ms¥k d`k uke lcls ˜ij gS\ vkSj vc E;kaekj eÍ vkax– lkax–lw d`h mlh jkLrs ij p¥ jgh gß\ egkRek xka|h d`h lEiw.Z fopkj|kjk lR;] v¯glk vkSj lR;kxzg ds` bnZ–fxnZ ?werh gS\ mud`k ekuuk ƒk fd` lR; d`k ,d` d`. vuUr Ôi ls vlR; ds` igkÈMkÍ ls Hh vf|d` æfâ`æk¥h gS\ xka|hth uSfrd` ewY;kÍ d`h JsÆBrk ,oa loksZn; ·lHh d`k d`Y;k.‚ ij vlhe fo'okl d`jrs ƒs\ loksZn; d`k næZu fo»ekurk d`h ,d`rk d`h vko|kj.k ij vk|kfjr gS\ bleÍ iæqvkÍ ,oa ekuokÍ ds` ^fr fd`lh Hh ^d`kj d`h ¯glk ds` f¥, d`ksbZ Lƒku ugÓ gS\ bld`k ew¥ ;qtosZn ds` ^fl* eU( ∏bZækokL;fena loZeΩπ lEiw.Z cz©k≥M loksZPp bZ'oj }kjk lapkf¥r gS\ bZ'oj d`h bPNk ds` fcuk i®k Hh ugÓ fg¥ ld`rk\ xka|hth us vafglk ds` c¥ ij fczrkuh lkezkT; d`h tÈMÍ fg¥k nÓ\ v¯glk d`k vƒZ gS vuUr ^se tks vUrr# O;fâ` ds` Hhrj d`ÆV lgus d`h vlhe ”erk mRiUu d`j nsrk gS\ muds` vuqlkj ∏v¯glk esjs fo'okl d`k ig¥k rRo gS\π ^R;sd` lR;kxzgh d`k ;g d`rZO; gS fd` og v¯glk ds` }kjk lR; d`ks ^kIr d`jus d`k vUrghu ^;kl d`js\ ●●●

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vehj [qljks d`k fgUnh ds` fod`kl eÍ ;ksxnku
MkW\ txnhæ æj. ,d` ckj ,d` I;kls jkgxhj us dq`,∑ ij ikuh Hj jgÓ pkj ifugkfjukÍ ls ikuh fi¥kus d`k vuqjks| fd`;k\ ifugkfjukÍ us ikuh nsus ls ig¥s ml O;fDr ls nksgk lqukus d`ks d`gk\ ig¥h us [hj ij] nwljh us pj[s ij] rhljh us dq`®s ij vkSj pkSƒh us <ks¥ ij d`ksbZ nksgk cukd`j lqukus d`h bPNk O;Dr d`h\ jkgxhj us mu pkjkÍ ifugkfjukÍ d`h v¥x-v¥x bPNk d`ks rqjUr ,d` nksgs eÍ O;Dr d`j bl rjg ^d`V fd`;k% [hj id`kbZ tru ls] pj[k fn;k p¥k‰ vk;k dq`®k [k x;k] rw cSBh <ks¥ ctk‰‰ mDr nksgk d`kO;-txrΩ eÍ ‘<d`ksl¥k’ uke ls pfpZr gqvk\ ‘<d`ksl¥k’ eÍ cses¥ vleku æCnkÍ d`ks fe¥kd`j lkƒZd` rqd`cUnh d`h tkrh gS\ bl <d`ksl¥k d`k jpukd`kj jkgxhj fgUnoh ·fgUnh d`k iqjkuk uke‚ d`k lq^fl* d`fo vkSj Èœ`kjlh d`k vius le; d`k “;kfr^kIr xzaƒd`kj vehj [qljks ƒk\ vehj [qljks d`k tUe luΩ 1253 bZ\ eÍ m®j ^nsæ ds` tuin ,Vk ds` ifV;k¥h uked` xk∑o eÍ vehj lSœq`ˆhu egewn ds` ?j gqvk\ [qljks ds` firk rqdZ` ƒs\ Hkjr vkd`j og bYrqrfeæ d`h lsuk eÍ HrhZ gks x,\ [qljks d`h ekrk c¥cu ds` j”kea(h d`h iq(h ƒh\ [qljks d`k iwjk uke vcq¥ glu ;kehuqˆhu [qljks ƒk\ vkB lk¥ d`h voLƒk eÍ gh [qljks ds` firk d`h e~R;q gks xbZ\ vr# [qljks fnY¥h vkd`j vius ukuk ds` ikl jgus ¥xs\ firk vkSj ukuk d`h vPNh ^frÆBk ƒh« blf¥, [qljks æh?z gh rRd`k¥hu ^fl* fo}kukÍ vkSj cknækgkÍ ds` lEidZ` eÍ vk x,\ vkpk;Z jkepUnz æqD¥ ds` vuqlkj vehj [qljks us x;klqˆhu c¥cu ls ¥sd`j v¥kmˆhu vkSj dq`rqcqˆhu eqckjÈd`ækg rd` d`bZ iBku cknækgkÍ d`k tekuk ns[k ƒk\ fnY¥h eÍ gh [qljks lwœ`h lUr gÈtjr futkeqˆhu vkSf¥;k ds` fæÆ; cu x,\ [qljks vius xq: d`k cÈMk lEeku d`jrs ƒs\ xq: futkeqˆhu vkSf¥;k Hh [qljks d`ks lokZf|d` ^se d`jrs ƒs\ ^kIr lw(kÍ ls irk p¥k gS fd` ,d` ckj rks mUgkÍus Lo;a vkSj vehj [qljks d`ks ,d` d`cz eÍ gh nœ`ukus d`h ckr d`gh ƒh\ d`fo gksus ds` lkƒ-lkƒ [qljks vPNs xk;d` vkSj laxhr-^seh Hh ƒs\ og Hkjrh; izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/713 vkSj bZjkuh nksukÍ ^d`kj ds` laxhr eÍ csgn :fp j[us ok¥s ƒs\ ,slk Hh ekuk tkrk gS fd` flrkj vkSj rc¥s d`k vkfoÆd`kj [qljks us gh fd`;k ƒk\ xÈt¥ d`k ^kjEH Hh [qljks ds` }kjk gqvk ekuk tkrk gS\ [qljks d`k vfUre le; cÈMs d`ÆVkÍ eÍ chrk\ vius thou ds` vfUre le; eÍ og x;klqˆhu rqx¥d` ds` lkƒ caxk¥ p¥s x,\ tc og fnY¥h ¥kSVs] rks mUgÍ irk p¥k fd` muds` xq: gÈtjr futkeqˆhu vkSf¥;k d`k nsgkUr gks pqd`k gS\ blls og cÈMs O;fƒr gq,\ ;gk∑ rd` fd` mUgkÍus vius d`iÈMs œ`kÈM Mk¥s] eq[ ij jk[ e¥ ¥h vkSj viuk ?jokj NksÈM fn;k\ mUgkÍus vius ?j d`k lkjk |u ¥qVk fn;k\ [qljks mnkl-mnkl jgus ¥xs vkSj xq: d`h lekf| ij gh cSBs vk∑lw cgkrs jgrs ƒs\ d`gk tkrk gS fd` mUgkÍus vius xq: d`h lekf| ij jksrs gq, viuk ;g nksgk iÈ<k ƒk% xksjh lksoS lst ij] eq[ ij Mk¥s ds`l ‰ p¥ [qljks ?j vkius] jSu HbZ pgq∑ nsl ‰‰ luΩ 1325 bZ\ eÍ [qljks d`k fu|u gks x;k\ fnY¥h eÍ xq: futkeqˆhu vkSf¥;k d`h eÈtkj ds` fud`V gh [qljks d`h eÈtkj cukbZ xbZ] tks vkt Hh ekStwn gS\ [qljks ds` œ`kjlh eÍ f¥f[r rhu xzaƒ ekus tkrs gß%vÈœ`Èt¥-m¥-d`ok;n] È[kf¥Èd`ckjh vkSj uqg flisgj\ ig¥s xzaƒ eÍ [qljks us vius xq: gÈtjr fuÈtkeqˆhu vkSf¥;k ds` opukÍ vkSj mud`h fæ”kvkÍ d`ks lad`f¥r fd`;k gS\ nwljh iqLrd` ds` ckjs eÍ ;g Hze gS fd` ;g fd`lh vU; ¥s[d` [qljksækg d`h f¥[h gqbZ gS\ [qljks d`h ^flf* fgUnh-txrΩ eÍ muds` }kjk fgUnh eÍ f¥[h xbZ igsf¥;kÍ] eqd`fj;kÍ] fulcrkÍ] nks l[qukÍ vkSj <d`ksl¥kÍ ds` d`kj. gh ekuh tkrh gS\ [ÈMh cks¥h ds` vkfn LoÔi d`ks tkuus ds` f¥, mud`h eqd`fj;k∑ vkSj igsf¥;k∑ vkfn jpuk,a ,sfrgkfld` egRo j[rh gß\ ^kjfEHd` fgUnh d`ks [qljks us ‘fgUnoh’ uke fn;k\ bl æCn d`k ^;ksx mUgkÍus m®j Hkjr eÍ ^pf¥r vke Hk"k ds` f¥, fd`;k ƒk\ blds` lkƒ gh m®j Hkjr d`h nks cksf¥;kÍ%vo|h vkSj nsg¥oh rƒk b'Èds` brjkÈœ` d`h Ètcku d`ks mUgkÍus ‘fgUnoh’ eÍ

Lƒku fn;k\ [qljks us fnY¥h ds` vklikl d`h ftl fod`flr Hk"k d`ks ‘nsg¥oh’ d`gk gS] og oLrqr# fgUnoh ;k fgUnh gh ƒh\ ‘È[kf¥Èd`ckjh’ eÍ fgUnh æCn d`k ^;ksx vusd` ckj gqvk gS\ ml le; Hkjr d`h e÷;nsæh; Hk"k ds` f¥, fgUnoh ;k fgUnqbZ æCn d`k ^;ksx fd`;k tkrk ƒk\ [qljks d`ks fgUnqLrkuh gksus ij xoZ ƒk\ mUgkÍus ,d` txg f¥[k gS%‘rqÈdZ` fgUnqLrkfu;e eu fgUnoh xks;e tokc’] vƒkZrΩ eß fgUnqLrkuh rqÈdZ` gw∑] fgUnoh eÍ tokc nsrk gw∑\ fgUnoh ;»fi fgUnqbZ vkSj fgUnqoh d`k fod`kl gS\ MkW\ Hks¥kukƒ frokjh us f¥[k gS fd` eql¥eku tc Hkjr eÍ vk,] rks os ;gk∑ ds` ¥ksxkÍ d`ks ‘fgUnq’ ;k ‘fgUnw’ d`grs ƒs\ blh eÍ rRd`k¥hu œ`kjlh ds` foæs".% ^R;;%‘bZ’ tksÈMd`j e÷;nsæ ds` fgUnqvkÍ d`h Hk"k d`ks ·fgUnq + bZ‚ mu ¥ksxkÍ us ‘fgUnqbZ’ ·vƒkZrΩ ‘fgUnwok¥h’ ;k ‘fgUnd`h’‚ uke fn;k\ ckn eÍ mPpkj. lkSd`;Z ds` f¥, ‘o’ Jqfr vk tkus ds` d`kj. ‘fgUnqbZ’ æCn fgUnqoh gks x;k\ ‘fgUnoh’ bl nwljs Ôi ‘fgUnqoh’ d`k gh fod`kl gS\ bl ^d`kj blds` bu rhukÍ ukekÍ eÍ ‘fgUnqbZ’ lcls iqjkuk] ‘fgUnqoh’ mld`k fod`kl rƒk ‘fgUnoh’ vfUre fod`kl gS\ ‘fgUnqoh’ uke d`k iqjkuk mY¥s[ ^fl* Hkjrh; œ`kjlh d`fo eqgEen vkSœ`h eÍ fe¥rk gS\ [qljks ds` d`kO; eÍ ‘fgUnoh’ ds` eq“;r# nks Ôi ^kIr gksrs gß%ig¥k] BsB cks¥pk¥ d`k [ÈMh cks¥h Ôi\ ;g Ôi mud`h igsf¥;kÍ] eqd`fj;kÍ] nks l[qukÍ vkfn eÍ fe¥rk gS\ nwljk] cztHk"k fefJr [ÈMh cks¥h Ôi\ ;g Ôi muds` nksgkÍ rƒk xhrkÍ eÍ fn[kbZ nsrk gS\ [qljks us [ÈMh cks¥h d`ks] tks Ôi ^nku fd`;k vkSj ftl Ôi d`k ^;ksx mUgkÍus viuh jpukvkÍ eÍ fd`;k mlh ds` d`kj. ;g Hk"k fujUrj fod`flr gksd`j fo'o-Hk"k ds` Ôi eÍ ^frfÆBr gks xbZ gS\ [qljks d`h igsf¥;kÍ] eqd`fj;kÍ vkfn eÍ [ÈMh cks¥h d`k ^kat¥ Ôi ns[k tk ld`rk gS\ ,d` mnkgj. nzÆVO; gS% ,d` ƒk¥ eksrh ls Hjk ‰ lcds` flj ij vkß|k |jk ‰‰ pkjkÍ vksj og ƒk¥h fœ`js ‰ eksrh mlls ,d` u fxjs ‰‰ [qljks d`h igsf¥;kÍ eÍ mfDr oSfpfl; ds næZu gksrs gß\ ‘eqd`jh’ eÍ ig¥s d`gh gqbZ ckr d`k vUr eÍ [≥Mu-lk d`jrs gq, m®j fn;k tkrk gS\ ‘nks l[quk’ eÍ iwNs x, nks ^'ukÍ d`k m®j ,d` gksrk gS\ ‘fulcr’ eÍ lekurk d`k lEcU| vkSj ‘<d`ksl¥k’ eÍ cses¥ vkSj vleku æCnkÍ d`ks fe¥kd`j lkƒZd` æs" i~ÆB 727 ij

HkSxksf¥d`` ¥s[

i;kZoj. ^cU|u
(Environment Management) 

¥k[u ¯lg flufluokj

t¥ok;q ifjorZu ,oa fo'o vkfƒZd` eanh d`k eqˆk] G–8 vkSj G–5 nsækÍ ds` ¥kfDo¥k ·bV¥h‚ lEes¥u eÍ Nk;k jgk\ bl lEes¥u ds` ^eq[ eqˆs jgs%t¥ok;q ifjorZu] fo'o vkfƒZd` eanh] [k» lqj”k] ˜tkZ lqj”k] fo®h; laj”.okn vkfn\ vUrjkZÆV_h; Lrj ds` Lo;alsoh laxBu ‘vkS d `lœs ` e’ d`h c~gLifrokj 11 tq¥kbZ 2009 d`ks tkjh fjiksVZ ‘gß x Vw xS n j ls^sV¥h’ (Hang to gether separately) eÍ d`gk gS fd` t¥ok;q ifjorZu ·X¥ksc¥ okfeÛx‚ d`ks vUrjkZÆV_h; Lrj ds` i;kZoj. ^cU|u vehj nsækÍ ds` ^frfuf|Ro }kjk gh jksd`k tk ld`rk gS\ orZeku i;kZoj.h; leL;k t¥ok;q ifjorZu gh nqfu;k ds` leLr nsækÍ ds` f¥, lcls vgeΩ leL;k gS] ;g leL;k fo'o vkfƒZd` eanh ls Hh cÈMh leL;k gS\ ;s mnxkj Hkjrh; ^|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg us 8–12 tq¥kbZ pkj fnu p¥s ¥kfDo¥k] bV¥h lEes¥u eÍ G–8, G–5 ds` le” j[s\ orZeku X¥ksc¥ okfeÛx] i;kZoj. leL;k gsrq i;kZoj. ^cU|u rd`uhd` ‘X¥ksc¥ fefVxsæu ,≥M œ`kbuÍl eSds`fuTe’ d`ks viuk d`j fod`flr nsæ t¥ok;q ifjorZu ij fu;U(. ik ld`rs gß\ bl rd`uhd` eÍ vehj nsækÍ d`ks] xjhc nsækÍ d`ks vius ;gk∑ mRltZu LrjkÍ eÍ d`eh ¥kus ds` f¥, vko';d` |u ,oa i;kZoj. fe( ^kS»ksfxd`h mi¥C| d`jkuh gksxh\ blh rjg vehj nsækÍ (G–8 lewg‚ d`ks mRltZu Lrj d`ks pj.c* o"Z 2020 rd` ?Vkd`j 1990 ds` Lrj ·20 ^frær d`eh‚] 2050 rd` 50 ^frær ds` Lrj ¥kuk gksxk\ i;kZoj.oknh fiN¥s d`kœ`h le; ls i~Foh d`k rkieku cÈ<kus ok¥h vkSj t¥ok;q ifjorZu d`ks vatke nsus ok¥h xzhu gkml xSlkÍ d`k mRltZu d`e d`jus ds` i” eÍ ekgkS¥ cuk jgs gß\ gekjh t¥ok;q fujUrj ifjofrZr gks jgh gS blls fo'o d`h 10 ^frær tula“;k lad`V eÍ gS\ xzhu gkml xSlkÍ eÍ d`kcZu MkbvkWDlkbM] ehƒsu] ukbV_l vkWDlkbM] D¥ksjksŒ¥ksjks d`kcZUl vkfn ækfe¥ gß] ¥sfd`u pw∑fd` d`kcZu MkbvkWDlkbM bueÍ ^eq[ Lƒku j[rh gß\ fo'o eÍ 7 d`jksÈM Vu ^fro"Z CO2 i~Foh ds` ok;qe≥M¥ eÍ mRlftZr gksrh gS\ i;kZoj. ij blh d`k ?krd` ^Hko gksrk gS] blf¥, xzhu gkml xSlkÍ eÍ vkerkSj ij blh d`k izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/714

uke f¥;k tkrk gS\ ,sls eÍ i~Foh d`h t¥ok;q lad`V leL;k d`ks g¥ d`jus ds` f¥, i;kZoj.fonΩ ,oa oSKkfud` ¥Ecs le; ls ,slh rd`uhd`h d`h [kst eÍ ƒs] ftlls fd` ¥ksxkÍ d`ks xzhu gkml xSlkÍ d`h ok;qe≥M¥ eÍ ekStwnxh ,oa o~f* d`k irk p¥ lds`\ ‘d`kcZu d`kmUVj rd`uhd`’ bl fnæk eÍ ,d` ubZ [kst gS] tks feuV-nj-feuV xzhu gkml xSlkÍ ds` mRltZu ds` ckjs eÍ crkrk gS\ Mspls ,lsV eSusteÍV ds` eqf[;k ds`fou ikdZ`j ·eSlkP;qlsVΩl baLVhVΩ;wV vkWœ` VsDuks¥kWth‚ us foKku vkSj t¥ok;q ifjorZu ds` lkƒ rk¥es¥ d`j twu eghus eÍ d`kcZu d`kmUVj d`h [kst d`j lius d`ks lkd`kj fd`;k gS\ LiÆV gS fd` ¥ksx] xzhu gkml xSl d`k feuV-nj-feuV mRltZu vk∑d`ÈMkÍ ds` ^lkj. ls tkxÔd` gkÍxs\ ∏t¥ok;q ifjorZ u fu;U(. gs r q i;kZoj. ^cU|u] i;kZoj. laj”.] ekuoHwfe] oU; ^k.h ,oa ^kd~`frd` lalk|ukÍ ds` e÷; d`k;kZRed` lEcU|kÍ d`k uwru lehd`j.

vuohd`j.h; lalk|ukÍ d`k mi;ksx fu;ksftr fof| ls d`juk] i~Foh ds` nq¥ZH o d`herh lalk|ukÍ d`k ^cU|u vk|qfud`re oSKkfud` rd`uhd` ls d`juk gS\ orZeku eÍ i~Foh d`h ek( 5% lrg ij ekuo vkokl gS] ¥sfd`u 5 ^frær ekuokÍ ds` f∂`;kd`¥kikÍ us i~Foh d`h t¥ok;q d`ks viw.hZ; ”fr igq∑pkbZ gS\ ekuo us vkfƒZd` fod`kl d`h gksÈM eÍ ekuoh; vfroknh f∂`;kvkÍ us vifæÆV d`h ek(k bruh o~gnΩ d`j nh gS fd` fuLrkj. o ^kd~`frd` iqupZ∂`. ds` mijkUr Hh tS o Hw - jlk;fud` p∂`kÍ [N2%p∂`] O2%p∂`] CO2%p∂`] d`h ”erk d`ke;kc ugÓ gks ik jgh gS\ i~Foh xzg d`h lqUnjrk] ftlds` ckjs eÍ vkfn d`k¥ ls d`fo;kÍ us xk;k ƒk] ftlus ekuo thou jgus ;ksX; cuk;k ƒk] og i~Foh orZeku eÍ ∂`fed` Ökl o foukæ d`h vksj vxzlj gS\ bl ∂`fed` foukæ d`k d`kj.] vfr LokƒhZ ekuoh; f∂`;k,∑ gß\ ;s vfroknh o vfu;ksftr ekuoh; f∂`;k,a ekuo ,oa lEiw.Z i~Foh thou ds` fgr eÍ ugÓ gß\ bu lHh ds` ifj.keLoÔi ekuo LokLF; [rjs d`h vksj cÈ< pqd`k gS rƒk vusd` u, o H;ad`j jksx ·MÍxw] fpd`u xqfu;k∑] Lokbu Œ¥w] dS`Ulj] ,MΩl] riSfnd`‚ ^d`V gks jgs gß\ buds` ^Hko ls cpus ds` f¥, i;kZoj. ^cU|u vko';d` gh ugÓ vifjgk;Z gS\

i;kZoj.h; lalk|u
(Environmental Resources)

^kd~`frd` lalk|u (Natural Resources) ekuoh; lalk|u (Human Resources) (A) vuohd`j.h; lalk|u # (A) lhfer lalk|u # mnkgj.%oU; ^k.h] d`ks;¥k (i) j”.h; lalk|u\ (B) uohd`j.h; lalk|u # mnkgj.%oU; tkfr;k∑ mnkgj.%?kl] ou (ii) vuqj”.h; lalk|u\ (C) v”; lalk|u # mnkgj.%tax¥ mnkgj.%ok;q] ^d`kæ] t¥ (B) vlhfer lalk|u # (i) nq:i;ksx] mnkgj.%d`ks;¥k Jfed` (D) iqupZ∂`h; lalk|u # (ii) vifjorZuh;] mnkgj.%tax¥h tÈMhmnkgj.%xSlÍ] |krq,a cwVh tkud`kjh ok¥h tutkfr;k∑

^Lrqr d`jrk gS] ftlds` vUrxZr ^kd~`frd` lalk|ukÍ ds` pkrq;Ziw.Z mi;ksx ds` f¥, ‘mRiknu%miHksx’ f∂`;kvkÍ d`ks foLr~r ifj^s{; ds` Ôi eÍ ns[rk gS] bld`k ¥{; ”frd`kj.-miHksx ij fu;a(. ¥xkuk] nq:i;ksx ls cpkuk] vuq^;ksx d`k fu;eu d`juk] iqu#^;ksx d`ks ^J; nsuk rƒk Hkoh mi;ksx gsrq lalk|ukÍ d`h cpr d`juk gS ,oa mud`k fuosæ d`juk gS\π %fœ`js (Firey–1960) i;kZoj. ^cU|u d`k vƒZ fod`kl d`h f∂`;kvkÍ ds` f¥, i~Foh ds` uohd`j.h; o

i;kZoj. ^cU|u
(Environmental Management)

i;kZoj. ^cU|u d`k rkRi;Z ekuoh; fod`kl ds` f∂`;kd`¥kikÍ ,oa ^kd~`frd` cgqewY; lalk|ukÍ d`k loksZ®e lkeatL; gS\ i~Foh ds` ^kd~`frd` lalk|ukÍ d`k ^;ksx bl le; d`h loksZ®e oSKkfud` rd`uhd` ls fd`;k tk, fd` i~Foh ds` ikfjfLƒfrd` rU( d`k lUrq¥u d`k;e jgs rƒk ˜tkZ] vkfƒZd` fod`kl ds` fuosæ ,oa fuxZe lHh d`k xR;kRed` lUrq¥u (Dynamic Equilibrium) loksZ®e jgs\ i;kZoj. ^cU|u eÍ

LoLƒ okrkoj. d`ks cuk, j[us d`k loksZ®e i;kZoj. ^cU|u ds` d`k;Z ekuoh; ^;kl fd`;k tkrk gS\ bu ^;klkÍ (Work of Environmental Management) eÍ UNO }kjk ?ksf"r i;kZoj. fnol 5 twu] i;kZoj. laj”. fnol 26 uoEcj ∂`\ lkekftd`-vkfƒZd` fod`kl ikfjfLƒfrd` lUrq¥u ds` i;kZoj. laj”. vkfn gS\ mik; d`kuwu i;kZoj. ^cU|u ds` ^eq[ ?Vd`% 1. vkfƒZd` fod`kl i;kZoj.h; d`her ij ugÓ Hw-jlk;u p∂` lq|kj ou laj”. (i) ^ƒe%i~Foh ds` tSfod` lalk|ukÍ 2. lalk|ukÍ d`k ^;ksx iqutZuu ”erk rd` ekuo i;kZoj. lgthork e~nk laj”. d`k ^cU|u 3. vuohd~`r lalk|ukÍ d`k ^;ksx nh?Z - uohu i;kZoj. ^kS»ksfxd`h [fut laj”. d`k¥hu ·vkus ok¥h ihfÈ<;kÍ ds` ^;ksx gsrq‚ (ii) f}rh;%ikfjfLƒfrd` lUrq¥u gsrq i;kZoj.h; ^cU|u 4. ikfjfLƒfrd` lUrq¥u rd` gh ^;ksx vUrjkZÆV_h; d`Y;k. oU; ^k.h laj”. (iii) r~rh;%vofæÆVkÍ ds` fuLrkj. 5. Lor# æqf*d`j. ”erk cuk, j[us rd` ekuo oU; tho lgokl t¥ laj”. gsrq ^cU|u ^;ksx ekuoh; Kku gh lalkj d`k lcls fu;af(r d`juk\ blds` f¥, i;kZoj. egRoiw . Z ^kd~ ` frd` la l k|u gS vkS j i;kZoj. ^cU|u ds` fl*kUr ^nw". ds` ekud`] i;kZoj. laj”. okLrfod` lad`V ^kd~`frd` lalk|ukÍ d`h (Principles of Environmental d`kuwu vkfn d`ks d`Bksjrk ls ¥kxw d`eh u gksd`j] mfpr oSKkfud` rd`uhd` Management) d`juk\ d`k vHko gS\ orZeku fo'o d`h fod`jk¥ 1. i~Foh ij ekuoh; vkfƒZd` fod`kl gsrq ,slh oSKkfud` rd`uhd`kÍ d`k ^;ksx 7. i;kZoj. tkxÔd`rk gsrq i;kZoj. leL;k ·ikfjfLƒfrd` vlUrq ¥ u‚ d`k d`juk] ftlls ikfjfLƒfrd` lUrq¥u fæ”k] æks|] ^pkj-^lkj d`juk\ lek|ku] mfpr oSKkfud` rd`uhd` ds` d`k;e jgs\ ^;ksx ls fd`;k tk ld`rk gS« tSls% 8. d`ks;¥k] tSo-bÛ|u] isV_ksf¥;e tSls (i) t¥ ^nw". d`ks laæksf|r d`j 2. i~Foh ij ekuo thou d`h ew¥Hwr lekIr gksus ok¥s ,oa i;kZoj. ^nw"d`kÍ vko';d`rkvkÍ d`h iwfrZ d`jrs gq, ou] mld`k vU;( ^;ksx lEHo gS\ ds` Lƒku ij v”; ˜tkZ lzksr ·lw;Z oU; ^k.h o ^kd~`frd` lalk|ukÍ ds` ^d`kæ] iou ˜tkZ] leqnzh ¥gj (ii) vkstksu fNnz] i~Foh rkieku o~f* foukæ d`ks fu;af(r d`juk\ ˜tkZ‚ o uohd`j.h; lzksrkÍ ls ˜tkZ ds` f¥, m®jnk;h xSlkÍ ·xzhu gkml‚ ds` 3. ^kd~`frd` lalk|u%tho nksukÍ d`k lkE; ^kfIr d`ks cÈ<kok nsuk\ mRltZu ij fu;U(. d`jds`\ cuk, j[us ds` f¥, i;kZoj. ^cU|u 9. ^d~`fr ds` Hw-jlk;u p∂`kÍ [N2%p∂`] (iii) ;k(h okgu] vksVkseksckb¥kÍ ls d`h gjlEHo rd`uhd` ^;ksx d`juk\ O2%p∂`] CO2%p∂`] d`ks O;ofLƒr mRlftZr CO2 d`ks 21oÓ ænh d`h rd`uhd` 4. ^kd~`frd` vi?Vu d`ks Hh oSKkfud` d`jus ij ÷;ku nsuk\ ·iqu# xSlks¥hu p∂`h; ifjorZu‚ ls okgukÍ rd`uhd` o ekuoh; d`kS æ ¥ ls 10. ^d~`fr Ökl ·i;kZoj.-vi?Vu‚ d`k eÍ gh ,d`f(r d`j vU;( ^;ksx fd`;k tk fu;fU(r d`juk\ ld`rk gS\ rd`uhd`h Ökl ewY;kad`u le;-le; ij d`jrs jguk\ bu mnkgj.kÍ ls LiÆV gS fd` i;kZoj. 5. i~Foh x~g ij tSfod`-vtSfod` f∂`;kvkÍ ls i;kZoj. vi?Vu d`ks fu;af(r ^cU|u eÍ i;kZoj. lUrq¥u ,oa vkfƒZd` i;kZoj. ^cU|u d`k loZ^eq[ i” d`juk\ ^kd~`frd`-lalk|ukÍ d`k loksZ®e i;kZoj. fæ”k ,oa æks| gS\ bld`k d`k;Z fod`kl ds` e÷; lkE; Lƒkfir d`juk eq“; ekuoh; mi;ksx\ ¥{; gksuk pkfg,\ i~Foh ds` lalk|ukÍ d`k i;kZoj. tkxÔd`rk] ^pkj-^lkj i;kZoj. fu;ks t u] ^cU|u o lnq i ;ks x ^ƒe 6. i~Foh ds` tSfod`-vtSfod` lalk|ukÍ ds` fæ”k d`ks ew¥ fæ”k d`h fo"; lkexzh ds` vfu;ksftr nksgu ·nq:i;ksx‚ d`ks lkƒ tksÈMuk] uohu rd`uhd`h [kst] vko';d`rk gS\ i;kZoj.h; vi?Vu o ^nw". ij æks| i;kZoj. ^cU|u ds` pkj pj. d`k;ksÛ d`ks cÈ<kok nsuk ^eq[ gS\ i;kZoj. (Four Steps of Environment Management) ^cU|u eÍ i;kZoj. fæ”k d`ks lfEef¥r d`jus d`k mˆs ' ; i~ F oh ij leLr ∂`\ (A) ”s( p;u (B) æks| losZ”. (C) Ökl ewY;kad`u (D) Ökl iwfrZ mik; i;kZoj.h; f∂`;kvkÍ d`ks ¥sd`j fæ”. 1. t¥ ^cU|u ikfjfLƒfrd`h; ,sfrgkfld` ewY;kad`u i;kZoj. fæ”k ^lkj ^fæ”. rd`uhd` vkfn ij d`k;Z fd`, tkrs tkrh; losZ”. gß\ i;kZoj.h; fæ”k ^fæ”. eÍ i;kZoj.h; 2. oU; ^k.h laj”. ikfjfLƒfrd`h; oxZ lkekftd` ewY;kad`u i;kZoj. æks| leL;kvkÍ ·X¥ksc¥ okfeÛx] xzhu gkml losZ”. ^Hko] vkstksu fNnz] vE¥ o"kZ‚ d`k g¥ 3. ou ^cU|u ifjoklkÍ d`k losZ”. vkfƒZd` gkfu ewY;ka- vke-tutkx~fr [kstk tkrk gS\ mnkgj.%^nw". fu;U(.] d`u okfgr t¥ d`k æks|u] vofæÆV fuLrkj. 4. leqnzh tho ^cU|u uewuk vk|kj losZ”. ekuoh; mi;ksfxrk ljd`kjh d`kuwuh ^;kl vkfn\ i;kZoj. fæ”k] æks| o losZ”. d`k ij ewY;kad`u ^kjEH vUrjkZÆV_h; Lrj ij luΩ 1972 5. [fut rs¥ ^cU|u ^kd~`frd` lhekavkÍ d`k ifjokl guu ij ctV ^ko|ku LVkWd`gkse] ·LohMu‚ lEes¥u ls gqvk\ losZ”. ewY;kad`u orZeku eÍ la;qDr jkÆV_ la? ds` rRoko|ku 6. æfDr lalk|u egk}hih; vk|kj ij miHksDrk p∂`h; HfoÆ; d`h ;kstuk,a eÍ la;qDr jkÆV_ i;kZoj. d`k;Z∂`e ^cU|u losZ”. vk|kj ij ewY;kad`u (UNEP) d`h Lƒkiuk gqbZ\ blds` }kjk 7. ^nw". fu;U(. ikfjfLƒfrd` x.uk ck;kse vk|kj ij vUrjkZÆV_h; ^;kl xfBr æks| losZ”. n¥ eÍ 50 lnL; ^cU|u losZ”. ewY;kad`u æs" i~ÆB 758 ij izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/715

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^|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg d`h ;sd`kVsfjucxZ ;k(k 

fxjhæ pUnz ik≥Ms

ew¥ æa?kbZ flDl jkÆV_kÍ ;kuh æa?kbZ d`ksvkWijsæu vkWxZukbtsæu (SCO) d`k nksfnolh; fæ[j lEes¥u vkSj pkj nsækÍ ·czkth¥] Ôl] Hkjr vkSj phu‚ ;kuh BRIC d`k ig¥k fæ[j lEes¥u Ôl d`h ;wjk¥ igkfÈM;kÍ ds` chp cls ækunkj ægj ;sd`kVsfjucxZ eÍ 15–16 twu d`ks lEiUu gqvk\ nksukÍ cSBd`kÍ eÍ ^|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg us Hkx f¥;k\ ;g nwljh ckj ^|kuea(h d`k in l∑Hk¥us ds` ckn mud`h ig¥h fonsæ ;k(k ƒh\ tgk∑ ,llhvks eÍ Hkjr d`h mifLƒfr ikfd`Lrku] bZjku] eaxksf¥;k d`h Hk∑fr i;Zos”d` ds` crkSj ƒh vkSj vœ`xkfuLrku ftleÍ vfrfƒ ds` crkSj vkeaf(r fd`;k x;k ƒk] tcfd` Jh¥ad`k o cs¥kÔl d`ks okrkZ Hkxhnkj d`k ntkZ bl fæ[j lEes¥u eÍ ^nku fd`;k x;k\ ogÓ fczd` eÍ Hkjr us lnL; ds` Ôi eÍ Hkx f¥;k\

,llhvks fæ[j lEes¥u
Lej.h; gS fd` ,llhvks d`h Lƒkiuk eÍ gqbZ ƒh vkSj Hkjr i;Zos”d` ds` Ôi eÍ 2005 eÍ bleÍ ækfe¥ gqvk ƒk\ vc rd` d`h 5 okf"Zd` cSBd`kÍ eÍ Hkjr cjkcj Hkx ¥srk jgk gS] ijUrq ig¥h ckj mPp Lrj ij ^|kuea(h us bl lEes¥u eÍ Hkx f¥;k\ ;g lEes¥u Hkjr ds` f¥, bl Ôi eÍ Hh egRoiw.Z gS fd` Lo;a ,llhvks us vius d`ksj ,tÍMs eÍ i;Zos”d` ds` crkSj Hkjr d`h egRoiw.Z Hwfed`k js[kafd`r d`h gS\ ;g Hh mY¥s[uh; gS fd` Hkjr d`k ,llhvks ds` ^fr lSU; rƒk lkefjd` j.uhfr rƒk jktuhfrd` eqnΩnkÍ ls d`ksbZ ¥xko ugÓ gS] cfYd` og bl laxBu ds` nsækÍ ds` lkƒ O;kikj] vkfƒZd` vkSj lkaLÎ`frd` lEcU|kÍ d`h etcwrh d`k i”|j gS\ ,llhvks ds` jkV_k÷;”kÍ d`ks vius mnΩcks|u eÍ ^|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg us ekStwnk oSf'od` fo®h; lad`V d`k mY¥s[ d`jrs gq, ikjLifjd` vkfƒZd` lg;ksx cÈ<kd`j fVd`k˜ fod`kl d`h vo|kj.k d`ks Bksl vkd`kj nsus d`h vko';d`rk trkbZ\ vkrad`okn] d`VΩVjrkoknh fopkj|kjk vkSj xSj-d`kuwuh rjhds` ls uæh¥s inkƒksÛ d`h rLd`jh d`ks lnL; nsækÍ gsrq ?krd` crkrs gq, ^|kuea(h us laxBu ds` nsækÍ eÍ vkilh rk¥es¥ ij c¥ fn;k] rkfd` ekStwnk oSf'od` `vkfƒZd` lad`V d`ks
2001

csgrj vkfƒZd` lg;ksx eÍ cn¥k tk lds`\ ^|kuea(h d`k LiÆV er ƒk fd` ekStwnk oSf'od` vkfƒZd` lad`V ls fiN¥h vkfƒZd` mi¥fC|;kÍ d`ks [rjk gS] `blf¥, lnL; nsækÍ ds` lkƒ i;Zos”d`kÍ d`ks fe¥d`j fo®h; laLƒkvkÍ vkSj fo'o d`k lapk¥u d`j jgs laxBukÍ eÍ lq|kj ds` ^;kl d`jus pkfg,] rkfd` cn¥rh ifjfLƒfr;kÍ ls eqd`kc¥k fd`;k tk lds`\ ^|kuea(h us Lƒk;h fod`kl ds` fl*kUr d`ks ,d` Bksl vkd`kj nsus eÍ tjk Hh nsj u d`jus vkSj fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`ks fo®h; lalk|ukÍ vkSj foæs"d`j vkbZ Vh] ˜tkZ] ifjogu] fofuekZ. vkSj Î`f" ”s( eÍ i;kZoj. vuqdw`¥ VsDukW¥ksth d`h vko';d`rk ij Hh tksj fn;k\ mUgkÍus ,llhvks ds` ikl ekStwnk foæk¥ cÈMk cktkj] foLr~r vkS » ks f xd` vk|kj] ^frHkæk¥h ekuo lalk|u rƒk bu lcls ˜ij jktuhfrd` bPNk æfâ` d`k mY¥s[ d`jrs gq, buds` leqfpr nksgu ij Hh tksj fn;k\ vkrad`okn d`k mY¥s[ d`jrs gq, blds` mUew¥u gsrq Hh ,llhvks ls vkxzg fd`;k\ fæ[j lEes¥u d`h estckuh d`jrs gq, Ôl ds` jkÆV_ifr fnfe(h esnonso us vius mnΩ?kVu Hk". eÍ Hkoh lg;ksx ds`` f¥,` ^kƒfed`rkvkÍ d`k fu|kZj. d`jrs gq, ”s(h; lqj”k vkSj oSf'od` fo®h; lad`V ij ppkZ æqÔ d`h vkSj i;Zos”d` jkÆV_kÍ d`ks iw.Z lnL; ds` Ôi eÍ lEes¥u eÍ ækfe¥ d`jus d`k ^Lrko fd`;k\ Ôl ds` jkÆV_ifr d`k ;g d`ƒu mY¥s[uh; gS fd` fcuk ikfd`Lrku eÍ vkrad`okn d`k mUew¥u fd`, vœ`xkfuLrku eÍ vkrad`okn ij d`kcw ugÓ ik;k tk ld`rk\ bleÍ nks jk; ugÓ fd` ,llhvks eÍ Hkjr] Ôl vkSj phu d`h foæs" Hwfed`k gS] ijUrq blds` lkƒ gh ;g okLrfod`rk gS fd` bZjku] vœ`xkfuLrku] ikfd`Lrku rƒk Hkjr tSls jkÆV_kÍ ds` ,llhvks ds` iw.Z lnL; cu tkus ls vkrad`okn ds` mUew¥u ds` ^;klkÍ eÍ rsth vk ld`rh gS vkSj bu nsækÍ eÍ mi¥C| vikj ˜tkZ] [fut lEink rƒk ekuo æfâ` d`k ;ƒksfpr nksgu gksd`j ,llhvks fod`kl d`k ,d` ekWM¥ cu ld`rk gS\

lEes¥u ds` nkSjku ,llhvks ds` usrkvkÍ }kjk vkrad`okn ds ` f[¥kœ` le>kSrs ij gLrk”j d`juk Hh egRoiw.Z gS ftleÍ vkrad`okn fujks|h c¥kÍ ds` ^fæ”. rƒk vUrjkZÆV_h; lqj”k vkSj lwpuk lg;ksx ij tksj gS\ mY¥s[uh; gS fd` ,llhvks ds` nsækÍ eÍ v¥d`k;nk d`k vlj xEHhj fpUrk d`k fo"; gS tks e÷; ,fæ;k vkSj iwohZ phu rd` œS`¥k gS\ Ôl d`k cÈMk b¥kd`k vkrad`okn d`h pisV eÍ gS ftl rjg ds` rkf¥cku ge¥s ikfd`Lrku ds` if'peks®j b¥kds` eÍ gks jgs gß oSls gh mTcsfd`Lrku vkSj iwohZ phu eÍ vDlj gksrs jgrs gß\ ;g Hh mY¥s[uh; gS fd` v¥d`k;nk ls fuiVus vkSj vœ`xkfuLrku d`h gk¥r lq|kjus eÍ bZjku d`h Hwfed`k lokZf|d` egRoiw.Z fl* gks ld`rh gS\ pw∑fd` vejhd`k Hh v¥d`k;nk ls lgek gqvk gS] blf¥, vejhd`h jkÆV_ifr cjkd` vksckek d`h d`kfgjk eÍ vius mnΩcks|u eÍ eql¥ekukÍ ds` ^fr fn[kbZ xbZ lnkæ;rk eÍ v^R;” Ôi ls bZ j ku ls vius ikjLifjd` lEcU|kÍ eÍ lq|kj ¥kus d`h bPNk gh ifj¥f”r gksrh gS\ blds` v¥kok] ,llhvks ds` lnL;kÍ ds` fo®h; laLƒkvkÍ d`h vf|d` fuxjkuh vkSj vUrjkZÆV_h; lg;ksx ij Hh tksj fn;k\ mUgkÍus ,d` ,slh fuÆi” vkSj rdZ`laxr vUrjkZÆV_h; fo®h; O;oLƒk d`k;e d`jus d`k vkÿku fd`;k tks fo'o leqnk; ds` lkƒ da`|s-ls-da`|k fe¥kd`j p¥s\ fæ[j lEes¥u ds` ckn tkjh lk>k c;ku eÍ lqj”k ds` ^fr cÈ<rs [rjkÍ] oSf'od` [k» lad`V] [k» lqj”k vkSj t¥ok;q ifjorZu tSls vke ¥ksxkÍ ds` thou ls tqÈMs ”s(h; vkSj vUrjkZÆV_h; eke¥kÍ d`k ^Hkoh funku r¥kæus d`h eg®k Hh js[kafd`r d`h xbZ\

fczd` fæ[j lEes¥u
fæ[j lEes¥u ds` nkSjku fo'o d`h pkj lcls cÈMh vƒZO;oLƒk d`k ^frfuf|Ro d`jus ok¥s fczd` us fo'o ds` fod`flr jkÆV_kÍ ls vUrjkZÆV_h; fo®h; laLƒkvkÍ ds` usr~Ro eÍ viuk fgLlk ek∑xk\ ;s nsæ vUrjkZÆV_h; ekSfnzd`-^.k¥h eÍ Hh œs`jcn¥ ds` bPNqd` fn[s\ blds` v¥kok] bu nsækÍ us tSfod` bÛ|u d`ks ¥sd`j fod`flr nsækÍ d`h gksÈM ij Hh fpUrk O;â` d`h vkSj bl lEcU| eÍ ,d` ikjnæhZ uhfr d`h tÔjr Hh crkbZ\ ;g ig¥k ekSd`k ƒk tc tSfod` bÛ|u ds` el¥s ij fd`lh cgqi”h; eap ls fopkjfoeæZ gqvk\ bld`k d`kj. lEHor# Î`f" vƒZO;oLƒk vkSj [k» lqj”k ds` ^fr lnL;kÍ }kjk fpfUrr gksuk gS\ blhf¥, mUgkÍus tSo bÛ|u mRiknu d`ks [k» lqj”k d`h d`lkSVh ij d`lus d`k vkÿku fd`;k rƒk Î`f" vƒZO;oLƒk vkSj [k» lqj”k ij v¥x–v¥x ^Lrko ikfjr fd`,\ fczd`

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/716

us la;qâ` jkÆV_ eÍ lqj”k ifj"nΩ gsrq Hkjr vkSj czkth¥ d`h Lƒk;h lnL;rk ds` nkos d`k Hh leƒZu fd`;k\ Lej. jgs fd` fczd` ds` æs" nks nsæ Ôl vkSj phu ig¥s gh lqj”k-ifj"nΩ eÍ Lƒk;h lnL; ds` Ôi eÍ ækfe¥ gß\ ;g Hh mY¥s[uh; gS fd` gk¥ eÍ fczd` nsækÍ us vkbZ,e,œ` eÍ viuh ftEesnkjh cÈ<kd`j viuh gSfl;r d`k eku fo'o ds` nsækÍ d`ks d`jk;k gS\ pkjkÍ nsækÍ ds` ikl MkW¥j d`k vPNk H≥Mkj Hh gS\ blf¥, os oSf'od` eanh d`k lkeuk d`jus eÍ d`kœ`h gn rd` l”e Hh gq, gß\ vc mud`k fopkj ,d`- nwljs ds` ck∑MkÍ rƒk eqnzkvkÍ d`h [jhn d`k Hh gS] rkfd` vejhd`h MkW¥j ij fuHZjrk ?Vs vkSj ”s(h; d`jÍlh d`ks ^ksRlkgu fe¥s\ Ôlh jkÆV_ifr fnfe(h esnonso us ‘lqijusæu¥ d`jÍlh’ ds` l~tu ij tksj fn;k tks MkW¥j d`ks pqukSrh nsus eÍ l”e gks lds`\ Ôlh jkÆV_ifr us phu lfgr vU; æa?kbZ lewg ds` nsækÍ d`ks Hh vkÿku fd`;k fd` os vius ikjLifjd` O;kikj eÍ ,d`-nwljs d`h d`jÍlh d`k mi;ksx d`jÍ\ lEes¥u eÍ mud`k ;g vkÿku Hh egRoiw.Z gS fd`` fczd` nsæ fo'o ds` vkfƒZd` lad`V d`k lek|ku [kstÍxs vkSj u, <ax ls fo®h; O;oLƒk d`jÍxs\ bl gsrq fczd` nsækÍ ds` cßd`lZ vkSj vU; fo®h;

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nksukÍ lEes¥ukÍ ds` nkSjku ^|kuea(h us ,llhvks vkSj fczd` nsækÍ ds` jkÆV_k÷;”kÍ ls brj okrkZ Hh d`h\ Ôl eÍ fo'o ds` ehfM;k d`feZ;kÍ d`h mifLƒfr eÍ gh ikfd`Lrku ds` jkÆV_ifr vkflœ` v¥h tjnkjh ds` lkƒ ds`o¥ vkrad`okn d`k eqnΩnk mBkrs gq, ^|kuea(h us nks Vwd` æCnkÍ eÍ d`gk fd` ikfd`Lrku us ftl ^d`kj d`h ^frc*rk vius nsæ eÍ rkf¥cku rƒk v¥d`k;nk ls fuiVus eÍ fn[kbZ gS] oSlh gh og Hkjr ds` f[¥kœ` mld`h tehu ls lapkf¥r vkrad`oknh xfrfof|;kÍ ds` fo:* fn[k,\ ^|kuea(h d`k ;g Hh d`guk ƒk fd` ;fn ikfd`Lrku okLro eÍ ækfUr ds` jkLrs ij p¥us d`k lkgl] ^frc*rk vkSj dw`Vuhfrd` lw>cw> fn[k,] rks Hkjr nksxqus ^;kl ls vkxs cÈ<us d`ks rS;kj gS\ mY¥s[uh; gS fd` nksukÍ usrkvkÍ ds` chp æh"Z Lrj d`h okrkZ 26/11 ds` eqEcbZ ge¥s ds` ckn ig¥h ckj gqbZ\ blf¥, iwjh ckrphr eqEcbZ ge¥s vkSj lhek ikj vkrad`oknh xfrfof|;kÍ ij gh ds`fUnzr jgh\ ^|kuea(h us eqEcbZ vk∂`e. ds` ^eq[ vkjksih vkSj tekr–mn–nkok ds` eqf[;k eksgEen lbZn d`h fjgkbZ ij Hh fujkæk O;â` d`h\ lkƒ gh vkrad`okn ds` el¥s ij nksukÍ nsækÍ ds` fonsæ lfpokÍ d`h æh?z gh cSBd` vk;ksftr d`jus d`k fu.Z; f¥;k\ Lej.h; gS fd` Hkjr vkSj ikfd`Lrku ds` chp lEcU|kÍ eÍ ruko d`k eq“; d`kj. vkrad`okn gh gS ftl otg ls 2004 eÍ ^kjEH d`h xbZ lexz okrkZ 2007 eÍ vkd`j :d` xbZ\ tSlkfd` fofnr gh gS fd` 2004 eÍ rRd`k¥hu jkÆV_ifr ijost eqæjZœ` ds` lkƒ Hkjr ds` f¥f[r d`jkj gksus ds` ckotwn fd`

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vf|d`kjh vkilh fopkj-foeæZ ls Bksl d`k;Z;kstuk rS;kj d`j mls vkxkeh th –20 d`h cSBd` eÍ ^Lrqr d`jÍsxs\ fu#lUnsg nqfu;k d`h thMhih eÍ egRoiw.Z ;ksxnku nsus ok¥s fczd` nsækÍ eÍ fo'o ds` fod`kl d`k batu cuus d`h iwjh lEHkouk gS\ fczd` nqfu;k ds` lcls cÈMs mRiknu ”s( vkSj cktkj `d`k ^frfuf|Ro d`jrk gS\ bls bl rF; ls Hh le>k tk ld`rk gS fd` tgk∑ oSf'od` eanh ds` ckotwn Hkjr vkSj phu d`h thMhih fod`kl nj ∂`eæ# 4 ^frær vkSj 6 ^frær izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/717

Hh Hkjr ds` lkƒ czkth¥ lg;ksx d`k bPNqd` gS\ fu#lUnsg Hkjr d`ks bu nksukÍ ”s(kÍ eÍ lg;ksx d`h njd`kj gS\ ;g Hh mY¥s[uh; gS fd` Hkjr czkth¥ d`ks œ`kekZL;wfVd`Yl ”s( eÍ lg;ksx ds` v¥kok bUthfu;¯jx ”s( eÍ lg;ksx d`j ld`rk gS\ nksukÍ nsækÍ ds` chp [k» ^laLd`j.] vkWVks d`¥ iqtsZ] [uu] ukxj foekuu] fpfd`Rlk miLd`j] vk|kjHwr lajpuk ”s( vkSj js¥os miLd`jkÍ eÍ Hh lg;ks x d`h i;kZ I r lEHkouk,a gß\ mY¥s[uh; gS fd` czkth¥ d`h [k» ^laLd`j. ds` ”s( eÍ Hh egkjr gkfl¥ gS\ Hkjr tgk∑ dq`¥ mRiknu d`k 2 ``^frær ^laLd~`r d`j ikrk gS ogÓ czkth¥ ¥xHx 70 ^frær ^laLÎ`r d`jrk gS\ tgk∑ rd` ˜tkZ ds` ”s( eÍ ikjLifjd` lg;ksx d`k ^'u gS Hkjr d`h vks,uthlh rƒk czkth¥ d`h isV_ksczkl ds` chp le>kSrk ig¥s gh gks pqd`k gS\ ftlds` rgrΩ Hkjr rƒk czkth¥ ds` leqnzh rVh; [≥MkÍ ds` nksgu eÍ lgefr cuh gS\ czkth¥ ds` lkƒ fiN¥s 4 o"ksÛ eÍ j”k] vUrfj”] foKku vkSj ^kS»ksfxd`h] i;ZVu] laLÎ`fr rƒk tSo bÛ|u tSls fofHUu ”s(kÍ eÍ 41 le>kSrs fuÆiUu fd`, x, gß\ Hkjr vkSj Ôl%Hkjr vkSj Ôl ds` chp ?fuÆB lEcU|kÍ d`k vanktk ^|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg ds` ml oDrO; ls ¥xk;k tk ld`rk gS ftleÍ mUgkÍus Ôl d`ks ∏tk∑pk– ij[k fe(π d`gk gS\ Ôl tgk∑ Hkjr d`ks la;qâ` jkÆV_ eÍ lqj”k ifj"nΩ eÍ Lƒk;h lnL; ds` Ôi eÍ ækfe¥ d`jus d`k i”|j jgk gS] ogÓ Hkjr fiN¥s 16 o"ksÛ ls Ôl d`h MCY;wVhvks eÍ lgHkfxrk ds` f¥, ^;kljrΩ gS\ xkSjr¥c gS fd` Ôl vHh MCY;wVhvks d`k lnL; ugÓ cuk gS\ ;»fi gk¥ eÍ rs¥ d`h d`herkÍ eÍ Hkjh fxjkoV ls isV_ks jkÆV_ cuus eÍ Ôl d`ks fnDd`r eglwl gks jgh gS] ijUrq ;g Hh gd`hd`r gS fd` gkbM_ksd`kcZu ds` foæk¥ H≥Mkj d`h otg ls gh fo?Vu ds` ckn Vqd`ÈMkÍ eÍ c∑Vk rRd`k¥hu lksfo;r la? ftls ckn eÍ Ôl uke ls tkuk x;k] l∑H¥k gS vkSj mlus viuh vkfƒZd` fLƒfr etcwr cukbZ\ pw∑fd` Ôl ^kÎ`frd` lalk|ukÍ] mitk˜ [srh vkSj |krqvkÍ ds` eke¥s eÍ le~* gS\ lkssus ds` foæk¥ H≥Mkj ds` lkƒ gh bekjrh ¥d`ÈMh d`h ogk∑ ^pqjrk gS] ukfHd`h; rƒk felkb¥ egkæfâ` ds` Ôi eÍ mld`h x.uk d`h tkrh gS blf¥, Hkjr d`h Ôl ds` lkƒ vHh lg;ksx d`h vf|d` lEHkouk gS \ Î`f" ^|ku vƒZO;oLƒk ok¥s Hkjr nsæ eÍ Hh ^kÎ`frd` lalk|ukÍ ds` vikj lzksr gß vkSj Hkjr d`h ;qok æfâ` d`k lsok ”s( eÍ ;ksxnku txtkfgj gS] blf¥, Hkjr ds` lkƒ ?fuÆB lEcU| Ôl ds` f¥, Hh mi;ksxh gß\ izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/718

ijUrq blds` ckotwn Hkjr vkSj Ôl ds` chp vHh f}i”h; O;kikj d`ks cÈ<kus d`h tÔjr gS\ nksukÍ nsækÍ ds` chp O;kikfjd` vÈMpukÍ eÍ mfpr d`usfDVfoVh d`k vHko vkSj ohtk ^f∂`;kvkÍ d`h tfV¥rk d`k gksuk gS\ fœ`j Hh nksukÍ ns æ vius ekStwnk f}i”h; O;kikj d`ks 3 fcf¥;u MkW¥j ls cÈ<kd`j 2010 rd` 10 fcf¥;u MkW¥j rd` ¥s tkus d`ks ^frc* gß\ Hkjr vkSj phu%;g lR; gS fd` gekjh reke lnΩHkoukvkÍ ds` ckotwn phu d`k joS;k gekjs ^fr lkSgknZiw.Z ugÓ jgk gS\ fœ`j pkgs og v:.kp¥ ^nsæ d`k lhek fookn gks] ,u,lth ;k ,fæ;kbZ fod`kl cßd` d`h cSBd` ;k la;qâ` jkÆV_ eÍ lqj”k ifj"nΩ eÍ Hkjr d`h Lƒk;h lnL;rk d`k eke¥k\ phu vkt Hh v:.kp¥ ^nsæ d`ks Hkjr d`k vax ugÓ ekurk\ blf¥, mlus v:.kp¥ ^nsæ eÍ iufct¥h ifj;kstuk gsrq Hkjr }kjk ,fæ;kbZ fod`kl cßd` ls ek∑xs tkus ok¥s 60 fef¥;u MkW¥j d`tZ d`k fojks| fd`;k vkSj cßd` ij ;g ncko Hh cuk;k fd` og Hkjr d`ks 2·9 fcf¥;u MkW¥j d`h fod`kl fuf|;kÍ ds` laforj. eÍ lko|kuh cjrs\ Lej. jgs fd` vejhd`k vkSj tkiku ds` ckn ,fæ;kbZ fod`kl cßd` Hkjr d`k lcls cÈMk Mksuj gS\ phu us Hkjr d`ks ;g Hh |ed`h nh gS fd` Hkjr bl ”s( eÍ viuh lSU; mifLƒfr u cÈ<k, vU;ƒk phu Hh cn¥s d`h d`kjZokbZ d`jus ds` f¥, fooæ gksxk\ ;gk∑ mY¥s[ d`juk ^klafxd` gksxk fd` Hkjr us vHh phu lhek ls ¥xs rstiqj eÍ Hkjrh; ok;qlsuk ds` pkj vR;k|qfud` lq[ksbZ–30 ¥ÈMkdw` foekukÍ d`ks rSukr fd`;k gS\ ;g Hh mY¥s[uh; gS fd` Hkjr–phu ds` chp lhek el¥s ij foæs" ^frfuf|;kÍ ds` chp 13 oÍ nkSj d`h ckrphr fiN¥s flrEcj ekg ls :d`h gS\ blls ig¥s okrkZ ds` 12 nkSj lEiUu gks pqds` gß\ okrkZ eÍ vojks| d`k d`kj. v:.kp¥ ^nsæ ds` rokax b¥kds` eÍ phu }kjk viuk nkok ^Lrqr d`juk gS\ blls T;knk vk'p;Z d`h ckr vkSj D;k gksxh fd` Hkjr us phu d`ks la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`h lqj”k ifj"nΩ eÍ Lƒk;h lnL;rk gsrq fcuk ærZ leƒZu nsd`j lqj”k ifj"nΩ ds` 5 Lƒk;h lnL;kÍ eÍ lfEef¥r d`j fn;k] ¥sfd`u tc Hkjr d`h ckjh vkbZ rks og mld`k fojks| d`j jgk gS\ blds` v¥kok] phu] v:.kp¥ ^nsæ d`ks frCcr HwHkx d`k vax ekud`j rokax ij gd` tekus d`h d`ksfææ d`jrk jgk gS\ phu ds` lkƒ Hkjr d`k lhek fookn fczfVæ jkt d`h ∏œw`V Mk¥ks vkSj æklu d`jksπ eukso~f® d`k œ`¥ gS ftlds` rgrΩ uDæs ij rks eSd`eksgu js[k [Óp nh xbZ] ¥sfd`u mls tehu ij ve¥h tkek ugÓ iguk;k tk ld`k\ blds` v¥kok] phu

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fuÆd`"Z
mi;qZDr foospu ls LiÆV gksrk gS fd` efg¥kvkÍ d`ks lHh rjg ds` vf|d`kj fn, tkus ds` ckotwn Hh efg¥kvkÍ ij æks". ,oa vR;kpkj tkjh gS\ vkt efg¥k,a vius gh ?j eÍ lqjf”r ugÓ gß vkSj viukÍ ds` }kjk gh æks". ,oa vR;kpkj d`k fæd`kj gS\ 21oÓ lnh efg¥kvkÍ d`h lnh ekuh tk jgh gS] fd`Urq ;g ckr rHh lp lkfcr gksxh tc efg¥kvkÍ ds` lkekftd`] vkfƒZd`] lkaLd~`frd` o jktuhfrd` fod`kl d`k ekxZ ^æLr gksxk vkSj muds` vf|d`kjkÍ d`k xzkœ` ˜∑pk mBsxk] fd`Urq ,slk rHh lEHo gS tc iq:" d`h ekufld`rk ,oa n~fÆVd`ks. eÍ ●●● cn¥ko vk,xk\

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izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/719

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th-8 ,oa th-5 eÍ Hkjr d`h Hwfed`k
tq¥kbZ 2009 eÍ bV¥h ds` ¥kfDo¥k ægj eÍ lEiUu th –8 vkSj mlds` }kjk ukekafd`r 5 vkmVfjp nsækÍ d`k fæ[j lEes¥u d`bZ ek;ukÍ eÍ egRoiw.Z gS\ ^|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg us bl fæ[j lEes¥u ls ig¥s th–8 d`h cSBd` eÍ Hkx f¥;k ƒk vkSj th–5 rƒk th –8 eÍ Hkx ¥sus ok¥s jkÆV_k÷;”kÍ/ækluk÷;”kÍ ls vkilh fgr ds` eke¥kÍ ds` lkƒ–lkƒ oSf'od` eanh vkSj t¥ok;q ifjorZu tSls oSf'od` eqnΩnkÍ ij fopkj-foeæZ fd`;k\ crkbZ ftlds` tfj, i;kZoj. d`ks uqd`lku igq∑pk, fcuk csgrj thou Lrj ¥{; d`ks ^kIr fd`;k tk lds`\ fu#lUnsg ;gk∑ uohure VsDuks¥kWth d`h Hwfed`k egRoiw.Z gksxh] blf¥, th–5 nsækÍ ds ` e÷; LoPN i;kZoj. lEcU|h VsDuks¥kWth ds` gLrkUrj. eÍ lg;ksx vko';d gS\ eSfDld`ks ds` jkÆV_ifr d`k er ƒk fd` u, vUrjkZÆV_h; <kaps ls vUrjkZÆV_h; fo®h; eke¥kÍ eÍ fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`h larqf¥r Hkxhnkjh d`ks cÈ<kok fe¥sxk\ lkƒ gh th –5 nsækÍ ds` usrkvkÍ us fu'p; fd`;k fd` os fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`ks fo®h; lalk|ukÍ d`k i;kZIr ^okg lqfuf'pr d`jus gsrq laj”.oknh nckokÍ d`k eqd`kc¥k d`jrs gq, eqâ` cktkj d`h vko';d`rk ij tksj nÍxs\ th–5 ds` ?ks".k-i( eÍ fo'o O;kikj laxBu d`h nksgk nkSj d`h okrkZ d`ks lœ`¥rkiwoZd` lEiUu gksus d`h vkæad`k Hh O;â` d`h xbZ] rkfd` fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`h fod`flr nsækÍ ds` ^fr O;kikj ds` lEcU| eÍ fo'okl cgk¥h gks vkSj fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`ks uqd`lku igq∑pkus ok¥h laj”.oknh :>ku ij jksd` ¥xs\ fuf'pr rkSj ij blls vUrjkZÆV_h; cktkjkÍ eÍ fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`h oLrq vkSj lsokvkÍ d`h igq∑p lgh ek;us eÍ cÈ<sxh\ th–5 nsækÍ us fod`flr nsækÍ eÍ fu;kZr lfClMh d`ks lekIr d`jus d`h vko';d`rk ij Hh tksj fn;k\ th–8 fæ[j lEes¥u fæ[j lEes¥u ds` estcku nsæ bV¥h ds` jkÆV_ifr flfYo;ks c¥qZLd`ksuh us nksukÍ lewgkÍ d`h cSBd` ds` æqÔvkrh Hk". eÍ th –8 ds` lkƒ th–5 d`ks fe¥kd`j ,d` laxBu cukus d`k lq>ko fn;k vkSj d`gk fd` th–8 vkSj th–5 fo'o d`h d`jhc 80 ^frær tula“;k d`k ^frfuf|Ro d`jrs gß] blf¥, ;fn ;g vfLrRo eÍ vkrk gS] rks ;g HfoÆ; ds` f¥, ,d` fLƒj ,oa Bksl æD¥ vf“r;kj d`j ld`rk gS vkSj ftld`h Hwfed`k oSf'od` eqnΩnkÍ ds` fuiVkus eÍ egRoiw.Z gksxh\ ≠`kal vkSj czkth¥ us Hh blds` xBu d`k leƒZu fd`;k\

th–5 cSBd`
nqfu;k d`h mHjrh vƒZO;oLƒk ok¥s 5 nsækÍ ds` laxBu%Hkjr] phu] czkth¥] nf”. v≠`hd`k vkSj eSfDld`ks us viuh cSBd` eÍ oSf'od` fo®h; laLƒkvkÍ ds` rqjUr iquxZBu d`jus gsrq d`ne mBkus d`k œS`l¥k fd`;k\ blds` v¥kok] fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ gsrq vkSj vf|d` )`. mi¥C| d`jkus rƒk t¥ok;q eÍ gksus ok¥s vlkekU; ifjorZu d`h leL;k ls fuiVus gsrq Hh d`ne mBkus d`k vkÿku fd`;k\ mUgkÍus fo'oO;kih vkfƒZd` lad`V d`h i~ÆBHwfe eÍ leL;k ds` oSf'od` Lrj ij lek|ku gsrq viuh opuc*rk Hh nksgjkbZ\ mud`k LiÆV er ƒk fd` vUrjkZÆV_h; laLƒkvkÍ d`k ekStwnk <kapk fo'o d`k lgh rjhds` ls ^frfuf|Ro ugÓ d`jrk] D;kÍfd` bleÍ fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`ks mfpr egRo ugÓ fe¥k gS\ ekStwnk vkfƒZd` lad`V gsrq fod`flr nsæ iw.Zr# ftEesnkj gß] fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`h bleÍ d`ksbZ Hwfed`k ugÓ gS] ¥sfd`u fo'o d`h leLr vƒZO;oLƒk,a vkil eÍ xaqƒh gß] blf¥, fd`lh ,d` nsæ d`k vlj nwljs nsæ ij iÈMuk ¥kfteh gS\ blf¥, fod`flr nsæ bl lad`V d`k lek|ku fud`k¥us eÍ fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ ds` fgrkÍ d`k “;k¥ j[Í vkSj mUgÍ fo'okl eÍ ¥Í\ cSBd` eÍ [k» inkƒksÛ ds` mPp ewY; ls fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ ij iÈMus ok¥s ^Hko d`ks Hh js[kafd`r fd`;k x;k\ ^|kuea(h us Î`f" rƒk [k» lqj”k d`ks oSf'od` el¥k crk;k vkSj blf¥, bls d`ksj vkWœ` n baVjusæu¥ ,tÍMk eÍ ækfe¥ d`jrs gq, lcls egRoiw.Z eqnΩnk cukus d`h vko';d`rk ij tksj fn;k] rkfd` ¥?q lhekUr fd`lku ds` fgrkÍ d`h j”k lqfuf'pr gks\ mUgkÍus fod`kl d`h ,slh j.uhfr cukus `d`h vko';d`rk ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/720

oSf'od` lg;ksx ls gh fd`;k tk ld`rk gS\ ¥sfd`u ;g rHh lEHo gS] tcfd` fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`h vkokt lquh tk,\ ^|kuea(h us lEes¥u eÍ oSf'od` vkfƒZd` lad`V d`k mY¥s[ d`jrs gq, d`gk fd` vius fgrkÍ ds` laj”. d`h [kfrj fod`flr nsækÍ eÍ laj”.okn d`h ^o~f® iuih gS ftlls fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ ds` )`. vkSj iw∑th ^okg ij vlj iÈMk gS vkSj Hkjr tSls fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ ds` fod`kl ¥{;kÍ d`h iwfrZ eÍ ck|k iÈMh gS\ ;g dS`lh foMEcuk gS fd` bl eanh ds` ihNs Hkjr d`k gkƒ ugÓ gS] ijUrq mld`k fu;kZr bl otg ls cqjh rjg ^Hkfor gqvk gS\ bl lEes¥u eÍ Hkjr d`ks fo'o vkfƒZd` lad`V ds ` lkƒ fod`kl] [k»] ˜tkZ lqj”k] t¥ok;q ifjorZu vUrjkZÆV_h; O;kikj okrkZ vkSj vUrjkZÆV_h; laxBukÍ eÍ lq|kj ls lEc* ^eq[ oSf'od` eqnΩnkÍ ij fopkj j[us d`k ekSd`k Hh fe¥k\ ^|kuea(h us oSf'od` fo®h; laLƒkvkÍ ds` iquxZBu d`ks ekStwnk oSf'od` eanh d`k n~È<rkiwoZd` eqd`kc¥k d`jus gsrq vko';d` crk;k vkSj la;qâ` jkÆV_ lqj”k ifj"nΩ eÍ Hkjr d`h Lƒk;h lnL;rk ds` nkos d`ks loZƒk U;k;ksfpr crk;k\ mUgkÍus lqj”k ifj"nΩ eÍ ohVks ds` ^'u ij teZuh rƒk tkiku d`k mY¥s[ d`jrs gq, d`gk fd` ;»fi nksukÍ nsækÍ d`h vƒZO;oLƒk fczVsu rƒk ≠`kal ls cÈMh gS] ijUrq blds` ckotwn bu nks nsækÍ d`h vƒZO;oLƒkvkÍ d`ks lqj”k ifj"nΩ eÍ vHh rd` Lƒk;h lnL;rk ugÓ fe¥h gS\

t¥ok;q ifjorZu
^|kuea(h eueksgu ¯lg us Hkjr ds` xzhu gkml xSlkÍ ds` mRltZu ij jksd` ¥xkus ds` lkƒ gh X¥ksc¥ okfeÛx ij ;ƒklEHo jksd` ¥xkus ds` ^;klkÍ ds` ^fr viuh opuc*rk nksgjkbZ\ mY¥s[uh; gS fd` Hkjr us fiN¥s o"Z twu 2008 eÍ ^|kuea(h }kjk ?ksf"r t¥ok;q ifjorZu ls lEcfU|r jkÆV_h; d`k;Z;kstuk d`ks ^kƒfed`rk ds` vk|kj ij ve¥ eÍ ¥kus d`k vkÿku fd`;k ƒk\ 11oÓ iapo"hZ; ;kstuk eÍ Hh ˜tkZ d`h d`k;Zdq`æ¥rk ds` cÈ<kus ij tksj gS\ bu lcds` ckotwn Hkjr }kjk vHh i;kZoj. d`ks LoPN cuk, j[us eÍ lgk;d` v”; ˜tkZ ds` lzksrkÍ d`k ;ƒksfpr nksgu ugÓ gks ik;k gS\ ;fn bl fnæk eÍ Bksl ^;kl fd`, tk,a] rks HfoÆ; eÍ ,d` ækunkj X¥ksc¥ ekdsZ`V d`h lEHkouk ds` ewrZ Ôi xzg. d`jus eÍ nsj ugÓ ¥xsxh\ ijUrq geÍ bekjrkÍ] eksVj okgukÍ vkSj ?js¥w mid`j.kÍ eÍ fct¥h ds` lrdZ` mi;ksx ij c¥ nsd`j i;kZoj.h; fpUrk d`ks lnSo ÷;ku eÍ j[uk gksxk\ vkfƒZd` ^ksRlkgu vkSj naM d`h uhfr bl lEcU| eÍ d`kœ`h ^Hkoh gks ld`rh gS vkSj ds`Unzh; rƒk jkT; ^nw". fu;a(. cksMksÛ d`ks u, fljs ls iqu:Tthfor d`jus d`h Hh vko';d`rk gS\ okfud`h ds`

^|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg d`k mnΩcks|u # oSf'od` leL;kvkÍ d`k oSf'od` lek|ku
^|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg d`k LiÆV er ƒk fd` oSf'od` leL;kvkÍ d`k lek|ku

lkƒ oU; tho laj”. ij tksj nsuk Hh vkt le; d`h ek∑x gS\ Lej. jgs fd` Hkjr us t¥ok;q ifjorZu d`k eqd`kc¥k d`jus gsrq xzhu gkml xSlkÍ ds` mRltZu eÍ d`eh ds` ckjs eÍ fod`flr nsækÍ }kjk fu|kZfjr ¥{; d`ks ekuus ls bud`kj d`j fn;k gS\ Hkjr d`k LiÆV er gS fd` eq“;r# vejhd`k vkSj ;wjksih; nsækÍ }kjk xzhu gkml xSlkÍ d`k vf|d` ek(k eÍ mRltZu d`jus ls X¥ksc¥ okfeÛx d`h leL;k mRiUu gqbZ gS\ blf¥, mud`h uSfrd` ftEesnkjh gS fd` os fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`h rjœ` ns[us ds` ctk; ig¥s viuh vksj ls Bksl ig¥ d`jÍ\ Hkjr X¥ksc¥ okfeÛx d`h leL;k d`k lek|ku ^fr O;fâ` xzhu gkml xSlkÍ ds` mRltZu ds` œ`kewZ¥s ds` vk|kj ij d`jus d`k i”|j gS\ bleÍ lansg ugÓ fd` 1987 ds` ekWfUV_;¥ ^ksVksd`ks¥ us fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ ds` i;kZoj. ^nw". d`ks ?Vkus eÍ d`kœ`h ;ksxnku fn;k gS] tcfd` fod`flr nsækÍ d`h thou æS¥h d`h otg ls ^fr O;fâ` xzhu gkml xSlkÍ ds` mRltZu eÍ cjkcj rsth vkbZ gS\ mUgkÍus tgk∑ ,d` vksj viuh vksj ls cjkcj i;kZoj. d`ks uqd`lku igq∑pk;k gS] ogÓ fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`ks ^nw". fu;a(. rƒk fu;kstu rd`uhd` ,oa mid`j. mi¥C| ugÓ d`jk, gß\ 1992 ds` t¥ok;q ifjorZu lEcU|h vUrjkZÆV_h; le>kSrs eÍ Hh bl gLrkUrj. ckor LiÆV O;oLƒk d`h xbZ ƒh vkSj d`e-ls-d`e 7 ^frær ,sls mid`j. fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`ks mi¥C| d`jkus ƒs] ijUrq 2007 rd` ;g 0·18 ^frær gh mi¥C| gks ik, gß\ blls t¥ok;q ifjorZu eqnΩns ij fod`flr nsækÍ d`h nkseq∑gh uhfr d`k LiÆV irk p¥rk gS\ ;g [qæh d`h ckr gS fd` bl eqnΩns ij vejhd`k rƒk ;wjksih; nsækÍ ds` ncko ls fuiVus gsrq Hkjr vkSj phu ,d`er gq, gS\ D;kÍfd` bu ij gh t¥ok;q ds` eqnΩns ij fod`flr nsækÍ d`h rjœ` ls Hkjh ncko gS\ ;gk∑ ;g mY¥s[ d`juk Hh ^klafxd` gksxk fd` vejhd`k lhusV eÍ vejhd`h jkÆV_ifr cjkd` vksckek ds` le” t¥ok;q ifjorZu lEcU|h fc¥ ¥fEcr iÈMk gS] ftleÍ fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ ij HsnHkoiw.Z d`kcZu VSDl ¥xkuk ^Lrkfor gS\ fu#lUnsg blls bu nsækÍ d`h fod`kl nj ^Hkfor gksxh vkSj ogk∑ xjhch cÈ<sxh\ 17 lnL;h; estj bd`ksuksfed` œ`ksje us viuh cSBd` eÍ Hkjr vkSj phu lfgr th–5 ds` nsækÍ eÍ xzhu gkml xSlkÍ ds` mRltZu eÍ d`VkSrh d`jus d`k Hkjh ncko cuk;k gS\ ;g Hh mY¥s[uh; gS fd` D;ksVks ^ksVksd`ks¥ ds` rgrΩ 36 vkS»ksfxd` nsæ vuqca| ds` Ôi eÍ oxhZÎ`r gß vkSj muls vis”k gS fd` os 2008–12 ds` chp vius mRltZu eÍ 1990 ds` LrjkÍ ls uhps fu|kZfjr ^frær rd` d`eh ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/721

¥k,a\ ¥sfd`u fczVsu] teZuh rƒk dq`N vU; nsækÍ d`ks NksÈMd`j æs" us viuh opuc*rk iw.Z ugÓ d`h gS] cfYd` os mRltZu eÍ d`eh ¥kus ds` vk|kj o"Z d`ks vkxs f[ld`kus eÍ ^;kljrΩ gß\ tgk∑ vejhd`k] vkLV_sf¥;k rƒk tkiku 1990 ds` ctk; 2005 d`ks vk|kj o"Z ekuus ds` fgek;rh gß] ogÓ Hkjr vkSj phu lfgr d`bZ ;wjksih; nsæ 1990 d`ks gh vk|kj o"Z ekuus ds` i”|j gß\ th–8 d`h ,d` egRoiw.Z mi¥fC| ;g jgh fd` blds` lnL; ig¥h ckj |jrh ds` rkieku eÍ 2 fMxzh lsfYl;l ls vf|d` d`h vlkekU; cÈ<ksrjh u gksus nsus gsrq opuc* fn[s\ mUgkÍus bl ¥{; d`h ^kfIr gsrq 2050 rd` vius mRltZu eÍ 80 ^frær d`VkSrh d`jus d`h vko';d`rk eglwl d`h] rkfd` nqfu;k ds` dq`¥ d`kcZu mRltZu eÍ 50 ^frær d`h d`eh ¥kbZ tk lds`\ vejhd`h jkÆV_ifr cjkd` vksckek us t¥ok;q ifjorZu d`h cSBd` d`h v÷;”rk d`jrs gq, vius nsæ ds` lkƒ gh fod`flr nsækÍ ls |jrh ds` rkieku eÍ d`eh ¥kus d`k vkxzg fd`;k vkSj bl gsrq ¥{; fu|kZfjr d`jus d`h psrkouh nh\ mUgkÍus |jrh ds` rkieku eÍ mâ` 2 fMxzh lsfYl;e ls vf|d` cÈ<ksrjh u gksus nsus ds` ^Lrko d`k Hh leƒZu fd`;k\ Lej.h; gS fd` vkS»ksfxd` ;qx æqÔ gksus ds` ckn ls vc rd` rkieku eÍ 0·8 fMxzh lsfYl;l d`h o~f* ig¥s gh gks pqd`h gS\ fu#lUnsg vksckek d`h ;g ig¥ fo'o eÍ d`kcZu mRltZu eÍ jksd` ¥xkus eÍ egRoiw.Z Hwfed`k vnk d`jsxh\ ;g Hh mY¥s[uh; gS fd` t¥ok;q ifjorZu ds` lEcU| eÍ Hkjr ds` ml n~fÆVd`ks. ds` ^fr mfpr joS;k viuk;k x;k gS fd` ftleÍ fod`flr nsækÍ ds` lkƒ ^kS»ksfxd`h fod`kl rƒk gLrkUrj. eÍ lgHkfxrk ij c¥ fn;k x;k gS\ ;»fi i;kZoj. lq|kj gsrq th –8 ds` lkƒ th–5 nsækÍ us Hh ,d`tqVrk ^nfæZr d`h gS vkSj fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ us fod`flr nsækÍ ls 2020 rd` 40 ^frær xzhu gkml xSlkÍ ds` mRltZu eÍ d`eh d`k vkxzg fd`;k gS] ijUrq bl ij loZlgefr ugÓ cuh gS\ ¥sfd`u vejhd`k }kjk fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ gsrq nwljs vkfƒZd` lzksr cÈ<kus d`h ^frc*rk O;â` d`juk ljkguh; gS fd` ftld`h lgk;rk ls fod`klæh¥ nsæ xSj d`kcZu ˜tkZ mRiknu d`h rd`uhd` bLrsek¥ d`j ldÍ`xs\ ;gk∑ vejhd`h jkÆV_ifr ds` ml d`ƒu d`k mY¥s[ d`juk lehphu gksxk ftleÍ mUgkÍus Hkjr tSlh ^eq[ æfâ` d`ks lkƒ f¥, fcuk oSf'od` pqukSfr;kÍ ls fuiVus eÍ fod`flr nsækÍ d`h vleƒZrk O;â` d`h gS\ d`guk u gksxk fd` muds` bl oâ`O; ls ^|kuea(h d`h la;qâ` jkÆV_ tSls vUrjkZÆV_h; laxBukÍ eÍ lq|kj ds` vkÿku d`ks ^R;” leƒZu fe¥k\ la;qâ` jkÆV_ ds`

egklfpo cku d`h-ewu us th–8 ds` lnL;kÍ ls vih¥ d`h fd` mud`h ;g ,sfrgkfld` rƒk jktuhfrd` ftEesnkjh gS fd` os vkfƒZd` rƒk rd`uhd`h Ôi ls d`kcZu mRltZu ls futkr ikus eÍ fod`klæh¥ ns æ kÍ d`h enn d`jÍ\ mUgkÍus th–8 }kjk bl fnæk eÍ vc rd` d`h xbZ d`kjZokbZ d`ks vi;kZIr crk;k vkSj th–8 ds` usrkvkÍ d`ks d`kcZu mRltZu eÍ d`eh ¥kus gsrq Bksl o egRokd`ka”h e÷;kof| ¥{; fu|kZfjr d`jus ij tksj fn;k\ xkSjr¥c gS fd` fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`ks d`kcZ u mRltZu eÍ d`eh ¥kus gsrq v»ru vk|qfud` VsDuks¥kWth ds` njd`kj gS ftl ij d`jhc lkS [jc MkW¥j d`h tÔjr gksxh ftlds` f¥, fod`flr nsæ gkƒ ihNs [Óp jgs gß\

vkrad`okn
vkrad`okn d`k mY¥s[ d`jrs gq, Hkjr us fo'o ds` vxz.h usrkvkÍ ls vih¥ d`h fd` Hkjr fiN¥s rhu næd` ls vkrad`okn d`k naæ >s¥ jgk gS vkSj ikfd`Lrku d`h tehu ls vkrad`oknh xfrfof|;k∑ cjkcj lapkf¥r d`h tkrh jgh gß blf¥, fod`flr nsækÍ d`ks ikfd`Lrku ij ncko cukuk pkfg, fd` og Hkjr ds` fo:* viuh tehu ls gks jgh vkrad`oknh xfrfof|;kÍ ij jksd` ¥xk,\ ;g Hh mY¥s[uh; gS fd` bl fæ[j lEes¥u ds` nkSjku gh ikfd`Lrku ds` jkÆV_ifr u s vius nsæ eÍ ;g Lohd`kj fd`;k gS fd` rkRd`kf¥d` œ`k;ns gsrq mlus ikfd`Lrku eÍ vkrad`okn vkSj d`VΩVjrk d`ks cÈ<kok fn;k vkSj vc mlds` }kjk iksf"r vkrad`okn mlds` nsæ d`ks fux¥us gsrq vkrqj gS\

[k» lqj”k
th–8 nsækÍ ds` bl fæ[j lEes¥u eÍ fod`flr nsækÍ d`k [k» lqj”k ds` ^fr n~fÆVd`ks. eÍ vk;k cn¥ko Hh egRoiw.Z gS vU;ƒk vHh rd` og bls O;kikj ls tksÈMd`j ns[rs ƒs\ nqfu;k ds` 27 nsækÍ ds` ækluk÷;”kÍ vkSj jkÆV_k÷;”kÍ rƒk vUrjkZÆV_h; laxBukÍ ds` ^eq[kÍ us nqfu;k d`h Hq[ejh rƒk xjhch ls eqfâ` fn¥kus gsrq rRd`k¥ fu.kZ;d` d`kjZokbZ ij tksj fn;k vkSj vfrfjâ` |ujkfæ d`h O;oLƒk ds` lkƒ [k» d`k ¥{; gkfl¥ d`jus gsrq bl d`ne mBkus d`k lad`Yi O;â` fd`;k\

ijek.q v^lkj laf| ·,uihVh‚
;»fi th–8 eÍ ,uihVh eÍ nLr[r u d`jus ok¥s nsækÍ ftleÍ Hkjr Hh ækfe¥ gS] d`ks laosnuæh¥ ijek.q ^kS»ksfxd`h d`k gLrkUrj. u d`jus d`h ckr Hh lkeus vkbZ\ fuf'pr rkSj ij ;g vejhd`h ncko ƒk\ ijUrq blls Hkjr ij d`ksbZ ^Hko ugÓ iÈMsxk] D;kÍfd` ;g eqnΩnk vkbZ,bZ, rƒk ,u,lth ls lEc* gS vkSj ;gk∑ Hkjr us ig¥s gh iwjh NwwV ^kIr d`j ¥h gS\

^|kuea(h d`h brj okrkZ
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th –8 ,oa th–5 d`k la;qâ` ?ks".k i(
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rjœ` vejhd`k] ;wjksih; la? vkSj tkiku tSls fod`flr nsæ ækfe¥ ƒs rks nwljh vksj Hkjr] phu] czkth¥ vkSj nf”. v≠`hd`k tSls fod`klæh¥ nsæ lkeus vk,\ ;»fi MCY;wVhvks ds` rgrΩ lHh nsæ vUrjkZÆV_h; O;kikj cÈ<kus ds` i”|j rks ƒs] ijUrq fod`flr nsækÍ d`h laj”.oknh uhfr lnSo eqâ` O;kikj eÍ vkÈMs vkbZ\ ;gk∑ ij MCY;wVhvks ds` vUrxZr mi;qZâ` of.Zr nks fooknkLin eqnΩnkÍ ls fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ ds` le” mRiUu leL;k d`k mY¥s[ d`juk ^klafxd` gksxk% (1) Î`f" lfClMh%Î`f" vƒZO;oLƒk ok¥s fod`klæh¥ nsæ fod`flr nsækÍ ls Î`f" lfClMh ?Vkus ij tksj nsrs jgs gß] rkfd` muds` mRikn fod`flr nsækÍ ds` cktkj eÍ igq∑pd`j muls ^frLi*kZ d`j ldÍ`] ¥sfd`u dq`N d`VkSrh ds` cn¥s fod`flr nsæ fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ ls lfClMh ?Vkus ds` v¥kok lhek æqYd` rƒk vU; æqYd`kÍ d`ks ?Vkus d`k Hh ncko cukrs gß] rkfd` bu nsækÍ d`h [k» ¯tlkÍ ds` lkƒ xSj Î`f" oLrqvkÍ d`h fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ eÍ csjksd`Vksd` vkoktkgh gks vkSj os ¥kH vftZr d`j ldÍ`\ (2) xSj Î`f" cktkj igq∑p j”ksik; ra(%fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`ks fpUrk gS fd` ;fn d`herÍ fxj tk,a ;k vR;f|d` vk;kr d`h fLƒfr eÍ M¯Eix leL;k mRiUu gks tk, rks mud`h vƒZO;oLƒk ^Hkfor gksxh\ gk¥kafd`] MCY;wVhvks eÍ V_sM fuxksfæ,¯Vx d`esVh gS ftld`h v÷;”rk MCY;wVhvks ds` egkfunsæd` d`jrs gß] ¥sfd`u fod`flr nsæ bld`h Hh cjkcj vuns[h d`jrs jgs gß\ œ`¥r# MCY;wVhvks d`h vc rd` d`h lHh okrkZ,a csurhtk lkfcr gqbZ gß\ la;qâ` ?ks".k i( eÍ eqâ` cktkjkÍ ds` vfLrRo d`ks cjd`jkj j[us vkSj mUgÍ ^ksRlkfgr d`jus rƒk O;kikj vkSj fuosæ eÍ lHh laj”.oknh mik;kÍ d`ks lekIr d`jus d`h ^frc*rk Hh nksgjkbZ xbZ gS\ blls fuf'pr rkSj ij [k» lqj”k d`ks c¥ fe¥sxk\ efg¥kvkÍ lfgr fd`lkukÍ gsrq jkÆV_h; rƒk ”s(h; j.uhfr cukus ij Hh tksj fn;k x;k gS \ t¥ok;q ifjorZu ds` eqnΩns ij Hh Hkjr d`h Hwfed`k d`ks ljkgk x;k gS\ ?ks".k-i( eÍ la;qâ` jkÆV_ lesr vU; vUrjkZÆV_h; laLƒkvkÍ eÍ lq|kj ^f∂`;k eÍ rsth ¥kus d`k vkÿku fd`;k x;k gS vkSj usrkvkÍ us egkRokd`ka”h o larqf¥r ifj.ke gkfl¥ d`jus ij tksj nsd`j fd`lh loZekU; le>kSrs rd` igq∑pus gsrq ikjnfæZrk viukus d`k i” f¥;k\ blds` vfrfjâ`] ?ks".k-i( eÍ nqfu;k ds` ¥xHx 10 d`jksÈM ls vf|d` Hq[ejh ds` fæd`kj ¥ksxkÍ d`ks Hw[ vkSj xjhch ls eqfâ` fn¥kus gsrq rRd`k¥ fu.kZ;d` d`kjZokbZ ij

tksj nsuk Hh egRoiw.Z gS\ bl fæ[j lEes¥u eÍ vehj nsækÍ }kjk 20 vjc MkW¥j d`h Î`f" lgk;rk ij lgefr O;â` d`juk ,d` egRoiw.Z mi¥fC| gS] D;kÍfd` blls vR;f|d` xjhc nsæ vius ;gk∑ [k» lqj”k d`h uhfr rS;kj d`jus eÍ l”e gkÍxs\ Lej. jgs fd` 13 o"Z ig¥s tc la;qâ` jkÆV_ ds` [k» vkSj Î`f" laxBu d`h rjœ` ls jkse eÍ ig¥k fo'o [k» lEes¥u vk;ksftr gqvk ƒk rc ls [k» lqj”k d`k eke¥k vUrjkZÆV_h; eapkÍ ij mBrk jgk gS\ bl lEes¥u eÍ 2015 rd` nqfu;k ls Hw[ejh feVkus d`k lad`Yi O;â` fd`;k x;k ƒk] ijUrq xjhch feVkuk rks nwj jgk ^R;qr xjhch cÈÈ<rh jgh gS\ xjhckÍ d`h leL;k d`h H;kogrk d`ks ÷;ku eÍ j[rs gq, la;qâ` jkÆV_ lglzkCnh fod`kl ¥{;kÍ eÍ fæ”k] efg¥k læfâ`d`j.] fææq e~R;q nj] ¯¥x lekurk] ekr~Ro LokLF;] ,MΩl] e¥sfj;k mUew¥u] i;kZoj. fod`kl gsrq oSf'od` lk>snkjh ds` lkƒ gh xjhch mUew¥u ij tksj fn;k x;k gS\ th–8 d`k LiÆV er gS fd` fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ eÍ Î`f" mRiknu cÈ<us d`h fLƒfr eÍ fd`lkukÍ ds` thou Lrj eÍ lq|kj gksxk vkSj mUgÍ okftc d`her Hh fe¥sxh\ mUgkÍus Î`f" tksr ds` bÆVre mi;ksx d`jus ij Hh tksj fn;k\ Lej. jgs fd` ^|kuea(h MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg us lEes¥u eÍ xjhch mUew¥u d`ks fVd`k˜ fod`kl gsrq tÔjh crk;k ƒk\ mUgkÍus nqfu;k d`ks xjhch rƒk Hw[ejh ls eqfâ` fn¥kus gsrq Bksl d`kjZokbZ d`h vih¥ d`jrs gq, jkÆV_h;] ”s(h; rƒk fo'oLrjh; jktuhfrd` d`k;Zlwph eÍ [k» vkSj iks". lqj”k rƒk Î`f" ds` fVd`k˜ fod`kl d`h Hh od`k¥r d`h ƒh\

th 8 ,oa th 5 ds` gkfl¥
bl ckj ds` th–8 ds` fæ[j lEes¥u ls ;g ckr rks LiÆV gks xbZ gS fd` nsj – lcsj bleÍ felz lfgr th–5 ds` fe¥us ls ;g th–14 eÍ ifj.r gks tk,xk] D;kÍfd` ;g vkokt Lo;a th–8 ds` vUnj ls vkbZ gS ftleÍ ≠`kal] bV¥h rƒk fczVsu ^eq[ gß\ ;g okLrfod`rk gS fd` 70 ds` næd` eÍ mHjs rs¥ lad`V ds` ckn vfLrRo eÍ vk, Ng vehj ¥ksd`rkaf(d` nsækÍ ·vejhd`k] fczVsu] teZuh] bV¥h vkSj tkiku‚ ds` bl lewg ds` tks ckn eÍ d`ukMk vkSj Ôl d`ks fe¥kd`j th–8 uke ls tkuk x;k] 1976 ds` ckn ls 33 o"ksÛ ds` ¥Ecs lœ`j ij n~fÆV Mk¥Í] rks bl lewg us jkÆV_k÷;”kÍ d`h okf"Zd` vukSipkfjd` cSBd`kÍ ds` vk;kstu ds` v¥kok vkSj dq`N Bksl gkfl¥ ugÓ fd`;k\ mY¥s[uh; gS fd` th-8 d`k u rks la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`h rjg u d`ksbZ Lƒk;h lfpok¥; gS vkSj u la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`h rjg d`ksbZ ^Lrko ;gk∑ ikfjr gksrs gß\ bl ^d`kj ;g d`ksbZ ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/723

ck÷;d`kjh mik; ugÓ d`jrk\ bl lewg ds` xBu ds` ihNs d`k fopkj eq“;r# vUrjkZÆV_h; vkfƒZ d ` rƒk jktuhfrd` eq n Ω n kÍ ij loZlEefr d`k;e d`juk gS\ vukSipkfjd` LVsVl ds` ckotwn fo'o eke¥kÍ eÍ Hkjh n[¥ ds` d`kj. gh oSf'od` vkfƒZd` rƒk jktuhfrd` xfrfof|;kÍ eÍ bld`h Hwfed`k d`h vuns[h ugÓ d`h tk ld`rh\ bl lewg eÍ ækfe¥ 8 nsækÍ eÍ 4 lnL; nsæ la;qâ` jkÆV_ d`h lqj”k ifj"nΩ ds` 5 Lƒk;h lnL;kÍ eÍ ls gß vkSj ftUgÍ ohVks æfâ` ^kIr gS\ fo'o fu;kZr eÍ bl lewg d`h ¥xHx 49 ^frær Hkxhnkjh gS] fo'o vkS»ksfxd` mRiknu eÍ bld`k ¥xHx 51 ^frær ;ksxnku gS rƒk vUrjkZÆV_h; eqnzk d`ks" eÍ bld`h ¥xHx 49 ^frær ifjlEif®;k∑ gß\ xjhch mUew¥u d`h fnæk eÍ ;g lewg d`Hh–d`Hkj v≠`hd`h nsækÍ d`h Hw[ejh d`ks ns[rs gq, dq`N vjc MkW¥j d`h lgk;rk nsrk jgk gS] tks mlus bl ckj Hh nh gS\ vc pww∑fd` 90 ds` næd` ls ^kjEH mnkjhd`j. ds` lkƒ–lkƒ X¥ksc¥ okfeÛx] vkrad`okn vkSj oSf'od` eanh tSlh leL;kvkÍ ls ;s lewg nsæ xzLr gß vkSj bud`k xEHhj ^Hko bu ij iÈMk gS] oSf'od` eanh us rks bu nsækÍ d`h d`ej rksÈMd`j j[ nh gS\ blf¥, mUgkÍus bu leL;kvkÍ ls futkr ikus gsrq th–5 ds` Ôi eÍ mHjrh vƒZO;oLƒk ok¥s nsækÍ d`h vksj eq∑g fd`;k gS\ vejhd`h jkÆV_ifr d`h bl vkæ; d`h Lohd`kjksfâ` Lor# fod`flr nsækÍ d`h eaæk d`ks O;â` d`j nsrh gS\ ;g Hh okLrfod`rk gS fd` vkt ;fn Hkjr] phu] czkth¥] eSfDld`ks rƒk nf”. v≠`hd`k us fo'o iV¥ ij viuh Bksl igpku cukbZ gS] rks bld`ks ns[rs gq, Hh fod`flr nsæ vius fufgr LokƒZoæ mUgÍ viuh cSBd`kÍ eÍ ækfe¥ d`jrs jgs gß\ ;gk∑ ;g mY¥s[ d`juk Hh ^klafxd` gksxk fd` bu vkmVjhp nsækÍ us th–8 eÍ viuh egRoiw.Z mifLƒfr] ikjLifjd` ,d`tqVrk] vkfƒZd` fod`kl vkSj bl lewg d`ks le;–le; ij fn, tkus ok¥s vius egRoiw.Z lq>kokÍ d`h cnkS¥r gh ntZ d`h gS\ tgk∑ rd` Hkjr d`k lEcU| gS] Hkjr us fo'o eÍ pkSƒh lcls cÈMh vƒZO;oLƒk d`k ^frfuf|Ro d`jus ds` lkƒ gh phu ds` ckn rstxfr ls cÈ< jgh nwljh fod`klæh¥ vƒZO;oLƒk ds` Ôi eÍ Hh viuh igpku cukbZ gS\ ;g orZeku eÍ X¥ksc¥ ekdsZ`V d`k ,d` ilanhnk Lƒ¥ gS] lkefjd` egRo ds` lkƒ gh foæk¥ ¥ksd`rkaf(d` nsæ ds` Ôi eÍ Hh bld`h fo'o eÍ v¥x igpku gS\ ¥sfd`u ;g Hh gd`hd`r gS fd` th–5 ds` le” pqukSfr;k∑ Hh d`e ugÓ gß] D;kÍfd` vc rd` d`k vuqHo jgk gS fd` th–8 nsæ muds` fd`lh ^Lrko d`ks vklkuh ls Lohd`kj d`jus

eÍ vkukd`kuh d`jrs jgs gß\ `d`kj. pkgs bu nsækÍ d`k viuk naH jgk gks ;k vius vkfƒZd` fgr\ mUgkÍus vc rd `fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ d`h d`her ij lnSo vius fgrkÍ d`k lao|Zu gh fd`;k gS\ blf¥, vkus ok¥s le; eÍ th –5 d`ks fod`flr nsækÍ d`h bl HsnHkoiw.Z uhfr d`ks lekIr d`jus ds` f¥, vkSj vf|d` ,d`tqV gksuk gksxk\ ●●● æs" i~ÆB 707 d`k
☛ ☛ ☛ General Knowledge Analytical and Logical Reasoning Data Interpretation & Data Sufficiency osclkbV%www.snaptest.org JMET (Joint Management Entrance Test)

laLƒku d`k uke tks ijh”k vk;ksftr d`jrh gS%IIT—Roorkee,
IISC—Bangalore, IIT—Bombay, IIT—Kanpur, IIT—Kharagpur, IIT—Madras ijh”k d`k ekg%December

^'u–i( d`h lajpuk vkSj tk∑p–fo";%
☛ ☛ ☛ ☛ Verbal Communication Logical Reasoning Quantitative Ability Data Interpretation osclkbV%www.iitk.ac.in RMAT (Rajasthan Management Aptitude Test)

laLƒku d`k uke tks ijh”k vk;ksftr d`jrh gS%Board of Technical Education,
Rajasthan

ijh”k d`k ekg%July ^'u–i( d`h lajpuk vkSj tk∑p–fo";%
☛ ☛ ☛ ☛ English and General Knowledge Mathematics & Reasoning Ability Data Interpretation & Analysis Verbal Ability & Reading Comprehension osclkbV%www.techedu.rajasthan.gov.in UPMAT (Uttar Pradesh Management Aptitude Test)

laLƒku d`k uke tks ijh”k vk;ksftr d`jrh gS%Universities and Colleges of U.P. ijh”k d`k ekg%June/July ^'u–i( d`h lajpuk vkSj tk∑p–fo";%
☛ ☛ ☛ ☛ ☛ Logical and Abstract Reasoning Reading Comprehension Quantitative Aptitude Verbal Ability Data Interpretation osclkbV%www.winentrance.com.

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(1) vkfƒZd` mnkjhd`j. ds` d`kj.

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,d` nkSj ƒk tc lsuk eÍ ækfe¥ gksuk ^frÆBk rƒk xkSjo d`k fo"; ekuk tkrk ƒk vkSj ;qokvkÍ ds` fn¥kÍ eÍ lsuk eÍ HrhZ gksd`j nsæ lsok d`jus d`k tTck fg¥kÍjs ekjrk ƒk] exj cn¥rs nkSj eÍ lsuk eÍ tkus d`k vkd`"Z. ;qokvkÍ eÍ d`e gksrk tk jgk gS\ lsuk eÍ u, vœ`ljkÍ d`k VksVk rks gS gh] vc lkekU; c¥kÍ d`h HrhZ jSf¥;kÍ eÍ Hh og HhÈM ugÓ meÈMrh gS tks d`Hh ns[us d`ks fe¥rh ƒh] lSU; c¥kÍ d`ks NksfÈM, v*Z l S f ud` c¥kÍ ] iq f ¥l c¥kÍ lfgr vkarfjd` lqj”k ,tÍfl;kÍ rd` eÍ tokukÍ rƒk vœ`ljkÍ d`h d`eh gS\ bld`h HjikbZ d`jus ds` f¥, lSU; lfgr vU; lqj”k c¥ vius iqjkus tokukÍ rƒk vœ`ljkÍ d`ks ^fæf”r d`j ^ksUur d`jus ds` f¥, etcwj gS\ blds` D;k d`kj. gks ld`rs gß ;g ,d` xgu ppkZ] leh”k rƒk fo'¥s". d`k fo"; gS\ ;»fi bl vksj vHh ljd`kj rƒk lSU; c¥ fe¥d`j xEHhjrk ls fopkj-foeæZ d`jus d`h vko';d`rk eglwl ugÓ d`j jgs gß] exj dq`N le; ckn ;gk∑ Hh gk¥kr vejhd`k] ;wjksi] fczVsu rƒk Ôl tSls gks ld`rs gß tgk∑ lsuk d`h ukSd`jh ds` f¥, ^ksRlkfgr fd`, tkus ij ,d` gtkj rd` d`h ^ksRlkgu jkfæ nh tkrh gS\ Hkjrh; lsuk eÍ vœ`lj cuus ds` f¥, v˙;ƒhZ d`ks f¥f[r ijh”k] lk”kRd`kj rƒk euksoSKkfud` ijh”. ls xqtjuk iÈMrk gS\ pw∑fd` Hkjrh; lsuk fo'o eÍ mPpLrjh; ekuh tkrh gS vr# p;u ds` ekud`kÍ eÍ f<¥kbZ cjrus d`k d`ksbZ ^'u gh ugÓ mBrk\ fd`lh Hh fLƒfr eÍ xq.o®k] leiZ.] baVhfxzVh] LVßMMZ rƒk ^ksœs`æuf¥Te ls le>kSrk d`juk mfpr Hh ugÓ gS\ ;»fi ,slk ugÓ gS fd` ¥ksxkÍ eÍ nsæHfDr d`k tTck ugÓ gS vƒok ¥ksxkÍ eÍ lsuk ds` ^fr fn¥pLih csgn d`e gks x;h gS] cfYd` rsth ls cn¥rs lkekftd`-vkfƒZd` gk¥kr rƒk dq`N vU; ^d`kj d`h ifjfLƒfr;k∑ lexz Ôi ls ;qokvkÍ d`ks lsuk d`k eksg R;kxus d`ks fooæ d`j jgh gS\ ;»fi ;g gekjs f¥, ,d` jkgr ok¥h ckr gS fd` ;gk∑ gk¥kr vHh if'peh nsækÍ tSls ugÓ gß tgk∑ ¥ksx lsuk eÍ tkus ds` f¥, vkosnu d`juk rd` tÔjh ugÓ le>rs gß] exj vxj bl vksj vf|d` ÷;ku ugÓ fn;k x;k rks ;gk∑ Hh dq`N le; ckn `gk¥kr if'peh nsækÍ tSls izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/724

cu tk,axs] exj gekjs ikl lsuk eÍ tkus ds f¥, vƒok ^ksRlkfgr d`jus ds` f¥, foæs" fo®h; iSds`t Hh ugÓ gS] rks vkf[j ge lSU; c¥kÍ d`h d`eh d`ks dS`ls nwj d`j ik,axs = gk¥kr bl d`nj cn¥ x, gS fd` ‘Hkjrh; lSU; vd`kneh’ (IMA) tSlh ^frfÆBr laLƒk ls vkosnu-i( d`h ^kfIr ds` ckotwn ;qok lsuk eÍ vkus ls cp jgs gß os Hh futh ”s( d`h vksj :[ d`j jgs gß\ futh ”s( Hh mUgÍ gkƒkÍ-gkƒ ¥s jgk gS] D;kÍfd` os vkbZ,e, ds` d`Bksj ekun≥MkÍ ls

lsuk eÍ vœ`ljkÍ d`h d`eh
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lsuk NksÈMus ds` f¥, ^kƒZuk-i(
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Lohd~`r ^kƒZuk-i(
290 365 464 377

vkfƒZd` mnkjhd`j. ds` p¥rs tgk∑ gksd`j xqtj pqds` gksrs gß\ vr# bl ckr d`h iqjkus e÷;eoxZ eÍ vf|d` lEiUurk vkbZ gS] vf|d` xkj≥Vh gksrh gS fd` xq.o®k] vkpj. rƒk euksc¥ ds` eke¥s eÍ os vis”kd~`r ogÓ ,d` cÈMk e÷;eoxZ Hh mHjd`j lkeus vk;k gS\ ;g oxZ vkd`"Zd` iSds`t rƒk vf|d` vPNs gkÍxs\ lqfo|kvkÍ ok¥h gkWV tkWc d`ks vf|d` Hkjr vds`¥k nsæ ugÓ gS tks œ`kSt roTtks nsrk gS ;k fœ`j vius O;olk; d`ks d`h ukSd`jh ds` ^fr cs:[h d`h ekj >s¥ vkxs cÈ<kus vƒok u;k O;olk; æqÔ jgk gS] cfYd` d`bZ cÈMs nsækÍ eÍ ;g leL;k d`juk pkgrk gS\ ¥kH mls nksukÍ eÍ gS] rks d`gÓ vf|d` fod`jk¥ gS\ vejhd`k tSls D;kÍfd` jkÆV_h;-cgqjkÆV_h; d`Eifu;k∑ ;ksX; o nsæ eÍ lSU; c¥ <w∑È<s ugÓ fe¥rs gß] cfYd` dq`æ¥ ;qokvkÍ d`ks ¥id`us ds` f¥, rS;kj gß blds` f¥, ljd`kj d`ks Hkjh-Hjd`e jd`e rƒk ijEijkxr O;olk; d`ks vkxs cÈ<kus pqd`kuh iÈMrh gS\ gekjh lsuk eÍ twfu;j vƒok u, O;olk; æqÔ d`jus eÍ Hh rxÈMk ¥sc¥ ;kfu ¥sfŒVuÍV] d`uZ¥ vkfn inkÍ ij eq u kœ`k gks jgk gS \ Hkjr eÍ lw puk vf|d`kfj;kÍ d`h lokZf|d` d`eh gS] tcfd` ^kS»ksfxd`h ,d` ,slk ”s( gS ftld`k fod`kl fczxsfM;j] œq`¥ d`uZ¥ ¥sc¥ ij d`ksbZ [kl rƒk ^lkj vU; ”s(kÍ d`h rq¥uk eÍ vf|d` d`eh ugÓ gS\ ,d` vkd`¥u ds` vuqlkj gks jgk gS\ nwjnjkt ds` xk∑okÍ eÍ lwpuk twfu;j Lrj ij 30 œ`hlnh vœ`lj d`e ^kS»ksfxd`h d`h igq∑p gksus ls ¥ksxkÍ ij ekuks gß] tcfd` lsuk d`h lcls T;knk tÔjr lwpukvkÍ d`h ckSNkj gksus ¥xh gS\ ¥ksxkÍ d`ks twfu;j ¥sc¥ d`h gh gS] D;kÍfd` ;gh jkstxkj ds` u, ”s(kÍ rƒk u, voljkÍ d`h vf|d`kjh esu œa`Dæ¯ux ls tqÈMs gksrs gß\ lwpuk rqjUr fe¥ tk jgh gS\ vc vxj lkƒ gh isV_ks¯¥x rƒk ckMZj ij T;knkrj ;qokvkÍ ds` ikl jkstxkj ds` d`bZ csgrj iks¯LVx bUgÓ ¥ksxkÍ d`h gksrh gS\ vr# bl volj ekStwn gß rks og D;kÍ d`j lsuk Lrj ij vf|d`kfj;kÍ d`k u fe¥uk lsuk ds` tSlh ‘Vœ`’ thouæS¥h eÍ tkuk ilUn f¥, ijsækuh d`k lcc cu x;k gS\ d`jsxk`=

(2) if'peh miHksDrkoknh laLd~`fr d`k

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if'peh iw∑thoknh lekt miHksx d`h ^o~f®;kÍ d`ks vf|d` egRo nsrk gS\ og ækjhfjd` Je ds` ctk; ubZ-ubZ rd`uhd`kÍ ds` fod`kl ls ekuo thou d`ks vf|d` lqfo|kiw.Z rƒk vkjkenk;d` cukuk pkgrk gS] tcfd` fd`lh Hh lekt ds` lEiw.Z fod`kl ds` f¥, rd`uhd`h fod`kl rƒk ækjhfjd` Je eÍ lkeatL; gksuk csgn tÔjh ugÓ gS\ if'pe eÍ uSfrd`rk] fl*kUr] ijEijk,a] laLd~`fr rƒk vknæZ nks;e ntsZ d`h phtÍ gß ogk∑ fd`lh Hh rjhds` ;k ;qfDr ls iw∑th d`ks d`Ctkus d`h gksÈM o"ksÛ ls p¥h vk jgh gS\ lc-^kbe lad`V ds` p¥rs iw∑thokn ij Hh ^'ufpÕ ¥xus ¥xs gß\ exj fd`lh Hh pht d`h ^klafxd`rk d`Hh [Re ugÓ gksrh] vxj mleÍ vfr u d`h tk, rks LiÆV gS fd` tc rd` chp d`k jkLrk viukrs gq, lektokn rƒk iw∑thokn eÍ lkeatL; Lƒkfir ugÓ fd`;k tkrk] ,d` lq[h-lEiUu fopkjoku rƒk foosd`æh¥ lekt d`h d`Yiuk ugÓ d`h tk ld`rh\ vkfƒZd` mnkjhd`j. ds` ckn if'peh miHksDrkoknh laLd~`fr d`k Hkjrh; lekt ij ^Hko iÈMuk ¥kteh ƒk] œ`¥LoÔi Hkjrh; lekt eÍ rsth ls ifjorZu vkus ¥xs\ d`Hh-d`Hh ifjorZu rktk gok ds` >kÍds` ds` leku gksrs gß rks d`Hh xUnh gok ds` vkxeu ds` ^rhd`\ ld`kjkRed` fnæk eÍ gqvk ifjorZu gh gesæk lkƒZd` gksrk gS\ if'pe d`h rtZ ij ‘eSVhfj;f¥Te’ d`h gn rd` igq∑p jgs gekjs lekt ds` f¥, Hh |hjs-|hjs ijEijk,a] vknæZ] uSfrd`rk] fl*kUr rƒk egkuΩ ,sfrgkfld` o lkaLd~`frd` fojklrÍ nks;e ntsZ d`h phtÍ curh tk jgh gß ftud`k miHksDrk cktkj eÍ d`ksbZ eks¥ ugÓ\ bld`k vkæ; ;g ugÓ gS fd` iw∑thokn ;k cktkjokn iw.ZÔi ls x¥r gS] exj bld`h Hh viuh lhek,a gß\ d`gus d`k rkRi;Z ;g gS fd` vius ikjEifjd` Kku rƒk lkaLd~`frd` ewY;kÍ d`h vPNkb;kÍ ds` lkƒ vk|qfud` ^kS»ksfxd`h d`k lkeatL; Lƒkfir fd`;k tk,] D;kÍfd` ikjEifjd` Kku rƒk lkekftd` lkaLd~`frd` ewY; tgk∑ gekjh tÈMÍ gß] ogÓ vk|qfud` ^kS»ksfxd`h mld`k iks".\ Hkjr eÍ Hh HkSfrd`okn d`h gok vkus ds` d`kj. ¥ksxkÍ eÍ fn[kus rƒk nækZus d`h ^o~f® cÈ<h gS\ xkÈMh-cax¥k] vk|qfud` lalk|u] thou d`h xq.o®k rƒk HkSfrd` lqfo|k,a LVsVl ¯lc¥ d`k ^rhd` cu pqd`h gß\ nsæ d`k ;qok oxZ bu lc d`ks tYnh-lstYnh ikus d`h pkg eÍ rst jŒrkj ¯tnxh th jgk gS\ HkSfrd` lqfo|k,a gh mld`k vknæZ gS vkSj og fd`lh Hh d`her ij izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/725

tYnh-ls-tYnh bUgÍ ikd`j bud`k miHksx d`juk pkgrk gS] bl nkSÈM eÍ og ?jifjokj d`ks csgn ennxkj ekurk gS rƒk mlls nwj ugÓ jguk pkgrk] nwljh rjœ` lsuk d`h ukSd`jh eÍ u T;knk X¥Sej gS] u vkd`"Zd` thou-æS¥h thus d`h lqfo|k,a vkSj u gh eksVk iSds`t] ˜ij ls tku tkus d`k tksf[e gesæk cuk jgrk gS\ vf|d`kfj;kÍ d`h iks¯LVx æqÔvkr eÍ gh tEew-d`'ehj rƒk ukWƒZ bZLV tSls vkrad`oknh o v¥xkooknh ”s(kÍ eÍ gksrh gS\ œ`kSt eÍ Vs¥ÍV ds` ckotwn L¥ks ^eksæu Hh vkt d`h rst jŒrkj ;qok ihÈ<h ds` euekfœ`d` ugÓ gS\ vkt d`k ukStoku tYnh ls Mx Hjrs dS`fj;j d`h lhfÈ<;k∑ pÈ<uk pkgrk gS] rkfd` mez cÈ<us ds` lkƒ d`k;Z”erk eÍ d`eh vkus ls iwoZ gh vius thou d`k loZJsÆB ik lds`\ ¥Ecs le; rd` ifjokj ls nwj jguk Hh ;qokvkÍ d`ks lsuk eÍ tkus ls jksd` jgk gS\ bu lkjh ifjfLƒfr;kÍ d`ks ns[rs gq, nsæHfDr ds` ctk; vkd`"Zd` osru] lqfo|kvkÍ rƒk miHksx o vkjkenk;d` thou æS¥h d`ks vf|d` egRo nsus ok¥k e÷;e oxZ D;kÍ lsuk tSlh tfV¥ o fo"e HkSxksf¥d` ifjfLƒfr;kÍ ok¥h ukSd`jh eÍ tkuk pkgsxk`= e÷;eoxhZ; lekt fd`lh Hh d`her ij tYnh-ls-tYnh HkSfrd` oLrqvkÍ d`k miHksx d`juk pkgrk gS] tcfd` lsuk eÍ jgrs gq, ;g lc dq`N lEHo ugÓ gS\
(3) ekud`kÍ ds` vuqlkj tokukÍ d`k u

ækjhfjd` ekufld` xfrfof|;k∑ æqÔ d`j nsrk ƒk] exj vkt ds` vfHHkod`] cPps d`ks O;kolkf;d` fæ”k nsd`j futh ”s( eÍ tkus ds` f¥, vf|d` ^ksRlkfgr d`j jgs gß\ bleÍ vfHHkod`kÍ d`k nks" Hh vf|d` ugÓ gS] D;kÍfd` os Hh if'peh miHksDrkoknh laLd~`fr ls ^Hkfor gß rƒk nsæ lsok ds` ctk; cPps d`ks futh ”s( eÍ Hstd`j tYnh-ls-tYnh vius ?j d`ks HkSfrd` lalk|ukÍ ls ifjiw.Z ns[uk pkgrs gß\
(4) nsæ eÍ cÈ<rk HzÆVkpkj

fe¥uk
pw∑fd` Hkjrh; lsuk mPpLrjh; gS vr# mleÍ vœ`ljkÍ d`h HrhZ ds` f¥, Hh mPpLrjh; ekud` j[s x, gß\ vkt ds` miHksDrkoknh] vkjkensg rƒk if'peh pd`kpkß| ls ifjiw.Z ;qok d`k ,sls d`ÈMs ekud`kÍ ij [jk mrjuk csgn d`fBu gS\ lsuk eÍ vœ`lj cuus ds` f¥, ækjhfjd` rƒk ekufld` lc¥rk ds` v¥kok csgn vuqækflr thou-æS¥h d`h vis”k j[h tkrh gS\ eqf'd`¥ ;g gS fd` ig¥s rks fiN¥s ik∑ p o"ks Û ls bl ^d`kj d`h ^frc*rk ok¥s ;qokvkÍ d`h la“;k eÍ fxjkoV vkbZ gS] vxj gS Hh rks os futh ”s( d`h vksj tkuk T;knk ilUn d`j jgs gß\ gk¥kr bl d`nj cn¥ jgs gß fd` ukStoku lSU; lsok d`k vkosnu-i( ¥sus ds` ckn Hh vkbZ,e, tkWbu ugÓ d`j jgs gß\ ekud`kÍ ds` vuqÔi tokuksÍ ds` u fe¥us d`k ,d` vgeΩ d`kj. ;g Hh gS fd` ig¥s tgk∑ vfHHkod`kÍ }kjk cpiu ls gh cPps d`ks lSU; lsok eÍ tkus ds` f¥, ^sfjr fd`;k tkrk ƒk] vc vfHHkod`kÍ d`h ^kƒfed`rk eÍ lSU; lsok d`gÓ ugÓ gS\ ig¥s cPpk] vfHHkod`kÍ }kjk ^sfjr fd`, tkus ij cpiu ls gh lSU; lsok eÍ <¥us ds`

dq`N o"ksÛ ls nsæ eÍ cÈ<rs HzÆVkpkj ds` d`kj. lekt ij ud`kjkRed` ^Hko iÈM jgk gS\ NksVs ^æklfud` rƒk jktuhfrd` Lrj ls cÈMs Lrj rd` œS`¥s HzÆVkpkj ds` d`kj. vke tuekul eÍ |hjs-|hjs nsæHfDr rƒk jkÆV_okn tSlh Hkouk,a dq`N ek;ukÍ eÍ vo'; d`e gqbZ gS\ HzÆVkpkj d`k |U|k fnu nksxquh] jkr pkSxquh ds` fglkc ls rjDd`h d`j jgk gS rƒk HzÆVkpkfj;kÍ d`ks d`ksbZ [kl cÈMh ltk Hh ugÓ gks ik jgh gS] d`Hh-d`Hh rks HzÆVkpkj d`h tk∑p d`j jgh iqf¥l] lqj”k ,atsfl;k∑ rƒk U;kf;d` ^.k¥h rd` lok¥kÍ ds` ?sjs eÍ vk jgh gS\ HzÆVkpkj lj mBkd`j th jgk gS rƒk Mads` d`h pksV ij thr jgk gS\ ,sls eÍ vke ;qokoxZ eÍ ;g ckr ?j d`jrh tk jgh gS fd` og fd`ld`h j”k d`js vkSj D;kÍ d`js = tc fd`lh nsæ eÍ HzÆVkpkj O;kid` Lrj ij cÈ< tkrk gS rks iq:"kƒZ] jkÆV_h; LokfHeku rƒk jkÆV_okn [ks tkrk gS rƒk ¥ksx HzÆVkpkj d`h cSlk[h ds` lgkjs rjDd`h d`h lhfÈ<;k∑ pÈ<us ds` f¥, etcwj gks tkrs gß\ nsæ] xjhch] lalk|ukÍ d`h vuqi¥C|rk rƒk |heh vƒZO;oLƒk ls d`etksj ugÓ gks tkrk] cfYd` O;fDr rƒk nsæ ds` LokfHeku ghu gksus ls d`etksj gksrk gS\ HzÆVkpkj ,d` ,slk nhed` gS tks |hjs-|hjs iwjs lekt d`ks LokfHeku æwU; rƒk iq:"kƒZ ghu cuk nsrk gS\ vke ;qok ;g lkspus ij etcwj gS fd` gekjk cÈ M k æ(q d`kS u gS - lhek ikj vkrad`okn vƒok nsæ eÍ œS`¥k HzÆVkpkj\ ,sls eÍ lsuk eÍ ækfe¥ gksd`j tku d`h ckth Hh ¥xkbZ tk, rks fd`lds` [kfrj = d`ksbZ Hh nsæ flœZ` ogk∑ Hh Hw-lajpuk ls egkuΩ ugÓ cu tkrk] cfYd` ml nsæ eÍ jgus ok¥s ukxfjd`kÍ ds` ;ksxnkukÍ rƒk f∂`;kd`¥kikÍ ls egkuΩ curk gS] vr# fd`lh nsæ d`ks egkuΩ cuus ds` f¥, HzÆVkpkj eqDr gksuk tÔjh gS] nsæ HzÆVkpkj eqDr gksxk rks ogk∑ d`h laLd~`fr thoar gksxh vkSj thoa r la L d~ ` fr gh nq f u;k d`h vU; laLd~`fr;kÍ d`ks ^Hkfor d`jrh gS\ b|j dq`N lk¥kÍ ls lsuk eÍ Hh HzÆVkpkj d`h [cjÍ vkus ls ¥ksxkÍ ij ud`kjkRed` ^Hko iÈMk gS\ ;»fi lsuk us d`bZ ekSd`kÍ ij ltxrk

fn[krs gq, Rofjr d`k;Zokgh d`h gS] exj ^æklfud` o jktuhfrd` rU( eÍ HzÆVkpkj ds` vla“; eke¥kÍ d`k d`bZ o"ksÛ ls ¥fEcr gksuk rƒk mud`h tYnh lquokbZ u gksuk csgn [sntud` gS\
(5) lSU; lsokvkÍ d`h le;kuqÔi leh”k

nsæ tgk∑ vfuok;Z gS lSU; lsok
# 18 lk¥ ;k 12 oÓ xzsM ds` ckn lHh iq:"kÍ rƒk efg¥kvkÍ ds` f¥, vfuok;Z] iq:"kÍ ds` f¥, rhu] tcfd` efg¥kvkÍ ds` f¥, nks lk¥ d`h lsok\ eSfDld`ks # 18 lk¥ d`h vk;q ds` lHh iq:"kÍ d`ks ,d` lk¥ d`h fef¥Vjh lsok d`k iathd`j. vfuok;Z\ Ôl # 18–27 lk¥ ds` iq:"kÍ ds` f¥, 12 eghus d`h lsok\ Vd`hZ # 20–41 lk¥ ds` lHh iq:"kÍ ds` f¥, lSU; lsok vfuok;Z] mPp fæ”k ds` Nk(kÍ d`ks d`kslZ iwjk d`jus rd` d`h NwV\ teZuh # iq:"kÍ d`ks ukS ekg rd`] efg¥kvkÍ ds` f¥, ,sfPNd`\ vkfLV_;k # 18–35 lk¥ ds` ¥ksxkÍ ds` f¥, 6 eghus d`h vfuok;Z lSU; lsok\ cs¥kÔl # 18–27 lk¥ ds` ¥ksxkÍ ds` f¥, vfuok;Z] mPp fæf”r ds` f¥, 12 eghus] tcfd` lkekU; fæf”r ds` f¥, 18 eghus d`h lsok\ czkth¥ # 18 lk¥ ds` ˜ij ds` lHh iq:"kÍ d`ks 12 eghus d`h lsok\ fp¥h # 18– 45 lk¥ ds` iq:"kÍ d`h 12 eghus d`h lsuk rƒk 24 eghus ukSlsuk rƒk ok;qlsuk eÍ lsok\ phu # vfuok;Z lSU; lsok\ MsuekdZ` # vfuok;Z lSU; lsok\ felz # 18–30 lk¥ ds` ;qokvkÍ ds` f¥, vfuok;Z] Nk(kÍ d`ks iÈ<kbZ rd` NwV\ fœ`u¥S≥M # 6 eghus d`h vfuok;Z lSU; lsok\ ;wuku # iq:"kÍ ds` f¥, ,d` lk¥ d`h vfuok;Z lSU; lsok\ bZjku # 21 eghus d`h vfuok;Z lSU; lsok\ n\ d`ksfj;k # 24–27 eghus d`h vfuok;Z lSU; lsok\ ukWosZ # 18·5 ls 44 lk¥ ds` iq:"kÍ ds` f¥, 19 eghus d`h vfuok;Z lSU; lsok\ ikS¥S≥M # iq:"kÍ ds` f¥, 9 eghus d`h vfuok;Z lsok\ ¯lxkiqj # 18–21 lk¥ ds` iq:"kÍ ds` f¥, 24 eghus d`h vfuok;Z lsok\ LohMu # luΩ 1902 ls lSU;-lsok vfuok;Z\ fLoVΩtj¥S≥M # iq:"kÍ ds` f¥, vfuok;Z] efg¥kvkÍ ds` f¥, ,sfPNd`\ blzkb¥

u gksuk
nqfu;k d`h fd`lh Hh mPp Lrjh; lsuk ds` f¥, ;g csgn tÔjh gS fd` og le;le; ij vius LoÔi d`h leh”k d`js rƒk le;kuqÔi mleÍ œs`jcn¥ Hh d`js\ lsuk ds` ekStwnk <k∑ps d`ks pqLr-nq:Lr cukus] mld`k euksc¥ cÈ<kus] lSU; c¥kÍ d`h nSfud` rƒk foæs" vfH;kukÍ eÍ vkus ok¥h ijsækfu;kÍ ls fuiVus ds` mik; <w∑È<us rƒk ;qok oxZ eÍ lsuk d`k vkd`"Z. cÈ<kus ds` f¥, Ôijs[k rS;kj d`jus ds` f¥, lsuk pkgs rks vius Lrj ij ,d` mPp Lrjh; lfefr d`k xBu d`j ld`rh gS bl lfefr ds` lq>kokÍ ds` vk|kj ij ,d` fuf'pr le;kof| ds` ckn lsuk ds` mPpkf|d`kfj;kÍ d`h ,d` leh”k cSBd` r; d`h tk ld`rh gS\ lsuk blls lEcfU|r fjiksVZ ljd`kj d`ks Hstd`j orZeku fLƒfr;kÍ ls voxr d`jk ld`rh gS\ nsæ eÍ ,d` cÈMh leL;k ljd`kj rƒk lSU; O;oLƒk eÍ ijLij vkilh rk¥es¥ d`k d`e gksuk Hh gS\ lsuk d`ks vkt vœ`ljkÍ d`h njd`kj gS exj bl eqnΩns d`ks xEHhjrk ls ¥srs gq, d`Hh Hh ds`Unz ljd`kj rƒk lSU; vf|d`kfj;kÍ ds` chp xgu fopkj-foeæZ ugÓ fd`;k x;k\ ^kphud`k¥ ls gh ;g ekuk tkrk jgk gS fd` lSU; c¥kÍ d`ks vf|d` dq`æ¥ cukus ds` f¥, mud`h HkoukvkÍ d`ks nckuk tÔjh gS] exj HkoukvkÍ d`ks nckd`j ;a(orΩ thou-æS¥h viukus ls d`bZ ubZ rjg d`h folaxfr;k∑ Hh lkeus vkus ¥xrh gS\ vr# ekStwnk le; eÍ ;g tÔjh gks x;k gS fd` HkoukvkÍ d`ks lSU; c¥kÍ d`h d`etksj ls etcwrh eÍ rCnh¥ fd`;k tk,\ euqÆ; ckSf*d` Hh gS vkSj HkoukRed` Hh gS vkSj bud`k lexz fod`kl Hh tÔjh gS\ gk∑] bl ckr d`k ÷;ku vo'; j[k tkuk pkfg, fd` ;g fod`kl ld`kjkRed` fnæk eÍ gks] exj ;g gksxk dS`ls = p∑wfd` ;g xgu rƒk foLr~r el¥k gS vr# bld`h ppkZ Hh O;kid` Lrj ij d`jds` gh d`ksbZ Bksl lek|ku fud`¥ ld`rk gS\ ds`Unz ljd`kj }kjk lsuk d`ks ctVh; ^ko|ku cÈ<kd`j [qæ d`jus d`k tqe¥k vc iqjkuk iÈM pqd`k gS] blds` ctk; lsuk d`ks ^ksRlkgu rƒk ld`kjkRed` cn¥ko d`h njd`kj vf|d` gS\

ds` lkƒ HsnHkoiw.Z O;ogkj d`jus rƒk mud`k æks". d`jus tSls vkjksi ¥xuk csgn ¯prktud` ckr gS\ ;»fi vU; ”s(kÍ eÍ bl ^d`kj d`h ?Vuk d`k gksuk d`ksbZ cÈMh ckr ugÓ gS] ¥sfd`u lSU; lsokvkÍ eÍ bl ^d`kj d`h ?Vuk d`k gksuk ¥ksxkÍ ds` euksc¥ rksÈMus tSlk gS\ lSU; vf|d`kjh d`bZ m®jnkf;RokÍ ls ncs gksrs gß\ muls vis”k d`h tkrh gS fd` os vius v|huLƒ tokukÍ d`h ekufld` rƒk ækjhfjd` laosnukvkÍ ,oa tÔjrkÍ d`ks le>s rƒk muls ¥xkrkj lkƒZd` laokn Lƒkfir d`jrs gq, mud`k lg;ksx ^kIr d`jrs jgÍ\ dq`N le; ls lSU; vf|d`kfj;kÍ ij ¥xkrkj laosnughurk rƒk ekufld` mRihÈMu ds` vkjksi ¥xuk d`kœ`h [sntud` ckr gS\ lSfud` d`ksbZ tÈMorΩ oLrq ugÓ gS vr# mlds` f¥, Hh le;le; ij euksjatd` d`k;Z∂`ekÍ ·lkaLd~`frd`] [s¥dw`n bR;kfn‚ d`h O;oLƒk d`h tkuh pkfg,\ esfMVsæu] ;ksx rƒk ÷;ku bR;kfn rd`uhdÍ` Hh lSU; c¥kÍ d`ks ekufld` Ôi ls (6) lSU; vf|d`kfj;kÍ ij æks". ds` lqn~È< rƒk ,d`kxz d`jus eÍ lgk;d` fl* vkjksi gks ld`rh gS\ bu lkjs ^;klkÍ ls lSU; c¥kÍ fiN¥s dq`N le; ls lSU; vf|d`kfj;kÍ d`ks ekufld` ˜c ls cpus eÍ Hh enn ij HzÆVkpkj ds` v¥kok vius v|huLƒkÍ fe¥sxh\ pw∑fd` lSfud` `vius ?j-ifjokj ls izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/726

nwj jgrk gS\ vr# d`Hh-d`Hh ifjokj eÍ d`ksbZ gknlk gksus vƒok vU; ^d`kj d`h fo"e ifjfLƒfr;kÍ ds` ckotwn toku d`ks ,d`ne ls Nq V Ω V h u fe¥us ls og vk∂`ksfær gks tkrk gS\ bl ^d`kj d`h fLƒfr;kÍ ij xEHhjrk ls fopkj d`jus ds` ckn mlds` lek|ku ds` f¥, d`kjxj uhfr;k∑ cukbZ tkuh pkfg,\ blds` v¥kok lsuk ds` vUnj vU; ^d`kj d`h NksVh-cÈMh leL;k,a gks ld`rh gß\ lSU; c¥kÍ d`h leL;kvkÍ d`ks tkuus ,oa muds` lq>ko gsrq ds`Unz ljd`kj Hh viuh rjœ` ls ,d` Lok;® lfefr d`k xBu d`j ld`rh gS\ dq`N lSU; vf|d`kfj;kÍ ij lSU;d`feZ;kÍ d`k futh d`k;ksÛ ds` f¥, mi;ksx d`juk tSls vkjksi ¥xkuk Hh fpUrk d`k fo"; gS\

lSU; c¥kÍ d`h d`eh ls fuiVus ds` mik;
(1) vkfƒZd` mnkjhd`j. ds `cÈ<rs ^HkokÍ ds` d`kj. lsuk d`ks Hh vkd`"Zd`] lqfo|k;qDr rƒk ^ksRlkgu iSds`t ls lEiUu cukuk pkfg,\ blds` f¥, O;kid` Lrj ij fopkj-foeæZ d`jds` d`ksbZ Bksl urhts fud`k¥s tk ld`rs gß\

(2) nsæ eÍ cÈ<rk HzÆVkpkj lekt ij ud`kjkRed` ^Hko Mk¥ jgk gS\ vke tuekul ;g lkspus ij etcwj gS fd` vkf[j fd`ld`h j”k d`h tk, vkSj D;kÍ = HzÆVkpkfj;kÍ ds` f[¥kœ` d`Bksj d`kuwuh ^ko|ku u gksus ds` d`kj. os vkjke ls cjh gks tkrs gß] NksVs ^æklfud` Lrj ls ¥sd`j l®k ds` xf¥;kjkÍ rd` HzÆV ¥ksxkÍ d`k cks¥ck¥k gS\ d`bZ ?ksVk¥kÍ rƒk vkijkf|d` eke¥kÍ eÍ ækfe¥ ¥ksx l®k eÍ fojkteku gß\ muds` f[¥kœ` d`kSu d`k;Zokgh d`js] D;kÍfd` l®k Hh mud`h gS d`kuwu Hh mud`k gS\ lsuk eÍ Hh bl ^d`kj ds` dq`N eke¥s lkeus vkus ls vke turk d`ks csgn fujkæk gqbZ gS\ vr# ¥ksxkÍ eÍ nsæHfDr rƒk LokfHeku txkus ds` f¥, HzÆVkpkj d`ks [Re d`jds` LoPN ikjnæhZ rƒk ltx ¥ksd`rU( d`ks d`k;e d`juk tÔjh gS\ HzÆVkpkj eÍ ækfe¥ ¥ksxkÍ d`ks rqjUr ^Hko ls fu¥fEcr d`j mUgÍ d`Bksj d`kuwuh n≥M d`k ^ko|ku cuk;k tkuk pkfg,\ HzÆVkpkj ij ¥xke ¥xsxh rks nsæokfl;kÍ eÍ Hh ubZ ˜tkZ d`k lapkj gksxk\ (3) lsuk ds` LoÔi eÍ le;kuqlkj vko';d` œs`jcn¥ d`jus] mlds` d`k;ksÛ d`ks foLrkj nsus vƒok mld`h uohu Hwfed`k cukus ds` f¥, le;-le; ij O;kid` Lrj ij leh”k d`juk vfuok;Z gS\ ds`Unz ljd`kj rƒk lsuk nksukÍ d`ks bl eqnΩns ij ltxrk fn[krs gq, lkƒ-lkƒ ijLij lg;ksx ls d`k;Z d`juk pkfg,] blds` f¥, lSU; vf|d`kfj;kÍ d`ks ig¥s Lo;a vius Lrj ls xgu Nkuchu d`jds` vkil eÍ le;le; ij foLr~r fopkj-foeæZ d`juk pkfg,] rRi'pkrΩ viuh laLrqfr;k∑ ds`Unz ljd`kj ds` le” j[uh pkfg,\ ds`Unz ljd`kj rƒk lSU; vf|d`kfj;kÍ ds` chp bl ^d`kj d`h leh”k cSBdÍ` fu;fer gksuh pkfg,\ bleÍ j”k lkefjd` rƒk lSU; foæs"KkÍ rƒk iwoZ lSU; vf|d`kfj;kÍ d`ks Hh ækfe¥ fd`;k tkuk pkfg,\ ijLij fopkjfoeæZ ds` ckn tks vke jk; d`k;e gksrh gS mlds` vuqlkj ubZ uhfr;k∑ fu|kZfjr d`h tkuh pkfg,\ flœZ` ubZ uhfr;k∑ cukuk Hj d`kœ`h ugÓ gS] cfYd` mld`k lœ`¥ rƒk lgh f∂`;kUo;u gksuk Hh vfr vko';d` gS\ (4) vius v|huLƒ tokukÍ ds` lkƒ HsnHko iw.Z O;ogkj d`jus ok¥s vƒok mud`k fd`lh ^d`kj d`k æks". o mRihÈMu d`jus ok¥s lSU; vf|d`kfj;kÍ ds` f[¥kœ` d`Bksj d`k;Zokgh d`juh pkfg,\ vf|d`kaæ ekSd`kÍ ij bl ^d`kj ds` eke¥kÍ d`ks nck fn;k tkrk gS\ vƒok lkoZtfud` ugÓ fd`;k tkrk] D;kÍfd` blls lsuk rƒk vke tuekul ds` euksc¥ ij ud`kjkRed` euksoSKkfud` ^Hko iÈMus d`k [rjk jgrk

gS] exj bl ^d`kj d`h ?VukvkÍ ij vkoj. vksÈ< ¥sus ls bu eke¥kÍ eÍ cÈ<ks®jh gksrh tk,xh\ Bhd` gS lsuk bl ij viuh rjg ls d`kuwuh n≥M d`k ^ko|ku d`js] exj nks"h vf|d`kjh d`ks D;k ltk eqd`jZj d`h xbZ rƒk eke¥s d`k okLrfod` ig¥w D;k ƒk] bld`ks lkoZtfud` d`juk x¥r Hh ugÓ gS] vxj nks"h vf|d`kjh ds` f[¥kœ` Rofjr d`k;Zokgh gksrh gS rks bld`k vke turk ij ld`kjkRed` ^Hko gh iÈMsxk`= tokukÍ d`k vius futh d`kekÍ eÍ bLrsek¥ d`jus ok¥s nks"h vœ`ljkÍ ds` f[¥kœ` Hh mfpr d`k;Zokgh gksuh pkfg,\ (5) lS U ; c¥kÍ d`h HkoukvkÍ ;k tTckrkÍ d`ks vk|qfud` nkSj eÍ nck;k ugÓ tk ld`rk] D;kÍfd` blls vU; rjg d`h fod~`fr;k∑ lkeus vk ld`rh gS] exj bl ckr ij vf|d` xkSj d`jus d`h tÔjr gS fd` mud`h Hkouk,a ;k tTckr mud`h d`etksjh ugÓ cfYd` etcwrh cus rƒk os vius d`®ZO;kÍ ds` ^fr gesæk ltx cus jgs\ mueÍ bl ^d`kj d`k fo'okl iSnk d`juk gS fd` ?j-ifjokj rƒk lekt ls nwj jgus ij I;kj rƒk lnΩHkouk d`e ugÓ gksrh gS] cfYd` vkSj vf|d` cÈ< tkrh gS] blds` f¥, euksoSKkfud`kÍ d`h l¥kg ¥h tk ld`rh gS\ lsuk pkgs rks euksoSKkfud`kÍ rƒk euksfpfd`Rld`kÍ ds` u, in l~ftr d`j ld`rh gS\ lSU; c¥kÍ d`ks ekufld` Ôi ls vf|d` lqn~È< cukus ds` f¥, ;ksx ÷;ku i*fr;kÍ d`ks fu;fer fd`;k tk ld`rk gS\ blh ^d`kj tokukÍ `d`h ekufld` ƒd`ku ;k mck˜iu nwj d`jus ds` f¥, [s¥dw`n ^fr;ksfxrkvkÍ] lkaLd~`frd` d`k;Z∂`ekÍ] laxhr lekjks g kÍ rƒk blh ^d`kj ds ` vU; d`k;Z∂`ekÍ d`k vk;kstu Hh fd`;k tk ld`rk gS ftleÍ lSU; c¥kÍ d`h Hkxhnkjh Hh lqfuf'pr gks rƒk blds` f¥, ikfjrksf"d` d`h O;oLƒk Hh d`h tkuh pkfg,\ (6) fo»k¥;kÍ eÍ ‘lSU;-fæ”k’\ tSls u, ^;ksx vo'; fd`, tkus pkfg, rkfd` lSU;-lsokvkÍ eÍ tkus ds` f¥, bPNqd` cPpkÍ d`ks cpiu ls gh ækjhfjd` rƒk ekufld` Ôi ls rS;kj fd`;k tk,] lSU; lsokvkÍ eÍ vf|d`kjh cuus ds` f¥, ls¥sDæu ^f∂`;k 12 oÓ D¥kl ij vk|kfjr jgh gS] exj vc blds` f¥, 10oÓ D¥kl ds` ckn ^;kl æqÔ fd`, tkus pkfg,] blls tkWc ds` ^fr vfHHkod` rƒk cPps nksukÍ ,';ksMZ gks tk,axs] exj lSU; fæ”k ,sfPNd`` gksuh pkfg,\ (7) ehfM;k ftl rjg ls if'pe vfr HkSfrd`rkoknh laLd~`fr d`h vksj ;qokvkÍ d`ks HVd`k jgk gS] og mfpr ugÓ gS\ ;qokvkÍ d`ks bl ckr d`k vglkl fn¥kuk tÔjh gS

fd` fd`lh laLd~`fr d`k va|kHDr cud`j ge cÈMs ugÓ cu tkrs] cfYd` cÈMk og gS ftl O;fDr ;k nsæ d`h laLd~`fr nwljs d`ks ^Hkfor d`jus d`h ”erk j[rh gks\ ;»fi vU; laLd~`fr;kÍ d`h vPNh ,oa xq.o®kiw.Z ckrkÍ d`ks vkRelkrΩ vo'; d`juk pkfg,] exj mld`h fod~`fr;kÍ d`ks viukd`j d`ksbZ Hh O;fDr ;k nsæ egkuΩ ugÓ curk\ ehfM;k d`ks viuk m®jnkf;Ro le>uk pkfg, vkSj vxj os ,slk ugÓ d`jrs rks muds` f[¥kœ` d`ksbZ d`kuwuh ^ko|ku cuk;k tk ld`rk gS\
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æs" i~ÆB 713 d`k rqd`cUnh ^Lrqr d`h tkrh gS\ bud`k ,d`,d` mnkgj. uhps fn;k tk jgk gS% igs¥h% ,d` ukj nks d`ks ¥s cSBh ‰ VsÈ<h gksd`j fc¥ eÍ iSBh ‰‰ ftlds` cSBs mls lqgk; ‰ [qljks mlds` c¥-c¥ tk; ‰‰ ·m®j # ik;tkek‚ eqd`jh% tc esjs efUnj eÍ vkos ‰ lksrs eq>d`ks vku txkos ‰‰ iÈ<r fœ`jr og fojg ds` vPNj ‰ ,s lf[ lktu = uk lf[ ePNj ‰‰ ·m®j # ePNj‚ nks l[quk% jksVh t¥h D;kÍ = ?ksÈMk vÈMk D;kÍ = iku lÈMk D;kÍ = ·m®j # œs`jk u ƒk‚ fulcr% vkneh vkSj xsgw∑ eÍ D;k fulcr gS= ·m®j # ck¥‚ vehj [qljks d`k thou lHh |eksÛ ds` f¥, leku Hko d`k thoar mnkgj. jgk gS\ og fgUnh ds` ^kjfEHd` d`fo jgs gß\ fgUnh [ÈMh cks¥h ds` fod`kl d`k v÷;;u muds` ;ksxnku d`h ppkZ fd`, fcuk v|wjk gh ekuk tkrk gS\ mud`h igsf¥;kÍ] eqd`fj;kÍ eÍ [ÈMh cks¥h d`k cÈMk lqƒjk Ôi fe¥rk gS\ muds` fgUnh ^se d`ks ns[d`j xzhCt us f¥[k gS fd` bl ckr ij ÷;ku nsuk cgqr gh euksjatd` gS fd` mPp in ^kIr eql¥ekukÍ ds` e÷; Hh fgUnh vR;f|d` lEekfur gksrh jgh gS\
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izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/727

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12. 13. 14.

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egkRek xka|h ds`o¥ ,d` ckj ·1924 bZ\ eÍ‚ d`kaxzsl v÷;” cus\ ;g vf|osæu d`gk∑ gqvk ƒk= % cs¥xk∑o eÍ 18. lqHk"pUnz cksl us d`kaxzsl ds` fd`l vf|osæu eÍ v÷;” pqus ^kphu lkezkT; ‘vofUr’ d`h jkt|kuh d`gk∑ ƒh= tkus ds` ckn bLrhœ`k fn;k ƒk ftlds` ifj.keLoÔi MkW\ % mTtSu jktsUnz ^lkn d`kaxsl ds` v÷;” cus= vius lkezkT; d`ks ‘nk:¥ bL¥ke’ d`k ,d` Hkx le>us % f(iqjh vf|osæu (1939) eÍ ok¥k ^ƒe eqfL¥e ækld` d`kSu ƒk= % bYrqrfeæ 19. lkbeu d`ehæu ds` fojks| eÍ ^næZud`kfj;kÍ ij iqf¥l ¥kBh pktZ eÍ ?k;¥ gksus ds` œ`¥LoÔi fd`l jkÆV_h; usrk d`h e~R;q fd`l ækld` us okjax¥ ds` ^rki:nz nso ls d`ksfguwj ghjk gqbZ= ^kIr fd`;k ƒk= % ¥k¥k ¥ktir jk; d`h % v¥kmnΩnhu f[¥th us fnY¥h ds` fud`V rqx¥d`kckn ds` fd`¥s d`k fuekZ. fd`l 20. egkRek xka|h us ^ƒe ukxfjd` voKk vkUnks¥u (Civil Disobedience Movement) fd`l ?Vuk ds` i'pkrΩ ^kjEH ækld` us d`jok;k ƒk= fd`;k= % fx;klqnΩnhu rqx¥d` us % lkbeu d`ehæu ds` d`kj. e;wj ¯lgklu d`k fuekZ. fd`l eqx¥ cknækg ds` æklu d`k¥ eÍ gqvk ƒk= % ækgtgk∑ ds` æklu d`k¥ eÍ Hkkjrh; jktO;oLFkk ,oa lafo/kku vkSjaxtsc us fd`l lar d`ks e~R;q n≥M fn;k ƒk= % xq: rsxcgknqj d`ks 21. lafo|ku lHk d`h ^ƒe cSBd` 9 fnlEcj] 1946 d`ks MkW\ ef¥d` vEcj ew¥Ôi ls d`gk∑ d`k fuoklh ƒk= lfPpnkuan flUgk d`h v÷;”rk eÍ gqbZ\ fd`l ^eq[ jktuhfrd` % bƒksfi;k d`k n¥ us bld`k cfgÆd`kj fd`;k ƒk= Hkjr eÍ bZLV bf≥M;k d`Eiuh d`k æklu d`c lekIr fd`;k % eqfL¥e ¥hx us x;k= % 1858 bZ\ eÍ 22. lafo|ku lHk ds` laoS|kfud` l¥kgd`kj in ij fd`ld`h fu;qfâ` d`h xbZ= ¥ksd` lsok eÍ Hkjrh;kÍ d`h fu;qfDr u d`jus d`h uhfr d`k vkjEH % MkW\ ch\ ,u\ jko d`h fd`lus fd`;k ƒk= % ¥kWMZ d`kuZokf¥l us 23. N# ekSf¥d` vf|d`kj d`kSu–d`kSuls gß= % 1. lekurk d`k vf|d`kj] 2. Lora(rk d`k vf|d`kj] cukjl eÍ lsUV_¥ fgUnw Ldw`¥ d`h Lƒkiuk fd`lus d`h ƒh= 3. æks". ds` fo:`* vf|d`kj] 4. |kfeZd` Lora(rk % ,suh cslÍV us d`k vf|d`kj] 5. laLÎ`fr rƒk fæ”k d`k vf|d`kj] 6. lkafo|kfud` mipkjkÍ d`k vf|d`kj jk"Vªh; LorU=rk vkUnksyu 24. ¥ksd` lHk ds` ^ƒe v÷;” ƒs% % x.sæ oklqnso eko¥ad`j nf¥r oxZ d`ks lkekftd` U;k; fn¥kus ds` mˆs'; ls ‘tfLVl 25. Hkjr ds` ^ƒe eq“; U;k;k|hæ d`kSu ƒs= vkUnks¥u 1915-16 bZ\’ eÍ d`gk∑ ls ^kjEH gqvk ƒk= % ghjk¥k¥ ts\ d`kfu;k % enzkl ·vc psUubZ‚ ls 26. jkÆV_ifr ds` R;kxi( d`h lwpuk mijkÆV_ifr fd`ld`ks nsrk gS= ‘n xzsV fjoksYV’ uked` iqLrd` ds` ¥s[d` d`kSu gß= % ¥ksd` lHk v÷;” ·Lihd`j‚ d`ks % væksd` esgrk 27. Hkjr d`k egkU;k;oknh (Attorney General of India) d`c 1857 eÍ b¥kgkckn eÍ fonzksg d`k usr~Ro fd`lus fd`;k ƒk= rd` in |kj. d`j ld`rk gS= % f¥;kd`r v¥h us % jkÆV_ifr ds` ^lkni;ZUr egkjkuh foDVksfj;k d`h ?ks".k d`ks b¥kgkckn njckj eÍ 28. ;fn ¥ksd` lHk v÷;” vuqifLƒr gks rks laln ds` la;qâ` fd`lus iÈ<k ƒk= vf|osæu d`h v÷;”rk d`kSu d`jrk gS= % ¥kWMZ ds`¯ux us % ¥ksd` lHk d`k mik÷;” lafo|ku lHk ds` fopkj foeæZ eÍ Hkx ugÓ f¥;k ƒk% 29. lafo|ku ds` fd`l vuqPNsn ds` ^ko|kukÍ ds` vUrxZr Hkjr % eqfL¥e ¥hx rƒk nsæh jkT;kÍ us ljd`kj }kjk Hkjr jRu] inΩe foHw". vkfn v¥ad`j. ^nku fd`, tkrs gß`= Hkjr foHktu ds` f¥, 3 twu] 1947 bZ\ d`ks cukbZ ;kstuk ƒh% % vuqPNsn 18 ds` vUrxZr % ekm≥VcSVsu ;kstuk

17.

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/728

30.

31. 32. 33.

34. 35.

36. 37.

38. 39. 40.

41. 42. 43.

44. 45.

46.

¥ksd`rkaf(d` fods`Unzhd`j. d`h ;kstuk d`jus ok¥h lfefr d`k 47. jkÆV_h; lkaf“;d`h; fnol 29 twu d`ks fd`lds` tUe fnol ds` D;k uke gS= mi¥{; eÍ euk;k tkus ¥xk gS= % ih\ lh\ egk¥uksfol/nsæ ds` egkuΩ lkaf“;d`hos®k % c¥oUrjk; esgrk lfefr rƒk d`ks¥d`krk fLƒr Hkjrh; lkaf“;d`h; laLƒku (Indian Statistical Institute) ds` laLƒkid` ds` Hkkjr ,oa fo'o dk Hkwxksy tUe fnol ds` mi¥{; eÍ 48. [k» ,ao Î`f" laxBu (FAO) d`k eq“;k¥; d`gk∑ gS= fcztVkmu fd`l nsæ d`h jkt|kuh gS= % jkse ·bV¥h‚ eÍ % ckjckMksl d`h 49. fo'o cßd` d`h ‘mnkj )`. ^nku d`jus ok¥h f[ÈMd`h’ fd`ls fo'o d`h d`kSulh unh Hwe÷; js[k d`ks nks ckj ∂`kl d`jrh gS= d`gk tkrk gS= % d`kaxks unh % vUrjkZÆV_h; fod`kl la? (IDA) d`ks ‘Mwj≥M js[k’ fd`u nks nsækÍ ds` chp vUrjkZÆV_h; lhek fu|kZfjr 50. Hkjr d`h ig¥h ekuo fod`kl fjiksVZ (HDR) d`c tkjh d`h d`jrh gS`= xbZ ƒh= % vœ`xkfuLrku vkSj Hkjr ds` chp % v^S¥ 2002 eÍ mÈMhlk eÍ ‘flfe¥hik¥ oU; vH;kj≥;’ d`gk∑ fLƒr gS= % e;wjHat eÍ lkekU; foKku ‘;wjksi d`k d`kWd`fiV’ (Cockpit of Europe) fd`l nsæ d`ks d`grs gß= % csfYt;e d`ks 51. gkbM_kSf¥d` czsd` fd`l fl*kUr ij d`ke d`jrs gß= % ikLd`¥ ds` fl*kUr ij Hkjr d`k nf”.re fcUnq d`g¥krk gS% % bfUnjk ikWbUV 52. fd`l ?Vuk ds` d`kj. rkjs fVefVekrs (Twinkling) ^rhr ‘lrhæ |ou vUrfj” ds`Unz’ (Satish Dhawan Space gksrs gß= Centre) d`gk∑ fLƒr gS= % viorZu d`h ∂`fed` ?Vuk ds` d`kj. % Jhgfjd`ksVk ·vkU|z ^nsæ‚ 53. gheksX¥ksfcu fd`ld`h egRoiw.Z ?Vd` gksrh gS= uSUlh fd`l nsæ d`k ^eq[ vkS»ksfxd` uxj gS`= % ¥k¥ jâ` lSYl d`h % fczVsu d`k 54. nks rRo d`kSuls gß] tks lokZf|d` la“;k eÍ ;kSfxd`kÍ d`k fuekZ. fo'o d`k lcls cÈMk egklkxj d`kSulk gS= d`jrs gß= % ^ækUr egklkxj (Pacific Ocean) % gkbM_kstu vkSj d`kcZu fijsuht ioZr fd`u nks nsækÍ ds` chp gS`= 55. ikfjfLƒfrd`h (Ecology) fd`lds` v÷;;u ls lEcfU|r gS= % ≠`k∑l vkSj Lisu % tho o i;kZoj. ds` lg–lEcU|kÍ ls 56. ekuo æjhj d`h lcls NksVh gMΩMh gksrh gS% % LVsfil Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk 57. ekuo æjhj eÍ ‘vk;ksMhu ;qDr ued`’ d`k D;k d`k;Z gS= % ƒk;jkW;M xzfUƒ;kÍ ds` d`k;Z d`ks fu;af(r d`juk fd`ls I¥kfLVd` euh d`gk tkrk gS= % ∂s`fMV d`kMZ rƒk MsfcV d`kMZ nksukÍ d`ks 58. æjhj d`k d`kSulk vax ,d` ^d`kj ls ‘:f|j cßd`’ (Blood Bank) d`k d`k;Z d`jrk gS= vkbZ\ ih\ vks\ (IPO) d`k iw.ZÔi D;k gS= % I¥hgk (Spleen) % buhfæ;¥ ifC¥d` vkWœ`j (Initial Public Offer) d`kSulk lwpd`kad` fd`lh nsæ ds` ¥ksxkÍ d`h vk;q lEHkfork] 59. e¥sfj;k cq[kj œS`¥kus ok¥s ePNj d`k uke gS% % ,ukŒ¥ht ePNj lk”jrk Lrj] fæ”k vkSj thou Lrj ekius ds` f¥, rS;kj fd`;k x;k gS= 60. euqÆ; d`h ^R;sd` d`ksfæd`k eÍ ∂`ksekslksEl d`h la“;k gksrh gS% % ekuo fod`kl lwpd`kad` (Human Development Index) % 46 13oÍ fo® vk;ksx ds` v÷;” d`kSu gß= % fot; ds`¥d`j —f"k vfu¥ d`iwj ABC ds` v÷;” gß\ bleÍ ABC d`k D;k vƒZ gS= % vkWfMV C;wfj;ks vkWœ` ljdq`¥sæu 61. xzkeh. ”s(kÍ eÍ vfrfjâ` ¥kH^n jkstxkj ^nku d`jus gsrq (Audit Bureau of Circulation) lkƒ gh [k» lqj”k] lkekftd` ,oa vkfƒZd` lqfo|k,a nsus ds` 1 tuojh] 1981 ls SDR d`k ewY; ik∑p lcls cÈMs fu;kZrd` f¥, ‘,l th vkj okbZ’ (SGRY%lEiw.Z xzkeh. jkstxkj lnL; nsækÍ d`h eqnzkvkÍ d`h ckLds`V (Basket) ds` vk|kj ij ;kstuk‚ tokgj xzke le~f* ;kstuk vkSj lqfuf'pr jkstxkj fu|kZfjr fd`;k tkus ¥xk gS\ ;g eqnzk,a gß% ;kstuk nksukÍ d`ks fe¥kd`j] d`c æqÔ d`h xbZ ƒh= % ;w\ ,l\ MkW¥j] ekdZ`] ;su] ≠Í`d` rƒk ikm≥M LVj¯¥x % 25 flrEcj] 2001 d`ks

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/729

62.

‘jkÆV_h; xzkeh. jkstxkj xkjUVh vf|fu;e] 2005’ ·‘ujsxk’ % ‘NAREGA’–National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005‚ ds` rgrΩ vdq`æ¥ ækjhfjd` Je d`jus ds` bPNqd` xzkeh. ifjokj ds` o;Ld` lnL;kÍ d`ks ,d` fo®h; o"Z eÍ vf|d`re fd`rus fnukÍ d`h etnwjh jkstxkj nsus gsrq æqÔ d`h xbZ ƒh ;g ;kstuk…… % 100 fnukÍ d`k etnwjh jkstxkj 63. ‘ujsxk’ (NAREGA) ds` vf|fu;e] 2005’ d`ks loZ^ƒe nsæ ds` fd`rus pqus x, ft¥kÍ eÍ 2 œ`jojh] 2006 ls ¥kxw d`j æqÔ fd`;k x;k= % 200 p;fur ft¥kÍ eÍ 64. ^|kuea(h xzke lÈMd` ;kstuk (PMGSY–Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana)–100% ds`Unz ^k;ksftr ;kstuk%lÈMd`kÍ ls u tqÈMh clkoVkÍ d`ks lÈMd` lEidZ` mi¥C| d`jkus gsrq] d`c æqÔ d`h xbZ ƒh= % fnlEcj 2002 ls
65. NSAP (National Social Assistance Programme)

73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79.

‘j.th V_kWœ`h’ d`k lEcU| fd`l [s¥ ls gS= % f∂`ds`V ls f∂`ds`V [s¥ ds` f¥, pfpZr ækjtkg (Sharjah) d`gk∑ gS= % ;w\ ,\ bZ\ eÍ ¥kWu Vsful d`ksVksÛ ds` f¥, fo“;kr foEc¥Mu d`gk∑ gS= % ¥Unu eÍ vt¥uækg gkWd`h VwukZeÍV d`h estckuh d`kSulk nsæ d`jrk gS= % e¥sfæ;k fpUukLokeh LVsfM;e d`gk∑ fLƒr gS= % cÍx¥q:` eÍ ekuothr ¯lg la|q fd`l [s¥ ls lEcfU| gß`= % fuækusckth ls VΩoÍVh–20 fo'o d`i f∂`ds`V eÍ Hkjr us lsehœ`kbu¥ eSp fd`l nsæ d`h Vhe ds` f[¥kœ` [s¥k ƒk= % vkLV_sf¥;k d`h Vhe ds` lkƒ isu¥ΩVh LV_ksd` æCn fd`l [s¥ ls lEcfU|r gS= % gkWd`h ls

vƒkZrΩ jkÆV_h; lkekftd` lgk;rk d`k;Z d`c æqÔ fd`;k x;k ƒk= % o"Z 1995–96 eÍ 66. xzkeh. fod`kl ea(k¥; ·Hkjr ljd`kj‚%BPL (Below fofo/k Poverty Line) ifjokjkÍ d`ks ed`kukÍ ds` fuekZ./ejEer eÍ lgk;rkƒZ ‘bafnjk vkokl ;kstuk’ (IAY–Indira Awas 81. d`kaxzsl ig¥h ckj vke pquko eÍ d`c gkjh ƒh= Yojana) d`c ls d`k;kZfUor d`j jgk gS= % 1977 eÍ % 1985–86 ls 82. fo'o LokLF; fnol d`c euk;k tkrk gS= 67. ‘bafnjk xka|h jkÆV_h; o~*koLƒk isæu ;kstuk’ (Indira % 7 v^S¥ d`ks Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme– 83. ‘1984’ miU;kl fd`lus f¥[k gS= IGNOAPS) ,d` ubZ ;kstuk ds` Ôi eÍ d`c æqÔ d`h ƒh= % tkWtZ vkWjos¥ us % 19 uoEcj] 2007 d`ks 68. ds`Unz ljd`kj }kjk ‘lhvkj,lih’ (CRSP–Central Rural 84. ‘foMk¥ VsLV’ fd`l jksx d`h lEHkouk d`h tk∑p ds` f¥, fd`;k tkrk gS= Sanitation Programme) lEiw.Z LoPNrk vfH;ku%xzkeh. % Vkbœ`kbM ”s(kÍ eÍ LoPNrk d`ojst eÍ rsth ¥kus ds` mˆs'; ls ;g 85. ^ƒe nknk lkgsc œ`kYds` iqjLd`kj fd`lus ^kIr fd`;k= d`k;Z∂`e d`c æqÔ fd`;k ƒk`= % nsfod`k jkuh us % 1986 eÍ 69. A R W S P (Accelerated Rural Water Supply 86. HVukxj iqjLd`kj fd`l ”s( eÍ ^nku fd`;k tkrk gS= % foKku ,oa ^kS»ksfxd`h ds` ”s( eÍ Programme) ds` ,d` Hkx ds` Ôi eÍ ds`Unz ljd`kj }kjk ‘Lot¥|kjk d`k;Z∂`e’ (Swajaldhara Programme) xzkeh. 87. ;e–ufpds`rk d`h d`gkuh fd`l mifu"n eÍ gS= t¥ vkiwfrZ d`k;Z∂`e d`ks cÈ<kok nsus gsrq fd`l o"Z ls æqÔ % d`Bksifu"nΩ eÍ fd`;k x;k`= % t;nso % o"Z 2002–03 eÍ 88. ‘xhr xksfoUn’ ds` jpf;rk d`kSu gß= 89. fd`l lkWŒVos;j d`Eiuh us Hkjr eÍ ‘vuf¥feVsM iksVÍfæ;¥’ 70. ds`Unz ljd`kj }kjk NDWM (National Drinking Water (Unlimited Potential) uked` fæ”k iksVZ¥ ^kjEH fd`;k gS= Mission) %æqÔvkr 1986, d`k o"Z 1991 eÍ bl NDWM % ekb∂`kslkWŒV us `d`k uke cn¥ d`j u;k uke fd`;k x;k% % RGNDWM (Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking 90. ;w\ ,u\ vks\ fd`l fnu d`ks ‘vUrjkZÆV_h; v¯glk fnol’ ds` Ôi eÍ ?ksf"r fd`;k gS= Water Mission) % 2 vDVwcj d`ks 91. fo'o cßd` ds` orZeku v÷;” d`kSu gß= [ksydwn % jkWcVZ tks,f¥d` 92. ‘n oftZu vkWœ` n jkWDl’ (The Virgin of the Rocks) ds` fp(d`kj d`kSu gß= 71. Hkjrh; f∂`ds`V Vhe ds` orZeku d`ksp d`kSu gß= % f¥;ksukMksZ–n–foUlh % xSjh d`lZVu 93. egkcf¥iqjeΩ ds` jƒ efUnjkÍ d`k fuekZ. fd`lus d`jok;k ƒk= 72. vkxk [k∑ d`i fd`l [s¥ ls lEcfU|r gS= % uj¯lg oeZu ^ƒe us % gkWd`h ls izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/730

80.

94.

gks ph feUg us fd`l nsæ ds` Lora(rk vkUnks¥u d`k usr~Ro fd`;k ƒk= % fo;ruke ds` Lora(rk vkUnks¥u 95. ikfd`Lrku d`h usæu¥ vlsEc¥h d`h ^ƒe efg¥k Lihd`j d`kSu pquh xbZ gß`= % MkW\ œ`gfenk fetkZ 96. Hkjrh; fjtoZ cßd` ds` orZeku v÷;” d`kSu cus gß= % MkW\ Mqoqjh lqCckjko (Duwuri Subbarao) 97. la? ¥ksd` lsok vk;ksx (UPSC) ds` u, v÷;” cus gß% % ^ks\ Mh\ ih\ vxzok¥ 98. lSU; d`feZ;kÍ ds` d`ksVZ ekæZ¥ ds` œS`l¥kÍ ds` fo:* vih¥kÍ rƒk fofHUu mPp U;k;k¥;kÍ eÍ ¥fEcr eke¥kÍ d`h Rofjr lquokbZ ds` f¥, u, ^Lrkfor læL( c¥ U;k;kf|d`j. (Armed Forces Tribunal) ds` ^ƒe v÷;” d`k nkf;Ro fd`ls lkßik x;k gS= % U;k;ewfrZ ,\ ds`\ ekƒqj ·mPpre U;k;k¥; ls lsokfuo~r U;k;k|hæ‚ 99. ijeohj p∂` ls lEekfur ^ƒe O;fâ` gß% % lkseukƒ æekZ 100. lq^fl* ¯¥xjkt efUnj d`gk∑ fLƒr gS= % Hqous'oj ·mÈMhlk‚ eÍ 101. ukscs¥ iqjLd`kj ls lEekfur ^ƒe Hkjrh; efg¥k d`kSu gß= % enj Vsjslk 102. jkÆV_h; Hwfe lq|kj ifj"nΩ ds` v÷;” gß% % MkW\ eueksgu ¯lg 103. nf”. vejhd`k ds` fd`l nsæ us ,d` efg¥k d`ks viuk jkÆV_ifr pquk gS= % vtsZ≥Vhuk us 104. Î`f"/^kƒfed`rk ^kIr ”s( d`ks )`. nsus ds` ckjs eÍ uhfr;k∑ cukus ok¥h æh"Z laLƒk gS% % ukckMZ (NABARD) 105. fd`l m»ksx eÍ ‘Hkjh ikuh’ (Heavy Water) d`k mi;ksx fd`;k tkrk gS= % U;wD¥h;j ikWoj tujsæu I¥kUV eÍ 106. ‘ikfd`Lrku # n xS n ¯jx LVkW E lZ ’ (Pakistan : The Gathering Storms) iqLrd` fd`lus f¥[h gS= % csuthj HqVΩVks us 107. ASEAN fd`l ”s( ds` nsækÍ d`k laxBu gS= % nf”.–iwohZ ,fæ;kbZ nsækÍ d`k 108. ‘fgUnqLrku VkbEl’ ds` ^|ku lEiknd` fd`UgÍ cuk;k x;k gS= % lat; ukjk;. d`ks 109. ,u\ ,l\ th\ ls D;k vfH^k; gS= % U;wfD¥;j lI¥k;lZ xzqi ;g ijek.q rd`uhd` vkSj lkt– lkeku d`h lI¥kbZ d`jus ok¥s nsækÍ d`k laxBu gS 110. vkrad`h ge¥s eÍ ÷oLr ‘oYMZ V_sM lsUVj’ ds` Lƒku ij vejhd`k eÍ fo'o d`h lcls ˜∑ph VkWoj d`k fuekZ. fd`;k tk jgk gS\ bld`k uke ‘≠`hMe VkWoj’ D;kÍ j[k x;k gS= % D;kÍfd` œq`VkÍ eÍ bld`h ˜∑pkbZ (1776 œq`V) vejhd`k ds` Lora(rk ^kIr d`jus ds` o"Z d`ks fuÔfir d`jsxh\
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vkxkeh Hkjrh; flfo¥ lsok ·eq“;‚ ijh”k 2009 gsrq foæs" ekWM¥ g¥ ^'u-i(

lkekU; v÷;;u
·^ƒe ^'u-i(‚ ^'u 1. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`UgÓ nks ds` m®j nhft,% ·^R;sd` ¥xHx 250 æCn eÍ‚ ·d`‚ mUuhloÓ ærkCnh eÍ 1850 ds` ckn Hkjr eÍ ^kjEH gq, ^eq[ lekt lq|kj vkUnks¥ukÍ ij ppkZ d`hft,\ bu vkUnks¥ukÍ us Hkjrh; jkÆV_h; vkUnks¥u eÍ fd`l ^d`kj ;ksxnku fn;k`= ·[‚ caxk¥ foHktu ds` ihNs ew¥ mnΩns'; D;k ƒs= blds` D;k ifj.ke gq,= bls D;kÍ Lƒfxr d`j fn;k x;k`= ·x‚ dS`fcusV feæu ;kstuk D;k ƒh= bl ;kstuk eÍ ‘lewghd`j.’ ls D;k vkæ; ƒk= blds` ^fr d`kaxzsl vkSj eqfL¥e ¥hx d`k D;k n~fÆVd`ks. ƒk= m®j%

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/732

^'u 2. fuEuf¥f[r ds` lEcU| eÍ f¥f[,% ·^R;sd` 20 æCn eÍ‚ ·d`‚ lkse ^d`kæ ·[‚ ¥kWMZ eSd`k¥s ·x‚ æqf* vkUnks¥u ·?‚ æs[ vCnq¥ g¥h¥ æjkj ·î‚ BDd`j ckik ·p‚ ,uh cslsUV ·N‚ ¥BΩBekj gks¥h ·t‚ Lojkt ikVhZ ·>‚ jke ¯d`d`j ·ík‚ ukuk lkgc ·V‚ vkfnoS® ·B‚ lSj–,–xq¥œ`jksæu ·M‚ xkU|kj d`¥k ·<‚ lkjukƒ ·.‚ JhjaxiVue m®j

^'u 3. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`UgÓ nks ds` m®j nhft,% ·^R;sd` ¥xHx 150 æCnkÍ eÍ‚ ·d`‚ fgek¥; d`h ufn;kÍ d`h foæs"rkvkÍ d`h ppkZ d`hft,\ d`kSulh ufn;kÍ us fgek¥; ds` vkj–ikj xgjh ?kfV;kÍ d`k fuekZ. fd`;k gS= ·[‚ vk|s ls vf|d` Hkjr ds` d`dZ` js[k (Tropic of Cancer) ds` ckgj jgus ds` ckotwn Hkjr d`ks mÆ.d`fVcU|h; Hkjr d`gk tkrk gS] D;kÍ= ·x‚ Hkjr eÍ ¥kSg ,oa bLikr ds` lHh cÈMs la;U(kÍ ds` i\ caxk¥] >kj[≥M] mÈMhlk] N®hlxÈ< rƒk vkU|z ^nsæ d`h iVΩVh eÍ gh Lƒkfir fd`, tkus ds` D;k d`kj. gß`= rdZ` lfgr O;k“;k d`hft,\ m®j

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/733

^'u 5. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`lh ,d` ^'u d`k m®j nhft,% ·¥xHx 250 æCnkÍ eÍ‚ ·d`‚ ∏xBcU|u ljd`kjÍ Hkjrh; jktuhfr d`k vfHUu vax cu xbZ gß\∏ fVIi.h d`hft,\ ·[‚ ∏ækfUriw.Z fuÆi” pquko Hkjrh; ¥ksd`rU( d`h ,d` vHwriwoZ lœ`¥rk gS\π foospuk d`hft,\ m®j ^'u 4. fuEuf¥f[r ds` lEcU| eÍ f¥f[, % ·^R;sd` ¥xHx 20 æCnkÍ eÍ‚ ·d`‚ ;wV_ksfœ`ds`æu ·[‚ tSoe≥M¥ fjtoZl ·x‚ ,l\ bZ\ tSM ·?‚ nf”. xaxk ·î‚ xkjks–jkteg¥ vUrjk¥ m®j

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/734

^'u 6. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`UgÓ nks ^'ukÍ ds` m®j nhft,% ·^R;sd` ¥xHx 150 æCnkÍ eÍ‚ ·d`‚ Hkjr ds` jkÆV_ifr d`ks fd`l lhek rd` foosd`k|hu æfâ`;k∑ ^kIr gß= ·[‚ ∏Hkjr eÍ jktuhfrd` n¥kÍ ds` Hhrj n¥h; ¥ksd`rkaf(d` ewY;kÍ d`k ”j. gks jgk gS\π foospuk d`hft,\ ·x‚ Hkjrh; lafo|ku eÍ vYila“;d` ls D;k vkæ; gS= vYila“;d`kÍ ds` fgrkÍ d`h j”kƒZ lafo|ku eÍ D;k ^ko|ku fd`, x, gß`= m®j

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/735

·d`‚ cPpkÍ d`ks fu#æqYd` ,oa vfuok;Z fæ”k d`k vf|d`kj vf|fu;e 2009 ds` ^eq[ ^ko|kukÍ rƒk bld`h ^klafxd`rk ij ^d`kæ Mkf¥,\ ·[‚ le¥ßfxd`rk ij fnY¥h mPp U;k;k¥; ds` gkf¥;k fu.Z; ds` lUnHZ eÍ Hkjr eÍ mBh cgl ds` fofHUu ig¥qvkÍ ij ppkZ d`hft,\ ^'u 7. fuEuf¥f[r ds` m®j nhft,% m®j ·^R;sd` ¥xHx 20 æCnkÍ eÍ‚ (i) laln lnL;kÍ ds` foæs"kf|d`kj D;k gß`= (ii) laln d`h d`kjZokgh lapk¥u eÍ ‘æwU; d`k¥’ ls D;k vkæ; gS= (iii) dS`fcusV ,oa eaf(e≥M¥ eÍ D;k vUrj gS`= (iv) ^ks–VeZ Lihd`j D;k gksrk gS`= (v) d`ke p¥k˜ ljd`kj ls D;k vkæ; gS`= m®j

^'u 8. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`lh ,d` d`k m®j nhft,% ·¥xHx 250 æCnkÍ eÍ‚ ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/736

m®j

^'u 9. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`UgÓ nks ds` m®j nhft,% ·^R;sd` ¥xHx 150 æCnkÍ eÍ‚ ·d`‚ Hkjr eÍ ukSd`jækgh ds` cÈ<rs ^Hko ds` nqÆifj.kekÍ d`h foospuk d`hft,\ ·[‚ b¥sDV_kWfud` ehfM;k eÍ efg¥k d`h Nfo fo"; ij vius fopkj ^d`V d`hft,\ ·x‚ iapk;rh jkt laLƒkvkÍ eÍ 50 ^frær Lƒku efg¥kvkÍ ds` f¥, vkjf”r d`j fn, tkus ds` D;k fufgrkƒZ gß`= ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/737

^'u 10. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`lh ,d` d`k m®j nhft,% ·^R;sd` ¥xHx 250 æCnkÍ eÍ‚ ·d`‚ Ms j k lp[≥M ds ` lUr jkekuUn d`h fo;uk eÍ gR;k ds` ifj.keLoÔi iatkc eÍ mith tkrh; ¯glk d`ks vki fd`l Ôi eÍ ns[rs gß`= ·[‚ Hkjr eÍ ck¥Je ds` cnrj LoÔikÍ ij ppkZ d`hft,\ ck¥Je fuokj.kƒZ fd`, x, mik;kÍ d`h lœ`¥rk– vlœ`¥rk d`k ewY;kad`u d`hft,\ m®j

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/738

^'u 11. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`UgÓ nks ds` m®j nhft,% ·¥xHx 150 æCnkÍ eÍ‚ ·d`‚ lwpuk d`k vf|d`kj vf|fu;e fd`l lhek rd` HzÆVkpkj ij jksd` ¥xkus eÍ lœ`¥ gqvk gS`= ·[‚ Hkjr eÍ ægjh–xzkeh. [kbZ ds` ¥xkrkj pkSÈMs gksrs tkus ds` f¥, d`kSu– d`kSuls d`kj. m®jnk;h gß = bl vUrjk¥ d`ks fd`l ^d`kj ikVk tk ld`rk gS`= ·x‚ X;kjgoÓ iapo"hZ; ;kstuk eÍ ^kƒfed` fæ”k ds` ¥{; D;k gß`= m®j

^'u 12. fuEuf¥f[r ds` lEcU| eÍ f¥f[,% ·¥xHx 20 æCnkÍ eÍ‚ ·d`‚ vƒZ vkoj ·[‚ fofæÆV igpku la“;k (UIN) ·x‚ n”sl fo'ofo»k¥; ·?‚ ‘vkDVksil’ (OCTOPUS) ·î‚ ckUnzk–o¥hZ lh ¯¥d` m®j

●●●

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/739

vkxkeh Hkjrh; flfo¥ lsok ·eq“;‚ ijh{kk] 2009 gsrq foæs" ekWM¥ gy ^'u-i(

lkekU; v÷;;u f}rh; ^'u–i(
^'u 1. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`UgÓ nks ij fVIif.;k∑ f¥f[, ·^R;sd` fVIi.h ¥xHx 150 æCnkÍ eÍ gksuh pkfg,‚% ·d`‚ Jh¥ad`k eÍ f¥VΩVs d`k lœ`k;k vkSj Hkjr-Jh¥ad`k lEcU|\ ·[‚ Hkjr-btjk;¥ lSU; lg;ksx\ ·x‚ usik¥ eÍ%jktuhfrd` vfLƒjrk ,oa Hkjr\ m®j%·d`‚

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/740

^'u 3. fuEuf¥f[r ds` lEcU| eÍ f¥f[, ·^R;sd` ^'u d`k m®j ¥xHx ^'u 2. fuEuf¥f[r ds` lEcU| eÍ 20 æCnkÍ eÍ gksuk pkfg,‚% f¥f[, ·^R;sd` ^'u d`k m®j ¥xHx ·d`‚ leqnzikjh; d`kexkj lalk|u 20 æCnkÍ eÍ gksuk pkfg,‚% ds`Unz (OWRC) ·d`‚ Hkjr-ckaX¥knsæ t¥ lfU| ·[‚ ih\vkbZ\vks\ fo'ofo»k¥; ·[‚ iape fo'o t¥ œ`ksje] 2009 ·x‚ ^oklh Hkjrh; lEeku iqjLd`kj ·x‚ vjc ¥hx fæ[j lEes¥u] 2009 ·?‚ Hkjr tkuks d`k;Z∂`e ·?‚ 15 oka xqV fujis” vkUnks¥u ·î‚ d`kSæ¥ ^ksUu;u ;kstuk fæ[j lEes¥u m®j%·d`‚ leq n z i kjh; d`kexkj ·î‚ cz©ksl m®j%·d`‚ Hkjr-ckaX¥knsæ t¥ ^'u 4. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`lh ,d` d`k m®j nhft, ·¥xHx 250 æCnkÍ eÍ‚% ·d`‚ eqnzkLœ`hfr fojks|kHkl D;k gS = o"Z 2009 ds` e÷; eÍ Hkjr eÍ bld`k ^Hko fd`l Ôi eÍ ifj¥f”r gks jgk gS = ·[‚ cn¥rs oSf'od` ifj›'; eÍ rsth ls mHjrh fod`klæh¥ vƒZO;oLƒkvkÍ d`h Hwfed`k ds` lUnHZ eÍ fczd` (BRIC) fæ[j lEes¥u 2009 d`h mi¥fC|;kÍ ij ppkZ d`hft,\ m®j%·d`‚

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/741

^'u 5. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`UgÓ nks fo";kÍ ij ppkZ d`hft, ·^R;sd` ^'u d`k m®j ¥xHx 150 æCnkÍ eÍ gksuk pkfg,‚% ·d`‚ ^|kueU(h d`h jkÆV_h; d`kSæ¥ fod`kl ifj"nΩ D;k gS = ·[‚ oSf'od` eUnh d`h pisV ls Hkjrh; vƒZO;oLƒk d`ks cpkus ds` f¥, Hkjr ljd`kj }kjk viuk, x, mik;kÍ d`h ppkZ d`hft,\ ·x‚ jkÆV_h; [k» lqj”k feæu ds` mˆs';kÍ ,oa d`k;Zuhfr d`ks le>kb,\ m®j%·d`‚

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/742

^'u 6. fuEuf¥f[r ds` ckjs eÍ f¥f[, ·^R;sd` ^'u d`k m®j ¥xHx 20 æCnkÍ eÍ gksuk pkfg,‚% ·d`‚ fo'o gfjr lwpd`kad` (World
Green Index)

·[‚ nwjUrks ·x‚ Hkjrh; fofæÆV igpku ^kf|d`j. ·?‚ ;æik¥ lfefr fjiksVZ%2009 ·î‚ V_kal ,fæ;u js¥ usVodZ` m®j%·d`‚ fo'o gfjr lwpd`kad`

^'u 7. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`lh ,d` ij f¥f[,\ ·^R;sd` d`k m®j ¥xHx 150 æCnkÍ eÍ gksuk pkfg,‚% ·d`‚ efg¥kvkÍ ds` fo:`* lHh ^d`kj ds` HsnHkokÍ d`h lekfIr ij vfHle; (CEDAW) ds` ^eq[ ^ko|ku D;k gß rƒk bUgÍ fd`l ^d`kj ¥kxw fd`;k tkrk gS = ·[‚ oSf'od` vkfƒZd` lad`V ds` p¥rs rsth ls ^pf¥r uolaj”.okn ds` vkSfpR; ij ppkZ d`hft,\ m®j%·d`‚

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/743

^'u 9. fuEuf¥f[r ds` lEcU| eÍ ^'u 8 . fuEuf¥f[r ds` lEcU| eÍ la”si eÍ f¥f[, ·^R;sd` ^'u d`k m®j f¥f[, ·^R;sd` ^'u d`k m®j ¥xHx ¥xHx 20 æCnkÍ eÍ gksuk pkfg,‚% 20 æCnkÍ eÍ gksuk pkfg,‚% ·d`‚ th-20 ·d`‚ Hkjrh; leqnk; d`Y;k. fuf| ·[‚ æa?kbZ lg;ksx laxBu (ICWF) ·x‚ vks\,\,l\ ·[‚ Hkjr-nf”. d`ksfj;k O;kikj ·?‚ th-15 le>kSrk ·î‚ vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥; ·x‚ Hkjr [kÈMh lg;ksx m®j%·d`‚ th·?‚ m®j d`ksfj;k d`k ijek.q ijh”. ·î‚ ^|kueU(h vknæZ xk∑o ;kstuk m®j%·d`‚ Hkjrh; leqnk; d`Y;k.

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/744

^'u 10. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`lh ,d` d`k m®j nhft, ·^R;sd` ^'u d`k m®j vf|d`re 2 5 0 æCnkÍ eÍ gksuk pkfg,‚% ·d`‚ oSf'od` xehZ (Global Warming) eÍ d`kcZu mRltZu d`h D;k Hwfed`k gS = i;kZoj. ij blds` ^frdw`¥ ^HkokÍ d`h foospuk d`hft,\ ·[‚ Hkjr d`h ^”sikL( ^.k¥h ds` fod`kl ∂`e rƒk orZeku fLƒfr d`h foospuk d`hft,\ m®j%·d`‚

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/745

^'u 11. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`UgÓ rhu d`ks le>kb, ·^R;sd` d`ks ¥xHx 150 æCnkÍ eÍ‚% ·d`‚ 3-th ·[‚ uksoks-th ·x‚ thu eS¯ix (Gene-Mapping) ·?‚ LVse ls¥ ƒsjsih ·mipkj‚ m®j%·d`‚ ^'u 12. fuEuf¥f[r ds` ckjs eÍ f¥f[, ·m®j ¥xHx 20 æCnkÍ eÍ gksuk pkfg,‚% ·d`‚ gchc ruohj ·[‚ jsfiM-vkdZ` (Rapid Arc) ·x‚ vksfjfœ`æ-ltZjh ·?‚ C¥Sd` gks¥ (Black Hole) ·î‚ ¯cx (Bing) m®j%·d`‚ gchc ruohj

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/746

^'u 13. ·d`‚ fuEuf¥f[r vk∑d`ÈMkÍ d`ks fd`lh mi;qDr fp( }kjk fuÔfir d`hft, rƒk O;; ^Î`fr ij fVIi.h d`hft,%
O;; d`h enÍ
1. Hkstu 2. oL( 3. fæ”k 4. ed`ku 5. fofo|

O;; ·:`i,‚ ifjokj ‘v’ ifjokj ‘c’
200 48 32 40 80 400 300 75 40 75 110 600

^'u 14. ·d`‚ fd`lh oLrq ‘v’ d`h mRiknu ¥kxr oLrq ‘c’ d`h mRiknu ¥kxr ls 10% d`e gS\ nksukÍ gh oLrq,a 20% ¥kH ij csph tkrh gß\ ;fn oLrq ‘c’ d`h 10 Vu ek(k 6000 :`i, eÍ csph tkrh gS rks mruk gh ¥kH vftZr d`jus ds` f¥, ‘c’ oLrq d`h fd`ruh ek(k csph tkuh pkfg,`= ·[‚ fuEuf¥f[r lkaf“;d`h d`ks ^nfæZr d`jus ds` f¥, vki d`kSu ls fp( d`k ^;ksx d`juk pkgÍxs = (i) fd`lh ekg eÍ eq E cbZ LVkW d ` ,DlpsUt eÍ gq, d`kjksckj d`k nSfud` ifjek.\ (ii) Hkjr ljd`kj ds` fu;kZr ds` fofHUu ^eq[ oxksÛ ds` fu;kZr ewY; d`h o"Z 1991-92 ,oa 2001-02 d`h rq¥uk\ (iii) 2001 d`h tux.uk eÍ tula“;k d`k vk;q] ¯¥x ,oa flfo¥ nækvkÍ d`k forj.\ (iv) fd`lh o"Z foæs" eÍ tula“;k eÍ LokfeRo ds` vk|kj ij tksrkÍ d`k forj.\ m®j%·d`‚

fd`jk;k

·[‚ fd`lh d`”k ds` 50 Nk(kÍ }kjk ^kIrkad` fuEuf¥f[r ^d`kj gß%
10 ls 20 ls 30 ls 40 ls 50 ls 60 ls

^kIrkad` d`e d`e d`e d`e d`e d`e

Nk(kÍ d`h la“;k
4 10 30 40 47 50

,d` mi;qDr js[kfp( cukb, rƒk chp ds` 80 ^frær Nk(kÍ }kjk vftZr ^kIrkad`kÍ d`h jÍt crkb,\ m®j%·d`‚

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/747

d`kjksckj eÍ vkSlr okf"Zd` o~f* nj d`h x.uk d`hft, rƒk 2006 ds` f¥, d`kjksckj d`k vuqeku ¥xkb,\ m®j%·d`‚

^'u 15. ·d`‚ fuEuf¥f[r d`ƒukÍ eÍ (qfV ;k vLiÆVrk d`ks bafxr d`hft,% (i) fd`lh d`kj[kus eÍ twrs d`h vkSlr ¥kxr o"Z 1991 eÍ :\ 110 ls cÈ<d`j o"Z 2001 eÍ 115 gks xbZ\ bld`k vƒZ gS fd` d`kj[kus d`h ”erk eÍ fxjkoV vkbZ gS\ (ii) ,d` O;fDr vkxjk ls fnY¥h d`h nwjh tkrs le; 60 fd`eh\ ^fr ?≥Vk ls rƒk vkrs le; 70 fd`eh\ ^fr ?≥Vk ls r; d`jrk gS\ mld`h vkSlr xfr 65 fd`eh ^fr ?≥Vk gqbZ\ ·[‚ fd`lh d`Eiuh ds` okf"Zd` d`kjksckj ds` vk∑d`ÈMs fuEuf¥f[r ^d`kj gß%
o"Z 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 d`kjksckj (¥k[ :`\) 342 380 385 420 480
●●●

UPKAR’S

Tax Assistant (Income Tax & Central Excise) Exam.
(According to the New Syllabus) Including Previous Years’ Solved Papers
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^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/748

;wukbVsM bf≥M;k bU';ksjÍl ^æklfud` vf|d`kjh ijh{kk] 24-5-2009 d`k g¥ iz'u-i(

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fl;ke d`ks vc D;k d`gk tkrk gS`= (A) ¥kvksl (B) ƒkb¥S≥M (C) fo;rukeΩ (D) d`EcksfM;k uxjkÍ d`k lgh lewg ftuls gksd`j jkÆV_h; jktekxZ ua\ 8 xqtjrk gS] gS% (A) chd`kusj] vtesj] d`ksVk (B) tks|iqj] t;iqj] chd`kusj (C) t;iqj] mn;iqj] vgenkckn (D) t;iqj] iq.s] mn;iqj viuh U;kf;d` iqufoZ¥ksd`u d`h æfDr }kjk loksZPp U;k;k¥; lqfuf'pr d`jrk gS% (A) U;kf;d` ^eq[rk (B) nsæ eÍ ,d` ^tkrkfU(d` ljd`kj (C) nsæ eÍ ,d` laoS|kfud` ljd`kj (D) fd` laln ds` vkf|iR; ij fu;U(. fd`;k x;k gS ewY;kad`u d`h fd`l bd`kbZ d`ks ∏isij xksYMπ d`gk tkrk gS`= (A) isV_ksMkW¥j (B) ,l\Mh\vkj\ (C) ;wjksMkW¥j (D) th\Mh\vkj\ Hkjrh; jkÆV_xku ds` iw.Z Hk"kUrj ds` xk;u d`h vof| fd`ruh gS`= (A) 47 lsd`≥M (B) 50 lsd`≥M (C) 52 lsd`≥M (D) 60 lsd`≥M cjkd` vksckek us ;w\,l\,\ ds` 44 oÍ jkÆV_ifr in d`h æiƒ d`c xzg. d`h`= (A) tuojh 15, 2009 (B) tuojh 20, 2009 (C) tuojh 25, 2009 (D) tuojh 30, 2009 p¥fp( ‘L¥eMkWx fef¥;us;j’ miU;kl ‘D;w ,≥M ,’ ij vk|kfjr gS] ftlds` ¥s[d` gß ,d` Hkjrh;% (A) [qæoUr ¯lg (B) [kf¥n eksgEen (C) lcjthr ¯lg (D) fod`kl LoÔi ‘jkÆV_h; vUos". ,tsUlh’ d`k ^ƒe egkfunsæd` fd`ld`ks fu;qDr fd`;k x;k gS`= (A) ih\ ,l\ æekZ (B) ,\ xksik¥Lokeh

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jk|k fouksn jktw ds`\ lh\ oekZ Hkjrh; lafo|ku ds` fd`l vuqPNsn ds` vUrxZr Hkjr ds` jkÆV_ifr laln ds` nksukÍ lnukÍ }kjk ikfjr fo|s;d` ij viuh LohÎ`fr jksd` ld`rs gß`= (A) vuqPNsn] 100 (B) vuqPNsn] 111 18. (C) vuqPNsn] 200 (D) vuqPNsn] 222 f(iqjk ds` O;fDr;kÍ }kjk d`kSulh Hk"k cks¥h tkrh gS`= (A) caxk¥h (B) rs¥qxq (C) vleh (D) e¥;k¥e lw;Z æs[j xkaxq¥h f[¥kÈMh gß% (A) ærjat ds` (B) f∂`ds`V ds` 19. (C) xksYœ` ds` (D) gkWd`h ds` ge lekpkj-i(kÍ eÍ Lisæ¥ bd`ksuksfed` tksUl ·lsÈtΩ‚ ds` fo"; eÍ ¥xkrkj iÈ<rs gß\ ;s lst fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l mˆs'; d`ks ¥sd`j Lƒkfir fd`, x, ƒs`= 1. Lonsæh cktkjkÍ d`ks cgqjkÆV_h; d`Eifu;kÍ ls lh|h ^frLi*kZ ls 20. laj”. ds` f¥,\ 2. Î`f" ,oa lEc* d`k;Zd`¥kikÍ d`ks vf|d` iw∑th ^nku d`jus ds` f¥,\ 3. fonsæh fuosæ d`ks ^R;” Ôi ls vkd`f"Zr d`jus ds` f¥,\ (A) ds`o¥ 4 (B) ds`o¥ 2 (C) ds`o¥ 3 (D) 1, 2 ,oa 3 lHh ‘;wjks d`i’ fd`lls lEcfU|r gS`= (A) f∂`ds`V (B) œq`Vck¥ (C) iks¥ks (D) eqDds`ckth fo'o i;kZoj. fnol gksrk gS% (A) 15 twu d`ks (B) 11 twu d`ks (C) 17 twu d`ks (D) 30 twu d`ks Hkjr ds` fd`l pVΩVku vkJ; eÍ lcls vf|d` la“;k eÍ fp(d`kfj;k∑ gß`= (A) vknexÈ< (B) HhecsVd`k (C) xgxgfj;k (D) ¥sf[d`k

(C) (D)

i~Foh }kjk lw;Z ls ^kIr ˜Æek d`ks d`gk tkrk gS% (A) vkiru (B) lkSj rki (C) lkSj fofd`j. (D) ˜Æeh; fofd`j. d`ksjksuksxzkœ` ftlds` }kjk iw.Z lw;Z xzg. d`h ^rh”k fd`, fcuk lw;Z d`k v÷;;u fd`;k tk ld`rk gS] fd`lus vkfoÆd`kj fd`;k`= (A) MksukYM esUts¥ (B) fi;js tsulhu (C) tksu ,ojæsM (D) cukZMZ f¥;ksV vU; ckrkÍ ds` lkƒ-lkƒ cz©k≥M d`h mRif® ,oa mlds` orZeku Lrj ij foLr~r Lrj ij foLr~r o.Zu d`jrs gq, ‘fn LV_Dpj vkWœ` ;wfuolZ’ iqLrd` fd`lus f¥[h`= (A) jkWcVZ tlV_ks (B) ,l\ pUnzæs[j (C) t;Ur ukjf¥d`j (D) d`k¥Z lkxu Jh¥ad`k ds` ml uxj d`k D;k uke gS] tksfd` rfe¥ VkbxlZ d`k ^æklfud` ,oa jktuhfrd` eq“;k¥; jg pqd`k gS rƒk ftld`ks gk¥ gh eÍ lsuk us d`Cts eÍ ¥s f¥;k`= (A) dS`UMh (B) tkÈœ`uk (C) fd`f¥ukspfp (D) eqY¥kbZfƒoq fd`l lfefr us |kjk-88 ds` vUrxZr d`j NwVkÍ d`ks lekIr d`jus ds` f¥, ijkeæZ fn;k ƒk`= (A) ds`¥d`j lfefr (B) jaxjktu lfefr (C) psfY¥vkg lfefr (D) ækse lfefr

m®j O;k“;k lfgr

●●●

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/749

fgekp¥ ^nsæ ¥ksd` lsok vk;ksx ·^k\‚ ijh{kk] 2009 d`k g¥ iz'u-i(

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61.

fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls ,d` fgekp¥ d`h tutkfr ugÓ gS% (A) ¥kgkS¥k (B) xˆh (C) HkÍV (D) vlqj 21. jkÆV_h; Î`f" chek ;kstuk d`k lw(ikr fgekp¥ ^nsæ eÍ d`c gqvk ƒk=
20. (A) 1998-1999 (B) 1997-1998

62.

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67.

68.

69.

fgekp¥ ^nsæ eÍ ‘lw(’ ·lksæ¥ 10. fgekp¥ ^nsæ d`¥k vkSj laLÎ`fr (C) 1999-2000 (D) 2000-2001 vif¥ŒVesUV ƒzw Ôj¥ ,Dæu‚ d`h vd`kneh d`h Lƒkiuk fd`l o"Z gqbZ Lƒkiuk d`c gqbZ ƒh= ƒh= 22. ftl le; tgk∑xhj d`k∑xÈMk vk;k ƒk ml le; ogk∑ d`k jktk d`kSu ƒk= (A) 1975 (B) 1977 (A) 1966 (B) 1988 (C) 1978 (D) 1979 (C) 1989 (D) 1990 (A) ck¥Hnz (B) ohjHnz (C) ck¥pUnz (D) jkepUnz ”s(œ`¥ d`h n~fÆV ls fgekp¥ ^nsæ 11. fgekp¥ ^nsæ ¥ksd` lsok vk;ksx d`k d`k lcls NksVk ft¥k d`kSulk gS= ^ƒe v÷;” d`kSu ƒk= 23. ;wjksih; ;k(h ewj∂`kŒV us fgekp¥ (A) ˜uk (B) fc¥kliqj (A) Vh\ oh\ vkj\ r®kpkjh ^nsæ d`k Hze. d`c fd`;k ƒk= (C) gehjiqj (D) lks¥u (B) fnfXot; pUnz (A) 1880–1882 (C) ¥s\ tu\ ds`\ ,l\ d`Vksp fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk )`f" (B) 1855–1856 (D) ch\ lh\ ik≥Ms; fgekp¥ ^nsæ ls lEc* ugÓ jgk gS= (C) 1820–1822 (A) O;kl (B) ckYehfd` 12. Hksjat bl ft¥s d`h rglh¥ gS% (D) 1825–1827 (C) ekdZ`≥Ms; (D) ¥kseæ (A) gehjiqj (B) e≥Mh 24. 25 twu] 1945 d`ks ok;ljk; ds` (C) ˜uk (D) d`kaxÈMk ou fjd`kMZΩl ds` vuqlkj fgekp¥ fuokl-Lƒku ok;ljhx¥ ¥kWt eÍ ^nsæ d`k dq`¥ ou ”s( gS% lEiUu gq, 21 ^frfuf|;kÍ ds` lEes¥u 13. cqægj fj;klr d`k vfUre ækld` eÍ eqfL¥e ¥hx d`k ^eq[ ^frfuf| (A) 37033 oxZ fd`eh jktk d`kSu ƒk= fd`ld`ks cuk;k x;k ƒk= (B) 41027 oxZ fd`eh (A) lalkj pan (A) æs[ lS;n vgen (C) 39098 oxZ fd`eh (B) nsosUnz flag (D) 40739 oxZ fd`eh (B) bd`ck¥ vgen (C) bZ'oj lsu (C) eksgEen v¥h ftUuk leqnz-r¥ ls eqfDd`¥k X¥sfæ;j d`h (D) inΩe flag ˜∑pkbZ fd`ruh gS= (D) ekS¥kuk vcq¥ d`¥ke vktkn 14. œq`¥kp; es¥k bl ft¥s eÍ ¥xrk gS% (A) 6478 ehVj (B) 6570 ehVj (A) fd`UukSj (B) e≥Mh 25. fgekp¥ ds` fuekZrk ds` Ôi eÍ fuEu(C) 6335 ehVj (D) 6642 ehVj (C) d`kaxÈMk (D) pEck f¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSu tkuk tkrk gS`= dq`fugkj ?kVh d`gk∑ ls æqÔ gksrh gS= 15. ikoZrh bl unh d`h lgk;d` unh gS% (A) MkW\ okbZ\ ds`\ ¯lg (A) xqVsd`j (Gutekar) (B) MkW\ okbZ\ ,l\ ijekj (A) lr¥t (B) ;equk (B) Vqd`fÈM;k xk∑o (C) O;kl (D) jkoh (C) MkW\ okbZ\ ,u\ æekZ (C) dw`uh [MΩM (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 16. fljekSj jkT; d`k laLƒkid` d`kSu ƒk= (D) ck∑M¥k (A) jktk jlk¥w 26. ‘vukfed`k’ D;k gS= leqnz-r¥ ls pEck ”s( d`h ¥kek (B) jktk Mkd` ^d`kæ (A) ,d` Vh\oh\ d`¥kd`kj tks fgekp¥ >h¥ d`h ˜∑pkbZ ·œ`hV eÍ‚ fd`ruh gS= (C) jktk lalkj pUn ^nsæ ls lEc* gS (A) 2700 (B) 3812 (D) jktk bZ'oj lsu (B) Hkjr eÍ vHh gk¥ eÍ fod`flr (C) 3768 (D) 3902 ,d` æfDræk¥h d`kckZbu pk; d`k mRiknu eq“;r;k bu ft¥kÍ 17. fgekp¥ ^nsæ eÍ fgUnw |eZ d`ks ekuus ok¥s gß% (C) Hkjr d`h ,d` ^fl* œS`æu eÍ gksrk gS% fMtkbuj (A) 90·3% (B) 93·2% (A) d`kaxÈMk vkSj e≥Mh (D) lkfgR; vd`kneh iqjLd`kj ls (C) 95·4% (D) 1·2% (B) fc¥kliqj vkSj pEck lEekfur ,d` laLÎ`r d`of;(h 18. rSewj us uxjd`ksV ·d`kaxÈMk‚ ij vk∂`(C) d`kaxÈMk vkSj dq`Y¥w e. d`c fd`;k ƒk`= 27. o"Z 2008 d`k ukscs¥ ækafr iqjLd`kj (D) e≥Mh vkSj ˜uk fd`ld`ks ^nku fd`;k x;k gS= (A) 1397 (B) 1399 fgekp¥ ^nsæ eÍ lokZf|d` vuqlwfpr(A) ¥h D¥sft;ks (C) 1401 (D) 1402 . tutkfr tula“;k ok¥k ft¥k d`kSulk (B) ekVhZ vgfrlkjh 19. f[Cckj xk∑o bl ?kVh eÍ fLƒr gS% gS`= (C) jkstsu okbZtsu (A) dq`Y¥w (B) lks¥u (A) pEck (B) d`ktk (C) e≥Mh (D) fljekSj (C) lkax¥k (D) ckYg (D) ƒksbfpjkÍ ukEcw

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/750

ikfd`Lrku f∂`ds`V cksMZ d`k u;k v÷;” d`kSu gS= (A) vkflœ` v¥h tjnkjh (B) ,tkt cV (C) ljœ`jkt uokt (D) tkosn fe;kankn 29. lkbeu fc;qœ`ks; us L¥eMkWx fef¥;us;j ds` f¥, fd`l oxZ d`k vkWLd`j iqjLd`kj thrk gS= (A) ÔikUrfjr iVd`ƒk (B) ekSf¥d` xhr (C) ÷ofu-feJ. (D) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 30. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`lus fo'oHkjrh fo'ofo»k¥; ækafr-fuds`ru eÍ iÈ<kbZ ugÓ d`h= (A) iwoZ ^|kuea(h bfUnjk xka|h (B) ia\ caxk¥ ds` iwoZ eq“;ea(h MkW\ ch\ lh\ jkW; (C) veR;Z lsu (D) lR;thr js 31. Hkjr ljd`kj us ,d` f}-i”h; le>kSrs ds` rgrΩ d`Ppkfnoq }hi Jh¥ad`k d`ks d`c lkßik ƒk`=
28. (A) 1972 (C) 1974 32. (B) 1973 (D) 1975

33.

34.

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36.

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MkW\ oS»ukƒu 45. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk ,d` egkRek xka|h }kjk ·iw.Z Lojkt ds` f¥,‚ th\ ek|ou uk;j ^Lrkfor jpukRed` d`k;Z∂`e eÍ ækfe¥ æeækn csxe ugÓ gS= jkepUnz xqgk (A) d`kSeh ,d`rk 37. ds`\ ds`\ fcÈM¥k œ`km≥Msæu d`k lkfgR; (B) vLi~';rk-fuokj. ds` f¥, O;kl lEeku (2008) fd`ld`ks (C) jkÆV_Hk"k ^nku fd`;k x;k gS`= (D) fonsæh Hk"kvkÍ ds` f¥, lEeku (A) dq`oj ukjk;. 46. ‘esVkthuksfeDl’ foKku d`h ,d` (B) eUuw H≥Mkjh vR;k|qfud` æk[k gS\ bleÍ ^k;# (C) uUn Hkj}kt bld`k v÷;;u fd`;k tkrk gS% (D) nsosUnzjkt vadq`j (A) ekb∂`ksCl ds` thukse d`k 38. d`¯¥x d`i d`k lEcU| blls gS% (B) ekuoh; thukse d`k (A) œq`Vck¥ (B) Vsful (C) iæqvkÍ ds` thukse d`k (C) cSMfeaVu (D) psl (D) bueÍ ls fd`lh d`k ugÓ 39. Hkjr ds` f¥, lokZf|d` fods`V ¥sus 47. ‘ÿkbV MΩokœZ`’ d`k lEcU| blls gS% ok¥s vfu¥ dq`Ec¥s us VsLV eSpkÍ eÍ (A) [xks¥ækL( dq`¥ 619 fods`V f¥, gß\ fd`rus VsLV (B) Î`f" eSpkÍ eÍ mUgkÍus ;s fods`V f¥;s gß= (C) tsusfVDl (A) 130 (B) 132 (D) bueÍ ls fd`lh ls ugÓ (C) 133 (D) 135 40. vkbZ\ lh\ lh\ efg¥k d`i d`h fo'o 48. HkHk ijek.q vuqla|ku ds`Unz d`h Lƒkiuk d`c d`h xbZ ƒh= b¥s f ou efg¥k f∂`ds ` V Vhe d`k (A) 1949 (B) 1950 d`Irku fd`ld`ks cuk;k x;k gS= (C) 1965 (D) 1955 (A) psj¥ksV ,MoMZΩl (B) dS`ƒsjhu czaV 49. eqfL¥e ¥hx d`h Lƒkiuk d`gk∑ d`h xbZ ƒh= (C) ferk¥h jkt (A) ¥kgkSj (D) ds`V iq¥œ`ksMZ (B) d`¥d`®k ·d`ks¥d`krk‚ 41. fd`l Hkjrh; efg¥k d`ks vHh gk¥ gh (C) isækoj eÍ ÌwLVu fo'ofo»k¥;] ;w\ ,l\ ,\ (D) <kd`k d`k dq`¥ifr fu;qDr fd`;k x;k gS= 50. ‘bafM;k bafMiÍMÍl ¥hx’ d`h Lƒkiuk (A) vfnfr ¥kfgjh fd`lus d`h ƒh= (B) fJfr oMsjk (A) jkl fcgkjh cksl (C) MkW\ js.q [Vksj (B) lqHk"pUnz cksl (D) ghu¥ jk;pqjk (C) lqjsUnzukƒ cuthZ (D) fcfiu pUnz ik¥ 42. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulh [jhœ` œ`l¥ gS= 51. Hkjr d`h lcls cÈMh >h¥ ‘fpYd`k’ (A) pko¥ (B) xsgw∑ bl ^nsæ eÍ gS% (C) puk (D) eVj (A) vkU|z ^nsæ (B) mÈMhlk (C) d`ukZVd` (D) rfe¥ukMq 43. vUrjkZÆV_h; eqnzk-d`ks" d`k eq“;k¥; ;gk∑ fLƒr gS% 52. Hkjr eÍ cgqjkÆV_h; d`Eifu;kÍ d`ks ^ksRlkgu nsuk] cÈ<kok nsuk gS% (A) ftusok (A) futhd`j. uhfr d`ks (B) okfæaxVu Mh\ lh\ (B) oS'ohd`j. uhfr d`ks (C) ¥Unu (C) mnkjhd`j. uhfr d`ks (D) isfjl (D) bl lHh uhfr;kÍ d`ks 44. xka|hth us loZ^ƒe ‘lR;kxzg’ æCn 53. ‘æq*k}Srokn’ d`k lw(|kj d`kSu ƒk= fd`l o"Z xÈ<k ƒk= (A) jkekuqtkpk;Z (A) 1905 (B) 1906 (B) e÷okpk;Z (C) 1907 (D) 1908
(A) (B) (C) (D)

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/751

oY¥Hkpk;Z jkekuan 54. v÷;”kRed` æklu d`k mn; loZ^ƒe ;gk∑ gqvk ƒk% (A) ;wxksL¥kfo;k (B) felz ·bftIV‚ (C) ;w\ ,l\ ,\ (D) fLoVΩtj¥ßsM 55. fd`l o"Z ls fonsæh fofue; ^cU|u vf|fu;e ¥kxw gqvk=
(C) (D) (A) 2003 (C) 2000 56. (B) 2002 (D) 1999

57.

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62.

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2.

68.

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70.

71.

72.

73.

mUgÍ U;k;k¥;kÍ }kjk ¥kxw fd`;k tk ld`rk gS (C) os Hkjr d`ks ,d` d`Y;k.d`kjh jkT; cukrs gß (D) mUgÍ ¥kxw d`juk jkT; d`k d`®ZO; gS ijeohj p∂` fotsrk d`ks ^frekg lEeku H®k fe¥rk gS% (A) 10,000 :\ (B) 5,000 :\ (C) 3,000 :\ (D) 2,500 :\ chftax vks¥fEid` eÍ fd`l nsæ us ig¥h ckj iq:" rhjankth eÍ Lo.Z ind` ^kIr fd`;k= (A) ;w∂s`u (B) nf”. v≠`hd`k (C) nf”. d`ksfj;k (D) baMksusfæ;k 1915 eÍ ‘Indian National Evolution’ iqLrd` fd`lus f¥[h ƒh= (A) vfEcd`kpj. etwenkj (B) ,l\ xksik¥ (C) vfu¥ lh¥ (D) vkj\ ih\ iVo*Zu eqds`æ vEckuh d`h d`Eiuh ‘fj¥k;Ul isV_ksf¥;e f¥feVsM’ d`gk∑ fLƒr gS= (A) lwjr (B) tkeuxj (C) vgenkckn (D) iksjcanj ‘An Accustomed Earth’ iq L rd` fd`ld`h jpuk gS`= (A) >qEik ¥kfgÈMh (B) fd`ju csnh (C) es|k ikVsd`j (D) v:a|rh jk; fojlk eq≥Mk vkfnoklh fonzksg ‘mUew¥u’ jk∑ph ds` nf”.h ”s( eÍ bl le; gqvk ƒk%
(B) (A) 1888-1889 (B) 1890-1891 (C) 1897-1898 (D) 1899-1900

fgekp¥ ^nsæ d`ks 18oÍ iw.Z jkT; d`k ntkZ ^kIr gqvk ƒk% (A) 25 tuojh] 1968 d`ks (B) 25 tuojh] 1969 d`ks (C) 25 tuojh] 1970 d`ks (D) 25 tuojh] 1971 d`ks 75. teæsniqj eÍ VkVk vkbju oDlZ d`h Lƒkiuk bl o"Z gqbZ ƒh%
74. (A) 1905 (C) 1906 76. (B) 1907 (D) 1908

bafM;u d`kmafl¥ ,DV 1861 bZ\ ds` rgrΩ xouZj tuj¥ d`kmafl¥ eÍ

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/752

lnL;kÍ d`h la“;k N# ls cÈ<kd`j d`j (B) Î`Æ.k-xksnkojh ?kVh eÍ (A) 4 (B) 5 nh xbZ ƒh% (C) ueZnk ?kVh eÍ (C) 6 (D) 7 (A) ukS (B) nl (D) foæk[ki±ueΩ eÍ 94. Hkjr ds` jkÆV_xku d`ks iwjk xkus eÍ (C) ckjg (D) iUnzg fd`ruk le; ¥xrk gS= 85. ”s(œ`¥ d`h n~fÆV ls fo'o d`k lcls 77. tuj¥ Mk;j ds` gqDe ls fd`;s x;s cÈMk fgUnw eafnj d`kSulk gS=s (A) ¥xHx 45 lsd`≥M tf¥;k∑ok¥k ckx xks¥hd`k≥M eÍ fd`rus (A) v”j|ke efUnj] fnY¥h (B) ¥xHx 52 lsd`≥M ¥ksx ekjs x;s ƒs`= (B) v”j|ke efUnj] vgenkckn (C) ¥xHx 58 lsd`≥M (A) 269 (B) 384 (C) ck¥kth efUnj] fr:ifr (D) ¥xHx 64 lsd`≥M (C) 307 (D) 379 (D) egk¥{eh efUnj] eqEcbZ 95. Hkjrh; lafo|ku ds` uhfr-funsæd` 78. ¥Unu eÍ rhu xks¥ est d`kU≠Í`l gqbÛ% fl*kUrkÍ eÍ fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk 86. nknk lkgsc œ`kYds` iqjLd`kj fotsrk d`ks (A) 1929, 1930, 1931 eÍ ,d` lfEef¥r ugÓ gS= bl iqjLd`kj ds` rgrΩ ns; jkfæ gS% (B) 1930, 1931, 1931 eÍ (A) Jfed`kÍ d`ks fu#æqYd` fæ”k (A) 15 ¥k[ :\ (B) 12 ¥k[ :\ (C) 1930, 1931, 1932 eÍ (B) xzke iapk;rkÍ d`k xBu (C) 10 ¥k[ :\ (D) 5 ¥k[ :\ (D) 1931, 1932, 1932 eÍ (C) jkÆV_h; Lekjd`kÍ d`h lqj”k 87. chftax vks¥fEid` eÍ czkth¥ us fd`rus (D) vUrjkZÆV_h; d`kuwukÍ d`k lEeku 79. ¥ÈMfd`;kÍ ds` fookg d`h U;wure vk;q jtr ind` ^kIr fd`;s ƒs= 1930 ds` ækjnk eSfjt ,DV ds` }kjk (A) 2 (B) 3 96. jkÆV_h; U;kf;d` vd`kneh Hou fd`l D;k fu|kZfjr d`h xbZ ƒh= ægj eÍ fLƒr gS`= (C) 4 (D) 7 (A) 14 o"Z (B) 15 o"Z (A) gSnjkckn (B) Hksik¥ 88. chfta x vks ¥ fEid` eÍ fd`rus u;s (C) 16 o"Z (D) 18 o"Z (C) vgenkckn (D) ubZ fnY¥h fjd`kWMZ cuk;s x,= 80. luΩ 1937 rd` Hkjr eÍ dq`¥ fd`rus (A) 35 (B) 43 97. E.T.A. fd`l nsæ d`k vkrad`oknh fo'ofo»k¥; ƒs= laxBu gS= (C) 48 (D) 54 (A) 15 (B) 18 (A) lkb^l (B) Jh¥ad`k 89. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`ld`ks jktho (C) 20 (D) 24 (C) Lisu (D) nf”. v≠`hd`k xka|h [s¥jRu iqjLd`kj ugÓ fe¥k gS= 81. Hkjr-Lok|hurk ^Lrko gkml vkWœ` (A) fo'oukƒu vkuUn 98. iapk;rh jkt O;oLƒk eÍ æklud`kWeUl eÍ fd`l frfƒ d`ks ¥k;k x;k ^.k¥h d`h lajpuk D;k gS= (B) lkfu;k fetkZ ƒk= (A) xzke Lrj ij Lƒkuh; Loæklu (C) iad`t vkMok.h (A) 4 tq¥kbZ] 1947 d`h ,d`Lrjh; lajpuk (D) lfpu rÍnq¥d`j (B) 5 tq¥kbZ] 1947 (B) xzke rƒk [≥M Lrj ij Lƒkuh; 90. fHokuh ckWfDlax D¥c d`k ^|ku d`ksp (C) 7 tq¥kbZ] 1947 Loæklu d`h f}Lrjh; lajpuk d`kSu gS ftld`ks jkÆV_ifr Jherh (D) 8 tq¥kbZ] 1947 (C) xzke] [≥M vkSj ft¥k Lrj ij ^frHk ikfV¥ us nzks.kpk;Z vokMZ 82. egkRek xka|h ds` ckjs eÍ d`kSulk ,d` Lƒkuh; Loæklu d`h f(Lrjh; lajpuk ^nku fd`;k gS= d`ƒu lR; ugÓ gS= (D) xzke] [≥M] ft¥k vkSj jkT; (A) txnhæ flag (A) mud`h vkLƒk ekuo ≤n; d`h Lrj ij Lƒkuh; Loæklu d`h (B) tlthr flag vPNkbZ eÍ ƒh prq#Lrjh; lajpuk (C) eksgu flag (B) nkæZfud` vknæZokn eÍ mud`k 99. fgekp¥ eÍ jS¯xx ds` d`kj. ejus ok¥s (D) vejthr flag fo'okl ugÓ ƒk Nk( d`k uke ƒk% (C) mUgkÍus fuEu oxZ d`h fujUrj 91. Hkjr d`h fd`l tksÈMh us baMksusfæ;k eÍ (A) dq`¥nhi ¯lg cjkj lEiUu ,fæ;k isflfœ`d` d`kj jS¥h lsok d`h (B) veu dq`ekj ¯lg pSfEi;ufæi 2008 thrh gS= (D) os fuEu oxZ ds` vf|d`kjkÍ ds` (C) veu dq`ekj <Óxjk laj”d` ƒs (A) xkSjo fx¥%txnso flag (D) veu lR; d`pÔ (B) iou lpnsok%lPpk flag 83. ¥kWl ,aftYl eÍ ckf¥d`k fææq d`ks 100. fgekp¥ ds` ^ƒe eq“;ea(h ƒs% tUe nsus ok¥k ig¥k xHZoku iq:" (C) eukst vxzok¥%d`kerkukƒ d`kSu gS= (A) ækUrk dq`ekj (D) lq[nsojkt%mn;ohj (A) xSjh ,d`jeSu (B) ch\ jeS;k 92. fo|kulHk pqukokÍ eÍ b¥sDV_kWfud` (B) ƒkWel chfVd` (C) MkW\ ;æoUr ¯lg ijekj oksfVax eæhu ds` ^;ksx d`h æqÔvkr (C) tsu dS`fl;ks d`c ls gqbZ= (D) ohjHnz ¯lg (D) tkWu okWjsu (A) 1998 (B) 2000 101. fgekp¥ d`k fLoVΩtj¥S≥M fuEu eÍ (C) 2002 (D) 2004 ls fd`ls d`grs gß`= 84. fj¥k;al baMLV_ht d`ks vHh gk¥ eÍ rs¥ d`k foæk¥ H≥Mkj d`gk∑ fe¥k gS= 93. o"Z 2006 eÍ fd`rus jkT;kÍ eÍ fo|ku (A) eaMh (B) fd`UukSj lHk pquko gq, ƒs= (A) usY¥wj ft¥s eÍ (C) f[TtkSj (D) fljekSj ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/753

102.

lqHk"pUnz cksl egkRek xka|h ls ig¥h ckj d`c fe¥s ƒs= (A) 1914 eÍ (B) 1918 eÍ (C) 1920 eÍ (D) 1921 eÍ 103. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk ;qXe lgh lqesf¥r ugÓ gS= (A) Î`Æ.nso jk;%jkejkax. lw(|kj (B) egsUnz oeZu`%`e® fo¥kl ^glu (C) Hkst nso % ekulksY¥kl (D) lkses'oj % vkeqDr ekY;nk 104. vaxzstkÍ us jS;rokÈMh cUnkscLr d`gk∑ ¥kxw fd`;k ƒk= (A) caxk¥ ^slhMÍlh eÍ (B) enzkl ^slhMÍlh eÍ (C) cEcbZ ^slhMÍlh eÍ (D) enzkl ^slhMÍlh vkSj eqEcbZ ^slhMÍlh eÍ 105. fuEuf¥f[r ?VukvkÍ d`k lgh vuq∂`e D;k gS= 1. fr¥d` d`k gkseÔ¥ ¥hx 2. d`kekxkVkekÔ ^lax 3. egkRek xka|h d`k Hkjr vkxeu
(A) 1, 2, 3 (C) 2, 1, 3 106. 1857 ds` (B) 3, 2, 1 (D) 2, 3, 1

111.

112.

113.

114.

cjs¥h fonzksg d`k usrk d`kSu

ƒk`= [ku cgknqj dq∑`oj flag 115. ekS¥oh vgen ækg fojftl d`kfnj 107. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSu-d`kSulh ioZr pksfV;k∑ ikfd`Lrku ds` d`Cts ok¥s ”s( eÍ gß= 1. uwudw`u 2. jkd`kiksæh 3. fl;k d`k∑xÈMh 4. d`k∑xVw (A) 2 vkSj 4 (B) 1 vkSj 2 (C) 3 vkSj 4 (D) 1, 2 vkSj 3 108. ‘v:.kp¥ ^nsæ [fut fod`kl 116. vkSj O;kikj fuxe f¥feVsM’ d`h Lƒkiuk d`c d`h xbZ ƒh= (A) 1989 eÍ (B) 1991 eÍ (C) 1992 eÍ (D) 1994 eÍ
109. (A) (B) (C) (D)

vkU|z ^nsæ ds` iwoZ eÍ caxk¥ d`h [kÈMh d`h rV js[k d`h ¥EckbZ fd`ruh gS= (A) 965 fd`eh (B) 974 fd`eh (C) 978 fd`eh (D) 981 fd`eh 117. 110. vle eÍ dq`¥ [srh ;ksX; Hwfe (A) 10 (Gross Agricultural land) fd`ruh gS= (C) 12 ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/754

gsDVs;j 118. vkj\ ,u\ ,\ d`k vkfoÆd`kj fd`lus fd`;k ƒk= gsDVs;j (A) ;wjhu d`ks¥esV gsDVs;j (B) vkbtSd`eSu gsDVs;j (C) vkƒZj cxZ ,oa tksUl jkÆV_h; ¥hph vuqla|ku ds`Unz d`gk∑ (D) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ fLƒr gS= (A) nsgjknwu (B) fæe¥k 119. fgekp¥ eÍ lsc d`k tUenkrk fuEu eÍ ls d`kSu gS`= (C) eqtŒœ`jiqj (D) fl¥hxqÈMh (A) MkW\ vthr dq`¥d`.hZ fuEuf¥f[r vkfne tkfr;kÍ rƒk (B) jkekuUn ¯lg muds` fuokl-LƒkukÍ ds` fuEuf¥f[r ;qXekÍ eÍ ls d`kSulk ,d` lqesf¥r ugÓ (C) ^se dq`ekj |we¥ gS= (D) lR;kuUn LVksDl (A) cqDlk%ikSÈMh xÈ<ok¥ 120. lokZbd`¥ dß`lj ls ihfÈMr fd`l (B) d`ks¥%tc¥iqj fczfVæ vfHus(h d`k vHh gk¥ eÍ (C) eq≥Mk%NksVk ukxiqj fu|u gks x;k= (D) d`ksMkxw%d`ksjck (A) tSu VΩohM (B) tsM xqMh ‘usæu¥ bULVhVΩ;wV vkWœ` fœ`æjht iksLV gkosZLV VsDuks¥kWth ,≥M V_sfuax’ (C) ds`fjlk ;gk∑ fLƒr gS% (D) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ (A) d`ksphu (B) eqEcbZ m®j O;k“;k lfgr (C) psUubZ (D) xksvk jkÆV_h; jktekxZ 7-, ds` ckjs eÍ fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk ,d` lgh gS= d`gk∑ ls ·Lƒku‚ d`gk∑ rd` ·Lƒku‚ (A) vgenkckn ekaMoh (B) i¥k;u d`ksVS rwrhd`ksfju (C) iksjcanj ckeucksj (D) psUubZ cgkjkxksMk ds`Unzh; t¥ vk;ksx (Central Water Commission–CWC) ubZ fnY¥h (Hq.) ds` ”s(h; ds`Unz (Regional centres) fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`ufd`u LƒkukÍ ij gß= 1. Hqous'oj 2. ukxiqj 3. vgenkckn 4. vtesj (A) 1, 2 ,oa 3 (B) 1 vkSj 3 (C) 2, 3, 4 (D) 1 vkSj 2 ¥sVsjkbV (Laterite) fef±;kÍ d`k forj. fd`u jkT; lewg eÍ vf|d`kaær# gksrk gS= (A) rfe¥ukMq] gfj;k.k ,oa m\ ^\ eÍ (B) ds`j¥] d`ukZVd` ,oa jktLƒku eÍ (C) iatkc] fcgkj ,oa xqtjkr eÍ (D) d`ukZVd`] ds`j¥ ,oa e\ ^\ d`h igkfÈM;kÍ d`h pksVh ij ¥”}hi ds` d`ksj¥ }hikÍ d`h la“;k fd`ruh gS=
(B) 11 (D) 14 ●●●

(A) (B) (C) (D)

36·53 ¥k[ 38·76 ¥k[ 39·83 ¥k[ 40·16 ¥k[

,l\,l\lh\ lh\ih\vks\ lc-baLisDVj ijh”k] 6-9-2009 d`k g¥ ^'u-i(

lkekU; tkud`kjh
01.

15. CTBT d`k iwjk Ôi gS% (A) d`kWfUVU;wM VsLV cSu V_hVh (B) d`kWfUVU;wM VsLV csLM V_hVeÍV (C) d`kWfE^gÍflo VsLV cSu V_hVh (D) d`kWefæZ;¥ VsLV cSu VSfjœ` 16.

‘bf≥M;k VqMs’ gS% (A) leL;kvkÍ d`k vfLƒj iqat
(Staggering mass) (B) iwoZ fczfVæ Hkjr 08.

ls ikfd`Lrku vkSj ckaX¥knsæ fud`k¥ d`j (C) ,d` lekpkj if(d`k tks orZeku eke¥kÍ d`ks lefiZr gS (D) Hkjrh; la? tks la;qDr jkÆV_ d`k lnL; gS 09. 02. iqLrd` ‘bV okt œ`kbo ikLV feMukbV’ d`k fo"; gS% (A) Hqt d`k Hwd`Ei (Earthquake) (B) mÈMhlk d`h ckÈ< (Floods) 10. (C) vkU|z d`k p∂`okr (Cyclone) (D) Hksik¥ xSl d`k≥M (Tragedy) 03. ‘rhu ch?k d`kWfjMksj’ tksÈMrk gS% (A) Hkjr vkSj ikfd`Lrku d`ks (B) Hkjr vkSj phu d`ks (C) ckaX¥knsæ vkSj ikfd`Lrku d`ks (D) ckaX¥knsæ vkSj Hkjr d`ks 11. 04. fd`l ”s ( eÍ mRÎ`ÆV d`k;Z d`ks iqf¥Rtj iqjLd`kj ds` f¥, ekU;rk nh tkrh gS = (A) foKku vkSj ^kS»ksfxd`h (Science
and Technology) (B) lkfgR; vkSj i(d`kfjrk (C) varjkZÆV_h; le>cw> (International Understanding) (D) i;kZoj. v÷;;u (Environmental studies) 05. 12.

fp®kSÈM eÍ fot; LrEH d`k fuekZ. fd`lus fd`;k ƒk`= (A) egkjk.k ^rki (B) jk.k laxzke ¯lg 13. (C) jk.k dq`EHk (D) jk.k jru ¯lg 06. fct¥h ds` ia[s d`h xfr cn¥us ds` f¥, ^;qDr lk|u gS% (A) ,sEI¥hœ`k;j (B) jsxq¥sVj (C) fLop (D) jsfDVœ`k;j 14. 07. uke|kik usæu¥ ikdZ` gS% (A) fetksje eÍ (B) ef.iqj eÍ izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/755

f(iqjk eÍ v:.kp¥ ^nsæ eÍ xka|hth us fd`l |kfeZd` xzUƒ d`ks viuh ‘ekrk’ d`gk ƒk = (A) jkek;. (B) n U;w VsLVkeÍV (C) HxonΩxhrk (D) dq`jku æjhœ` fVgjh t¥ fo»qr d`kWEI¥sDl fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l unh ij fLƒr gS`= (A) v¥d`uank (B) eankfd`uh (C) |kS¥h xaxk (D) Hkxhjƒh ukscs¥ iqjLd`kj fotsrk Hkjrh;] veR;Z lsu] fd`l ”s( eÍ d`k;Z ds` f¥, ^fl* gß = (A) HkSfrd`h (B) i;kZoj. d`h j”k (C) jlk;u foKku (D) vƒZækL( fo'o lqUnjh 2008 d`k f[rkc fd`ls fe¥k gS = (A) tkiku lqUnjh d`ks (B) osustq,¥k lqUnjh d`ks (C) fœ`¥hihu lqUnjh d`ks (D) e¥sfæ;k lqUnjh d`ks Hkjr eÍ ƒksd` d`her ij vk|kfjr eqnzkLœ`hfr d`h nj 27 tq¥kbZ] 2008 d`ks vius 13 o"ksÛ ds` mPpre Lrj ij igq∑p xbZ\ og ƒh% (A) 11·75 ^frær (B) 11·85 ^frær (C) 12·00 ^frær (D) 12·05 ^frær ≠Í`p vksiu 2009 iq:" ,d`¥ fd`lus thrk ƒk = (A) jkstj œs`Mjj (B) jkœS`¥ ukMk¥ (C) ckWc fcz;ku (D) dS`Vsjhuk lzscksVfud` ˜tkZ fæ[j lEes¥u] 2008 d`gk∑ gqvk ƒk = (A) tnΩnkg eÍ (B) rsgjku eÍ (C) fj;kn eÍ (D) f(iks¥h eÍ

(C) (D)

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

,fæ;k d`i 2008 œ`kbu¥ [s¥k x;k ƒk% (A) Hkjr vkSj Jh¥ad`k ds` chp (B) ikfd`Lrku vkSj Hkjr ds` chp (C) Jh¥ad`k vkSj ikfd`Lrku ds` chp (D) ckaX¥knsæ vkSj Hkjr ds` chp ,e\ ,l\ |ksuh d`ks o"Z 2007 ds` f¥, fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`lds` f¥, pquk x;k ƒk = (A) vtqZu iqjLd`kj (B) nzks.kpk;Z iqjLd`kj (C) jktho xka|h [s¥jRu iqjLd`kj (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ MCA d`k iwjk Ôi gS% (A) fefuLV_h vkWœ` d`Eiuh vœs`;lZ (B) ekLVj vkWœ` d`EI;wVj ,sfI¥ds`æu (C) esEcj pkVZMZ vd`km≥VÍV (D) ekLVj vkWœ` d`kWelZ ,≥M vkVZlΩ phu us vkfrF; (Hosted) fd`;k gS% (A) XXIX vks¥fEid` [s¥kÍ d`k (B) XXVIII vks¥fEid` [s¥kÍ d`k (C) XXVII vks¥fEid` [s¥kÍ d`k (D) XXX vks¥fEid` [s¥kÍ d`k jkÆV_ifr Hou d`k fMtkbu cuk;k ƒk% (A) ,MoMZ LVksu us (B) ¥s d`kcwZts us (C) ,Mfou ¥qfV;al us (D) r:. n® us ‘Hkjr NksÈMks’ vkUnks¥u 1942 eÍ fd`l eghus eÍ æqÔ fd`;k x;k ƒk = (A) tuojh (B) ekpZ (C) vxLr (D) fnlEcj fe¥ku d`hft,% LrEH-I (a) ds`æc lsu (b) n;kuan ljLorh (c) vkRekjke ik≥Mqjax (d) lS;n vgen [ku LrEH-II 1. ^kƒZuk lekt 2. cz© lekt 3. v¥hxÈ< vkUnks¥u 4. vk;Z lekt

(A) (B) (C) (D) 23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

laln ds` nksukÍ lnukÍ }kjk ukfer 37. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSuls cjkcj o"kZ d`ksbZ O;fDr ok¥s LƒkukÍ d`ks tksÈMus ok¥h js[k,a nækZrs gß = (B) ¥ksd` lHk d`k v÷;” (A) vkblksfgIl (C) jkT; lHk d`k milHkifr (B) vkblksgs¥kbUt (D) Hkjr d`k eq“; U;k;k|hæ (C) vkblksckj Hkjrh; jkÆV_h; d`kaxzsl d`k ig¥k 31. Hkjrh; lafo|ku ¥kxw gqvk ƒk% (D) vkblksgkbVlΩ vaxzst v÷;” d`kSu ƒk = (A) 26 tuojh] 1950 d`ks (A) tkWtZ ;w¥ 38. fo"qor (Equator) js[k gS% (B) 26 tuojh] 1952 d`ks (B) fof¥;e osMjcuZ (A) m®j vkSj nf”. |zqokÍ d`ks tksÈMus (C) 15 vxLr] 1948 d`ks ok¥h js[k (C) ,\ vks\ Ìwe (D) 26 uoEcj] 1949 d`ks (B) m®j vkSj nf”. |zqokÍ ds` chpks(D) gsujh d`kWVu 32. LorU( Hkjr eÍ fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls chp i~Foh ds` fxnZ ?weus ok¥h d`kYifud` fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l O;fDr d`ks d`kSulh efg¥k fd`lh jkT; d`h ig¥h js[k ‘xzßM vksYM eSu vkWœ` bf≥M;k’ ds` Ôi jkT;ik¥ ƒh = (C) æfu xzg ds` fxnZ ,d` es[¥k eÍ tkuk tkrk gS = (A) Jherh ljksftuh uk;Mw (D) i~Foh ds` ?w.Zu d`k v” (A) ck¥ xaxk|j fr¥d` (B) Jherh lqpsrk Î`i¥kuh 39. oSf'od` rkiu (Global Warming) (B) nknkHkbZ ukSjksth (C) Jherh bfUnjk xka|h ds` œ`¥LoÔi gks ld`rk gS% (C) eksrh¥k¥ usgÔ (D) Jherh fot;¥{eh iafMr (A) leqnz r¥ eÍ o~f* (D) ¥k¥k ¥ktir jk; 33. Hkjr ds` fu;U(d` vkSj egk¥s[k (B) œ`l¥ ds` LoÔi eÍ ifjorZu vd`cjukek fd`lus f¥[k ƒk = ijh”d` d`h fjiksVZ d`h laoh”k d`jus (C) rV js[k eÍ ifjorZu ok¥h lalnh; lfefr gS% (A) vd`cj (D) mi;qZDr lHh (B) chjc¥ (A) vkd`¥u lfefr (Estimates Committee) 40. i~Foh fæ[j lEes¥u ·i~Foh cpkvks‚ (C) vcq¥ œ`t¥ d`k vk;kstu fd`;k ƒk% (D) Hxoku nkl (B) ^oj lfefr (Select Committee) (A) ;wusLd`ks us ‘iw.Z Lojkt’ d`h æiƒ d`kaxzsl ds` (C) ¥ks d ` ¥s [ k lfefr (Public (B) ;w,ulhbZMh us fd`l vf|osæu eÍ ¥h xbZ ƒh = Accounts Committee) (C) MCY;w\ ,p\ vks\ us (A) d`¥d`®k (D) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ Hh ugÓ (D) ;wfulsœ` us (B) ¥kgkSj 34. dq`gjk (Fog) ,d` mnkgj. gS% (C) b¥kgkckn 41. ;fn nks oLrq,a iwjd` gkÍ] rks mud`h (A) xSl eÍ ifjf”Ir xSl d`k ∂`kWl-d`her ^R;kLƒrk (Cross price (D) enzkl elasticity) gksrh gS% (B) xSl eÍ ifjf”Ir nzo d`k Hkjr eÍ iapk;rh jkt ^.k¥h d`c (A) æwU; (Zero) (C) xSl eÍ ifjf”Ir Bksl d`k æqÔ d`h xbZ ƒh = (B) |ukRed` (Positive) (D) nzo eÍ ifjf”Ir Bksl d`k (A) 1950 bZLoh (C) )`.kRed` (Negative) (B) 1945 bZLoh 35. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls og lkxj d`kSulk (D) d`kYifud` la“;k (Imaginary (C) 1959 bZLoh gS] tks Hwc* (Landlocked) gS = number) (D) 1962 bZLoh (A) freksj lkxj 42. fd`lh oLrq ds` mRiknu d`h volj (B) vjkœq`jk lkxj Hkjr ds` mijkÆV_ifr ds` in ij ¥kxr gksrh gS% ¥xkrkj nks ckj d`kSu jgk ƒk = (C) xzhu¥S≥M lkxj (A) og ¥kxr tks d`ksbZ fHUu rd`uhd` (A) MkW\ ,l\ jk|kÎ`Æ.u (D) vj¥ lkxj viukus ij œ`eZ mBk ld`rh ƒh (B) Jh vkj\ oÍd`Vje. 36. fe¥ku d`hft,% (B) og ¥kxr tks mRiknu d`h fd`lh (C) MkW\ æad`jn;k¥ æekZ i®u jkT; fHUu fof| ds` vUrxZr œ`eZ mBk ld`rh (D) Jh oh\ oh\ fxfj (a) HVd`¥ 1. ds`j¥ ƒh Hkjrh; lafo|ku ds` fd`l laæks|u (b) ,s¥sIih 2. rfe¥ukMq (C) mBkbZ xbZ okLrfod` ¥kxr }kjk ^Lrkouk eÍ nks æCn ‘lektoknh’ (c) d`kd`hukMk 3. d`ukZVd` (D) R;kxk x;k vx¥k loks Z ® e (Socialist) vkSj ‘|eZfujis”’ (Secu(d) rwrhd`ksfju 4. vkU|z ^nsæ oSd`fYid` mRiknu lar) tksÈMs x, ƒs = (a) (b) (c) (d) 43. vYikof| eÍ Hwfe ls fHUu fd`lh vU; (A) 28oÍ (B) 40oÍ (A) 1 3 4 2 miknku }kjk vftZr vf|æs" d`ks (C) 42oÍ (D) 52oÍ d`grs gß% (B) 4 3 2 1 tc jkÆV_ifr vkSj mijkÆV_ifr nksukÍ (A) vkfƒZd` ¥xku (Economic rent) (C) 3 1 4 2 ds` in ,d` lkƒ [k¥h gkÍ] rks in ij (B) fuo¥ ¥xku (Net rent) vLƒk;h Ôi ls d`kSu d`ke d`jrk gS`= (D) 2 4 1 3

(a) 4 1 2 3

(b) 1 4 4 2

(c) 3 2 1 4

(d) 2 3 3 1

(A)

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/756

44.

45.

46.

47.

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49.

fd`lh nsæ d`k fuo¥ jkÆV_h; mRikn 58. vUu (Cereals) ,d` le~* lzksr gksrs gksrk gS% gß% (A) ld`¥ ?js¥w mRikn eÍ ewY; (A) LVkpZ ds` Ökl H®s ?Vkd`j (B) X¥wd`ksl ds` ;kstuk vk;ksx d`k insu v÷;” d`kSu (B) ld`¥ ?js¥w mRikn eÍ fonsækÍ ls gS = (C) ≠`DVksl ds` fuo¥ vk; tksÈMd`j (A) ;kstuk vkSj fod`kl ea(h (D) ekYVksl ds` (C) ld`¥ jkÆV_h; mRikn eÍ ls fonsækÍ (B) fo® ea(h 59. ,fLifju lk|kj. uke gS% ls fuo¥ vk; ?Vkd`j (C) ^|kuea(h (A) lSf¥flf¥d` ,flM d`k (D) ld`¥ jkÆV_h; mRikn eÍ ls ewY; (D) xzkeh. vkSj lkeqnkf;d` fod`kl (B) lSf¥fl¥sV d`k Ökl H®s ?Vkd`j ea(h (C) eSfƒ¥ lSf¥fl¥sV d`k fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls ml fLƒfr eÍ d`kSulh 51. ihf¥;k (Jaundice) fd`lds` la∂`e. (D) ,sflfV¥ lSf¥flf¥d` ,flM d`k ckr lgh ugÓ gS] tc vƒZO;oLƒk eÍ ds` d`kj. gksrk gS = C;kt nj ˜∑ph gks tkrh gS = 60. pspd` (Small Pox) gksus d`k d`kj. (A) efLrÆd` (Brain) gS% (A) cpr cÈ< tkrh gS (B) ;Î`r (Liver) (A) :fcvks¥k okbjl (B) m|kj nsuk d`e gks tkrk gS (C) o~Dd` (Kidney) (B) oSfjvks¥k okbjl (C) mRiknu d`h ¥kxr cÈ< tkrh gS (D) I¥hgk (Spleen) (C) oSfjls¥k (D) iw∑th d`k ^frœ`¥ cÈ< tkrk gS 52. lkekU; O;fDr eÍ fn¥ d`h |ÈMd`u (D) feDlksokbjl fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulh jkÆV_h; d`h vkSlr nj gksrh gS% vk; ds` ekiu d`h fof| ugÓ gS = 61. d`kcZu eksuksDlkbM ,d` To¥uæh¥ (A) 82 (B) 92 xSl (Inflammable gas) gS\ fuEu(A) ewY; of|Zr fof| (Value Added (C) 72 (D) 98 f¥f[r eÍ ls vkSj d`kSulh xSl Method) 53. bZbZth (EEG) d`k ^;ksx fd`ld`h To¥uæh¥ gS = (B) vk; fof| (Income Method) xfrfof| ntZ d`jus ds` f¥, fd`;k (A) ghf¥;e (B) ukbV_kstu (C) fuosæ fof| (Investment tkrk gS = (C) vkWDlhtu (D) gkbM_kstu Method) (A) ≤n; (Heart) (D) O;; fof| (Expenditure 62. ok;oh; 'olu (Aerobic Respira(B) œs`œ`ÈMs (Lungs) Method) tion) ^f∂`;k d`ks pkfg,% (C) efLrÆd` (Brain) (A) ˜Æek (Heat) Je-^|ku rd`uhd` (Labour Inten(D) ekalisfæ;k∑ (Muscles) sive Technique) pquh tk,xh% (B) t¥ (Water) 54. xk; ds` nw| d`k jax fd`ld`h ekStwnxh (A) Je vf|æs" ok¥h vƒZO;oLƒk eÍ (C) vkWDlhtu (Oxygen) ds` d`kj. ƒksÈMk ih¥k gksrk gS = (B) iw∑th vf|æs" ok¥h vƒZO;oLƒk eÍ (D) lw;Z d`h jksæuh (Sunlight) (A) t߃ksfœ`¥ (B) jkbcksŒ¥sfou (C) fod`flr vƒZO;oLƒk eÍ 63. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ d`kSulh |krq t¥ ds` (C) jkbC;w¥ksl (D) dS`jksfVu (D) fod`klæh¥ vƒZO;oLƒk eÍ lkƒ vfHf∂`;k d`jds` gkbM_kstu iSnk 55. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk jksx la∂`ked` ugÓ d`jrh = fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulh vkfƒZd` gS = (A) iksVSfæ;e (B) dS`Mfe;e f∂`;k ugÓ cusxh = (A) e|qesg (Diabetes) (C) lksfM;e (D) ¥hfƒ;e (A) viuh d`”k eÍ Nk(kÍ d`ks iÈ<k (B) fMIƒhfj;k (Diphtheria) jgk v÷;kid` 64. vkstksu eÍ gksrh gS% (C) xfB;k (Arthritis) (B) loZ fæ”k vfH;ku ds` vUrxZr (A) ds`o¥ vkWDlhtu Nk(kÍ d`ks iÈ<k jgk v÷;kid` (D) dß`lj (Cancer) (B) vkWDlhtu vkSj ukbV_kstu (C) ?j eÍ viuh csVh d`ks iÈ<k jgk 56. vjDrrk (Anaemia) eÍ fuEuf¥f[r (C) gkbM_kstu vkSj d`kcZu v÷;kid` eÍ ls fd`ld`h ek(k d`e gks tkrh gS = (D) vkWDlhtu vkSj d`kcZu (D) vius fuokl ls ijkeæZ lsok,a (A) gheksX¥ksfcu mi¥C| d`jk jgk v÷;kid` 65. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l nzo d`k ?uRo (B) d`ks¥Stu lcls d`e gS = fo® vk;ksx (The Finance Commis(C) gkbvksX¥ksfcu (A) LoPN t¥ (Fresh water) sion)% (D) ek;ksflu (B) ued`hu t¥ (Salt water) (A) iapo"hZ; ;kstuk,a cukrk gS 57. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ d`kSulk jksx ^k;# ok;q (C) isV_ks¥ (Petrol) (B) ekSfnzd` uhfr rS;kj d`jrk gS ds` ek÷;e ls œS`¥rk gS = (D) edZ`jh (Mercury) (C) ds`Unzh; ljd`kj ds` d`eZpkfj;kÍ (A) I¥sx ds` osru eÍ laæks|u d`h flœ`kfjæ 66. ‘U;wure rkieku’ (Low-tempera(B) Vk;œ`kWbM d`jrk gS tures) iSnk d`jus ds` f¥, fuEuf¥f[r (C) VΩ;wcjdq`¥ksfll (D) lalk|ukÍ ds` ds`Unz vkSj jkT;kÍ ds` eÍ ls fd`l fl*kUr d`k ^;ksx fd`;k chp c∑Vokjs ij fu.Z; ¥srk gS (D) gStk tkrk gS =

(C) vkHklh ¥xku (Quasi rent) (D) vf| lkekU; ¥xku (Supernormal rent)

50.

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/757

67.

68.

69.

70.

71.

72.

ok;qe≥M¥ eÍ ftl vkstksu fNnz (Ozone hole) d`k irk ¥xk;k x;k gS] og d`gk∑ fLƒr gS = (A) vkdZ`fVd` egklkxj ds` ˜ij (B) vUVkdZ`fVd`k ds` ˜ij (C) Hkjr ds` ˜ij (D) v¥kLd`k ds` ˜ij 74. ^frHk i¥k;u (Brain drain)% ^d`kæ fo»qrΩ (Photo-electric) ls¥ (A) ,d` jksx gS cn¥rk gS% (B) æSf”d` rƒk rd`uhd`h laLƒkvkÍ (A) ;kfU(d` ˜tkZ d`ks oS»qr ˜tkZ eÍ ls fojr Nk(kÍ d`ks d`grs gß (B) rki ˜tkZ d`ks ;kfU(d` ˜tkZ eÍ (C) oSKkfud` vkSj vkS»ksfxd` vuqlU|ku ij O;ƒZ d`k [pkZ gS (C) ^d`kæ ˜tkZ d`ks jklk;fud` ˜tkZ eÍ (D) dq`æ¥ d`feZ;kÍ ds` mR^oklu (Emigration) d`ks d`grs gß (D) ^d`kæ ˜tkZ d`ks oS»qr ˜tkZ eÍ fHUu-fHUu nzO;eku ds` nks iRƒjkÍ d`ks 75. jkÆV_h; ÷ot ds` |eZp∂` eÍ fd`ruh js[k,a gß = ,d` Hou ds` fæ[j ls ,d` lkƒ fxjk;k x;k% (A) 22 (B) 24 (A) NksVk iRƒj tehu ij ig¥s (C) 18 (D) 14 igq∑prk gS m®j O;k“;k lfgr (B) cÈMk iRƒj tehu ij ig¥s igq∑prk gS (C) nksukÍ iRƒj tehu ij ,d` lkƒ igq∑prs gß (D) iRƒj d`h jpuk ij fuHZj d`jrk gS iYlj gksrs gß% (A) i~Foh d`h vksj tk jgs rkjs (B) i~Foh ls nwj tk jgs rkjs (C) rsth ls ?weus ok¥s rkjs (D) mPp rkieku ok¥s rkjs lkSj ifjokj (Solar System) d`k lcls cÈMk xzg gS% (A) i~Foh (Earth) (B) eax¥ (Mars) (C) æfu (Saturn) (D) c~gLifr (Jupiter) ‘usæu¥ Ldw`¥ vkWœ` M_kek’ fuEu●●● f¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l ægj eÍ fLƒr gS = æs" i~ÆB 715 d`k (A) eqEcbZ (B) ubZ fnY¥h (C) Hksik¥ (D) d`ks¥d`krk fu;qDr fd`,\ blds` lkƒ vuq"axh laLƒk gekjk jkÆV_xku ig¥h ckj d`c vkSj tsEl (Global Environmental Monitoring System) Hh d`k;ZjrΩ gS\ d`gk∑ xk;k x;k ƒk = lalk|u laj”. d`h ^f∂`;k ds` vUrxZr (A) 24 tuojh] 1950 d`ks b¥kgkckn fuEuf¥f[r pkj ^eq[ pj. vkrs gß% eÍ ^ƒe%ikfjfLƒfrd` ”s( d`k p;u (B) 24 tuojh] 1950 d`ks fnY¥h eÍ f}rh;%i;kZoj. fæ”k o æks| (C) 26 fnlEcj] 1942 d`ks d`¥d`®k r~rh;%i;kZoj. ikfjfLƒfrd`h Ökl eÍ d`k ewY;kad`u (D) 27 fnlEcj] 1911 d`ks d`¥d`®k prqƒZ%i;kZoj. Ökl jksd`us ds` mik; eÍ

(A) vfrpk¥d`rk (Super conductivity) (B) tw¥-ds`fYou ^Hko (JouleKelvin effect) (C) rki-oS»qr ^Hko (Thermoelectric effect) (D) :*ksÆe fopqEcd`u (Adiabatic demagnetisation)

73.

i;kZoj. Ökl ds` vkd`¥u eÍ ge fuEuf¥f[r nks ^HkokÍ d`ks pqurs gß% ^ƒe%ekuoh; f∂`;kvkÍ o ^kd~`frd` vi?Vu ls mRiUu Ökl i;kZoj.h; Ökl vƒok ud`kjkRed` ifjorZu] tks iwoZ d`h rq¥uk eÍ gqvk gS\ f}rh;%i;kZoj.h; gkfu] Ökl o ifjorZu ls ekuo ds` Hkoh d`Y;k. ij iÈMus ok¥s ^HkokÍ d`k vkd`¥u vƒok ewY;kad`u\ ^ƒe ^d`kj ds` ewY;kad`u eÍ fd`lh Hh ^Lrkfor d`k;Z ds` mijkUr ·^HkoLoÔi‚ ^kd~`frd` i;kZoj. ij iÈMus ok¥s nqÆ^HkokÍ ;k ^kd~`frd` O;oLƒk eÍ ifjorZu ·Ökl‚ d`k vuqeku ¥xkuk gS\ f}rh; ^d`kj ds` ewY;kad`u eÍ ^kd~`frd` i;kZoj. eÍ gksus ok¥s ud`kjkRed` ifjorZu ·Ökl‚ ls ekuo lekt ds` d`Y;k. d`ks ^Hkfor d`jus ok¥s ifjorZukÍ d`k ewY;kad`u d`juk gksrk gS\ fo'o eÍ loZ^ƒe i;kZoj. Ökl ds` ^Hko d`k ewY;kad`u vejhd`k eÍ jkÆV_ h ; i;kZ o j. uhfr vf|fu;e
(National Environment Policy Act– 1969) eÍ fd`;k x;k\ bl vf|fu;e ds`

^eq[ ?Vd` ¥{; ƒs% (1) i;kZoj. xq.o®k ifj"nΩ (Couno tkx~fr iSnk d`juk\ (3) i;kZoj. d`h xq.o®k cuk, j[uk rƒk ekuoh; d`Y;k. gsrq ^;kl\ (4) i;kZoj.] ekuo ds` e÷; leUo; gsrq jkÆV_h; uhfr fuekZ.\ i;kZoj. leL;k] fo'oLrjh; leL;k gS\ fd`lh Hh ”s( ds` i;kZoj.h; vi?Vu ,oa ”fr d`k ^Hko lEiw.Z fo'o ij iÈMrk gS\ CFC ds` vf|d` mRltZu ;wjksi ,oa vejhd`k eÍ vf|d` gq,] ¥sfd`u vUVkdZ`fVd`k ds` ˜ij vkstksu fNnz gksus ls lEiw.Z i~Foh ij ^Hko ns[us d`ks fe¥s\ nh?Zd`k¥ eÍ gksus ok¥h i;kZoj.h; gkfu ds` ewY; ij O;; ¥kxr d`e gksrh gS\ d`¥d`®k fo'ofo»k¥; ds` MkW\ ds`\ Vh\ nkl us vius i;kZoj.h; vuqla|ku ls ;g fl* fd`;k fd` o~”kÍ d`k eq“; mRiknu vkWDlhtu gS\ o~”kÍ ds` vU; mRikn%(1) ok;q ^nw". ^frjks|] (2) ÷ofu ^nw". ^frjks | ] (3) Hw-”j. ^frjks|] (4) ^ksVhu mRiknu] (5) olk mRiknu\ MkW\ nkl us vius fo'oLrjh; i;kZoj.h; vuqla|ku ls `fl* fd`;k fd` vkSlr vk;q ds` LoLƒ o~” ds` d`kVus ij 0·3 ^frær gh mRiknu ¥d`ÈMh ds` Ôi eÍ ge ^kIr d`jrs gß vkSj o~” ds` 99·7 ^frær vU; mRiknkÍ ls ge oafpr jg tkrs gß\
●●● cil on Environmental Quality) (2) i;kZoj.h; lEink d`k ^lkj

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/758

ih\,u\ch\ Î`f" vf|d`kjh ijh{kk] 16-8-2009 d`k g¥ iz'u-i(

12.

O;kolkf;d` Kku ·vƒZækL(‚
·Le~fr ij vk|kfjr‚
01.

02.

03.

04.

05.

ls d`k fu;e d`grk gS% (A) ek∑x Lo;a viuh vkiwfrZ mRiUu d`jrh gS (B) vkiwfrZ Lo;a viuh ek∑x mRiUu d`jrh gS (C) ek∑x Lo;a viuh ek∑x mRiUu d`jrh gS (D) vkiwfrZ Lo;a viuh vkiwfrZ mRiUu d`jrh gS (E) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ ekYƒl ds` tula“;k fl*kUr d`k vk|kj gS% (A) tula“;k d`h gjkRed` Js.h (B) [k» mRiknu d`h xq.ks®j Js.h (C) tula“;k d`h lekUrj Js.h (D) tula“;k d`h xq.ks®j Js.h (E) mi;qZDr lHh xzsæe d`k fu;e d`grk gS% (A) vPNh eqnzk] cqjh eqnzk d`ks p¥u ls ckgj d`j nsrh gS (B) cqjh eqnzk vPNh eqnzk d`ks p¥u ls ckgj d`j nsrh gS (C) nksukÍ] vPNh eqnzk vkSj cqjh eqnzk d`k lg-vfLrRo gks ld`rk gS (D) u gh vPNh eqnzk vkSj u gh cqjh eqnzk ¥Ecs le; rd` p¥u eÍ jg ld`rh gS (E) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ eqnzk-voLœ`hfr d`k lzksr gS% (A) okLrfod` lsDVj (B) vkfƒZd` lsDVj (C) lsok lsDVj (D) d`iÈMk lsDVj ,d` ^fr;ksfxrkRed` œ`eZ ¥kH cÈ<krh gS] tc%
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) MR = AR MR = MC MC = AC MC = AR

07.

08.

09.

10.

11.

mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ

06. ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙

ds` d`kj. cktkj eÍ ‘lqij ukeZ¥’ ¥kH cÈ< ld`rk gS\ (A) lwpuk d`h vlaxrrk

lwpuk ij ^frcU| ek(k ij ^frcU| ewY; ij ^frcU| mi;qZDr lHh ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙ ds` }kjk ¥kH gksrk gS\ (A) vƒZuhfr eÍ lf∂`; rRo (B) uohuhd`j. (C) v^R;kfær ¥kH (D) mi;qZDr lHh (E) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ C;kt ns; gksrk gS% (A) eqnzk Lœ`hfr d`h ”fr iwfrZ gsrq (B) HfoÆ; d`h lkexzh ij orZeku d`h JsÆBrk gsrq (C) D;kÍfd` eqnzk d`h ek∑x mld`h vkiwfrZ d`ks ihNs NksÈM nsrh gS (D) okLrfod` lsDVj d`h o~f* d`ks lqfuf'pr d`juk (E) mi;qZDr lHh fuosæ d`h ifjHk"k gS% (A) O;olk; eÍ |u ¥xkuk (B) C;kt nsus ok¥s ckW≥MΩl [jhnuk (C) iw∑th ds` lap; eÍ cn¥ko (D) mi;qZDr lHh (E) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ vehjkÍ d`k vuqRiknd` fuosæ gS% (A) xjhckÍ d`ks jkstxkj d`h vko';d`rk (B) vkfƒZd` lao*Zu eÍ :d`koV (C) vƒZuhfr ij d`ksbZ ftEesnkjh u gksuk (D) ds`o¥ vehjkÍ d`h vƒZuhfr ds` ^fr ftEesnkj gksuk (E) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ gsDæj-vksgf¥u fl*kUr D;k le>krk gS = (A) nsækÍ ds` fj¥sfVo œS`DVj ,aMksesUVΩl ds` lUnHZ eÍ O;kikj d`k iSVuZ (B) d`ksbZ nsæ ,sls mRiknkÍ d`h vk;kr D;kÍ d`jsxk tks nsæ ds` Lds`lZ œS`DVj d`k cÈMs iSekus ij bLrsek¥ d`jrs gß (C) rq¥ukRed` ¥kxr d`k fu;e (D) ijLij ek∑x d`h lad`Yiuk (E) mi;qZDr lHh

(B) (C) (D) (E)

13.

14.

15.

16.

‘Doklh-jsUV’% (A) fu#æqYd` migkjkÍ ds` LoÔi eÍ gksrs gß (B) mRiknu ds` lHh œS`DVlZ d`ks ¥kxw gks ld`rs gß (C) ekftZu¥ œ`eZ ds` fjVUlZ ls vf|d` ds` œ`eZ ds` lkjs fjVUlZ bueÍ ækfe¥ gksrs gß (D) mi;qZDr lHh (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ buΩfMœ`jUl d`oZ rd`uhd` vko';d`r#% (A) ,d` d`kfMZu¥ n~fÆVd`ks. gS (B) ,d` vkWfMZu¥ n~fÆVd`ks. gS (C) ,d` Doklh-vkWfMZu¥ n~fÆVd`ks. gS (D) mi;qZDr lHh (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ buΩfMœ`jUl d`oZ d`k L¥ksi D;k nækZrk gS = (A) nks oLrqvkÍ ds` lfCLVVΩ;wæu d`h ekftZu¥ nj (B) ,d` oLrq d`h ekftZu¥ ;wVhf¥Vh d`k nwljh ls vuqikr (C) (A) vkSj (B) nksukÍ (D) ,d` oLrq d`h VksV¥ ;wfVf¥Vh d`k nwljh ls vuqikr (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ vUrjkZÆV_h; O;kikj fl*kUr eÍ ‘ikl ƒzw’ d`k vƒZ gS% (A) fu;kZr vkSj vk;kr ^kbl pÍt eÍ fjŒ¥sDVsM ,DlpÍt jsV pÍt d`k vuqikr (B) fd`lh VSfjœ` cSfj;j d`k lkeuk ugÓ d`j jgs gkÍ ,sls fu;kZr vkSj vk;kr (C) fd`lh rd`uhd`h cS f j;j d`k lkeuk ugÓ d`j jgs gks ,sls fu;kZr vkSj vk;kr (D) mi;qZDr lHh (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ eYVh¥SVj¥ V_sM okrkZ d`k ;wÔXos jkmaM% (A) 1986 eÍ æqÔ gqvk vkSj 1993 ds` vUr eÍ iwjk gqvk (B) d`k ¥{; ƒk uksu-VSfjœ` V_sM cSfj;lZ ds` jkb¯tx V_ÍM d`ks fjolZ d`juk (C) us GATT d`ks WTO ls fjI¥sl fd`;k (D) WTO eÍ lsokvkÍ vkSj Î`f" d`ks ¥k;k (E) mi;qZDr lHh

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/759

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

vUrjkZÆV_h; O;kikj fl*kUr eÍ ^ksMDV lkbd`¥ ekWM¥ ·oukZu] 1966)% (A) VsDuk¥kftd`¥ xSi ekWM¥ d`k ,d` ,DLVsUæu gS (B) gsDæj-vksgΩf¥u ekWM¥ d`k ,d` ,DLVsUæu gS (C) u;s ^ksMDV vkSj ^ksMDæu ds` u;s ^kslslkÍ d`k Mk;ukfed` d`EisjsfVo ,MokaVst le>krk gS (D) mi;qZDr lHh (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ œ`kWjsDl ekdsZ`V eÍ gsMΩ¯tx vkSj LisD;q¥sæu% (A) fojks|h xfrfof|;k∑ gß (B) lekukUrj xfrfof|;k∑ gß (C) leku xfrfof|;k∑ gß (D) mi;qZDr lHh (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ d`jÍlh LoSi D;k gksrk gS`= (A) ,d` gh laO;ogkj ds` ,d` Hkx ds` Ôi eÍ ,d` d`jÍlh d`k gkftj fo∂`; vkSj lkƒ gh mlh d`jÍlh d`k œ`ksjoMZ iqu# ∂`; (B) ,d` gh laO;ogkj ds` ,d` Hkx ds` Ôi eÍ ,d` d`jÍlh d`k œ`ksjoMZ fo∂`; vkSj lkƒ gh mlh d`jÍlh d`k œ`ksjoMZ iqu# ∂`; (C) nks v¥x-v¥x laO;ogkjkÍ eÍ ,d` d`jÍlh d`k œ`ksjoMZ fo∂`; vkSj lkƒ gh mlh d`jÍlh d`k œ`ksjoMZ iqu# ∂`; (D) mi;qZDr lHh (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ Hkjr eÍ ifC¥d`-^kbosV ikVZujfæi ifj;kstuk,a vf|d`kaær# fuEuf¥f[r ls lEcfU|r gß% (A) gokbZ vMΩMs (B) cUnjxkg (C) js¥os (D) lÈMd` (E) ægjh fod`kl Hkjr ds` vYikof| eqnzk cktkj eÍ fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l lsxeÍV d`k fgLlk lcls cÈMk gS = (A) d`ks¥sVjkbTM cksjksbax ,≥M ¥ß¯Mx vksfC¥xsæu (CBLO) (B) V_sfMæu¥ fjiks (C) D¥h;jd`kiZ fjiks vksoj eS¯px flLVe (CROMS) (D) d`kW¥ (E) vU; CSO ds` laæksf|r vuqeku ds ` vuqlkj] œS`DVj d`ksLV ij 2008-09 eÍ Hkjr eÍ GDP …… ƒk\

23.

24.

25.

26.

d`jksÈM :i, d`jksÈM :i, d`jksÈM :i, d`jksÈM :i, bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ e÷;kÕ Hkstu ;kstuk% (A) d`k fu|h;u ds`Unz }kjk fd`;k x;k gS vkSj ;g fo'o eÍ lcls cÈMh Ldw`¥ Hkstu ;kstuk gS (B) ljd`kjh vkSj ljd`kjh lgk;rk ^kIr Ldw`¥ eÍ ^R;sd` cPps d`ks Ldw`¥ ds` ^R;sd` fnu d`e-ls-d`e 300 dS`¥ksjh vkSj 8–12 xzke ^ksVhu] d`e-ls-d`e 200 fnu ds` f¥, mi¥C| d`jkrh gS (C) ¥xHx 120 fef¥;u cPpkÍ d`ks Hkstu mi¥C| d`jkrh gS (D) mi;qZDr lHh (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ ba';qjUl isusV_sæu d`h ifjHk"k fuEukuqlkj gS% (A) ,d` o"Z eÍ vaMjfjVu ^hfe;e d`k GDP ls vuqikr (B) ,d` o"Z eÍ vaMjfjVu ^hfe;e d`k dq`¥ tula“;k ls vuqikr (C) ,d` o"Z eÍ b';qjUl lCL∂`kbZclZ d`k dq`¥ tula“;k ls vuqikr (D) ,d` o"Z ikf¥lh|kjd`kÍ d`h dq`¥ la“;k d`k dq`¥ tula“;k ls vuqikr (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ ba';qjUl MsfUlVh d`h ifjHk"k fuEukuqlkj gS% (A) ,d` o"Z eÍ vaMjfjVu ^hfe;e d`k GDP ls vuqikr (B) ,d` o"Z eÍ vaMjfjVu ^hfe;e d`k dq`¥ tula“;k ls vuqikr (C) ,d` o"Z eÍ b';qjUl lCL∂`kbclZ d`k dq`¥ tula“;k ls vuqikr (D) ,d` o"Z ikf¥lh|kjd`kÍ d`h dq`¥ la“;k d`k dq`¥ tula“;k ls vuqikr (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ œ`l¥kÍ ds` U;wure leƒZu ewY; d`h flœ`kfjæ ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙ }kjk d`h tkrh gS\ (A) ;kstuk vk;ksx] Hkjr (B) Î`f" ¥kxr vkSj ewY; vk;ksx
(CACP) (C) fo® vk;ksx] Hkjr (D) Î`"d` vk;ksx] Hkjr (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

28,71,120 31,29,717 33,39,375 44,82,436

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

27.

fo»qrΩ ·laæks|u‚ vf|fu;e] 2007% (A) us dS`fIVo ;wfuVkÍ ds` fo∂`; gsrq ¥kblÍl d`h vko';d`rk lekIr d`j nh

(B) xk∑okÍ vkSj cktkjkÍ lfgr lHh ”s(kÍ eÍ ,Dlsl nsus ds` f¥, ds`Unz vkSj jkT; ljd`kj }kjk la;qDr ^;kl d`jus d`k bleÍ ^ko|ku gS (C) nLrankt ehVjkÍ d`ks mi;ksx d`ks vkofjr d`jus ds` f¥, bleÍ pksjh d`h ifjHk"k d`k foLrkj fd`;k gS (D) mi;qZDr lHh (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ vƒZO;oLƒk eÍ eanh ds` le; jktd`ks"h; uhfr ld`¥ ek∑x d`ks ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙ ^Hkfor d`j ld`rh gS\ (A) foosd`k|hu rRo (B) xSj-foosd`k|hu rRo (C) d`j d`h njÍ ?Vkd`j (D) mi;qZDr lHh (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ rsjgoÍ fo® vk;ksx d`k v÷;” d`kSu gS`= (A) MkW\ jaxjktu (B) MkW\ fot; ,¥\ ds`¥d`j (C) MkW\ lqjsæ rÍMq¥d`j (D) MkW\ lh\ ,p\ guqear jko (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ lkafo|kfud` Ôi ls ekU; fud`k;% (A) ;kstuk vk;ksx (B) fo® vk;ksx (C) œ`ksjoMZ vk;ksx (D) Î`"d` vk;ksx (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ fuEuf¥f[r mˆs'; ·mˆs';kÍ‚ ls vxLr 2007 eÍ Hkjr ljd`kj us jkÆV_h; Î`f" fod`kl ;kstuk vkjEH d`h ƒh% (A) Î`f" vkSj lEc* f∂`;kd`¥kikÍ eÍ ¥ksd` fuosæ cÈ<kus ds` f¥, jkT;kÍ d`ks ^ksRlkfgr d`jus (B) ;g lqfuf'pr d`jus ds` f¥, fd` Lƒkuh; tÔjrÍ/œ`l¥Í/^kƒfed`rkvkÍ eÍ csgrjh gks (C) egRoiw.Z œ`l¥kÍ eÍ mit vUrjk¥ d`e d`jus ds` ¥{; d`h ^kfIr d`jus (D) mi;qZDr lHh (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ œ`jojh 2009 ds` vkjEH eÍ [k»kUu d`k cœ`j H≥Mkj ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙ ƒk\ (A) 16·2 fef¥;u Vu (B) 20·0 fef¥;u Vu (C) 37·4 fef¥;u Vu (D) 36·2 fef¥;u Vu (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/760

33.

34.

35.

36.

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(D) mi;qZDr lHh fuEuf¥f[r ^;kstu ls Hkjr eÍ ifC¥d` (C) okLrfod` le; tc d`ksosfj;Ul ^kbosV Hkxhnkjh ¥kxw d`h xbZ gS% d`EI;wV fd`;k tkrk gS] ml ij (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ d`ksosfj;Ul d`h oSY;w fuHZj ugÓ d`jrh gS (A) ljd`kjkÍ d`k fo®h; cks> d`e 40. fo'o d`h tula“;k 2·6 ^frær d`h d`jus (D) mi;qZDr lHh nj ls cÈ<rh gS] rks ;g ˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙ eÍ (B) bU≠`kLV_Dpj d`ks vucaM¥ d`j (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ nksxquh gks tk,xh\ nsus ok¥s VsDuk¥kftd`¥ ifjorZu d`ks 38. fjxzsæu ekWMYl eÍ Mfe osfj;scYl d`k (A) 44·34 o"Z (B) 36·92 o"Z fjLikaM d`jus ^;ksx% (C) 29·32 o"Z (D) 26·66 o"Z (C) ek¥ vkSj lsokvkÍ ds` LoÔi d`ks (A) Dokf¥VsfVo¥h estj u gks lds` (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ æq* ifC¥d` ls ^kbosV eÍ cn¥us ,sls bEiksVZUV osfj;scYl d`ks fj^stsUV m®j O;k“;k lfgr (D) mi;qZDr lHh d`jus ds` f¥, gksrk gS (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ (B) Lisflfœ`d` ,fV_C;wVΩl d`k bœs`DV bd`ksuksesfV_d` fo'¥s". eÍ gsVsjkslsMkfLVdS`Ipj d`jus ds` f¥, gksrk gS flVh d`k vƒZ gS% (C) ckbujh osfj;scYl ds` Ôi eÍ (A) ^R;sd` fMLVcZUl VeZ (Vi) ds` gksrk gS f¥, osfj,Ul lHh i ds` f¥, leku gS (D) tula“;k ds` nks lewgkÍ ds` chp (B) ^R;sd` fMLVcZUl VeZ (Vi) ds` d`k Hsn LiÆV d`jus ds` f¥, gksrk gS f¥, osfj,Ul lHh i ds` f¥, leku ugÓ gS (E) mi;qZDr lHh (C) ^R;sd` fMLVcZUl VeZ ds` ^R;sd` 39. bd`ksuksesfV_d` ,uk¥kbfll eÍ ^eq[ tksÈMs ds` f¥, d`ks-osfj,Ul leku gS ?Vd`% (D) ^R;sd` fMLVcZUl VeZ ds` ^R;sd` (A) f¥fu;j d`kafcusæUl gksrs gß tksÈMs ds` f¥, d`ks-osfj,Ul leku ugÓ gS (B) ≠`hMe d`h fMxzhl cÈ<kus eÍ (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ lgk;rk d`jrs gß bd`ksuksesfV_d` fo'¥s". eÍ vkWVksd`ksfj(C) eYVhd`ksfjf¥fu;fjVh d`h gkb ¥sæu d`k vƒZ gS% ●●● fMxzh d`e d`jus eÍ lgk;rk d`jrs gß (A) fofHUu osfj;scYl ds` ewY;kÍ ds` chp d`ksfj¥sæu (B) oSd`fYid` osfj;scYl ds` ewY;kÍ ds` chp d`ksfj¥sæu ijh{kk frfFk%25 vDVwcj] 2009 (C) ,d` gh osfj;sc¥ ds` lDlsflo ewY;kÍ ds` chp d`ksfj¥sæu (D) mi;qZDr lHh (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ fuEuf¥f[r ds` ijh”. ds` f¥, bd`ksuksesfV_d` ekWMYl eÍ MkfoZu-okVlu VsLV ¥kxw fd`;k tkrk gS% (A) ekWM¥ eÍ gsVsjkslsMfLVflVh d`k vfLrRo (B) lßi¥ MkVk eÍ vkVksd`ksfj¥sVsM ,jlZ ds` f¥, ¥s[d`}; # MkW\ ¥k¥ ,oa tSu (C) eYVhd`ksjsf¥fu;fjVh ds` f¥, d`ksM ua\ 1480 ewY; # 245/(D) vkWVksfjxzsflo fMLVcZUlst izeq[ vkd`"Z. (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ ☞ rdZ`æfDr ijh{kk ☞ la“;kRed` ohd`¥h LVsæujh LVksd`kfLVd` ^kslsl fuEuf¥f[r fLƒfr eÍ bl uke ls ;ksX;rk ·MkVk bUVjfizVsæu lfgr‚ tkuk tkrk gS% ☞ English Language (A) le; ds` nkSjku bld`k ehu vkSj ☞ lkekU; lpsrrk osfj;Ul fLƒj jgrk gS (B) Vq Vkbe ihfj;MΩ l ds ` chp ENGLISH EDITION Code No. 1674 Rs. 215/d`ksosfj;Ul d`h oSY;w ds`o¥ Vq Vkbe ihfj;MΩl ds` chp ¥Sx ij fMiÍM mid`kj izd`kæu] vkxjk%2 E-mail : : publisher@upkar.in Website www.upkar.in d`jrh gS

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/761

vkxkeh cßd` ih\vks\] ,e\ch\,\ vkfn ijh”kvkÍ ds` f¥, foæs" g¥ iz'u

16.

m»ksx O;kikj txrΩ
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

flrEcj 2009 ds` e÷; eÍ Hkjr ds` ikl vkjf”r fonsæh eqnzk d`ks" ·Lo.Z o ,lMhvkj lfgr‚ ƒs] ¥xHx% (A) 150 vjc MkW¥j (B) 210 vjc MkW¥j (C) 250 vjc MkW¥j (D) 280 vjc MkW¥j fd`lkukÍ d`h )`. ekœ`h d`h ds`Unz ljd`kj d`h ;kstuk ds` rgrΩ ¥kHkfUor fd`lkukÍ d`h la“;k fd`l jkT; eÍ lokZf|d` jgh gS = (A) m®j ^nsæ (B) vkU|z ^nsæ (C) egkjkÆV_ (D) iatkc ‘vkfl;ku’ (ASEAN) ds` 10 lnL; jkÆV_kÍ eÍ ls fd`lds` lkƒ Hkjr d`k fonsæh O;kikj lokZf|d` gS = (A) ¯lxkiqj (B) e¥sfæ;k (C) ƒkbZ¥S≥M (D) baMksusfæ;k cksbax foeku d`Eiuh fd`l nsæ d`h d`Eiuh gS = (A) vejhd`k (B) ≠`kal (C) fczVsu (D) fLoVΩtj¥S≥M ‘fofæÆV igpku la“;k ^kf|d`j.’ ds` v÷;” uanu uh¥sd`f. lkWŒVos;j ”s( d`h fd`l d`Eiuh ls lEc* jgs gß = (A) Vhlh,l (B) baœ`ksfll (C) fo^ks (D) ekb∂`kslkWŒV lh,lvks ds` rktk vkd`¥u ds` vuqlkj pk¥w fo®h; o"Z 2009-10 d`h ig¥h frekgh eÍ Hkjrh; vƒZO;oLƒk eÍ fd`rus ^frær d`h o~f* ntZ d`h xbZ gS = (A) 3·4 ^frær (B) 4·8 ^frær (C) 5·3 ^frær (D) 6·1 ^frær chek ”s( d`h d`Eiuh eSDl U;w;kWdZ` ds` u, czkaM ,EcslMj gß% (A) vfHrkH cPpu (B) ækg:[ [ku (C) egsUnz ¯lg |ksuh (D) lfpu rÍnq¥d`j fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l d`Eiuh ds` lkƒ ,d` rktk vuqca| vks¥fEid` d`kaL; ind` fotsrk eqDds`ckt fotÍnj ¯lg us fd`;k gS] tksfd` fookfnr gks x;k gS =

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

¥ksœ`ktZ bafM;k ,lchvkbZ ¥kbœ` oksMkœ`ksu ijlsIV cqd`j iqjLd`kj fd`l nsæ eÍ ^nku fd`, tkrs gß = (A) vejhd`k (B) fczVsu (C) ≠`kal (D) Hkjr gfj;k.k eÍ u, Hkjrh; ^ca|u laLƒku (IIM) d`h Lƒkiuk fd`l ægj eÍ d`h tk jgh gS = (A) œ`jhnkckn (B) ;equk uxj (C) jksgrd` (D) xqÈMxkao fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l jkT;/ds`Unz ækflr ”s( eÍ ,d` u, jkÆV_h; ^kS»ksfxd`h laLƒku (NIT) d`h Lƒkiuk X;kjgoÓ iapo"hZ; ;kstuk ds` nkSjku ugÓ d`h tkuh gS`= (A) uxk¥S≥M (B) >kj[≥M (C) m®jk[≥M (D) fnY¥h ‘œ`ksClZ’ if(d`k ds` vkd`¥u ds` vuqlkj foxr ,d` o"Z eÍ fd`l f∂`ds`Vj d`h d`ekbZ fo'o eÍ lHh vU; f∂`ds`VjkÍ ls vf|d` jgh gS = (A) egsUnz ¯lg |ksuh (B) lfpu rÍnq¥d`j (C) fjd`h ikͯVx (D) ds`fou ihVjlu v»ru vk∑d`ÈMkÍ ds` vuqlkj baVjusV d`k mi;ksx d`jus ok¥kÍ d`h lokZf|d` la“;k fd`l nsæ eÍ gS = (A) vejhd`k (B) phu (C) Hkjr (D) tkiku nsæ d`h dq`¥ tula“;k ds` ^frær ds` Ôi eÍ baVjusV d`k mi;ksx d`jus ok¥kÍ d`k lokZf|d` ^frær gS% (A) vejhd`k eÍ (B) phu eÍ (C) vkLV_sf¥;k eÍ (D) tkiku eÍ

(A) (B) (C) (D)

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

15.

gk¥ gh eÍ fd`rus lIrkg rd` Hkjr eÍ 22. eqnzkLœ`hfr d`h nj æwU; ls uhps cuh jgh ƒh = (A) 5 lIrkg (B) 9 lIrkg (C) 13 lIrkg (D) 17 lIrkg

Hkjr eÍ ig¥h nwjarks ,Dl^sl js¥xkÈMh fd`u LVsæukÍ ds` chp p¥kbZ xbZ ƒh = (A) psUubZ%fnY¥h (B) psUubZ%eqacbZ (C) eqEcbZ lÍV_¥%fnY¥h (D) fl;k¥nkg%fnY¥h ‘flMch‘ (SIDBI) D;k gS = (A) cßd` (B) chek d`Eiuh (C) E;wpqv¥ œ`≥M (D) ∂s`fMV js¯Vx ,tÍlh ‘oYMZ Mso¥ieÍV fjiksVZ’ uke ls okf"Zd` fjiksVZ d`k ^d`kæu fd`l fo®h; laLƒku }kjk fd`;k tkrk gS = (A) vUrjkZÆV_h; eqnzk d`ks" (B) fo'o cßd` (C) MCY;w Vhs vks (D) vad`VkM (UNCTAD) rj¥rk d`k ^okg cÈ<kus ds` f¥, 250 vjc MkW¥j ds` rqY; ,lMhvkj d`k vkoaVu vUrjkZÆV_h; eqnzk d`ks" us vius lnL; nsækÍ d`ks vxLr 2009 eÍ fd`;k ƒk\ Hkjr d`ks fd`rus vjc MkW¥j bl vkoaVu ds` rgrΩ ^kIr gq, gß = (A) 1·2 vjc MkW¥j (B) 4·8 vjc MkW¥j (C) 7·6 vjc MkW¥j (D) 10·2 vjc MkW¥j vius lalk|ukÍ eÍ o~f* ds` f¥, fd`l fo®h; laLƒku us 400 Vu ls vf|d` lksuk cspus d`k œS`l¥k fd`;k gS = (A) fo'o cßd` (B) ,fæ;kbZ fod`kl cßd` (C) MCY;w Vh vks (D) vUrjkZÆV_h; eqnzk d`ks" oSf'od` fo®h; fLƒfr d`h leh”k ds` f¥, th-20 d`k rktk fæ[j lEes¥u flrEcj 2009 eÍ d`gk∑ vk;ksftr gqvk gS = (A) VksjaVks (B) jkse (C) d`ksisugsxu (D) fiVΩlcxZ ·vejhd`k‚ 55oÍ jkÆV_h; fœ`Ye iqjLd`kjkÍ ds` rgrΩ loZJsÆB fœ`Ye d`k iqjLd`kj ikus ok¥h fœ`Ye ‘d`kaphojeΩ’ fd`l Hk"k d`h gS = (A) fgUnh (B) rs¥qxw (C) e¥;k¥e (D) rfe¥

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/762

23. 55oÍ

jkÆV_h; fœ`Ye iqjLd`kjkÍ ds` rgrΩ jkÆV_h; ,d`rk ij loZJsÆB fœ`Ye d`k ujfxl n® iqjLd`kj fd`l fœ`Ye ds` f¥, fn;k x;k gS = (A) |eZ (B) ≠`kstsu (C) 1971 (D) pd` ns bafM;k 24. ukWjeu cksj¥kWx] ftud`k fu|u flrEcj 2009 eÍ gqvk gS] us fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l ”s( eÍ ;ksxnku ds` f¥, “;kfr ^kIr d`h ƒh = (A) baVjusV (B) ekb∂`ks ∂s`fMV (C) ckSf*d` laink vf|d`kj (D) vf|d` mit nsus ok¥s cht 25. vad`VkM d`h rktk fjiksVZ ds` vuqlkj chrs o"Z 2008 eÍ ,œ`MhvkbZ ^kIr d`jus ok¥s ,fæ;kbZ nsækÍ eÍ Hkjr d`k d`kSulk Lƒku jgk gS = (A) ig¥k (B) nwljk (C) rhljk (D) pkSƒk 26. Hkjr eÍ gk¥ gh eÍ C;kt njkÍ d`k ok;nk d`kjksckj fd`l ,DlpÍt eÍ æqÔ fd`;k x;k gS =
(A) BSE (C) MCX (B) NSE (D) NCDEX

27.

Hkjr eÍ ig¥k bL¥kfed` cßd` fd`l jkT; eÍ Lƒkfir fd`;k tk jgk gS = (A) tEew d`'ehj (B) egkjkÆV_ (C) rfe¥ukMq (D) ds`j¥ 28. ‘bafM;k ,≥M X¥ksc¥ ∂`kblsl’ uke ls gk¥ gh eÍ ^d`kfær iqLrd` fd`lds` }kjk jfpr gS = (A) MkW\ lh\ jaxjktu (B) æad`j vkpk;Z (C) fot; ds`¥d`j (D) lqjsæ rÍnq¥d`j 29. vkBok∑ ^oklh Hkjrh; fnol lEes¥u tuojh 2010 eÍ fd`l ægj eÍ vk;ksftr fd`;k tk,xk = (A) ubZ fnY¥h (B) cax¥kSj (C) gSnjkckn (D) eqEcbZ 30. flrEcj 2009 eÍ ¥SDes œS`æu ohd` d`k vk;kstu fd`l ægj eÍ gqvk ƒk = (A) ubZ fnY¥h (B) cax¥kSj (C) d`ks¥d`krk (D) eqEcbZ

●●●

c|kbZ lansæ
;g cÈMs g"Z d`k fo"; gS fd` gekjs ,d` fu;fer ikBd` Jh ujsUnz pkS|jh d`k `p;u] jktLFkku ¥ksd` lsok vk;ksx }kjk vk;ksftr ijh{kk 2007 ds` vk|kj ij] jktLFkku iqf¥l lsok eÍ fMIVh ,l\ih\ ds` in ij vfUre Ôi ls gks x;k gS\ iwjs jkT; eÍ mUgÍ 25 ok∑ LFkku izkIr gqvk gS\ bl ækunkj lœ`¥rk ds` f¥, ge Jh pkS|jh d`ks gkfnZd` c|kbZ izsf"r d`jrs gß\ lwpukFkZ i( eÍ Jh pkS|jh us f¥[k gS fd` mud`h ;g lœ`¥rk izfr;ksfxrk niZ. d`h csgrjhu v÷;;u lkexzh] okf"Zd`kad` ,oa foKku vkSj jktO;oLFkk ds` vfrfjâ`kad`kÍ ds` lg;ksx vkSj ekxZnæZu ls gqbZ gS\ izfr;ksxh ijh{kkvkÍ ds` f¥, lEiw.Z vko';d` lkexzh mi¥C| d`jkus ok¥h izfr;ksfxrk niZ. if(d`k vius vki eÍ ,d` lEiw.Z if(d`k gS\ ge Jh pkS|jh ds` bu fopkjkÍ ls vfHHwr gß rFkk muds` mTTo¥ HfoÆ; d`h gkfnZd` d`keuk d`jrs gß\ %lEiknd`

m®jek¥k

jkT; æSf{kd` vuqla|ku ,oa izfæ{k. ifj"nΩ }kjk vk;ksftr

ijh{kk frfFk%28 vDVwcj] 2009

¥s[d`}; # MkW\ ¥k¥ ,oa tSu d`ksM ua\ 1491 ewY; # 110/-

+ + + +

^eq[ vkd`"Z.
ekWM¥ ^'u-i( g¥ lfgr HkSfrd` foKku jlk;u foKku tho foKku
Rs. 120/E-mail : publisher@upkar.in Website : www.upkar.in

Code 1676

mid`kj izd`kæu] vkxjk–2
^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/763

m®jk[≥M ¥ksd` lsok vk;ksx ·^k\‚ ijh”k (2006), 9-3-2008 d`k g¥ iz'u-i(

fof|
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∏fof| ækL( vf|jfpr ·fu'p;kRed`‚ fof| d`k næZu gS\π ;g d`ƒu gS— (A) vkWfLVu (B) isVu (C) d`hVu (D) Mk;l ∏fof|ækL( fof| ds` vk|kjHwr fl*kUrkÍ d`k oSKkfud` la'¥s". gS\π ;g fd`lus d`gk ƒk = (A) ,s¥u (B) cSUƒe (C) gkW¥S≥M (D) Mk;l gkjoMZ ¥kW fjO;w eÍ gkVZ-œq`¥j d`h cgl d`k fo"; gS— (A) fof| vkSj lekt (B) fof| vkSj uSfrd`rk (C) fof| vkSj nkf;Ro (D) fof| vkSj U;k; ∏,d` vk∑[ ds` f¥, ,d` vk∑[ rƒk ,d` nk∑r ds` f¥, ,d` nk∑r ·vƒkZrΩ tSls d`ks rSlk‚π fd`l fl*kUr ds` vuqlkj n≥M d`k mˆs'; ƒk = (A) H;d`kjh (Detterrent) fl*kUr (B) fuokj.oknh (Preventive) fl*kUr (C) ^frd`kjijd` (Retributive) fl*kUr (D) lq|kjkRed` (Reformative) fl*kUr lEiw.Z fo'o ds` fo:* lqjf”r fgr d`ks d`gk tkrk gS— (A) lgh vƒksÛ eÍ vf|d`kj (B) lkEif®d` vf|d`kj (C) loZca|h vf|d`kj (D) O;fDrca|h vf|d`kj fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l fof|ækL(h us æk'or fof| (Lex Aeterma), ^kÎ`frd` fof|] (Lex Naturalis), bZ'ojh; fof| (Lex Divina) rƒk ekuo fufeZr (Lex Humana) fof| eÍ foHsn fd`;k gS`= (A) flljks (B) tfLVfu;u (C) lUr ƒkWel ,fDoukl (D) I¥sVks lwph–I d`ks lwph–II ds` lkƒ lqesf¥r d`hft, rƒk lwfp;kÍ ds` uhps fn, x, dw`V d`h lgk;rk ls lgh m®j pqfu, — lwph–I (a) fof|ækL( vf|oDrkvkÍ d`h cfgeqZ[rk gS\ (b) fof| d`k Aksr ¥ksd` psruk gS\ (c) fof| ^kƒfed` ,oa f}rh;d` fu;ekÍ d`k ,sD; gS\

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fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`lus d`gk ƒk fd` fo|ku ‘lekt ds` fo|k;h vaxkÍ d`h vkSipkfjd` vfHO;fDr ·d`ƒu‚ gS= (A) Mk;l (B) ,¥su (C) xzs (D) C¥Sd` LVksu 15. ^“;kr fucU| ‘fMVfeZfuax jsfæ;ks MslhMÍMh vkWœ` ds`l’ ds` ¥s[d` ƒs— (A) xqMgkVZ (B) fouœ`hYM (d) fof|d` O;oLƒk ^knæksÛ d`h Lrwi lajpuk gS\ (C) vksisughe (D) twf¥;l LVksu lwph–II 16. lwph –I d`ks lwph–II ds` lkƒ lqesf¥r 1. gkVZ 2. ds`Ylu d`hft, rƒk lwfp;kÍ ds` uhps fn, x, dw`V d`h lgk;rk ls lgh m®j pqfu, — 3. twf¥;l LVksu 4. lSfouh lwph–I dw`V # (a) ,sfrgkfld` fopkj|kjk (a) (b) (c) (d) (A) 2 1 4 3 (b) fo;uk fopkj|kjk (B) 4 3 1 2 (c) ^kÎ`frd` fof| fopkj|kjk (C) 3 4 1 2 (d) lektækL(h; fopkj|kjk (D) 3 1 4 2 lwph–II 2. LVSe¥j 1. MΩ;wfxV ∏LokfeRo fd`lh oLrq ij iw.Z fu;a(. gS\π ;g ifjHk"k nh xbZ gS— 3. ds`Ylu 4. iqPrk (A) iSVu }kjk dw`V # (a) (b) (c) (d) (B) iks¥d` }kjk (A) 2 4 1 3 (C) gkW¥S≥M }kjk (B) 4 3 2 1 (D) ds`Ylu }kjk (C) 3 1 4 2 fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l fof|ækL(h us (D) 2 3 4 1 fof|d` vf|d`kjkÍ ,oa d`®ZO;kÍ d`h O;k“;k fof|d` lgorhZ ,oa fof|d` fo¥kse ds` Ôi 17. ∏,d`ek( vf|d`kj tks euqÆ; d`k gks ld`rk gS og gS lnSo d`rZO; d`ks d`jus eÍ d`h gS = d`k vf|d`kj\π] ;g d`gk ƒk— (A) gkgœS`YM (B) eÍlœ`hYM (A) jkLd`ks ikm≥M us (C) gkW¥S≥M (D) gksEl (B) bgfjax us lj gsujh esu ds` vuqlkj] vc rd` (C) ,gjf¥p us ^xfræh¥ lektkÍ d`k lap¥u jgk gS— (D) MΩ;wfxV us (A) ^kfLƒfr (Status) ls lkekftd` 18. ∏fof| d`k jkÆV_ ds` lkƒ tUe gksrk gS] lafonk d`h vksj ;g mlh ds` lkƒ cÈ<rh gS] vkSj mlds` (B) ^kÎ`frd` fof| ls vf|jfpr fof| fo?Vu ij lekIr gks tkrh gS vkSj ;g (Positive Law) d`h vksj mld`h ,d` foæs"rk gS\π ;g er gS— (C) ÔfÈ< (Custom) ls fo|k;u d`h vksj (A) ^kÎ`frd` fof| fopkj|kjk d`k (D) ^kfLƒfr ls lafonk (Contract) d`h (B) ,sfrgkfld` fopkj|kjk d`k vksj (C) fo'¥s".kRed` fopkj|kjk d`k ∏fof| d`k ^;kstu lq[ d`ks ^n® d`juk (D) lektækL(h; fopkj|kjk d`k vkSj nq#[ d`k fuokj. d`juk gS\π ;g 19. ‘,d`¥ fuxe’ (Corporate Sole) d`k fd`lus d`gk ƒk = eq“; ^;kstu gS— (A) cSUƒe (B) lke≥M (A) lEif® d`ks vklkuh ls fojklr (C) dS`Ylu (D) gkWCl ;ksX; cukuk ∏lkekftd` ;kaf(d`hπ (Social Engi(B) lEif® d`ks vklkuh ls varj.h; neering) ds` fl*kUr d`k ^orZd gS— cukuk (A) jkWLd`ks ikm≥M (B) d`kWEVs (C) in eÍ fujUrjrk cuk, j[uk (C) MΩ;wfxV (D) bgfjax (D) jkT; d`h lEif® d`h lqj”k d`juk ∏d`UlsIV vkWœ` ¥kW’ iqLrd` d`k ¥s[d` 20. fof| ds` AksrkÍ d`h foospuk d`jrs gq, d`kSu gS = fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`lus d`gk ƒk fd` (A) ,p\,¥\,\ gkVZ ∏U;k;k¥; lafof| ds` e~r æCnkÍ eÍ thou (B) vkWfLVu œw∑`d`us d`k d`k;Z d`jrs gß = (C) cSUƒe (A) gkW¥S≥M (B) xzs (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ (C) lke≥M (D) vkWfLVu

14.

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/764

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fo'¥s".kRed` (Analytical)] ,sfrgkfld` ,oa uSfrd` fof|ækL( (Historical and Ethical Jurisprudence)] fof|ækL( ds` rhu fofHUu Hkx gß\ d`ƒukuqlkj— (A) lke≥M (B) bgfjax (C) gkVZ (D) beSuqv¥ d`k≥V ;»fi vkikrd`k¥ d`h mnΩ?ks".k ¥kxw gks] rƒkfi U;k;k¥;kÍ ds` ek÷;e ls fuEuf¥f[r vf|d`kjkÍ d`k ^orZu fu¥fEcr ugÓ fd`;k tk ld`rk gS— (A) vuqPNsn 14, 19 vkSj 21 (B) vuqPNsn 20, 21 vkSj 22 (C) vuqPNsn 19 vkSj 21 (D) vuqPNsn 20 vkSj 21 laln vkSj mlds` lnL;kÍ d`h æfDr;kÍ] foæs"kf|d`kj vkSj mUeqfDr;kÍ (Immunities) ds` lEcU| eÍ ^ko|ku gS — (A) vuqPNsn–105 eÍ (B) vuqPNsn–106 eÍ (C) vuqPNsn–107 eÍ (D) vuqPNsn–194 eÍ fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l okn eÍ mPpre U;k;k¥; us iqf¥l vfHj”k eÍ ∂w`jrk ;k mRihÈMu (Cruelty or Torture) fd`, tkus d`ks vuqPNsn 21 d`k mY¥a?u crkrs gq, fuUnk d`h = (A) ≠`kafll d`ksjs¥h cuke fnY¥h la? ”s( (B) esud`k xka|h cuke Hkjr la? (C) ih\ jfrjke cuke Hkjr la? (D) vksYxk rsf¥l cuke cEcbZ E;qfufli¥ d`kWiksZjsæu lafo|ku d`k d`kSulk vuqPNsn ;g micaf|r d`jrk gS fd` eaf(;kÍ }kjk jkÆV_ifr d`ks nh xbZ l¥kg d`h fd`lh U;k;k¥; }kjk tk∑p ugÓ d`h tk,xh`= (A) vuqPNsn–74(1) (B) vuqPNsn–74(2) (C) vuqPNsn–75 (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ laln eÍ n¥-cn¥ jksd`us gsrq vuqPNsn 102 eÍ [≥M (2) rƒk nloÓ vuqlwph tksÈMh xbZ — (A) lafo|ku ·42ok∑ laæks|u‚ vf|fu;e 1976 }kjk (B) lafo|ku ·44ok∑ laæks|u‚ vf|fu;e 1978 }kjk (C) lafo|ku ·52ok∑ laæks|u‚ vf|fu;e 1985 }kjk (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ Hkjr eÍ mPpre U;k;k¥; ds` vf|d`kfjrk d`h o~f* d`h tk ld`rh gS% (A) Hkjr ds` eq“; U;k;k|hæ }kjk

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Hkjr ds` jkÆV_ifr }kjk laln }kjk fof| cukd`j mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ ∏jkT; vUrjkZÆV_h; ækfUr vkSj lqj”k d`h vfHo~f* d`k ^;kl d`jsxkπ] micaf|r gS — (A) vuqPNsn–48 d` eÍ (B) vuqPNsn–49 eÍ (C) vuqPNsn–50 eÍ (D) vuqPNsn–51 eÍ NnΩe fo|k;u (Colourable Legislation) d`k fl*kUr ¥kxw gksrk gS] tc — (A) fo|kf;d`k vius ”s(kf|d`kj ds` vUrxZr d`k;Z d`jrh gS (B) fo|kf;d`k vius ”s(kf|d`kj ls ckgj d`k;Z d`jrh gS (C) fo|kf;d`k ˜ijh rkS j ls vius ”s(kf|d`kj ds` Hhrj d`k;Z d`jrh gS] tcfd` okLro eÍ lhekvkÍ d`k vfr∂`e. d`jrh gS (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ ,l\ vkj\ cksEekbZ cuke Hkjr la? (1994) d`k eke¥k lEcfU|r gS— (A) lalnh; foæs"kf|d`kj ls (B) ^sl d`h LorU(rk ls (C) jkÆV_ifr æklu d`h mnΩ?ks".k ls (D) lerk ds` vf|d`kj ls lwph–I d`ks lwph–II ds` lkƒ lqesf¥r d`hft, rƒk lwfp;kÍ ds` uhps fn, x, dw`V d`h lgk;rk ls lgh m®j pqfu, — lwph–I (a) lafo|ku ·52ok∑ laæks|u‚ vf|fu;e (b) lafo|ku ·86ok∑ laæks|u‚ vf|fu;e (c) lafo|ku ·^ƒe laæks|u‚ vf|fu;e (d) lafo|ku ·93ok∑ laæks|u‚ vf|fu;e lwph–II 1. pquko eÍ vkj”. 2. uoÓ vuqlwph 3. nloÓ vuqlwph 4. fæ”k d`k vf|d`kj dw`V #
(A) (B) (C) (D) (a) 3 3 4 2 (b) 4 4 3 4 (c) 1 2 2 1 (d) 2 1 1 3

(B) (C) (D)

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∏Hkjrh; lafo|ku eÍ] ,d` ,d`kRed` 39. jkT; (Unitary State)] ftleÍ la?kRed` rRo lgk;d` Ôi eÍ] u fd` la?kRed` jkT;] ftleÍ ,d`kRed` rRo lgk;d` d`gs tk ld`rs gß] d`k ^ko|ku gS\π] ;g d`ƒu pus) gS — (C) mR^s". (Certiorari) (A) lj vkboj tsfuaXl d`k (D) vf|d`kj i~PNk (Quo Warranto) (B) ds`\ lh\ Ogs;j d`k

,\ oh\ Mk;lh d`k ,l\ ,\ Mh\ fLeƒ d`k ,\ vkj\ vUrq¥s cuke vkj\ ,l\ uk;d` (1988) d`k okn fuEuf¥f[r ls lEcfU|r gS% (A) vuqPNsn–12 (B) lafo|ku d`h ^Lrkouk (C) vuqPNsn–311 (D) vuqPNsn–368 lafo|ku d`k d`kSulk ^ko|ku ds`Unz ij ;g nkf;Ro fuÔfir d`jrk gS fd` og ;g lqfuf'pr d`js fd` jkT; d`h ljd`kj lafo|ku ds` ^ko|kukÍ ds` vuqÔi p¥k;h tk jgh gS`= (A) vuqPNsn–352 (B) vuqPNsn–355 (C) vuqPNsn–356 (D) vuqPNsn–360 ‘^lkn d`k fl*kUr’ (Doctrine of Pleasure) ¥kxw gksrk gS— (A) vuqPNsn–15(4) ij (B) vuqPNsn–16(4) ij (C) vuqPNsn–356 ij (D) vuqPNsn–310 ij lafo|ku d`h mˆsfæd`k (Preamble of the Constitution) Hkjr d`ks ?ksf"r d`jrh gS — (A) iaƒfujis” lektoknh ^HqRo lEiUu ¥ksd`rU(kRed` x.jkT; (B) lektoknh iaƒfujis” ^HqRo lEiUu ¥ksd`rU(kRed` x.jkT; (C) ^HqRo lEiUu iaƒfujis” lektoknh ¥ksd`rU(kRed` x.jkT; (D) ^HqRo lEiUu lektoknh iaƒfujis” ¥ksd`rU(kRed` x.jkT; Hkjr ds` fu;a(d`-egk¥s[k ijh”d` d`h fu;qfDr fd`l ^ko|ku ds` vUrxZr gksrh gS = (A) vuqPNsn–48 (B) vuqPNsn–147 (C) vuqPNsn–149 (D) vuqPNsn–148 fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`ld`ks ¥ksd` lHk ds` v÷;” }kjk viuk R;kxi( lEcksf|r d`juk pkfg,`= (A) jkÆV_ifr (B) ^|kuea(h (C) ¥ksd`lHk ds` mik÷;” (D) lalnh; d`k;ksÛ ds` ea(h fuEuf¥f[r fjVkÍ eÍ ls d`kSulh fjV ds`o¥ U;kf;d` ,oa U;kf;d` d`Yi ^kf|d`kfj;kÍ ds` fo:* tkjh d`h tk ld`rh gS = (A) ijeknsæ (Mandamus) (B) cUnh ^R;”hd`j. (Habeas Cor-

(C) (D)

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/765

40.

Hkjr ds` jkÆV_ifr d`k fuokZpu d`kSu 49. la;qDr jkÆV_ la? ds` fd`l vuqPNsn ds` d`jrk gS`= v|hu lqj”k ifj"nΩ fd`lh jkT; ds` fo:* læL( c¥ d`k ^;ksx d`j ld`rh (A) ds`o¥ jkT; lHk ds` lnL; gS = (B) ds`o¥ ¥ksd`lHk ds` lnL; (A) 42 (B) 45 (C) laln ds`` nksukÍ lnukÍ ds` lnL; (C) 41 (D) 51 (D) jkT;kÍ ds` lHh fo|kue≥M¥kÍ ds` 50. fd`lus d`gk ƒk] ∏,d` jkT; ds`o¥ vkSj lnL; vuU; Ôi ls] ekU;rk }kjk gh vUrjkZÆV_h; 41. nkf≥Md` fo";kÍ (Criminal) eÍ mPpre O;fDr gS vkSj gksrk gSπ = U;k;k¥; d`h vih¥h; vf|d`kfjrk fd`l (A) gkW¥S≥M (B) gk¥ vuqPNsn eÍ gS`= (C) vksisugse (D) LVkdZ` (A) 131 (B) 132 51. la;qDr jkÆV_ fnol fd`l frfƒ d`ks euk;k (C) 136 (D) 134 tkrk gS = 42. Hkjr ds` jkÆV_ifr d`ks ”ek (Pardon) (A) 26 twu (B) 10 fnlEcj ^nku d`jus d`h æfDr fd`l vuqPNsn eÍ (C) 11 tq¥kbZ (D) 24 vDVwcj ^kIr gS`= (A) 172 (B) 74 52. vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥; ds` ,d` U;k;k|hæ d`ks gVk;k tk ld`rk gS— (C) 72 (D) 92 (A) lqj”k ifj"nΩ ds` ^Lrko }kjk 43. mPpre U;k;k¥; ds` fd`l fu.Z; ds` (B) egklHk ds` ^Lrko }kjk vuqlkj jkT; fd`lh xSj-lgk;rk ^kIr futh O;kolkf;d` fæ”. laLƒku ij (C) egklfpo }kjk viuh vkj”. uhfr vkjksfir ugÓ d`j (D) æs" U;k;k|hækÍ d`h loZlEefr }kjk ld`rk = 53. fd`lus d`gk ƒk fd` ^ƒk ÔfÈ< (Custom) (A) ,e\ ukxjkt cuke Hkjr la? ds` ^kƒfed` pj. d`k ^frfuf|Ro d`jrh (B) ih\ ,\ bZekunj cuke egkjkÆV_ jkT; gS tgk∑ ^ƒk lekIr gksrh gS ogÓ ÔfÈ< (C) Vh\,e\,\ ikbZ œ`kmUMsæu cuke ^kjEH gksrh gS`= d`ukZVd` jkT; (A) LVkdZ` (B) czk;j¥h (D) bUnzk lkguh cuke Hkjr la? (C) gk¥ (D) xzksfæ;l 44. la? vkSj jkT;kÍ ds` f¥, ¥ksd` lsok 54. f}rh; fo'o ekuo vf|d`kj lEes¥u] vk;ksx ds` xBu d`k mica| gS — 1993 lEiUu gqvk— (A) vuqPNsn–316 eÍ (A) fo;suk eÍ (B) isfjl eÍ (B) vuqPNsn–319 eÍ (C) tsusok eÍ (D) ubZ fnY¥h eÍ (C) vuqPNsn–315 eÍ 55. la;qDr jkT; vejhd`k us D;wck d`h (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ p;ukRed` ukd`kcanh (Selection blockade) d`c d`h ƒh = 45. Hkjr eÍ lE^Hq (Sovereign) d`kSu gS = (A) vDVwcj] 1962 (A) Hkjr d`k jkÆV_ifr (B) fnlEcj] 1960 (B) Hkjr d`k ^|kuea(h (C) flrEcj] 1962 (C) efU(ifj"nΩ (D) vDVwcj] 1963 (D) ge Hkjr ds` ¥ksx 46. lsu≠`kaflLd`ks eÍ 1945 eÍ la;qDr jkÆV_ 56. ,LV_kMk d`k fl*kUr fd`lls lEcfU|r gS`= pkVZj ij fd`rus jkT;kÍ us gLrk”j fd`, (A) gLr”si (Intervention) ƒs = (B) jkT; m®jkf|d`kj (State succes(A) 41 (C) 51 47. (B) 15 (D) 52 sion) (C) ÔfÈ< (Custom) (D) ekU;rk (Recognition)

59.

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vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥; d`h ^ƒe efg¥k U;k;k|hæ d`k uke gS — 57. ;»fi la;qDr jkÆV_ pkVZj eÍ lnL;rk d`ks 64. (A) jkst¥hu fgfxUl okil ¥sus d`k d`ksbZ fofæÆV mica| ugÓ (B) jkstk bZ\ vksVeckbZok fd`;k x;k gS] fœ`j Hh fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls ,d` us viuh lnL;rk okil ¥s ¥h ƒh— (C) xsjV_;wM eksUxs¥k (A) Hkjr (D) lnkd`ks vksxkrk (B) bZjku 48. vUrjkZÆV_h; fof| ds` vk|kj d`ks LiÆV (C) bjkd` d`jus ds` f¥, ‘iSDVklUV loZ≥Mk’ d`k fl*kUr ^frikfnr fd`;k x;k ƒk— (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ (A) ds`Ylu }kjk (B) vksisugse }kjk 58. d`ƒu (A) : la;qDr jkÆV_ jkT;kÍ d`h la^Hq 65. (C) LVkdZ` }kjk (D) ,sUth¥ksVh }kjk lekurk ij vk|kfjr gS\

d`kj. (R) : lqj”k ifj"nΩ ds` Lƒk;h lnL;kÍ d`ks ohVks d`k vf|d`kj gS\ dw`V # (A) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lgh gß vkSj (R), (A) d`k LiÆVhd`j. gS (B) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lgh gß] fd`Urq (R), (A) d`k lgh LiÆVhd`j. ugÓ gS (C) (A) lgh gS] fd`Urq (R) x¥r gS (D) (A) x¥r gS] fd`Urq (R) lgh gS fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk vUrjkZÆV_h; fof| d`k ^kƒfed` Aksr gS = (A) U;kf;d` fu.Z; (B) vUrjkZÆV_h; fof|ækfL(;kÍ ds` ¥s[ (C) vUrjkZÆV_h; ^ƒk,a (D) vUrjkZÆV_h; ÔfÈ<;k∑ fuEuf¥f[r eÍ la;qDr jkÆV_ la? ds` fd`l vax ds` ikl la;qDr jkÆV_ la? ds` lnL; d`ks fud`k¥us vƒok fu¥fEcr d`jus d`h æfDr gS = (A) vkfƒZd` vkSj lkekftd` ifj"nΩ (B) lqj”k ifj"nΩ (C) vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥; (D) lqj”k ifj"nΩ d`h laLrqfr;kÍ ij egklHk la;qDr jkÆV_ ds` fd`rus fl*kUr vkafxd` vuqik¥u (Organic Observance) ds` f¥, ^frikfnr gß = (A) rhu (B) pkj (C) nks (D) ik∑p vUrjkZÆV_h; U;k;k¥; fd`lh eke¥s d`ks lkE;k (Ex aequo et bono) ds` vk|kj ij d`c fu.hZr d`j ld`rk gS = (A) ;fn U;k;k¥; vko';d` le>rk gS (B) ;fn U;k;k¥; d`k v÷;” ,slk pkgrk gS (C) ;fn egklHk U;k;k¥; ls fuosnu d`jrh gS (D) ;fn lEcfU|r i”d`kj blds` f¥, lgefr nsrs gß ;g er fd` vUrjkZÆV_h; fof|] fof| ugÓ gS] vfirq ‘lkƒZd` vUrjkZÆV_h; uSfrd`rk gS’] ƒk— (A) vksisugkbe d`k (B) LVkdZ` d`k (C) gkW¥S≥M d`k (D) vkWfLVu d`k fuEuf¥f[r U;k;k|hækÍ eÍ ls d`kSu viÎ`R; (Tort) eÍ iw.Z nkf;Ro ds` fl*kUr ds` fod`kl d`k ^rhd` ekuk tkrk gS`= (A) C¥Sd`cuZ ts\ (B) ¥kWMZ MSfuax ,e\ vkj\ (C) ¥kWMZ gSYlcjh (D) U;k;ewfrZ ih\ ,u\ Hxorh ‘viÎ`R; eÍ jkT; ds` nkf;Ro’ ds` lUnHZ eÍ jkT; ds` ‘^Hqrk lEiUu d`k;ksÛ’ ,oa

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/766

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‘v^Hqrk lEiUu d`k;ksÛ’ ds` e÷; d`ksbZ foHsn ugÓ gS—fuEuf¥f[r okn eÍ d`gk x;k gS— (A) d`Lrwjh ¥k¥ cuke m\ ^\ jkT; (B) ukxjkt jko ,≥M d`Eiuh cuke vkU|z ^nsæ jkT; (C) jktLƒku jkT; cuke fo»korh (D) mi;qZDr lHh viÎ`R; fof| ls lEcfU|r ‘d`cwrj [kus d`k fl*kUr’ (Pigeon Hole Theory) d`ks fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`lus ^frikfnr fd`;k gS`= (A) fouœ`hYM (B) v≥Mj fg¥ (C) lke≥M (D) Œ¥sfeax ;ksxnk;h mis”k (Contributory negligence) ls lEcfU|r fuEuf¥f[r fd`l okn eÍ U;k;k¥; us loZ^ƒe ,d` fl*kUr d`ks ¥kxw fd`;k ƒk vkSj ftls ‘vfUre volj d`k fu;e’ ds` uke ls tkuk x;k`= (A) cVjœ`hYM cuke œ`ksjsLVj (B) Msohl cuke eku (C) ,MfejYVh d`fe'ulZ cuke ,l\ ,l\ okWY;wV (D) fczfVæ d`ks¥fEc;k b¥sfDV_d` js¥os cuke ¥ksæ ,d` ekf¥d` lsod` }kjk d`kfjr fd`;s x;s viÎ`R; ds` f¥, nk;h gksrk gS] tc lsod` d`k;Z d`jrk gS— (A) vius ekf¥d` ds` ¥kH ds` f¥, (B) vius d`k;Z ds` ?≥VkÍ ds` le; (C) fu;kstu ds` vuq∂`e eÍ (D) oknh d`ks ”frd`kfjr d`jus gsrq viÎ`R; mY¥a?u (Infringement) gS— (A) O;fDrca|h vf|d`kj d`k (B) loZca|h vf|d`kj d`k (C) nksukÍ O;fDrca|h rƒk loZca|h vf|d`kj d`k (D) u rks O;fDrca|h vkSj u gh loZca|h vf|d`kj d`k ∏;fn d`k;Z fof|iw.Z ƒk] rc gsrq fd`ruk Hh cqjk D;kÍ u gks] ^froknh d`ks og d`k;Z d`jus d`k vf|d`kj ƒk\π ;g mfDr fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls ,d` okn eÍ U;k;k¥; us O;Dr d`h ƒh— (A) es;j vkWœ` czSMœ`MZ d`kWiksZjsæu cuke fid`Yl (B) ,s'ch cuke ÿkbV (C) f∂`LVh cuke Msoh (D) gkW¥hoqM flYoj œ`kWDl œ`kWeZ f¥\ cuke ,sesV vksf¥;e xSl fjlko eke¥s ds` fo|k;h ifj.keLoÔi Hkjrh; laln us ,d` fof| d`ks vf|fu;fer fd`;k ƒk\ fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls og d`kSulk fo|ku ƒk = (A) jkÆV_h; i;kZoj. vf|d`j. vf|fu;e

72.

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(B) ifjla d `V vifæÆV ·^ca | u ,oa gƒk¥u‚ vf|fu;e (C) ¥ksd` nkf;Ro chek vf|fu;e (D) Hksik¥ xSl foHhf"d`k ·nkokd`k;Zokgh‚ vf|fu;e ‘Lor# vuq;ksT;’ viÎ`R; os viÎ`R; gß — (A) ftueÍ oknh d`ks foæs" gkfu fl* d`juh gksxh (B) ftueÍ nkf;Ro fcuk vkæ; ;k mis”k ds` mRiUu gksrk gS (C) ftueÍ fd`lh ¥ksd` vf|d`kj d`k vfr¥a?u gksrk gS] ftlls d`ksbZ fofæÆV gkfu Hh gqbZ gS (D) ftueÍ oknh okn ¥k ld`rk gS ;»fi mls okLrfod` gkfu ugÓ mBkuh iÈMh gS ‘nSohÎ`R;’ (Act of God) d`k viokn fd`l fu;e ds` lkƒ tksÈMk x;k ƒk = (A) d`Bksj nkf;Ro d`k fl*kUr (B) iw.Z nkf;Ro d`k fl*kUr (C) vaænku d`k fl*kUr (D) la;qDr ”frd`rkZ ekugkfu ds` viÎ`R; eÍ fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk cpko mfpr fVIi.h d`k vko';d` rRo gS`= 1. ftl fo"; ij fVIi.h d`h tk jgh gS] og ¥ksd`fgr d`k gksuk pkfg,\ 2. ;g rF; d`k ,d` nkok gksuk pkfg,\ 3. bleÍ fopkjkÍ d`h vfHO;fDr gksuh pkfg,\ 4. fVIi.h mfpr ·U;k;ksfpr‚ gksuh pkfg,\ uhps fn, x;s dw`V eÍ ls lgh m®j lads`frr d`hft, — (A) 1, 2, 3 vkSj 4 (B) 1, 3 vkSj 4 (C) 1 vkSj 2 (D) 2 vkSj 3 viÎ`R; ds f¥, mfpr mipkj d`h d`k;Zokgh gS— (A) O;knsæ (Injunction) (B) vfH;kstu (Prosecution) (C) vifjfu|kZfjr uqd`lkuh (D) lHh lgh gß jktiƒ ds` fd`ukjs ij cPpkÍ d`k Ldw`¥ gS\ tc d`”k,a p¥ jgh gß] nks cPps jktiƒ ij ?we jgs gß\ ,d` V_d` lkekU; xfr ls jktiƒ ij p¥ jgk gS\ cPpkÍ d`ks VDd`j ls cpkus eÍ V_d` cS¥xkÈMh ls Vd`jk tkrk gS] ,d` O;fDr ?k;¥ gks tkrk gS] cS¥ ej tkrs gß vkSj V_d` d`ks Hh ”fr igq∑prh gS\ fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulh mfDr nkf;Ro d`ks lgh LoÔi eÍ vfHfu|kZfjr d`jrh gS = (A) Ldw`¥ ^æklu nkf;Rok|hu gS] D;kÍfd` os mis”kiw.Z d`k;Z d`j jgs ƒs (B) V_d` d`k pk¥d` nkf;Rok|hu ƒk] D;kÍfd` mlus lrdZ`rk ls d`k;Z ugÓ fd`;k

(C) cS¥xkÈMh pk¥d` nkf;Rok|hu ƒk] D;kÍfd` mlus mfpr lrdZ`rk ugÓ cjrh (D) cPps nkf;Rok|hu gß] mUgkÍus nq?ZVuk ls vaænku fn;k 77. viÎ`R; fof| eÍ d`Bksj nkf;Ro (Strict liability) d`k vƒZ gS— (A) nkf;Ro tks cgqr d`ÈMk gS (B) fd`lh Hh [rjukd` d`k;Zd`¥ki ds` f¥, nkf;Ro (C) nkf;Ro ftls Lƒkfir d`jus gsrq x¥rh fn[kuk vko';d` ugÓ gS (D) lkewfgd` viÎ`R; ds` f¥, nkf;Ro 78. ;wlwiksœ` cuke ,e\ th\ ,e\ fiDplZ f¥\ fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l ij vxzfu.Z; (Leading case) gS = (A) ekugkfu (Defamation) (B) mis”k (Negligence) (C) va æ nk;h mis ” k (Contributory Negligence) (D) d`Bksj nkf;Ro (Strict liability)

d`ƒu (A) : viÎ`R; nkf;Ro rƒk vkijkf|d` nkf;Ro dq`N ckrkÍ eÍ ,d` ls gß\ d`kj. (R) : D;kÍfd` nksukÍ gh ,sls d`rZO; ij vk|kfjr gß] ftld`k fu|kZj. fof| }kjk gksrk gS] vkSj tks lHh ds` ˜ij leku Ôi ls ¥kxw gksrh gS\ dw`V # (A) nksukÍ (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lgh gß] ijUrq (R), (A) d`k lgh LiÆVhd`j. ugÓ gS (B) nksukÍ (A) rƒk (R) lgh gß] vkSj (R), (A) d`k lgh LiÆVhd`j. gS (C) (A) lgh gS] ijUrq (R) x¥r gS (D) (A) x¥r gS] ijUrq (R) lgh gS 80. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulh lhek LosPNk ls mBk;h xbZ gkfu ds` fu;e ds` f¥, lgh ugÓ gS = (A) lgefr LorU( gksuh pkfg, (B) vfof|d` d`k;ksÛ ds` f¥, nh xbZ lgefr] lgefr ugÓ gS (C) cpko ds` eke¥kÍ eÍ nh xbZ lgefr] lgefr ugÓ gS (D) [rjs d`h vR;f|d` tkud`kjh [rjs d`k iwokZuqeku ugÓ gS 81. ‘v’ efg¥k egkfo»k¥; ds` xsV ds` ikl [ÈMk gksd`j v'¥h¥ xkus xkrk gS\ mlus d`kSulk vijk| fd`;k gS= (A) ge¥k (Assault) (B) L(h d`h ¥Ttk Hax d`juk (C) vkijkf|d` vfH(kl (Criminal
79. intimidation) (D) v'¥h¥ d`k;Z (Obcenity) 82.

vkijkf|d` nkf;Ro d`k ;g fl*kUr fd` — ∏ds`o¥ Î`R; gh nks"iw.Z ugÓ] vfirq eu#fLƒfr Hh nks"iw.Z gksuh pkfg,\π fod`flr fd`;k ƒk —

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/767

(A) lkE; U;k;k¥; }kjk (B) lkekU; U;k;k¥; (Common Law Courts) }kjk (C) LVkj psEcj U;k;k¥; }kjk (D) D;wfj;k jsftl }kjk 83.

dw`V #
(A) (B) (C) (D) 88. ‘B’ (a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 2 1 2 3 (c) 3 4 4 1 d) 4 3 1 2

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xksjkpan xksih cuke vkj vxz.h fu.Z; gS— (A) ikx¥iu (Insanity) ij (B) lkekU; vkæ; (Common intention) ij (C) lkekU; mˆs'; (Common object) ij (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ ifr }kjk iRuh d`h bPNk ds` fo:* fd`;s x;s lEHksx d`ks c¥kRd`kj (Rape) d`k vijk| gksus ds` f¥, iRuh d`h vk;q gksuh pkfg, — (A) 17 o"Z ls d`e (B) 15 o"Z ls d`e (C) 16 o"Z ls d`e (D) 18 o"Z ls d`e d`ƒu ( A ) : mR^sj. ds` vijk| d`ks Lƒkfir d`jus ds` f¥, ;g vko';d` ugÓ gS fd` mR^sfjr vijk| fd`;k tk,\ d`kj. (R) : D;kÍfd` vijk| d`k mR^sj. Lo;a eÍ ,d` vijk| gS\ dw`V # (A) (A) x¥r gS] ijUrq (R) lgh gS (B) (A) lgh gS] ijUrq (R) x¥r gS (C) nksukÍ (A) rƒk (R) lgh gß] vkSj (R), (A) d`k lgh LiÆVhd`j. gS (D) nksukÍ (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lgh gß] ijUrq (R), (A) d`k lgh LiÆVhd`j. ugÓ gS ‘X’ rƒk ‘Y’ eÍ ‘Z’ ds` ed`ku eÍ pksjh d`jus d`h lgefr gqbZ] ¥sfd`u okLro eÍ pksjh ugÓ d`h x;h\ os ¥ksx nks"h gß— (A) fd`lh vijk| (Offence) ds` f¥;s ugÓ (B) "MΩ;U( ds` }kjk nqÆ^sj. ds` f¥, (C) md`lkus }kjk nqÆ^sj. ds` f¥, (D) vkijkf|d` "MΩ;U( (Criminal conspiracy) ds` f¥, lwph–I d`ks lwph–II ds` lkƒ lqesf¥r d`hft, rƒk lwfp;kÍ ds` uhps fn, x, dw`V d`h lgk;rk ls lgh m®j pqfu, — lwph–I (a) ^frj”k ds` Ôi eÍ fp® foÎ`fr (b) lkekU; vkæ; (c) vko';d`rk (d) Hw¥-^frj”k ds` Ôi eÍ lwph–II 1. lezkVΩ cuke cjsUnz dq`ekj ?ks" 2. vkj\ cuke eSd`ukVu 3. Hkoksthokth cuke eq¥th n;k¥ 4. vkj\ cuke MwM¥s ,oa LVhœ`u

d`ks ‘Z’ d`k ?j t¥kus ds` f¥, ‘A’ md`lkrk gS\ ‘B’ ml ?j d`ks vkx ¥xk nsrk gS vkSj mlh le; ogk∑ ls lEif® d`h pksjh Hh d`jrk gS\ bl eke¥s eÍ— (A) ‘A’ ?j eÍ vkx ¥xkd`j pksjh d`jus d`k nks"h gS (B) ‘A’ ;»fi ?j t¥kus eÍ nqÆ^sj. d`k nks"h gS] ijUrq pksjh ds` nqÆ^sj. d`k nks"h ugÓ gS (C) ‘A’ ?j t¥kus vkSj pksjh d`jus nksukÍ vijk| ds` nqÆ^sj. d`k nks"h gS\ (D) ‘A’ u rks ?j t¥kus vkSj u pksjh ds` nqÆ^sj. d`k nks"h gS 89. dq`N ;q* la¥Xu vkrad`oknh ,d` O;fDr ds` ed`ku eÍ fNis gq, gß\ ;q* la¥Xu vkrad`oknh ed`ku ls iqf¥l ds` ˜ij œ`k;fjax d`jds` vk∂`e. d`j jgs gß\ iqf¥l us viuh lqj”k eÍ ed`ku d`h vksj xks¥h p¥kbZ] ftlls ed`ku ds` ,d` funksZ" O;fDr d`ks xks¥h ¥x xbZ vkSj mld`h e~R;q gks xbZ\ iqf¥l ds` ¥ksx nks"h gß— (A) fd`lh vijk| ds` f¥, ugÓ] D;kÍfd` os O;fDrxr ^frj”k ds` vf|d`kj d`k nkok d`j ld`rs gß (B) lnks" ekuoo| (C) gR;k (Murder) (D) mis”k vƒok rhoz d`k;Z ls e~R;q ds` f¥, 90. A vkSj B ,d` uko ij tk jgs ƒs\ vpkud` uko Mwcus ¥xh\ A us B d`ks <ds`¥ fn;k vkSj viuh tku cpk ¥h\ B Mwc x;k— (A) A us B d`ks <ds`¥us eÍ lgh fd`;k D;kÍfd` ;g vko';d`rk d`k d`k;Z ƒk (B) futh lqj”k ds` vfrfjDr fd`lh Hh vko';d`rk eÍ fd`lh d`h tku ¥suk U;k;ksfpr ugÓ gS (C) A d`k d`k;Z ck÷;rk ds` vUrxZr fd`;k x;k (D) mi;qZDr lHh x¥r gß
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96.

97.

(A) lkekftd`-vkfƒZ d ` vijk|kÍ d`h fof|;kÍ d`h d`Bksj O;k“;k ds` f¥, (B) fLƒfr;k∑ ftueÍ vkijkf|d` eu#fLƒfr ·nqjkæ;‚ d`k lkads`frd` otZu fd`;k tk ld`rk gS (C) vkijkf|d` eu#fLƒfr d`k otZu u d`juk tc rd` fof| lkœ æCnkÍ eÍ ,slk u pkgs (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l okn eÍ mPpre U;k;k¥; us vfHfu|kZfjr fd`;k gS fd` iRuh ls fujUrj ngst d`h ek∑x d`juk mlds` ^fr ∂w`jrk gS = (A) gœ`htqfUulk cuke eksgEen ;klhu [k∑ (B) eksgEen vgen [k∑ cuke ækg ckuks (C) vuqjk|k cuke MkW\ Jhd`kUr (D) fu>kou cuke fu>kou ∏^R;sd` lafof| eÍ nqjkæ; vUrfuZfgr ekuk tkrk gS tc rd` fd` blds` ^frdw`¥ fl* ugÓ d`j fn;k tkrk gS\π ;g er fuEu okn eÍ O;Dr fd`;k x;k ƒk — (A) gkfMÛx cuke ^kbl (B) vkj\ cuke MwM¥s (C) æsjkt cuke Ms :VΩtsu (D) vkj\ cuke f¥ieSu ‘A’, ‘B’ d`ks ‘C’ d`h gR;k d`jus ds` f¥, md`lkrk gS\ ‘B’ ,slk d`jus ls euk d`j nsrk gS\ bl eke¥s eÍ ‘A’ nkf;Rok|hu gS — (A) fd`lh Hh vijk| d`k nks"h ugÓ gS (B) ‘B’ d`ks gR;k d`jus ds ` f¥, md`lkus d`k nks"h gS (C) gR;k d`k nks"h gS (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ lkekU; mˆs'; d`ks vxzlj d`jus ds` f¥, d`e-ls-d`e O;fDr;kÍ d`h la“;k D;k gS = (A) 2 ;k 2 ls vf|d` (B) 4 O;fDr (C) 5 ;k 5 ls vf|d` (D) O;fDr;kÍ d`h la“;k fuf'pr ugÓ gS ‘A’ d`Hh-d`Hh ‘C’ d`h iRuh ds` lkƒ fcuk ‘C’ d`h lgefr ls lEHksx d`jrk gS\ Hkjrh; n≥M lafgrk d`h fd`l |kjk eÍ ‘C’ mipkj ^kIr d`j ld`rk gS = (A) 494 (B) 495

‘fM fefuel ukWu D;wjsV ¥sDl’ ·fof| (C) 496 (D) 497 rqPN ckrkÍ ij ÷;ku ugÓ nsrh‚ fl*kUr 98. ,d` efg¥k ds` llqj ,oa lkl mlds` ij lkekU; viokn gS— fo:* ngst gsrq ∂w`jrk d`jrs gß\ os (A) rqPN vigkfu (Triviallity) fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls Hkjrh; n≥M lafgrk (B) nq?ZVuk (Accident) d`h fd`l |kjk ds` vUrxZr nks"h gkÍxs = (C) lEefr (Consent) (A) |kjk 323 (B) |kjk 350 (D) vkRej”k (Self-defence) (C) |kjk 349 (D) |kjk 498 A 92. loksZPp U;k;k¥; d`k fu.Z; jkT; cuke 99. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l vijk| ds` fo:* es;j gkUl tktZ ,\ vkbZ\ vkj\ 1965 æjhj d`h futh ^frj”k d`k vf|d`kj ,l\ lh\ 722 tkuk tkrk gS— e~R;qd`kfjr d`jus rd` foLr~r ugÓ gS`=

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/768

(A) c¥kRlax (Rape) (B) ^Î`fr fo:* d`ker~Æ.k d`h r~fIr (C) xHZikr d`kfjr d`juk (Causing Miscarriage) (D) O;igj. (Kidnapping) 100.

bld`ks ‘B’ d`ks csp fn;k\ ;g [jkch ckn eÍ ‘B’ d`ks irk p¥ x;h\ ‘A’ d`k d`k;Z gksxk— (A) vlR; lq>ko (A false suggestion) (B) okLrfod`

(B) æw U ;d`j.h; la f onk (Voidable contract) gS (C) æwU; lafonk (Void contract) gS (D) voS| d`jkj (Illegal agreement)

101.

102.

103.

104.

105.

Hkjrh; n≥M lafgrk ds` ^ko|ku fuEuf¥f[r frfƒ ls ^o~® gq,— (A) 30 uoEcj] 1861 (B) 1 tuojh] 1862 (C) 1 tq¥kbZ] 1862 (D) 31 fnlEcj] 1862 fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk d`iV (Fraud) d`k vko';d` rRo ugÓ gS`= (A) ;g nwljs i”d`kj d`ks |ks[k nsus ds` vkæ; ls fd`;k tkuk pkfg, (B) feF;k d`ƒu d`jus ok¥k O;fDr tkurk gS fd` d`ƒu feF;k gS (C) ;g lafonk ds` ,d` i”d`kj }kjk gh fd`;k tkuk pkfg, (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk okn lafonk (Frustration) uSjk'; ls lEcfU|r gS = (A) d`kjf¥¥ cuke d`kjcksf¥d` Leksd` ck¥ d`Eiuh (B) gsM¥s cuke cSDlUMs¥ (C) Msjh cuke ihd` (D) jktk |zqonso pUnz cuke gjeksfgUnj flag ,oa vU; ‘B’ ds` f¥, ‘A’ ,d` jaxfp( cukus d`k opu nsrk gS\ rRi'pkrΩ ‘B’, ‘A’ d`ks jaxfp( cukus ls euk d`j nsrk gS\ ‘A’ ml opu ds` ik¥u ds` f¥, fuEuf¥f[r fd`l |kjk ds` vUrxZr vkc* ugÓ gS = (A) |kjk–63 (B) |kjk–62 (C) |kjk–64 (D) |kjk–65 d`ƒu (A) : lafonk d`k ,d` i”d`kj ds` vuqik¥u ds` i”d`kj ds` Ôi eÍ bl vk|kj ij vius d`ks mUeqDr d`jk ld`rk gS fd` mlds` ikl Hqxrku d`jus ds` f¥, d`ksbZ |u vƒok lEif® ugÓ gS\ d`kj. (R) : vlEHo d`k;Z d`ks fd`;s tkus d`k d`jkj vius vki eÍ æwU; gS vkSj nksukÍ i”d`kj HfoÆ; ds` vuqik¥u d`ks fuÆikfnr d`jus ls mUeqDr gß\ uhps fn, x, dw`V eÍ ls lgh m®j lads`frr d`hft, — dw`V # (A) (A) rƒk (R) nksukÍ lgh gß rƒk (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k gS (B) (A) rƒk (R) nksukÍ lgh gß] ijUrq (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k ugÓ gS (C) (A) lgh gS] ijUrq (R) x¥r gS (D) (A) x¥r gS] ijUrq (R) lgh gS ‘A’ d`ks Kkr gS fd` mlds` ?ksÈMs ds` [qj ”frxzLr gß] mlus bld`ks ,sls Hj fn;k fd` [jkch ek¥we ugÓ gks ld`rh gS vkSj

106.

107.

108.

109.

gS rF;kÍ d`ks lf∂`;rk ls 110. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk d`ƒu lgh fNikuk ugÓ gS = (C) nqO;Zinsæu (Misrepresentation) (A) voS| vuqca| laikf'Zod` laO;ogkj (D) Hw¥ (Mistake) d`ks ^Hkfor d`jrk gS lwph–I d`ks lwph–II ds` lkƒ lqesf¥r (B) ^frœ`¥ jfgr vuqca| æwU; gS d`hft, rƒk lwfp;kÍ ds` uhps fn, x;s (C) ^frœ`¥ ds`o¥ ^frKkx~ghrk }kjk gh dw`V d`h lgk;rk ls lgh m®j pqfu,— fn;k tkuk pkfg, lwph–I (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ (a) jkelxs V foDVks f j;k gks V ¥ da ` \ 111. ∏,d` O;fDr d`ks fd`lh nwljs O;fDr d`h cuke ekÍfVfœ`;ksj d`her ij vU;k;iw.Z |uh ugÓ gksus fn;k (b) fVUu cuke gksœ`esUu tk,xk\π ;g fl*kUr d`gk tkrk gS— (c) gk˜l gksYM œ`k;j bU';ksjsUl da`\ (A) ^frœ`¥ jfgr d`jkj (Nudum cuke xzk≥V pactum) (d) fœ`p cuke LusMd`j (B) lafonk d`Yi (Quasi-Contract) lwph–II (C) ftruk d`ke mruk nke (Quantum 1. LohÎ`fr rc iw.Z gks tkrh gS tc Merit) LohÎ`fr d`k i( Mkd` eÍ Mk¥ fn;k (D) ew Y ;kuq l kj d`her (Quantumtkrk gS\ Valebat) 2. ^fr ^Lrko ls lafonk ugÓ curh gS\ 112. A, B vkSj C N¥-d`iV }kjk ^kIr fd`;s 3. ^Lrko d`k lapkj d`k vfHR;tu tkus ok¥s ¥kHkÍ d`ks vkil eÍ c∑Vokjs ds` ugÓ fd`;k tk ld`rk gS\ f¥, ,d` d`jkj d`jrs gß— 4. ^Lrko d`h LohÎ`fr eÍ v;qfDr;qDr (A) d`jkj æwU; gS fo¥Ec bld`ks lekIr d`jus d`k (B) d`jkj oS| gS d`kj. gksrk gS\ (C) d`jkj æwU;d`j.h; gS dw`V # (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ (a) (b) (c) (d) 113. ‘A’, ‘B’ d`k )`.h gS] fd`Urq og )`. (A) 1 2 3 4 ifjlhek vf|fu;e }kjk ckf|r gS\ ‘A’ (B) 4 2 1 3 ml )`. ds` f¥, ‘B’ d`ks nl gtkj (C) 3 4 2 1 :i;s nsus d`k f¥f[r opu gLrk”fjr (D) 2 3 1 4 d`jrk gS\ ;g d`jkj— (A) oS| (Valid) gS A, B d`ks ;g opu nsrk gS fd` og C d`ks 10,000:\ d`k Hqxrku d`jsxk\ A, C d`ks (B) æwU; (Void) gS ;g |ujkfæ ugÓ nsrk gS\ A d`ks Hqxrku (C) æwU;d`j.h; (Voidable) gS d`jus ds` f¥, ck÷; fd`;k tk ld`rk (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ gS — 114. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSu foÎ`r fp® (A) ds`o¥ B ds` }kjk (Unsound mind) ugÓ gS = (B) ds`o¥ C ds` }kjk (A) ikx¥ (Insane) (C) B vkSj C ds` }kjk ,d` lkƒ (B) eancqf* (Idiot) (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ (C) æjkc ds` uæs eÍ |qr O;fDr O;kikj vojks|kƒZ d`jkj æwU; gS] ;fn (Drunkard) buds` }kjk ¥xk;k tkrk gS— (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ (A) iw.Z ^frca| 115. nqd`ku d`h v¥ekjh ·æks ds`l‚ eÍ d`her (B) viw.Z ^frca| d`h iphZ ¥xkd`j ek¥ ^nfæZr d`jus d`k vƒZ gS— (C) nksukÍ (A) vkSj (B) lgh gß (A) ^Lƒkiuk (Offer) d`juk (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ (B) ^Lƒkiuk d`k ^frxzg. (AccepA, B d`ks tks ,d` U;k;k|hæ gS] okn d`ks tance for offer) vius i” eÍ fu.Z; nsus ds` f¥, ipkl (C) ^Lƒkiuk ds` f¥, vkeU(. (Invigtkj :i;s nsus d`k opu nsrk gS\ ;g tation to offer) ,d`— (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ (A) oS| lafonk (Valid contract) gS

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/769

116.

117.

118.

119.

120.

^Hkoh rF; d`h Hw¥ ds` f¥, fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk visf”r gS = (A) Hw¥ nksukÍ i”d`kjkÍ d`h gksuh pkfg, (B) rF; vuqca| ds` f¥, vko';d` gksuk pkfg, (C) Hw¥ fo»eku rF; d`h gksuh pkfg, (D) mi;qZDr lHh ,d` vo;Ld` 20,000 ds` d`tZ ds` f¥, tks vius fæ”k ds` f¥, f¥;k ƒk] lkgwd`kj ·¥sunkj‚ ds` i” eÍ viuk ?j cU|d` fd`;k\ lkgwd`kj us lank; d`h ek∑x d`h ftls vo;Ld` us lank; d`jus ls euk d`j fn;k\ lgh fof|d` fLƒfr d`ks bafxr d`hft,— (A) ,d` vo;Ld` )`. Hqxrku ds` f¥, vkc* ugÓ gS] D;kÍfd` lafonk æwU; gS (B) lkgwd`kj )`. d`h olw¥h vo;Ld` d`h lEink ls d`j ld`rk gS (C) vo;Ld` )`. d`k Hqxrku d`jus ds` f¥, O;fDrxr Ôi ls vkc* gS (D) vo;Ld` cU|d` ls vkc* gksxk u fd` )`. ls tcfd` fd`lh d`jkj ds` f¥, lEefr] ^ihÈMu vlE;d` vlj] d`iV ;k feF;k O;insæu ls d`kfjr gks rc og d`jkj ,slh lafonk gS] tks ml i”d`kj ds` fod`Yi ij æwU;d`j.h; gS] ftld`h lEefr ,sls d`kfjr gqbZ ƒh\ fuEuf¥f[r ls fd`l |kjk ds` vUrxZr gS`= (A) |kjk 19 (B) |kjk 19 d` (C) |kjk 19 vkSj 19 d` (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ |kjk ugÓ ∏¥ksd`uhfr ,d` fcxÈMS¥ ?ksÈMk (Unruly horse) gS] vkSj tc d`ksbZ bl ij pÈ<rk gS rks ;g d`gk∑ ¥s tk,xk bls d`ksbZ ugÓ tkurk\π ;g d`ƒu fuEuf¥f[r fd`l okn ls lEcfU|r gS = (A) ?s:¥k¥ cuke egknsonkl (B) fjpMΩZlu cuke esf¥æ (C) œs`UMj cuke tkWu feYMe;s (D) ,xZVu cuke czk˜u¥ks ‘A’ d`bZ ^d`kj ds` rs¥kÍ d`k O;kikj d`jrk gS\ ‘B’ d`ks ‘A’ ,d` lkS Vu rs¥ cspus d`k d`jkj d`jrk gS\ d`jkj æwU; gS] D;kÍfd`— (A) ;g vfuf'pr gS (B) ^frœ`¥ jfgr gS (C) LorU( lEefr ugÓ gS (D) mi;qZDr eÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ

m®j O;k“;k lfgr

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/770

vkj\ ,\ ,l\/vkj\ Vh\ ,l\ ·^kjfEHd`‚ ijh{kk] 7-1-2009 d`k g¥ iz'u-i(

(C) (1), (2) vkSj (4) (D) (1), (3) vkSj (4) 10.

næZuækL(
fuEuf¥f[r eÍ d`kSulk fod`Yi lgh gS= (A) rdZ`okD; ;k rks lR; gksrs gß ;k vlR; gksrs gß (B) rdZ`okD; (Propositions) lnSo lR; gh gksrs gß (C) lHh ^d`kj ds` okD; rdZ`okD; gksrs gß (D) lHh ^d`kj ds` okD; ;k rks lR; gksrs gß ;k vlR; gksrs gß 2. ‘d`ksbZ Hh d`ƒu ;k rks lR; gksrk gS ;k vlR; gksrk gS’\ mi;qZDr d`ƒu gS— (A) fo|k;d` mH;r# ikæ (B) rknkRE; (Identify) d`k fu;e (C) e÷; ifjgkj fu;e (D) O;k?kr (Contradiction) d`k fu;e 3. ikjEifjd` fojks| oxZ ds` vuqlkj tc leku mˆs'; vkSj fo|s; ok¥s nks rdZ`okD; ,d` lkƒ lR; ugÓ gks ld`rs ;»fi os vlR; gks ld`rs gß] rks os d`g¥krs gß— (A) O;k?krh (Contradictory) (B) mikJ;. (Sub-alternation) (C) fo:* (Sub-contrary) (D) foijhr (Contrary) 4. lHh jktusrk vlR;Hk"h (Liars) gß\ d`ksbZ Hh lUr vlR;Hk"h ugÓ gS\ ∴ dq`N lUr jktusrk ugÓ gß\ fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk fod`Yi mi;qZDr fujis” U;k;okD; (Categorical Syllogism) ds` f¥, lgh gS— (A) vO;kIr e÷;e in nks" (B) l®kRed` nks" (Fallacy) (C) U;k;;qfDr oS| gS (D) fu"s|kRed` vk|kjokD; nks"
P–M M–S 5. ;g n~ÆVkUr gS— S–P (A) ^ƒe vkÎ`fr d`k (B) f}rh; vkÎ`fr d`k (C) r~rh; vkÎ`fr d`k (D) prqƒZ vkÎ`fr d`k 1. 6. ‘I’ rdZ`okD; d`k ^frifjofrZr (Contrapositive) gS— (A) A (B) E (C) d`ksbZ Hh oS| ^frifjofrZr ugÓ (D) O 7. EIO–2

leku mˆs'; vkSj fo|s; ok¥s nks fu:ikf|d` rdZ`okD;] tks xq. vkSj ifjek. nksukÍ eÍ fHUu gß] ds` e÷; fojks| d`g¥krk gS— (A) foijhr (Contrary) (B) fo:* (Subcontrary) (C) miJ;. (Subalternation) (D) O;k?kr (Contradiction)
p T T F F q T F T F

11. T T T F

mi;qZDr U;k;;qfDr-vkd`kj eÍ d`kSulk rdZ`nks" gS= (A) oS|-d`ksbZ rdZ` nks" ugÓ (B) vfu;fer veq“; in nks" (C) fu"s|kRed` vk|kjokD; nks" (D) l®kRed` nks" 8. fuEukad`r js[kfp(kÍ eÍ ls d`kSulk ‘A’ fu:ikf|d` rdZ ` okD; d`ks ^Lrq r d`jrk gS=
S P

(A)
X S P

mi;qZDr lR;rkf¥d`k fuEukafd`r eÍ ls fd`ld`k lR;œ`¥u gS= (A) fod`Yi (Disjunction) (B) la;kstu (Conjunction) (C) vkiknu (Implication) (D) fu"s| (Negation) 12. la;kstu fuEuf¥f[r lajpuk eÍ ls fd`leÍ lR; gksrk gS=
(A) F – F (C) T – F 13. p ⊃ q ∴ p ⊃ (p · q) (B) T – T (D) F – T

(B)

mi;qZDr n~ÆVkUr gS— (A) iwoZorΩ vuqeku (Modus (C) Ponens) d`k (B) lj¥hd`j. (Simplification) d`k S P (C) lefo¥;u (Absorption) d`k (D) X (D) la;kstu (Conjunction) d`k 14. ;fn A vkSj B lR; gß rƒk X vkSj 9. fd`lh oS| osu js[kfp( eÍ # Y vlR; gß rks fuEuf¥f[r la;qDr (1) ge rhu xks¥kd`kjkÍ d`ks ijLij d`ƒukÍ eÍ ls d`kSulk vlR; gS= d`kVrs gq, fpf(r d`jrs gß (A) (X ⊃ (X ⊃ Y) (2) ge ds`o¥ vk|kjokD;kÍ d`ks gh (B) (X ⊃ Y) ⊃ (~ X ⊃ ~ Y) fpf(r d`jrs gß (C) (A ⊃ X) ⊃ Y (3) ge lnSo eq“; vk|kjokD; d`ks (D) A ⊃ (B ⊃ Y) ig¥s fpf(r d`jrs gß 15. p ∨ q (4) ge lnSo loZO;kih vk|kjokD; ~p d`ks ig¥s fpf(r d`jrs gß ∴q uhps fn, x, dw`V d`k ^;ksx d`jrs gq, mi;qZDr ;qfDr vkd`kj n~ÆVkUr gS— lgh m®j pqfu,% (A) (1) vkSj (3) (A) oSd`fYid` U;k;;qfDr d`k (B) (1), (2) vkSj (3) (B) gsrqgsrqenΩ U;k;;qfDr d`k
S P

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/772

22. ‘iq:"kƒZ prqÆVΩ;’ ds` vuqlkj eks” fu:ikf|d` U;k;;qfDr d`k d`k rkRi;Z gS— vkxeukRed` ;qfDr d`k (A) nq#[kÍ d`k vkR;fUrd` ukæ 16. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk œ`¥okD; (B) bZ'oj-lk”kRd`kj fo|ku nks" gS= (C) LoxZ d`h ^kfIr (A) p⊃q (D) lq[ d`h ^kfIr p 23. ‘)`.’ d`h vo|kj.k d`k lEcU| gS— ∴ q (A) cz©p;kZJe ls (B) p⊃q (B) x~gLƒkJe ls p (C) oku^LƒkJe ls ∴ q (D) laU;klkJe ls (C) p⊃q q 24. lUrkuksRif® d`rZO; d`k lEcU| gS— ∴ p (A) nso)`. ls (B) Hwr)`. ls (D) p⊃q (C) fir~ )`. ls (D) )`f" )`. ls ~ q 25. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSu ds`o¥ fuo~f®∴ p ekxZ eÍ fo'okl ugÓ d`jrk= 17. ~ (p · q) ≡ (~ p V ~ q) (A) lka“; (B) Î`Æ. mi;qZDr d`ƒu mnkgj. gS — (C) egkohj (D) cq* (A) la;kstu (Conjunction) d`k 26. v|ksf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSu lalkj d`ks (B) ;ksx (Addition) d`k feF;k ekurk gS= (C) iqudZ`ƒu (Tautology) d`k (A) ækad`j osnkUr (D) O;k?kr (Contradiction) d`k (B) tSu næZu (C) oSÆ.o osnkUr 18. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk ‘O’ rdZ`okD; gS= (D) lka“;-;ksx (A) (∃X) (φ X ~ ψ X) 27. d`ƒu (A) : xhrk ds` vuqlkj O;fDr (B) (X) (φ X ⊃ ψ X) d`ks lnSo lR; cks¥uk pkfg,\ (C) (X) (φ X ⊃ ~ ψ X) d`kj. (R) : lR;-Hk". leLr (D) (∃X) (φ X · ψ X) euqÆ;kÍ d`k Lo|eZ gS\ uhps fn, x, dw`V ds` vuqlkj lgh 19. (X) (φ X ⊃ ~ ∪ X) vkSj (∃X) (φ m®j pqfu,\ X ~ ψ X) dw`V # ikjLifjd` fojks| oxZ ds` vuqlkj mi;qZDr ^rhd`kRed` vfHO;fDr;kÍ eÍ (A) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lR; gß rƒk fojks| gS— (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k gS\ (A) foijhr (B) fo:* (B) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lR; gß] (C) mikJ;. (D) O;k?kr ijUrq (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k ugÓ gS\ 20. p · q ∴p (C) (A) lR; gS] ijUrq (R) vlR; gS\ mi;qZDr gS— (D) (A) vlR; gS] ijUrq (R) lR; (A) la;kstu gS\ (B) iwoZorΩ vuqeku (C) ;ksx 28. xhrk ds` vuqlkj vik( (Undeserving person) d`ks nku nsuk gS— (D) lj¥hd`j. (A) jktfld` (B) rkefld` 21. ‘f(oxZ’ ds` vuqlkj gekjs lsou d`k (C) lkfRod` (D) vuSfrd` lk÷; gS— (A) |eZ 29. d`ƒu (A) : xhrk ds` vuqlkj Kku gh (B) vƒZ ,d` ek( eks”-ekxZ gS\ (C) |ekZfJr d`ke d`kj. (R) : Kku vkRek ds` okLrfod` (D) d`ke ek( LoÔi d`ks ^d`kfær d`jrk gS\ (C) (D)

30.

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uhps fn, x, dw`V ds` vuqlkj lgh m®j pqfu,\ dw`V # (A) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lR; gß rƒk (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k gS\ (B) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lR; gß] ijUrq (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k ugÓ gS\ (C) (A) lR; gS] ijUrq (R) vlR; gS (D) (A) vlR; gS] ijUrq (R) lR; gS xhrk eÍ fuf"* d`eZ d`ks d`gk x;k gS— (A) fod`eZ (B) vd`eZ (C) d`eZ (D) fuÆd`ke d`eZ d`ƒu (A) : Î`Æ. xhrk eÍ d`grs gß] ‘d`®ZO; d`eZ d`jks« œ`¥ d`h bPNk er d`jks\’ d`kj. (R) : d`eZ-œ`¥ d`rkZ ds` v|hu ugÓ gS\ fuEukafd`r dw`V d`k ^;ksx d`jrs gq, lgh m®j pqfu,\ dw`V # (A) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lR; gß rƒk (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k gS\ (B) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lR; gß] ijUrq (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k ugÓ gS\ (C) (A) lR; gS] ijUrq (R) vlR; gS (D) (A) vlR; gS] ijUrq (R) lR; gS fLƒr^K og gS ftld`h cqf* ,d`kxz gS— (1) bZ'oj eÍ (2) fo";kÍ eÍ (3) vkRe fgr eÍ (4) vkRe larqfÆV eÍ uhps fn, x, dw`V ds` vuqlkj lgh m®j pqfu,\ dw`V # (A) (1) vkSj (2) (B) (1), (3) vkSj (4) (C) (1) vkSj (4) (D) (3) vkSj (4) bZ'oj d`ks og HDr loZf^; gS] tks— (A) vkrZ gS (B) Kkuh gS (C) ftKklq gS (D) vƒkZƒhZ gS tSu næZu eÍ crk, x, f(jRu gß— (A) æh¥-lekf|-^Kk (B) v¯glk-vusd`kUr-vifjxzg (C) vklzo-lEoj-futZjk (D) næZu-Kku-pkfj(

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/773

35.

ckS*kÍ d`k f}rh; vk;ZlR; d`g¥krk dw`V # gS— (a) (b) (c) (d) (1) |eZp∂` (2) }knæfunku (A) 2 4 1 3 (3) nq#[ fujks| (4) vukReokn (B) 4 3 2 1 uhps fn, x, dw`V d`k ^;ksx d`jrs gq, (C) 2 4 3 1 lgh m®j pqfu,\ (D) 3 1 4 2 dw`V # 42. xhrk ds` vuqlkj fuEukafd`r d`ƒukÍ ij (A) (1) vkSj (2) fopkj d`hft,— (B) (1) vkSj (3) (1) d`rkZiu ds` vfHeku ls jfgr (C) (3) vkSj (4) fd`;k x;k d`eZ vd`eZ gS (D) (2) vkSj (4) (2) d`eZ HfDr eÍ ck|d` gS 36. ckS*kÍ d`k iapæh¥ leosr gS— (3) HfDr ;ksx gh ,d`ek( eks” ekxZ (A) lekf| eÍ (B) nq#[ leqn; eÍ gS (C) æh¥ eÍ (D) ^Kk eÍ (4) fuf"* d`eZ fod`eZ gS 37. lE;xΩ n~fÆV vax gS— uhps fn, x, dw`V d`k ^;ksx d`jrs gq, (A) f(jRu d`k lgh m®j pqfu,\ (B) vÆVkax-ekxZ d`k dw`V # (C) vÆVkax ;ksx d`k (A) (1) vkSj (4) (D) |eZp∂` d`k (B) (1) vkSj (3) (C) (2) vkSj (4) 38. ^rhR;leqRikn d`h fuEukafd`r pkj d`fÈM;kÍ ij fopkj d`hft, — (D) (2) vkSj (3) (1) LiæZ (2) osnuk 43. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk vuqi;qDr (3) r~Æ.k (4) "Mk;ru ;qXe gS= uhps fn, x, dw`V ds` vuqlkj mi;qZDr (A) Lo|eZ—o.Z|eZ d`fÈM;kÍ d`k lgh ∂`e pqfu,\ (B) vgZrΩ—ckS* næZu dw`V # (C) ds`o¥h— og O;fDr ftls fd`lh (A) 3–4–1–2 (B) 1–3–2–4 oLrq d`k ds`o¥ vkafæd` Kku gks (C) 4–3–2–1 (D) 4–1–2–3 (D) fLƒr^K—leRo ;ksx 39. tSu næZu ds` vuqlkj ds`o¥h og 44. ^kjfEHd` oSfnd` fopkj|kjk ds` ew¥Hwr gS— lE^R;; ij fopkj d`hft,— (A) tks loZK (Omniscient) gS (1) )`r (2) nku (B) ftls oLrqvkÍ d`ks ds`o¥ lkis” (3) ri (4) ;K Kku gS uhps fn, x, dw`V ds` vuqlkj lgh (C) tks ds`o¥ ,d`kUroklh (Solim®j pqfu,\ tude) gS dw`V # (D) tks nwljkÍ ds` m*kj gsrq ckj-ckj tUe ¥srk gS (A) (1) vkSj (2) (B) (1) vkSj (3) 40. egkozr leosr gS— (A) lE;xΩ næZu eÍ (C) (2) vkSj (4) (B) lE;dΩ` Kku eÍ (D) (1) vkSj (4) (C) lE;dΩ` pfj( eÍ 45. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ d`kSulk iap;K eÍ (D) lE;dΩ` Le~fr eÍ lfEef¥r ugÓ gS= 41. lw p h- I d`k lwph-II ds` lkƒ fe¥ku (A) u~;K (B) v'oes| ;K d`hft, vkSj uhps fn, x, dw`V ds` (C) Hwr;K (D) fir~;K vuqlkj lgh m®j nhft, # 46. ew Y ; ds ` lE^R;; ij fopkj lwph-I d`hft,— (a) v.qozr (b) f(jRu (1) œ`¥ LokLF; ds` f¥, vPNs gß (c) vÆVkaxekxZ (d) egkozr (2) esjh ek∑ lnSo lR; cks¥rh gS lwph-II (3) lR; æqH gS 1. Je. 2. Le~fr (4) csbZekuh (Dishonesty) væqH gS 3. næZu 4. Jod` izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/774

mi;qZDr d`ƒukÍ eÍ ls d`kSuls ewY;ijd` d`ƒu gß= (A) (1), (3) vkSj (4) (B) (2), (3) vkSj (4) (C) (2) vkSj (3) (D) (1), (2), (3) vkSj (4) 47. fuEuf¥f[r d`ƒukÍ eÍ ls d`kSulk uSfrd` (Moral) d`ƒu gS= (A) dq`N jktusrk bZekunkj gß (B) vf|la“; ¥ksx d`grs gß fd` csbZekuh mfpr ugÓ gS (C) bZekunkjh nh?Zd`kf¥d` ¥kH^n gS (D) csbZekuh vokaNuh; (Undesirable) gS 48. og d`eZ tks fu;ekuqdw`¥ gksrk gS] d`g¥krk gS— (A) lR; (True) (B) oS|kfud` (Legal) (C) mfpr (Right) (D) ^ƒk (Ritual) 49. uSfrd` d`rZO; d`k vk|kj gS — (A) leLr ck÷;rkvkÍ ls LorU(rk (B) vkUrfjd` ck÷;rk (Compulsion) (C) vk÷;kfRed` (Spiritual) ck÷;rk (D) oS|kfud` (Legal) ck÷;rk 50.

euksoSKkfud` lq[okn ds` vuqlkj fopkj d`hft, # d`ƒu (A) # lq[ thou d`k loksZPp ¥{; gS\ d`kj. (B) # ^R;sd` O;fDr lq[ d`h d`keuk d`jrk gS\ fuEukafd`r dw`V d`k ^;ksx d`jrs gq, lgh m®j pqfu,\ dw`V # (A) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lR; gß rƒk (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k gS (B) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lR; gß] ijUrq (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k ugÓ gS (C) (A) lR; gS] ijUrq (R) vlR; gS (D) (A) vlR; gS] ijUrq (R) lR; gS 51. euksoSKkfud` lq[okn (Psychological hedonism) ds` vuqlkj fuEuf¥f[r eÍ d`kSu ^sjd` æfDr gS= (A) vUrKkZu (Intuition) (B) cqf* (Reason) (C) bPNk,∑ (Desires) (D) æqH d`k fopkj (Idea of Good)

52.

lwph-I d`k lwph-II ls fe¥ku d`hft, uhps fn, x, dw`V ds` vuqlkj lgh d`kj. (R) # uSfrd` d`ƒukÍ d`k fd`lh vkSj uhps fn, x, dw`V ds` vuqlkj m®j pqfu,\ ^n® uSfrd` fu;e ds` v|hu ewY;kad`u lgh m®j nhft, # fd`;k tkrk gS\ dw`V # lwph-I fuEuf¥f[r dw`V d`k ^;ksx d`jrs gq, (A) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lR; gß rƒk lgh m®j pqfu,\ (a) csUƒe (b) fltfod` (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k gS dw`V # (c) fe¥ (d) LisUlj (B) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lR; gß] (A) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lR; gß rƒk ijUrq (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k lwph-II (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k gS ugÓ gS 1. lqlaLÎ`r mi;ksfxrkokn (B) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lR; gß] (C) (A) lR; gS] ijUrq (R) vlR; gS 2. mnΩfod`klkRed` mi;ksfxrkokn ijUrq (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k 3. lq[oknh x.uk (D) (A) vlR; gS] ijUrq (R) lR; gS ugÓ gS 4. ckSf*d` mi;ksfxrkokn 57. d`k≥V ds` vuqlkj ‘æqHsPNk’ gS— (C) (A) lR; gS] ijUrq (R) vlR; gS dw`V # (A) euksoSKkfud` bPNk (a) (b) (c) (d) (D) (A) vlR; gS] ijUrq (R) lR; gS (B) ckSf*d` bPNk (Rational will) (A) 4 2 3 1 62. vf|d`kj vkSj d`rZO; ds` chp lEcU| (C) nSoh; bPNk (Divine will) (B) 3 4 1 2 ds` ckjs eÍ v|ksf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk (D) vk÷;kfRed` bPNk (Spiritual (C) 1 3 2 4 fod`Yi lgh gS= will) (D) 2 1 4 3 (A) vf|d`kj d`h rq¥uk eÍ d`rZO; 58. d`k≥V ds` vuqlkj bZ'oj uSfrd` psruk 53. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk ;qXe lgh ^|ku gS d`h iwoZekU;rk ds` Ôi eÍ — ugÓ gS= (B) d`rZO; d`h rq¥uk eÍ vf|d`kj (A) uSfrd` thou d`k ¥{; gS (A) fe¥ — mi;ksfxrkokn ^|ku gS (B) uSfrd` thou thus d`k vknsæ (B) d`k≥V — cqf*ijrkokn (C) nksukÍ ijLijkfJr (Mutually nsrk gS (C) csUƒe — lq[okn dependent) gß (C) fujis” vknsækÍ ds` vkSfpR; d`k (D) cV¥j — ^Î`frokn (D) nksukÍ ijLij LorU( (Excluvk|kj gS sive) gß 54. csUƒe ds` vuqlkj fopkj d`hft, # (D) lq[ d`ks æqH ds` lkƒ la;qDr (1) euqÆ; LoHko ls ijkƒhZ d`jrk gS 63. ^Î`frokn ds` vuqlkj æqH (Good) (Altruist) gS gS— 59. ^;kstuoknh ·œ`¥-lkis”oknh‚ uSfrd`rk (A) Lo;a eÍ lk÷; (2) ckSf*d` lq[ ,sfUnzd` lq[kÍ (Sends` vuqlkj fopkj d`hft, # suous pleasure) ls JsÆB gS (B) vifjHk"k (Indefinable) (1) æqH vkSj lq[ eÍ rknkRE; gS (3) lq[ vkSj nq#[ thou eÍ fu;ked` (C) ckSf*d` (Rational) (2) ifj.ke d`eZ d`h mfprrk d`k fl*kUr gß fu|kZj. gS (D) bPNk d`h larqfÆV (4) lq[oknh ifjx.uk gekjs pquko (3) æqH vifjHkÆ; gS 64. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSu æqH d`ks ‘lj¥ d`k fu.kZ;d` rRo gS (4) uSfrd` fu;e ckSf*d` gS vkSj vfo'¥sÆ; (Unanalysable) mi;qZDr d`ƒukÍ eÍ ls d`kSulk/d`kSuls uhps fn, x, dw`V d`k ^;ksx d`jrs gq, ekurk gS= d`ƒu lgh gS/gß= lgh m®j pqfu,% (A) fe¥ (B) Ìwe (A) (1) vkSj (2) (A) (1) vkSj (2) (C) LVhosUlu (D) ewj (B) (1), (3) vkSj (4) (B) (1) vkSj (3) 65. LVhosUlu ds` vuqlkj uSfrd` fu.Z; (C) (3) vkSj (4) (C) (3) vkSj (4) gS— (D) (2) vkSj (3) (D) (1), (2) vkSj (4) (A) oDrk ds` laosxkÍ d`h vfHO;fDr 55. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk d`k≥V ds` 60. fuEukafd`r eÍ ls d`kSulk fod`Yi fe¥ (B) æq* ckSf*d` uSfrd` næZu ds` f¥, vuqi;qDr gS= ds` f¥, ¥kxw ugÓ gksrk gS= (C) o.ZukRed` (Descriptive) (A) lkis”okn (Relativism) (A) og œ`¥-fujis”oknh (Deon(D) œ`¥-fujis”oknh (Deontotologist) (B) vkd`kfjd`okn (Formalism)
(B) okaNuh;rk vkSj lq[nkrk ,d` lq[ iw.Z æqH d`h iwoZekU;rk gS 66. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSu ;g Lohd`kj gh oLrq ds` nks ig¥w gß fujis” vknsæ d`jrk gS fd` uSfrd` fu.Z; d`k ^eq[ (C) lq[kÍ eÍ d`ksbZ Hsn ugÓ gS 56. d`ƒu (A) # d`k≥V d`k uSfrd` næZu d`k;Z ‘pquko d`k ekxZnæZu’ d`juk gS= (D) uSfrd`rk fujis” ugÓ gS ^k;# d`Bksjrkokn ds` Ôi eÍ tkuk (A) ,\ ts\ ,vj tkrk gS\ 61. fuEuf¥f[r d`ƒukÍ ij fopkj d`hft,% (B) lh\ ,¥\ LVhosUlu d`kj. (R) # d`k≥V uSfrd`rk eÍ ^se d`ƒu (A) # uSfrd` d`ƒu mfpr (C) th\ bZ\ ewj ds` vfrfjDr fd`lh Hh Hkouk d`ks (Right) vƒok vuqfpr (Wrong) (D) vkj\ ,e\ gsvj Lohd`kj ugÓ d`jrk\ gksrs gß\ (C) (D) logical)

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/775

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72.

‘;fn vki lq[ ds` ihNs Hkxrs gß rks vki mls ^kIr d`jus eÍ vlœ`¥ gh gksrs gß\ mi;qZDr fojks|kHkl (Paradox) d`g¥krk gS\ (A) rkfdZ`d` fojks|kHkl (B) lq[okn d`k fojks|kHkl (C) ckSf*d` fojks|kHkl (D) vk÷;kfRed` (Spiritual) fojks|kHkl fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk fod`Yi d`k≥V d`ks Lohd`k;Z ugÓ gS= (A) foosd`æh¥ d`rkZvkÍ eÍ Hh uSfrd` fu.Z;kÍ ds` ckjs eÍ okLrfod` erHsn gks ld`rs gß (B) æqH d`eZ-œ`¥ lkis” ugÓ gksrk gS (C) uSfrd` fu;e cqf* d`k vknsæ gS (D) ‘eq>s d`juk pkfg,’ ;g ‘eß d`j ld`rk gw∑’ d`h iwoZekU;rk ij vkfJr gS\ cV¥j Lohd`kj d`jrk gS— (A) laosxokn (Emotivism) (B) ^Î`frokn (Naturalism) (C) vUrKkZuokn (Intuitionism) (D) ijkeæZokn (Prescriptivism) n≥M d`k d`kSulk fl*kUr vijk| d`ks euksjksx ds` Ôi eÍ Lohd`kj d`jrk gS= (A) fuorZuoknh (Deterrent) (B) ^frd`kjoknh (Retributive) (C) |eZækL( (D) lq|kjoknh (Reformative) d`ƒu (A) # pkokZd` ds` vuqlkj ‘lq[ gh thou d`k loksZPp ¥{; gS\’ d`kj. (R) # ;g txrΩ ds`o¥ pkj HwrkÍ ds` la;ksx ls cuk gS\ uhps fn, x, dw`V d`k ^;ksx d`jrs gq, lgh m®j pqfu,\ dw`V # (A) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lR; gß rƒk (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k gS (B) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lR; gß] ijUrq (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k ugÓ gS (C) (A) lR; gS] ijUrq (R) vlR; gS (D) (A) vlR; gS] ijUrq (R) lR; gS pkokZd` ds` vuqlkj fopkj d`hft, # (1) O;kfIr d`h Lƒkiuk lEHo ugÓ (2) txr iapegkHwrkÍ ls cuk gS (3) iki-iq≥; ugÓ gS (4) |ekZfJr d`ke thou d`k ¥{; gS

lgh m®j pqfu, # (2) iq:"Krk (Knower), HksDrk (Enjoyer) vkSj d`rkZ (Doer) gS\ (1) vkSj (3) (3) f(xq. ^Î`fr ds` vUrjax vax (1), (2) vkSj (3) gS\ (1) vkSj (2) (4) ^Î`fr d`k fod`kl js[h; gS\ (2) vkSj (4) uhps fn, dw`V d`k ^;ksx d`jrs gq, lgh 73. fuEukafd`r eÍ d`kSu ;g ekurk gS fd` m®j d`ks pqfu,\ lrΩ fuR;kfuR; (Eternal and Nondw`V # eternal) gS= (A) (1) vkSj (4) (A) lkS(kfUrd` (B) ;ksxkpkj (B) (2) vkSj (3) (C) tSu næZu (D) v}Sr osnkUr (C) ds`o¥ (3) 74. tSu næZu ds` vuqlkj fuEuf¥f[r eÍ (D) (3) vkSj (4) ls d`kSulk pkj ^d`kj ds` d`eZ-cU| eÍ lfEef¥r ugÓ gS= 79. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ d`kSulk fod`Yi lka“; (A) ^Î`fr (B) fLƒfr d`ks Lohd`k;Z ugÓ gS= (C) ^nsæ (D) d`"k; (A) d`k;Z] d`kj. d`k okLrfod` ÔikUrj. (Transformation) gS 75. lw p h- I d`k lgh-II ds` lkƒ fe¥ku d`hft, vkSj uhps fn, x, dw`V ds` (B) u iw.Z foukæ gS vkSj u uwru vuqlkj lgh m®j nhft, # mRif® (C) ^Î`fr ifj.keokn lwph-I (a) lkS(kfUrd` (D) d`kj. vkSj d`k;Z eÍ fd`lh Hh (b) ;ksxkpkj ^d`kj d`k Hsn ugÓ gS (c) æwU;okn euksfoKku 80. ;ksx ds` vuqlkj bZ'oj gS — (d) oSHkf"d` (A) ÷;ku d`k JsÆB fo"; lwph-II (B) fufe®ksiknu d`kj. 1. ckÌkuqes;okn (C) ;ksx d`k loksZPp ¥{; 2. ckÌ ^R;”okn (D) ,d` fopkj ek( 3. fD¥ÆV 81. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ d`kSulk ;ksx }kjk crkbZ 4. lEo~fr lR; xbZ fp(Hwfe eÍ lfEef¥r ugÓ gS= dw`V # (A) ,d`kxz (B) fod`Yi (a) (b) (c) (d) (C) f”Ir (D) fu:} (A) 1 3 4 2 (B) 2 1 3 4 82. U;k; næZu eÍ Hw;ksnæZu d`k vƒZ gS— (C) 3 2 1 4 (A) vkRe-lk”kRd`kj (D) 4 3 2 1 (B) Hwfe næZu 76. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls vlR; ;qXe d`k (C) iqu#-iqu# fujh”. pquko d`hft, — (D) v¥kSfd`d` ^R;” (A) ukxktqZu —lR;}; (B) foKkuokn —oLrqfuÆB ^R;;okn 83. ‘vfXu æhr¥ gS] D;kÍfd` ;g ,d` nzO; (Substance) gS\’ (C) ¥ad`kOrkj —rƒkxrxHZ mi;qZDr d`ƒu n~ÆVkUr gS— (D) oSHkf"d` —vlaLÎ`r |eZ (A) fo:* gsRokHkl d`k 77. ‘vƒZf∂`;klkEF;Z¥”.a ijekƒZlrΩ’ (B) lR^fri” gsRokHkl d`k ·vƒZf∂`;k lkeF;Z ijekƒZ lrΩ d`k (C) vfl* gsRokHkl d`k ¥”. gS‚ (D) ckf|r gsRokHkl d`k mi;qZDr d`ƒu fd`l nkæZfud` d`k gS= 84. oSæsfæd`kÍ ds` vuqlkj] ,d` oLrq d`k (A) |eZd`hfrZ (B) ukxktqZu nwljh oLrq ds` Ôi eÍ vHko d`g¥krk (C) leUrHnz (D) vd`¥ad` gS— 78. lka“; ds` vuqlkj fopkj d`hft, # (A) vU;ksU;kHko (1) ije iq:" l~fÆV d`k fufe® (B) vR;UrkHko d`kj. gS vkSj ^Î`fr bld`k (C) ^kxHko miknku d`kj. (Material Cause) gS\ (D) ^÷oalHko
(A) (B) (C) (D)

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/776

85.

86.

87.

88.

89.

90.

d`kj. (R) # fpn.q (Monads) lwph-I d`k lwph-II ls fe¥ku d`hft, (C) ekufld` (Mental) vkSj uhps fn, x, dw`V d`k ^;ksx d`jrs xok”ghu (Windowless) gS\ (D) d`Yiuk (Imagination) gq, lgh m®j pqfu, # fuEukafd`r dw`V d`k ^;ksx d`jrs gq, 91. vjLrw ds ` vuq l kj fuEuf¥f[r lwph-I lgh m®j pqfu,\ fod`YikÍ eÍ d`kSulk lgh gS= (a) v“;kfr dw`V # (A) inkƒZ (Matter) okLrfod`rk gS (b) vU;ƒk“;kfr (A) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lR; gß rƒk (B) lkekU; ^eq[ nzO; (Substance) (c) foijhr“;kfr (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k gS gS (d) lR“;kfr (B) (A) vkSj (R) nksukÍ lR; gß] (C) vkd`kj oSfo÷; (Diversity) d`k lwph-II ijUrq (R), (A) d`h lgh O;k“;k fl*kUr gS 1. U;k; 2. ^Hkd`j ugÓ gS (D) nzO; og gS ftld`k vU; lHh 3. jkekuqt 4. dq`ekfj¥ fo|s; gS (C) (A) lR; gS] ijUrq (R) vlR; gS dw`V # (D) (A) vlR; gS] ijUrq (R) lR; gS 92. ,Dohul ekurk gS fd`— (a) (b) (c) (d) (A) ^kekf.d` Kku ^R;;kRed` 98. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk fod`Yi (A) 4 3 1 2 d`k≥V ds` ‘oLrq futLoÔi’ (Things(Conceptual) Kku gS (B) 2 1 4 3 in-themselves) ds` lEcU| eÍ lgh (B) ^R;;kÍ (Concepts) d`k bfUnz;(C) 1 4 3 2 ugÓ gS= ^R;” eÍ d`ksbZ vk|kj ugÓ (D) 3 2 4 1 (A) bafnz; ^R;” (Sense percep(C) lkekU; foæs " kÍ ls LorU( tion) ds` }kjk ugÓ tkuk tkrk Kkrrkokn d`ks Lohd`kj d`jrs gß— vfLrRoku gS (B) ^R;;kÍ (Concepts) ds` }kjk (A) ^Hkd`j (B) U;k; næZu (D) lkekU; vokLrfod` (Unreal) gS ugÓ tkuk tkrk (C) dq`ekfj¥ (D) æad`j 93. nsd`krZ gS— (C) u rks Kkr gS vkSj u gh fd`lh æad`j ds` vuqlkj fuEuf¥f[r d`ƒukÍ (A) laæ;oknh (Sceptic) Hh Ôi eÍ fpUruh; (Thinkable) gS ij fopkj d`hft, # (B) cqf*oknh vkSj ^R;;oknh (Rati(D) vKkr gS] ijUrq ud`kjkRed` Ôi 1. txrΩ cz© d`k ifj.ke vkSj ek;k onalist and idealist) ls fpUruh; gS d`k foorZ gS (C) cqf*oknh vkSj oLrqoknh (Ratio- 99. cdZ`¥s ds` vkRek ds` ckjs eÍ fuEukafd`r 2. ek;k vij cz© d`h æfDr gS nalist and Realist) fopkjkÍ ls (qfViw.Z fod`Yi pqfu, # 3. cz© Kku d`k vkJ; gS (D) cgqrRooknh (Pluralist) (A) vkRek (Spirit) vfoHkT; l®k 4. psrU; vkSj Kku rnzwi gS gS 94. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls x¥r ;qXe pqfu, # uhps fn, x, dw`V ds` vuqlkj lgh (B) ;g lf∂`; l®k gS (A) nsd`krZ —}Srokn (Dualism) m®j pqfu,\ (C) vkRek d`k d`ksbZ Hh ^R;; ugÓ (B) fLiukstk —bZ'ojokn (Theism) cuk;k tk ld`rk dw`V # (C) ¥kbfCuRt (D) ge vkRek d`k lk”krΩ ^R;” d`j (A) (1), (2) vkSj (3) —cgqrÂookn (Pluralism) ld`rs gß (B) (2) vkSj (3) (D) Ìwe (C) (1) vkSj (4) —vuqHookn (Empiricism) 100. ¥kWd` ds` vuqlkj jax d`k fopkj ·^R;;‚ xzg. fd`;k tkrk gS— (D) (2) vkSj (4) 95. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk fLiukstk (A) ,d` bfUnz; (One sense) ls d`ks Lohd`k;Z ugÓ gS= v}Sr osnkUr eÍ feF;k d`k vƒZ gS— (B) ,d`kf|d` bfUnz;kÍ (More than (A) fu;frokn (Determinism) (A) lnln fo¥”. one sense) ls (B) cqf*okn (Rationalism) (B) lrΩ vkSj vlrΩ nksukÍ (C) laosnu vkSj fpUru (Sensation (C) losZ'ojokn (Pantheism) (C) oa÷;kiq( d`h Hk∑fr vlrΩ and reflection) (D) ^;kstuokn (Teleology) (D) lrΩ (D) ds`o¥ fpUru (Reflection) ls 96. Ìwe ds` vuqlkj gekjk bZ'oj eÍ fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk lqd`jkr mÂkj O;k“;k lfgr fo'okl vkfJr gS— (Socrates) d`ks Lohd`k;Z ugÓ gS= (A) gekjh lq[ d`h vfH¥k"k vkSj (A) Kku lnΩxq. (Virtue) gS e~R;q ds` H; ij (B) lnΩxq. Kku (Knowledge) gS (B) vuqHo (Experience) ij (C) lnΩxq. vusd` gß (C) fpUru (Reasoning) ij (D) fcuk Kku ds` lnΩxq. vlEHo gS (D) lR; ds` ^fr foæq* ^se ij I¥sVks ds` vuqlkj foKku vƒok ^R;; gS— 97. ¥kbfCuRt ds` vuqlkj fopkj d`hft, # (A) Kkuehekalh; ^R;; d`ƒu (A) # fpn.q eÍ dq`N Hh ”; ugÓ gksrk] lc dq`N blds` lc lksikukÍ (B) rÂoehekalh; lrΩ (Metaphysi(Stages) eÍ lqjf”r jgrk gS\ cal real)

izfr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/ 2009/777

>kj[≥M ¥ksd` lsok vk;ksx eq“; ijh{kk] 2006 d`k g¥ iz'u-i(

lkekU; fgUnh
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fu|kZfjr le; # rhu ?≥Vs iw.kÛd` : 150 uksV % (i) lHh ^'u vfuok;Z gß\ (ii) ^R;sd` ^'u ds` iw.kÛd` mlds` var eÍ nkfguh vksj vafd`r gß\ (iii) i(–¥s[u eÍ viuk uke] irk vƒok vuq∂`ekad` u f¥[Í\ ;fn vfuok;Z gks] rks ” ( K (XYZ) f¥[ ld`rs gß\ ^'u 1. Hkjr ds` ew¥ fuoklh nL;q ƒs\ eksgutksnÈMks d`h [qnkbZ eÍ tks uxj fe¥s gß] eqaæh mUgÓ d`ks mud`k ew¥ Lƒku ekurs gß\ ;g ,d` lqlaLÎ`r vkSj fod`flr laLÎ`fr ƒh\ nL;qvkÍ ds` jktk æEcj ds` ikl lkS lqn~È< nqxZ ƒs\ vkjfEHd` la?"Z] ;q* vkSj foxzg ds` ckn vUrr# lfEe¥u] lekgkj vkSj lkaLÎ`frd` vUrjko¥Ecu d`h ^f∂`;k æqÔ gqbZ\ vk;ksÛ ds` bfrgkl d`h ,d` eq“; leL;k ;g ƒh fd` foftr nL;qvkÍ ds` lkƒ D;k vkSj dS`lk O;ogkj fd`;k tk,\ ;fn mud`h gR;k d`j nh tk,] rks lsok–pkd`jh d`kSu d`jsxk= ;fn mUgÍ ftUnk j[k tkrk gS] rks lekt eÍ mud`k in vkSj gSfl;r D;k gksxh= nklh ls mRiUu iq( d`k dq`VqEc eÍ D;k Lƒku gksxk= blh ;”–^'u ds` lUnHZ eÍ ofæÆB vkSj fo'okfe( nks ijLij fojks|h fopkj– n~fÆV;kÍ ds` la?"Z ds` ^rhd`–iq:" ds` Ôi eÍ lkeus vkrs gß\ ofæÆB vk;Z laLÎ`fr vkSj jâ`æq*rk ds` gkeh ƒs] tcfd` fo'okfe( ,d` lkekftd` laLÎ`fr ds` i”|j ƒs ftleÍ nL;qvkÍ ds` lekt] jhfr–O;ogkj vkSj thou–i*fr d`h ,d` fofæÆV Hwfed`k ƒh\ ·d`‚ bl x»kaæ ds` xgjs Nis (Bold) vaækÍ d`h O;k“;k d`hft,\ 3 × 5 = 15 ·[‚ vk;ksÛ vkSj nL;qvkÍ ds` lEcU|kÍ ds` ckjs eÍ ik∑p okD; f¥f[,\ 5 m®j%

^'u 2. Lora(rk u rks ek( ,d` æCn gS vkSj u gh flœZ` ,d` fl;klrh N¥kok`ø Lora(rk vxj lpeqp gh ekuoh; O;fâ`Ro vkSj mld`h l~tukRed`rk d`h lPph r~fIr gS] rks fœ`j mleÍ ekuo–tkfr ds` chp lgh fopkjkÍ d`k l~tu vkSj lEcU|kÍ d`k fod`kl fufgr gS\ LorU(rk ikd`j vkneh fnekxh td`ÈMu vkSj lh¥u eÍ iÈMk jgs] vrhr vkSj csclh d`h ¥hikiksrh d`jrk jgs] rks fœ`j LorU(rk vkSj mld`h lEiw.Zrk d`k cks| ugÓ gks ld`rk\ Lok|hurk d`h vfUre ifj.fr L[¥u ugÓ gksrh\ ;g nkf;Ro d`ks vkSj Hh cq¥Un d`jrh gS\ vkneh vkSj vkneh ds` chp d`h [kbZ d`ks ikVus rƒk cjkcjh vkSj HkbZpkjs d`k lad`Yi gh bl jktuhfrd` vkS j oS P kkfjd` ∂`kfUr d`h lkƒZd`rk gks ld`rh gS\ vktknh fd`lh n¥– foæs" d`h ugÓ gksrh] u gh fd`lh oxZ ;k tkfr foæs" d`h\ og rks lHh d`h gksrh gS] lHh ds` fgr eÍ lHh d`ks volj nsus ds` f¥,\ mlls lEiw.Z lkekftd` O;oLƒk d`ks csgrj cukus ds` volj lkeus vkrs gß\ bl volj d`ks pwd` tkus d`k er¥c gksxk% vktknh d`ks u igpku ikuk] mld`h d`nj u d`j ikukø`vktknh O;fâ` d`h ^xfr ds` f¥, gksrh gS] O;fâ`xr ^xfr ds` f¥, ugÓ\ ·d`‚ bl vorj. d`k mfpr æh"Zd` lq>kb,\ 5 ·[‚ bl x»kaæ d`k lkjkaæ ¥xHx 50 æCnkÍ eÍ f¥f[,\ 15 m®j

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/779

(iv) cgqr-lh Hk"kvkÍ d`ks tkuus ok¥k (v) fd`lh cÈMs vkneh ds` fu|u d`h

^'u 3. ·d`‚ v*Z (Demi Official Letter)

ljd`kjh-i( D;k gksrk gS= mld`k ,d` ^kÔi ^Lrqr d`hft,\ 10 ·[‚ ifji( (Circular) fd`ls d`grs gß= mld`k ,d` ^kÔi rS;kj d`hft,\ 10 m®j%

okf"Zd` frfƒ (vi) ilhus ls mRiUu gksus ok¥k (vii) xksn f¥;k gqvk iq( (viii) ftls ckgjh txrΩ d`k Kku u gks ·bZ‚ fuEuf¥f[r okD;kÍ ,oa x¥r orZuh ok¥s æCnkÍ d`ks æq* d`hft,% 10 (i) vkids` vkæhZokn d`h vko';d`rk gS (ii) esjs d`ks fnY¥h tkuk gS\ (iii) eßus ,d` ¥ksgs d`h ckYVh [jhnh\ (iv) iwT;uh; ekekth d`ks ueLd`kj d`guk\ (v) usrkth csœ`k¥rw eÍ d`k;Zd`®kZ d`ks Mk∑Vus ¥xs\ m®j%

^'u 4. ·v‚ fuEuf¥f[r æCnkÍ ls ik∑p milxZ Nk∑fV,% 10 (i) nqfuZokj (v) ¥kokfjl (ii) vR;qfâ` (vi) fg¥ksj (iii) fcd`k˜ (vii) murhl (iv) v|ksxfr (viii) gj,d` ·vk‚ fd`UgÓ ik∑p æCnkÍ ds` fo¥kse f¥f[,% 10 (i) milxZ (v) iwoZorhZ (ii) ,".k (vi) Hwxks¥ (iii) d`Yiukrhr (vii) lqcks| (iv) jksxh (viii) Jksrk ·b‚ fuEuf¥f[r okD;kaækÍ eÍ ls fd`UgÓ ik∑p ds` f¥, ,d`–,d` æCn f¥f[,% 10 (i) vfrfƒ d`h lsok d`jus ok¥k (ii) ftls ijkftr u fd`;k tk lds` (iii) og d`fo tks rR”. d`fork d`j lds` ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/780

^'u 5. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls ik∑p eqgkojkÍ vkSj ik∑p ¥ksd`ksfâ`;kÍ ds` vƒZ f¥f[, vkSj okD;kÍ eÍ ^;ksx d`hft,% 30 d`kf¥[ iksruk d`gÓ d`k bÛV d`gÓ d`k jksÈMk] Hkuqerh us dq`uck tksÈMk mÈMrh fpfÈM;k igpkuuk vksNs d`h ^hfr ck¥w d`h Hhfr ?wjs ds` fnu fœ`juk vU|s ds` vkxs jksos vius uSuk [ksos ug¥s ij ng¥k ekjuk ¥sus ds` nsus iÈMuk vk|h NksÈM lkjh d`ks |koS] vk|h fe¥s u iwjh ikoS uDd`kj[kus eÍ rwrh d`h vkokt xokg pqLr eqnΩnbZ lqLr gksugkj fcjoku ds` gksr phd`us ikr vkÈMs gkƒkÍ ¥suk xqÈM [k;s] xq¥xq¥kÍ ls ijgst ued`–fepZ ¥xkuk m®j%·eqgkojs‚

^'u 6. fgUnh Hk"k eÍ d`k;kZ¥;h d`k;ksÛ ds` Rofjr fuÆiknu ds` f¥, d`EI;wVj ds` egRo ij ^d`kæ Mkf¥,\ 20 m®j

●●●

uohu ^Lrqfr

·uohu vk∑d`ÈMkÍ ,oa rF;kÍ lfgr‚ ¥s[d` # ,e\ ds`\ nhf{kr d`ksM ua\ 1446 ewY; # 60/mid`kj ^d`kæu] vkxjk –2
E-mail : publisher@upkar.in Website : www.upkar.in

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/781

fofo| rF; # lkekU; tkud`kjh

ukxj foekuu lsok,a # ubZ ˜∑pkb;kÍ d`h vksj%eq“;-eq“; ckrÍ
(Civil Aviation Services : Scaling New Heights_Highlights)
MkW\ vks\ ih\ jktiwr Mh\,l-lh\
nsæ d`h fujUrj rst xfr ls cÈÈ<rh ekuo tula“;k] o~f* nj @ 1·9% okf"Zd` d`ks ÷;ku eÍ Hh j[rs gq, ukxj foekuu ”s( eÍ v^R;kfær o~f* gqbZ gS] foæs"d`j o"Z 2007-08 ds` nkSjku\ bl ”s( ds` vius d`k;Zd`¥ki d`h o~f* ls bld`h o~f* nj fo'o eÍ mRÎ`ÆV jgh gS\ ;k(h ;krk;kr eÍ 32·51% d`h o~f* gqbZ gS tks ,d` LoLƒ ^okg gS\ NksVs ægjkÍ vkSj d`LckÍ ds` chp foeku lsok lEidZ`rk eÍ ”s(h; ,;j¥kbukÍ ds` vkus ls Hh o~f* gqbZ gS\ bl ”s( eÍ HfoÆ; eÍ Hh Hkjh fujUrj o~f* ,oa Lƒkf;Ro cuk, j[us d`h tÔjr gS\ nsæ ds` nqxZe/igkÈMh ”s(kÍ eÍ lEidZ`rk lqfo|k ^nku d`jus gsrq gs¥hd`kWIVjkÍ ds` ^pk¥u d`ks ^kjEH fd`;k tk jgk gS] blhf¥, o"Z 2008 d`ks “Helicopter Services Year, 2008” ?ksf"r fd`;k x;k\ ;»fi ukxj foekuu lsokvkÍ eÍ cgqvk;keh lao~f* us nsæ ds` lEeq[ cn¥rh gqbZ ^Î`fr d`h pqukSfr;k∑ [ÈMh d`h gß] vr# bl lao~f* d`ks lHh LVsd`|kjd`kÍ d`h lgk;rk] leUo; vkSj lg;ksx ls Hkjr d`ks bl ”s( eÍ oSf'od` vxzf.;kÍ d`h Js.h eÍ ¥k;k tk lds`xk\ mY¥s[uh; gS fd` Hkjr us fo'o foekuu ekdsZ`V eÍ o"Z 2007–08 eÍ 9ok∑ Lƒku ^kIr fd`;k] tcfd` o"Z 2006 eÍ bld`k 12ok∑ Lƒku ƒk\ ,;j¥kbu d`kjksckj eÍ 27% d`h o~f* gqbZ gS] tks o~f* ?js¥w ,oa vUrjkZÆV_h; nksukÍ lsDVjkÍ eÍ mnkjhd`j. d`h uhfr ds` d`kj. gqbZ gS\ ukxj foekuu ea(k¥; (Ministry of d`juk ,oa lEcfU|r ”s( eÍ ;krk;kr ds` fu;fer fod`kl vkSj foLrkj ds` f¥, ;kstuk,a cukuk vkSj mUgÍ ¥kxw d`juk gS\ ☛ laxBu (Organisation) ds` vUrxZr%(i)
Attached/Subordinate Organisations eÍ%DGCA (Directorate General of Civil Aviation), B C A S (Bureau of Civil Aviation Security) ,oa— CRS (Commission on Railway Safety); (ii) Autonomous Body– IGRUA (Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Urban Academy) rƒk (iii) Public Sector Undertakings eÍ % NACIL (National Aviation Company of India Ltd.) A A I (Airport Authority of India), P H H L (Pawan Hans Helicopters Ltd.) and Alliance Air, HCIL (Hotel Corporation of India) ,oa ‘AICL’ (Air India Charters Ltd.), (All three later Subsidiary of NACIL). ☛ Website of Ministry of Civil Aviation–http://civil avia·nic·in ■

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ifjpk¥u d`juk] i;ZVu d`ks cÈ<kok nsus gsrq pkVZj mÈMkuÍ mi¥C| d`jkuk ƒk\ blds` ”s(h; d`k;kZ¥; ubZ fnY¥h rƒk eqEcbZ eÍ fLƒr gß\ PHHL ,fæ;k d`h ,d` foæk¥re gs¥hd`kWIVj ifjpk¥d` ds` Ôi eÍ mHj d`j vkbZ gS] ftlds` csÈMs (Fleets) eÍ 35 gs¥hd`kIVlZ gß\ PHHL ns æ d`h vU; jkT; ljd`kjÍ ] tSls%iatkc] es?k¥;] flfDd`e] f(iqjk] v:.kap¥ ^nsæ] ¥”}hi] v≥Meku o fud`ksckj }hi lewgkÍ eÍ gs¥hd`kWIVj lsok,a ^nku d`jkrh gß\ vejukƒ |ke gsrq Hh gs¥hd`kWIVj mi¥C| d`jk, gß\ PHHL ^nw " . jks d `ƒke] lrdZ ` rk] jktHk"k ·fgUnh‚ ^;ksx] ^fæ”. vkfn enkÍ ij foæs" ÷;ku ns jgk gS\ bafnjk xka|h jkÆV_h; mÈMku vd`kneh (bxzqvk%IGRUA)% IGRUA ·bxzqvk‚ d`h Lƒkiuk œq`lZrxat] jk;cjs ¥ h ·m®j ^ns æ ‚ eÍ ] ns æ eÍ okf.fT;d` ik;¥VkÍ ds` mÈMku ,oa Lƒ¥ ^fæ”. ds` lq|kj ¥kus ds` mˆs'; ls d`h xbZ ƒh\

☛ ‘Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Uran Academy’ ( I G R U A ) }kjk vus d `

ikBΩ;∂`e vk;ksftr fd`, tkrs gß] tSls%
B.Sc. (Aviation) Degree Course,

,;j bafM;k ,oa bafM;u ,;j¥kbUl d`k ☛ fo¥; (Merger of Air India & Indian Airlines)% ☛ NACIL ·usæu¥ ,fo,æu d`Eiuh vkWœ` bf≥M;k f¥feVsM‚ ,d` ubZ d`Eiuh d`h Civil Aviation–G O I Government of Lƒkiuk 30 ekpZ] 2007 d`ks] eq“;k¥; India) d`h okf"Zd` fjiksVZ 2007–08 ds` vk|kj (Hq.) eqEcbZ eÍ d`h xbZ] bl ubZ ,;j¥kbu ☛ ij ukxj foekuu lsokvkÍ ds` ”s( eÍ ubZ d`k czkUM uke ‘Air India’ rƒk ¥ksxkÍ ˜∑pkb;kÍ d`h vksj (Scaling New Heights) (Logo)%egkjktk (Maharaja) gS\ bls d`ne cÈ<s gß\ blds` vUrxZr vusd` xfrfof|;kÍ Air India vkSj Indian Airlines d`k }kjk fofHUu mY¥s[uh; lœ`¥rk,a Hh fe¥h gß] fo¥; d`j cuk;k x;k (Certified on 27 ftud`ks la”si eÍ fuEuorΩ nækZ;k tk ld`rk gS% Aug, 2007) d`eZpkfj;kÍ d`h d`fBukb;kÍ d`ks nwj d`jus gsrq ,d` f(Lrjh; fæd`k;r ☛ ^eq[ mi¥fC|;k∑/xfrfof|;k∑ (Major fuokj. O;oLƒk (A Three Tier GrieAchievements/Activities) vances Redressal Machinery) d`k xBu ■ ukxj foekuu ea(k¥; d`k lajpukRed`/ fd`;k x;k\ laxBukRed` <k∑pk ,oa f∂`;kd`¥ki ■ iou gal gs¥hd`kWIVlZ f¥feVsM (Pawan (Infrastructure/Organizational Set–
Up & Functions of Ministry of Civil Aviation, GOI)% ☛ Ministry of Civil Aviation (GOI) d`k eq“;k¥; (Hq.)%lœ`njtax ,;jiksVZ Hans Helicopters Limited ‘PHHL’) –Est. in October, 1985–Registered Office, New Delhi ☛ PHHL ■

d`kWEI¥SDl ds` jktho xka|h Hou] ubZ fnY¥h fLƒr gS ftlds` pkjkÍ vksj gjs–Hjs cxhps rƒk ækar okrkoj. gS\ ☛ ea(k¥; ds` eq“; d`k;ksÛ ,oa m®jnkf;RokÍ eÍ ukxj foekuu ds` fod`kl ,oa fofu;eu gsrq jkÆV_h; uhfr;kÍ vkSj d`k;Z∂`ekÍ d`ks rS;kj

d`h Lƒkiuk] vDVwcj 1985 eÍ% ,d` ljd`kjh d`Eiuh ds` Ôi eÍ HCIL

bULV_wes≥V js¯Vx ikBΩ;∂`e] eYVhbatu ,UMkslZesUV ikBΩ;∂`e] fMI¥ksek|kfj;kÍ d`ks ,;jksukWfVd`¥ bathfu;jh eÍ foeku ij ^SfDVd`¥ V_s¯ux ^nku d`juk] vkfn\ ‘bxzqvk’ ^fro"Z 100 ik;¥VkÍ d`ks 1 o"Z eÍ ^fæ”. d`h ;kstuk rS;kj d`j jgk] gS tks vc rd` ^fro"Z 40 ik;¥VkÍ d`ks 2 o"ksÛ eÍ ^fæ”. nsrk ƒk\ lkƒ gh ‘bxzqvk’ d`k ^cU|u eSllZ lh`,`bZ (M/s CAE) d`ukMk eÍ lkßik tkuk fu|kZfjr fd`;k x;k gS\ ^nw". fu;a(. gsrq vusd` d`ne mBk, x, gß] tSls% ikl ds` ok;q^nw". ij fu;a(.] xans ikuh d`k fuiVkjk] Bksl d`pjkÍ d`ks bl rjg t¥kuk] rkfd` d`e-ls-d`e |qvk∑ gks] gjk-Hjk cuk, j[us gsrq vd`kneh ifjlj eÍ o~”kjksi. vkfn\ o"Z 2007 ·tuojh%fnlEcj‚ ds` nkSjku mÈMku ?≥VkÍ d`h la“;k (King Air C– 90A, Zin Z–242 L rƒk Trinidad TB – 20) dq`¥ 8487·50 hrs, Flown `d`h jgh] tcfd` fiN¥s 7 o"ksÛ ds` nkSjku 284 V_suht d`ks Pilot Trained ^fæ”. iwjk fd`;k x;k\ Hkjrh; foekui®u ^kf|d`j. ( A i rports Authority of India–AAI)%
(w·e·f· 1 Apirl. 1995, Under Act of Parliament AAI Act, 1994)%

(Helicopter Corporation of India Limited) ds` uke ls d`h xbZ ƒh] ftld`k

☛ ‘AAI’ ds`

eq“; mˆs'; leqnz eÍ rs¥ d`h [kst gsrq rs¥ ”s( eÍ gs¥hd`kWIVj lgk;rk lsok,a mi¥C| d`juk] igkÈMh ,oa nqxZe ”s(kÍ eÍ

^eq[ d`k;ksÛ eÍ lapkj] fnDpk¥u ,oa fuxjkuh lqfo|kvkÍ d`k ^ko|ku] vUrjkZÆV_h; ,oa vransZæh; gokbZ vMΩMkÍ ij d`kxksZ VfeZu¥kÍ d`k fod`kl ,oa ^cU|u]

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/782

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ls¥ (Women Cell) gS] tks efg¥k d`eZpkjh fæd`k;r ^d`ksÆB (Staff Grievance Cell), jktHk"k d`k;kZUo;u fgUnh d`eZpkfj;kÍ d`h fæd`k;rÍ ntZ d`jrh gS\ i[okÈMk] fgUnh d`k;Zæk¥k] fgUnh ds` ^xkeh Trivendrum International Airport NACIL (I) eÍ 31 fnlEcj] 2007 d`ks 6 ^;ksx d`ks lqfuf'pr d`jus] pkjkÍ ”s(h; (Kerala) d`ks ‘ISO–14001 : 2004’ ds` SHDO d`eZpkfj;kÍ lfgr dq`¥ 17,783 d`k;kZ¥;kÍ d`k fgUnh fujh”. vkfn d`k;Z vUrxZ r “Airfield Environment d`eZpkjh ƒs] ftleÍ ls 3212 efg¥k BCAS }kjk o"Z (2007–08) ds` nkSjku Management System Compliance d`eZpkjh ƒs\ efg¥k,a d`Eiuh d`h dq`¥ le; ls ^kIr fæd`k;rkÍ ij rqjUr d`k;Zokgh Certificate” ^kIr gqvk] tks vkLV_sf¥;k Jeæfâ` ds` 18·06% gß\ d`h xbÛ\ ,oa U;wth¥S≥M d`h ‘Joint Accreditation System’ ls bl ^ek.u d`ks ^kIr d`jus ☛ BCAS }kjk o"Z 2007 eÍ L∂`hujkÍ ds` ☛ iougal gsf¥d`kWIVlZ f¥feVsM }kjk lHh d`k;kZ¥;kÍ eÍ v¥x ls efg¥k ls¥kÍ d`k ok¥k gokbZ vMΩMk nf”. Hkjr d`k ^ek.u (Certification of Screeners) xBu fd`;k x;k gS tks efg¥kvkÍ d`ks ‘nwljk’ (Second) rƒk nsæ d`k ‘pkSƒk’ gsrq 123 ijh”. vk;ksftr fd`,\ bleÍ ^fæ”.] d`kSæ¥ lq|kj gsrq ckgjh fofæÆV (Fourth) gokbZ vMΩMk gS\ APSU/Airlines d`Eifu;kÍ ds` dq`¥ laLƒkukÍ eÍ d`k;Z∂`e vk;ksftr d`jkrh gS\ 3140 L∂`hujkÍ us Hkx f¥;k vkSj 1832 laxBu eÍ bZekunkjh] lR;fuÆBk d`h ^o~f® blds` v¥kok IGRUA (Indira Gandhi L∂`hujkÍ d`ks ^ekf.r fd`;k x;k\ cÈ<kus gsrq 12–16 uoEcj] 2007 d`ks Rashtriya Uran Academy) eÍÍ 3 efg¥k lrdZ`rk tkxÔd`rk lIrkg (Vigilance ■ uSfl¥ (NACIL–National Aviation d`eZpkjh gß vkSj mueÍ d`Y;k. d`k d`k;Z Awareness Week) euk;k x;k\ lkƒ gh] Company of India Ltd.) lkekU; ^æklfud` pSu¥ ds` ek÷;e ls fgUnh i[okÈMk (Hindi Fortnight)–14 ls ☛ uSfl¥ (NACIL)%,d` ubZ d`Eiuh nks fd`;k tkrk gS\ 30 flrEcj] 2007 Hh euk;k x;k] tks jkÆV_h; okgd`kÍ Air India ,oa Indian Air ■ fod`¥kax O;fâ`;kÍ gsrq lqfo|k,a (FacijktHk"k uhfr (Official Language Lines ds` fo¥; ls 30 ekpZ] 2007 d`ks lities to Disabilities Persons)% Policy–GOI) ds ` rgrΩ fgUnh d`ks (Companies Act, 1956 ds` rgrΩ xfBr ^ksRlkfgr d`jus ds` f¥, euk;k x;k\ fd`;k x;k] ftld`k iathÎ`r eq“;k¥; ☛ fod`¥kax O;fâ` vf|fu;e] 1995 ·leku volj] vf|d`kjkÍ ds` j”kiw.Z fgLlsnkjh‚ js¥ laj”k vk;ksx (Commission of (Hq.) ,;j¥kbUl gkml] jd`kcxat] ubZ Railway Safety–CRS) ds` v|hu ^ko|kukÍ ds` d`k;kZUo;u ij fnY¥h gS\ rƒk Corporate Office %eqEcbZ ljd`kj }kjk le;–le; ij tkjh fd`, x, js¥ laj”k vk;ksx (CRS) ebZ 1967 eÍ eÍ gS\ bl NACIL d`ks fu;fer d`k;Z gsrq fnæk-funsZækÍ ij vuqlj. fd`;k tkrk gS\ i;ZVu vkSj ukxj foekuu ea(k¥; ds` Ministry of Corporate Affairs }kjk fu;a(. eÍ vk;k] tks ckn eÍ ukxj foekuu Sections 391–394 ds` vUrxZr vuqeksfnr ☛ fod`¥kax O;fâ`;kÍ/;kf(;kÍ d`ks f¥ŒV ea(k¥; (Ministry of Civil Aviation– d`j 27 vxLr] 2007 ls ^Hkoh fd`;k x;k\ lqfo|k,a] ok;q;k(k eÍ fj;k;r (Indian GOI) d`g¥k;k\ ☛ 21 œ`jojh] 2007 d`ks] ,;j bf≥M;k d`ks Airlines }kjk 50% rƒk 80% rd` vk;ksx (CRS) ds` v|hu 9 Circle ‘Amity Corporate Excellence ¥ksd`ksehVj fod`¥kaxrk ok¥s ækjhfjd` Ôi Offices gß] ftleÍ nks Circle Offices ds` Award’–Amity University, Noida ls fod`¥kax O;fâ`;kÍ d`ks), n~fÆVghukÍ d`ks eq“;k¥; eqEcbZ rƒk 3 Circle Offices ds` (U.P.) }kjk ^nku fd`;k x;k\ 50% fj;k;r gß\ eq“;k¥; d`ks¥d`krk eÍ gß rƒk cÍx¥q:] ☛ NACIL }kjk ‘Air India Cargo fnY¥h] ¥[u˜ vkSj fld`Unjkckn eÍ lkjkaæ (Summary) Aircraft’ ds` ek÷;e ls d`kxksZ ^pk¥ukÍ ,d`–,d` eq“;k¥; gS\ ^R;sd` lfdZ`¥ ,d` mi;qZâ` fooj. ls la”si eÍ ;g fuÆd`"Z gsrq nks A–310 ;k(h foekukÍ d`ks ek¥js¥ laj”k vk;qâ` ds` ^Hkj eÍ gSS\ js¥ okgd` foekukÍ eÍ ifjofrZr fd`;k x;k gS\ fud`k¥k tk ld`rk gS fd` o"Z 2007–08 ds` vf|fu;e] 1989 ds` v|hu ^R;sd` vk;qâ` ☛ NACIL }kjk lrdZ`rk tkxÔd`rk lIrkg nkSjku ukxj foekuu ea(k¥; (Ministry of ,d` Lora( lkafof|d` vf|d`kjh gS\ 12–16 uoEcj] 2007 d`ks euk;k] lkƒ gh Civil Aviation, Government of India– vk;ksx }kjk js¥ ^æklu eÍ ¥kbu fuekZ. jktHk"k d`k;kZUo;u d`k;Z∂`e] fgUnh ds` GOI) }kjk vusd` mY¥s[uh; d`k;Z fofHUu ,oa laj”k ds` lHh mik; fd`, tkrs gß] ^pkj–^lkj] fgUnh i[okÈMk 1–14 Sept., ”s ( kÍ ] tS l s % vUrjkZ Æ V_ h ; vkS j va r ns Z æ h; lkƒ gh laj”k ekud`kÍ d`ks ¥kxw d`jus] 2007, vkfn d`k;Z∂`e vk;ksftr fd`, x,\ ,;j¥kbUl] csgrj lEidZ`] vk|qfud` ,;jiksVZ d`k;Z/fujh”.] l¥kg nsuk ,oa lrdZ` vU; xfrfof|;k∑ (Other Activities) lqfo|k,a« ^fæ”.] fod`¥kaxkÍ gsrq lqfo|k,a] d`juk Hh eq“; d`k;ksÛ eÍ vkrs gß\ ^nw". jksd`ƒke] lrZd`rk] jktHk"k ·fgUnh‚ ukxj foekuu lqj”k C;wjks (BCAS– ■ efg¥k d`Y;k. (Women Welfare)% ☛ Ministry of Women & Child ^;ksx] mÈMku ”erk eÍ o~f*] [s¥ ·f∂`ds`V/ Bureau of Civil Aviation Security)% Development (GOI) ds` funsZækuqlkj gkWd`h/ærjat vkfn VwukZeÍV‚ eÍ Hkx ¥sus ok¥h ‘BCAS’ Ministry of Civil Aviation Ministry of Civil Aviation (GOI) eÍ VhekÍ d`ks lqfo|k ^nku d`jus] ekuo lalk|u (GOI) d`k ,d` lEc* d`k;kZ¥; gS] ,d` ‘Gender Budgeting Cell’ d`k fod`kl lEcU|h ig¥Í (Initiatives) vkfn eÍ ftld`k eq“; mˆs'; xSj–d`kuwuh gLr”si xBu fd`;k x;k gS] ftleÍ efg¥k mi– fd`, x, gß ftlls ukxj foekuu ”s( eÍ ds` d`k;ksÛ ds` fo:* ukxfjd` foekuu ^pk¥ukÍ d`h lqj”k d`juk gS\ bl C;wjks lfpo d`h v÷;”rk eÍ ^eq[ vf|d`kjh ds` v^R;kfær o~f* ns[h xbZ gS] tks fo'o Lrj (BCAS) d`k eq“;k¥; (Hq.) ubZ fnY¥h rkS j ;g Cell efg¥k d`eZpkfj;kÍ ls ij mRÎ`ÆV jgh gS vkSj ;k(h ;krk;kr eÍ eÍ gS\ lEcfU|r d`k;Z d`h leh”k d`j] mUgÍ d`k;Z 32·51% d`h o~f* gqbZ gS\ o"Z 2008 d`ks gs¥hd`kWIVj lsok o"Z (Year of Helicopter vk|qfud`hd`j. ds` ”s( eÍ BCAS us lEcU|h lqfo|k,a ^nku d`jsxh\ MkVkcsl rƒk b¥sDV_kWfud` MkVk ^ksls¯lx ☛ NACIL (National Aviation Company Services, 2008) ?ksf"r fd`;k x;k\ fu#lansg`! ds` fod`kl o ^æklu ds` œ`¥LoÔi of India Ltd.) vƒkZrΩ fo¥f;r Air India bl ”s( eÍ cgqvk;keh lao~f* us ge lcds` d`EI;wVjkÍ ij lkjk vfH¥s[hd`j. fgUnh Ltd. NACIL (A) rƒk Indian Airlines lkeus cn¥rh gqbZ ^Î`fr d`h pqukSfr;k∑ [ÈMh rƒk vaxzsth eÍ fd`;k tkrk gS vkSsj Ltd. NACIL (I) eÍ efg¥k d`eZpkfj;kÍ ds` d`h gß\ vr#] HfoÆ; eÍ bu pqukSfr;kÍ d`k lkeuk d`k;kZ¥;h ‘Human Resource Managed`Y;k. gsrq vusd` d`k;Z fd`, x, gß\ d`jus gsrq vkilh lg;ksx] lgk;rk ,oa leUo; ment Software Package’ Hh ds`Unzh; HRD (Human Resource Develop- d`h tÔjr gksxh\ lwpuk ds`Unz ls ^kIr fo®h; lgk;rk }kjk æs" i~ÆB 805 ij ment) ds` d`Y;k. vuqHkx eÍ ,d` efg¥k ^frÆBkfir fd`;k tk jgk gS\

;k(h lqfo|kvkÍ ,oa lwpuk ^.kf¥;kÍ d`k ^ko|ku vkfn] lfEef¥r gß\

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/783

;wukbVsM bf≥M;k bU';ksjÍl d`Eiuh ^æklfud` vf|d`kjh ijh{kk] 24-5-2009 d`k g¥ iz'u-i(

rdZ`”erk
·Le~fr ij vk|kfjr‚

funsZæ—·^'u 1 ls 5 rd`‚ uhps fn, gq, ^'ukÍ eÍ +, –, ×, ÷ ,oa = ds` fpÕkÍ d`ks fuEuf¥f[r vƒksÛ eÍ ^;ksx fd`;k x;k gS— A + B d`k vfH^k; gS fd` A, B ls cÈMk gS« A – B d`k vfH^k; gS fd A, B ls cÈMk ;k mlds` cjkcj gS« A × B d`k vfH^k; gS fd A, B ds` cjkcj gS« A ÷ B d`k vfH^k; gS fd A, B ls NksVk gS« ,oa A = B d`k vfH^k; gS fd A, B ls NksVk ;k mlds` cjkcj gS\ ^R;sd` ^'u ds` f¥, vkid`ks fn, gq, oDrO;kÍ d`ks lR; ekud`j fu.Z; ¥suk gS fd` fn, gq, nksukÍ fuÆd`"ksÛ eÍ ls d`kSulk ·d`kSuls‚ lR; gS·gß‚\ m®j nhft,— (A) ;fn ds`o¥ fuÆd`"Z I lR; gS« (B) ;fn ds`o¥ fuÆd`"Z II lR; gS« (C) ;fn ;k rks fuÆd`"Z I ;k fuÆd`"Z II lR; gS« ,oa (D) ;fn u rks fuÆd`"Z I vkSj u gh fuÆd`"Z II lR; gS\
1.

oDrO; :
D = S, N + V, D × R, R + V fuÆd`"Z : I. S + V II. D + N

2.

oDrO; :
K × P, M ÷ J, C ÷ P, K = M fuÆd`"Z : I. M + P II. M × P

3.

oDrO; :

L – R, N × M, L ÷ M, N = P fuÆd`"Z : I. M + R II. R + P 4. oDrO; : W + K, S = Z, X – W, S × K fuÆd`"Z : I. K × Z II. X + K 5.

oDrO; :
P ÷ Q, W – N, P – N, T + W fuÆd`"Z : I. P × W II. Q ÷ W

funsZæ—·^'u 6 ls 10 rd`‚ uhps fn, gq, ^R;sd` ^'u eÍ nks ;k rhu oDrO; fn, x, gß\ buds` uhps pkj fuÆd`"Z fn, x, gß\ bu fuÆd`"ksÛ d`ks I, II, III ,oa IV }kjk vafd`r fd`;k x;k gS\ vkid`ks fn, gq, fuÆd`"ksÛ d`ks ;fn os lk|kj.r# Kkr rF;kÍ ls fHUu Hh gkÍ] rks Hh lR; ekuuk gS ,oa mlds` i'pkrΩ fuf'pr d`juk gS fd` pkjkÍ fuÆd`"ksÛ eÍ ls d`kSulk·d`kSuls‚ rkfd`Zd` Ôi ls fn, gq, oDrO;kÍ ls fud`¥rk gS·fud`¥rs gß‚\ 6. oDrO; : dq`N xhr HhÈM gß\ dq`N HhÈM nh?Z gß\ fuÆd`"Z : I. dq`N xhr nh?Z gß\ II. d`ksbZ Hh xhr nh?Z ugÓ gS\ III. ds`o¥ nh?Z xhr gß\ IV. ds`o¥ xhr nh?Z gß\ (A) ds`o¥ I fud`¥rk gS (B) ds`o¥ III fud`¥rk gS (C) ;k rks I ;k II fud`¥rk gS (D) ;k rks III ;k IV fud`¥rk gS 7. oDrO; : dq`N pkVZ cjNs gß\ lHh cjNs Bs¥s gß\ dq`N Bs¥s rhoz gß\ fuÆd`"Z : I. dq`N pkVZ Bs¥s gß\ II. dq`N Bs¥s cjNs gß III. dq`N cjNs rhoz gß\ IV. dq`N rhoz pkVZ gß\ (A) ds`o¥ I ,oa II fud`¥rs gß (B) ds`o¥ I ,oa III fud`¥rs gß (C) ds`o¥ II ,oa III fud`¥rs gß (D) ds`o¥ I, III ,oa IV fud`¥rs gß 8. oDrO; : lHh fjfDr;k∑ ægrhj gß\ lHh iq¥ ægrhj gß\ lHh iq¥ xk; gß\ fuÆd`"Z : I. dq`N xk; ægrhj gß\ II. dq`N fjfDr;k∑ xk; gß\ III. dq`N fjfDr;k∑ iq¥ gß\ IV. dq`N iq¥ xk; ugÓ gß\ (A) ds`o¥ I fud`¥rk gS (B) ds`o¥ II fud`¥rk gS (C) ds`o¥ I, II ,oa III fud`¥rs gß (D) d`ksbZ ugÓ fud`¥rk gS

oDrO; : dq`N phuh Ôlh ugÓ gß\ lHh Ôlh v≠`hd`h gß\ dq`N v≠`hd`h Hkjrh; gß\ fuÆd`"Z : I. dq`N phuh v≠`hd`h ugÓ gß\ II. dq`N phuh Hkjrh; ugÓ gß\ III. lHh Ôlh Hkjrh; gß\ IV. dq`N Hkjrh; phuh gß\ (A) ds`o¥ II fud`¥rk gS (B) ds`o¥ III fud`¥rk gS (C) ds`o¥ IV fud`¥rk gS (D) ;k rks II ;k IV fud`¥rk gS 10. oDrO;`: lHh pkd` iuhj gß\ d`ksbZ Hh iuhj t¥iksr ugÓ gS\ dq`N >q≥M t¥iksr gß\ fuÆd`"Z : I. dq`N >q≥M pkd` ugÓ gß\ II. dq`N >q≥M iuhj gß\ III. dq`N iuhj >q≥M ugÓ gß\ IV. d`ksbZ Hh pkd` t¥iksr ugÓ gS\ (A) I, II ,oa IV fud`¥rs gß (B) ;k rks II ;k III ,oa IV fud`¥rs gß (C) II ,oa III fud`¥rs gß (D) II ,oa IV fud`¥rs gß funsZæ—·^'u 11 ls 15 rd`‚ fd`lh æCn-foU;kl eæhu eÍ tc dq`N foæs" æCn fuosæ fd`, x,] rks og mud`ks ,d` foæs" fu;e d`k ik¥u d`jrs gq, ∂`ec* d`j nsrh gS\ fuosæ ,oa ∂`ec* d`jus d`h LVsikÍ d`k fp(. fuEuorΩ gS—
9.

fuosæ : LVsi I : LVsi II : LVsi III : LVsi IV :

,oa blh ^d`kj eæhu vkxs p¥rh tkrh gS\ rdZ` d`k v÷;;u d`hft, ,oa ^'ukÍ ds` m®j nhft,\ 11. ;fn fd`lh fuos æ d`h LVs i VII
‘OVER THE PRE NEW BONE’ gS] rks ml fuosæ d`h LVsi IV D;k gS= (A) BONE THE PRE OVER NEW (B) THE PRE BONE NEW OVER (C) THE BONE PRE OVER NEW (D) PRE BONE THE OVER NEW 12. uhps fn, x, fuosæ ds` f¥,— SYM REACH LAD PHOTO CAL

CRI YAM YAM STU STU

END THE THE CRI CRI

YAM CRI STU YAM END

STU END END THE THE

THE STU CRI END YAM

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/784

fuEuf¥f[r foU;kl d`kSulk LVsi gksxk=
REACH LAD PHOTO SYM CAL (A) VI (B) V (C) IV (D) III

(A) d`ksbZ Hh vUrfuZfgr ugÓ (B) ds`o¥ II vUrfuZfgr gS (C) I ,oa II nksukÍ vUrfuZfgr (D) ds`o¥ III vUrfuZfgr gS 17.

gS gß

oDrO; # Vs¥hœ`ksu d`Eiuh us xzkgd`kÍ d`ks uksfVl Hstd`j lwfpr fd`;k fd` tks ns; frfƒ rd` fc¥ d`k Hqxrku VI ‘MAP IND PAK RUS ENG’ ugÓ d`jÍxs muls ^R;sd` vnk;xh fnu gS] rks fuosæ D;k gksxk= ds` f¥, tqekZuk f¥;k tk,xk\ (A) IND MAP PAK RUS ENG iwokZuqeku # (B) IND MAP ENG RUS PAK (C) ENG RUS IND PAK MAP I. vf|d`kaæ ¥ksx tqekZus ls cpus ds` f¥, ns; frfƒ rd` vius (D) RUS MAP IND ENG PAK fc¥kÍ d`k Hqxrku d`j nÍxs\ 14. fuEuf¥f[r fuosæ d`h LVsi VIII D;k II. tqekZus ds` Ôi eÍ bd`VΩBk fd`;k gksxh= gqvk |u nsjh ls gq, Hqxrku ls fuosæ`# BANK CRIS ATTRACT gqbZ gkfu d`ks iwjk d`j nsxk\ WITH PRIZE III. ¥ksx lkekU;r# bl ^d`kj ds` (A) PRIZE WITH CRIS uksfVlkÍ d`h vksj ÷;ku nsrs gß\ ATTRACT (A) ds`o¥ I ,oa II vUrfuZfgr gß (B) CRIS BANK PRIZE WITH ATTRACT (B) ds`o¥ II ,oa III vUrfuZfgr gß (C) PRIZE WITH BANK (C) ds`o¥ I ,oa III vUrfuZfgr gß ATTRACT CRIS (D) lHh vUrfuZfgr gß (D) CRIS BANK ATTRACT 18. oDrO; # jkÆV_h; foekuokgd` us WITH PRIZE Vkmu ‘A’ ls Vkmu ‘B’ d`h lkIrkfgd` 15. d`kSuls LVsi eÍ geÍ ogh foU;kl ^kIr ok;qlsok vkjEH d`jus d`k fu.Z; f¥;k gksxk] tksfd` fuosæ gS= gS\ (A) VIII (B) IX iwokZuqeku # (C) X (D) XI I. lapk¥u d`ks vkfƒZd` Ôi ls funsZæ—·^'u 16 l s 20 rd`‚ uhps O;ogk;Z cukus ds` f¥, i;kZIr fn, gq, ^R;sd` ^'u eÍ ,d` oDrO; fn;k ;k(h gkÍxs\ x;k gS ftlds` uhps rhu iwokZuqeku fn, x, II. vU; okgd` bl ^d`kj d`h lsok gß\ bu iwokZuqekukÍ d`ks I, II ,oa III vafd`r vkjEH ugÓ d`jÍxs\ fd`;k x;k gS\ fd`lh Hh iwokZuqeku d`ks ;nkIII. bu VkmukÍ ds` vkl-ikl jgus d`nk eku ;k Lohd`kj d`j f¥;k tkrk gS\ ok¥s O;fDr gokbZ ;k(k d`k [pkZ vkid`ks oDrO; ,oa iwokZuqeku d`ks ÷;ku eÍ cnkZ'r d`j ld`rs gß\ j[d`j fu.Z; ¥suk gS fd` iwokZuqekukÍ eÍ ls (A) ds`o¥ I vUrfuZfgr gS d`kSulk oDrO; eÍ vUrfuZfgr gS\ rc (B) II ,oa III nksukÍ vUrfuZfgr gß fuf'pr d`juk gS (A), (B), (C) ;k (D) eÍ ls d`kSulk m®j lgh gS= (C) I ,oa II nksukÍ vUrfuZfgr gß 16. oDrO; # fiN¥s lkr fnukÍ eÍ fVd`VkÍ (D) lHh vUrfuZfgr gß d`h fc∂`h d`ks ns[rs gq, ljd`l vf|d`kfj;kÍ us [s¥ d`ks vx¥s iUnzg 19. oDrO; # fe(kÍ ds` ,d` lewg us ¥ksxkÍ d`h HhÈM ls cpus ds` f¥, vx¥s fnu rd` pk¥w j[us d`k fu.Z; f¥;k\ vod`kæ ds` le; ne nek ¥sd` bueÍ lIrkgkÍ ds` vUr ds` nks fnu Hh fid`fud` ij tkus d`k fu.Z; f¥;k\ ækfe¥ gß\ iwokZuqeku # iwokZuqeku # I. lkekU;r# vf|d` ¥ksx ne nek I. ¥ksx lIrkg ds` vfUre fnukÍ eÍ >h¥ ugÓ tkrs gß\ [s¥ ns[us ugÓ vk,axs\ II. ¥ksx ne nek >h¥ ds` v¥kok II. ljd`l vkus ok¥s ¥ksxkÍ d`h vU; LƒkukÍ d`ks ilUn d`jrs gß\ vkSlr la“;k ¥xHx ogh gksxh tks fiN¥s lkr fnu ƒh\ III. cgqr ls ¥ksxkÍ d`ks ne nek >h¥ ds` ckjs eÍ irk ugÓ gS\ III. nwljs LƒkukÍ ij i;kZIr ^frf∂`;k,a ugÓ gkÍxh\ (A) ds`o¥ I vUrfuZfgr gS
13.

;fn fd`lh fn, gq, fuosæ d`h LVsi

ds`o¥ II vUrfuZfgr gS ds`o¥ I ,oa II vUrfuZfgr gß lHh vUrfuZfgr gß 20. oDrO; # ∏rqjUr vkf|iR; ds` f¥, U;k;k¥; ”s( eÍ ,d` nks æ;ud`” Œ¥SV d`h vko';d`rk gSπ —,d` foKkiu\ iwokZuqeku # I. U;k;k¥; ”s( eÍ Œ¥SV mi¥C| gß\ II. dq`N O;fDr foKkiu d`k tokc nÍxs\ III. bl ^d`kj ds` foKkiu nsus d`h ,d` ^ƒk gS\ (A) ds`o¥ I ,oa II vUrfuZfgr gß (B) ds`o¥ II vUrfuZfgr gS (C) ds`o¥ III vUrfuZfgr gS (D) lHh vUrfuZfgr gß funsZæ—·^\ 21 vkS j 22‚ Δk~a[¥k d`ks iwjk d`hft,—
(B) (C) (D) 21. p q – r q p – q r r q – p – r r q p p –r (A) r q p q r (B) q p r r q (C) q r p r p (D) r p p q q 22. n n t – q q n – t t – q n n – t q – (A) n n q t q (B) q n t n q (C) t n q t q (D) t t q t q

funsZæ—·^\ 23 vkSj 24‚ uhps nh gqbZ lwpuk d`ks ÷;kuiwoZd` iÈ<d`j ^'ukÍ d`k m®j nhft, — P + Q ls rkRi;Z gS fd` P, Q d`k HkbZ gS« P – Q ls rkRi;Z gS fd` P, Q d`h cgu gS« P × Q ls rkRi;Z gS fd` P, Q d`k firk gS« ,oa P ÷ Q ls rkRi;Z gS fd` P, Q d`h ek∑ gS\ 23. A ÷ B – C × D, rc A gS D d`h— (A) cgu (B) pkph (C) ek∑ (D) nknh 24. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk ;g nækZrk gS fd` V, Y d`h nknh gS=
(A) (B) (C) (D) 25. V×R+K÷Y V÷R×K–Y V÷R÷K×Y V×R–K÷Y

æCn STRAIGHT FORWARD eÍ v”jkÍ ds` ,sls fd`rus ;qXe gß ftuds` chp eÍ v”jkÍ d`h la“;k vaxzsth d`h o.Zek¥k eÍ mu v”jkÍ ds` chp ds` v”jkÍ d`h la“;k ds` cjkcj gS`=
(A) 4 (C) 6 (B) 5 (D) 7

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/785

funsZæ—·^'u 26 ls 30 rd`‚ uhps fn, gq, ^'ukÍ eÍ] æCnkÍ eÍ ,d` fuf'pr lEcU| gS\ vkid`k d`k;Z ml fod`Yi d`ks Kkr d`juk gS ftlds` æCnkÍ eÍ ogh lEcU| gS\ 26. nw| # eD[u (A) ds`¥k # œ`¥ (B) twl # LokLF; (C) ¥d`ÈMh # d`kxt (D) fepZ # elk¥s 27. gSV # æh"Z ifj|ku (A) ækdZ` # eN¥h (B) exjePN # d`Nqvk (C) twrk # tqjkcÍ (D) nLrkuk # gkƒ 28. ?ksÈMk # xk; (A) nw| # vkbl∂`he (B) eax¥ # pUnzek (C) cœZ` # t¥ (D) xq¥kch # uh¥k 29. ck¥ # flj (A) nk∑r # eq∑g (B) pk;–if®;k∑ # ioZr <¥ku (C) gkƒ # ck∑g (D) iVjh # lÈMd` 30. vxz # i'p (A) vkd`kæ # vUrfj” (B) Lƒ¥ # leqnz (C) m®j # nf”. (D) psgjk # xnZu funsZæ— ·^'u 31 ls 35 rd`‚ ^'ukÍ ds` m®j nsus ds` f¥, fuEuf¥f[r lwpuk d`ks ÷;kuiwoZd` ifÈ<,— A, B, C, D ,oa E, P, Q, R, S ,oa T ds` iq( gß] ijUrq blh ∂`e eÍ ugÓ\ uhps nh gqbZ lwpuk ds` vk|kj ij lgh ek∑ ,oa iq( d`k fe¥ku d`hft,— Q, B ;k C d`h ek∑ ugÓ gS\ A ;k E d`h ek∑ T ugÓ gS\ C, R d`k iq( ugÓ gS\ E, Q ;k S d`k iq( ugÓ gS rƒk mld`h ek∑ d`k uke ‘R’ v”j ls vkjEH ugÓ gksrk gS\ A d`h ek∑ Q ;k R ugÓ gS\ 31. S d`k iq( d`kSu gS=
(A) A (C) C 32. C d`h ek∑ (A) P (C) S (B) B (D) D

34. P d`k iq( (A) B (C) D 35. R d`k iq( (A) E (C) B

d`kSu gS=
(B) C (D) E

d`kSu gS=
(B) A (D) D

funsZæ—·^'u 36 ls 40 rd`‚ uhps nh (A) Q (B) T gqbZ ^R;sd` Δk~a[¥k eÍ nks in d`ksÆBd`kÍ eÍ (C) S (D) R fn, x, gß\ m®j-i~ÆB eÍ vafd`r d`hft,— 47. la“;kRed` ;ksX;rk eÍ fd`lus lcls (A) ;fn d`ksÆBd`kÍ eÍ fn, gq, nksukÍ in vf|d` vad` ^kIr fd`, gß= lgh gß« (A) S (B) R (B) ;fn ig¥s d`ksÆBd` eÍ fn;k gqvk in (C) P (D) Q lgh gS ,oa nwljs d`ksÆBd` eÍ fn;k gqvk in x¥r gS« 48. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l lewg ds` ijh”kfƒZ;kÍ us viuh fLƒfr eÍ lkekU; (C) ;fn ig¥s d`ksÆBd` eÍ fn;k gqvk in tkud`kjh eÍ la“;kRed` ;ksX;rk d`h x¥r gS ,oa nwljs d`ksÆBd` eÍ fn;k vis”k lq|kj d`j f¥;k= gqvk in lgh gS« ,oa (A) SPT (B) PSR (D) ;fn nksukÍ d`ksÆBd`kÍ eÍ fn, gq, in x¥r gß\ (C) QST (D) SPQ 36. 5, 17, (30), 73, 129, (225) 49. lkekU; tkud`kjh eÍ fd`lds` ^kIrkad`] R ds` lkekU; tkud`kjh eÍ ^kIrkad`kÍ ls 37. 11, 29, (55), 89, (131), 181 vf|d` gß= 38. 3, 12, 28, 32, (42), (57), 61, 70, 86 (A) ds`o¥ P ds` 39. 2, 3, 6, (11), 18, (27), 38 (B) P, Q ,oa S ds` 40. 4, 14, (18), (24), 31, 36, 38, 48, (C) P, S ,oa T ds` 53 (D) P, Q ,oa T ds` funsZæ—·^'u 41 ls 45 rd`‚ uhps fn, funsZæ—·^'u 50 ls 54 rd`‚ fuEugq, ^R;sd` ^'u eÍ v”jkÍ ds` pkj lewg f¥f[r lwpuk d`ks ÷;ku ls iÈ<d`j fn, gq, fn, x, gß\ bueÍ ls rhu fd`lh otg ls ,d` tSls gß] tcfd` ,d` ml otg ls vU; ^'ukÍ ds` m®j nhft,— uhps fn, gq, ^R;sd` ^'u eÍ nks lads`r rhukÍ ls fHUu gS\ fo"e d`ks Kkr d`hft,\ æCn d`ksM Hk"k eÍ f¥[s x, gß\ d`ksM 41. (A) YNHIA (B) SGRFI lekud` ds` v”j vko';d` Ôi ls mlh (C) ISEPU (D) FHUJU ∂`e eÍ ugÓ gß ftleÍ fd` lads`r æCn ds` v”j gß ftuds` os ^rhd` gß\ muds` uhps 42. (A) PROUD (B) DRIVER ,d` rhljk æCn fn;k x;k gS ftld`ks pkj (C) WHEAT (D) TRAIN fofHUu d`ksM Hk"kvkÍ eÍ ml Hk"k d`ks Hh 43. (A) CXHIA (B) RCFGL lfEef¥r d`jrs gq, ftleÍ lads`r æCn (C) MTOWF (D) CPRSV f¥[s x, gß] f¥[k x;k gS\ og fod`Yi Kkr d`hft, tks lads`r æCn ds` d`ksM eÍ 44. (A) JOT (B) OUT rhljs æCn d`k d`ksM lekud` gks\ ogh (C) TEN (D) DIN vkid`k m®j gS\ 45. (A) HR (B) GT
(C) KP (D) FU

¥s ¥srk gS ,oa T, Q d`k Lƒku ¥s ¥srk gS\ R d`h fLƒfr nksukÍ ∂`ekÍ eÍ ogh jgrh gS\ Q ds` ^kIrkad` ,d` ijh”. eÍ lcls d`e rƒk nwljs eÍ lcls T;knk gß\ P ds` ^kIrkad` la“;kRed` ;ksX;rk eÍ R ls vf|d` gß\ 46. lkekU; tkud`kjh eÍ fd`lus lcls vf|d` vad` ^kIr fd`, gß=

d`kSu gS=
(B) R (D) T

33. Q d`k iq( (A) A (C) B

d`kSu gS=
(B) D (D) E

funsZæ—·^'u 46 l s 49 rd`‚ fuEuf¥f[r lwpuk d`ks ÷;ku ls iÈ<d`j mlds` uhps fn, gq, ^'ukÍ d`k m®j nhft,— ;fn ik∑p ijh”kƒhZ P, Q, R, S ,oa T d`h fLƒfr;kÍ d`ks muds` la“;kRed` ;ksX;rk 51. STEAL eÍ ^kIrkad`kÍ ds` cÈ<rs gq, ∂`e eÍ ∂`ec* EARN fd`;k tk,] rks T pkSƒk ,oa S ^ƒe gS\ tc BLEAK mud`h fLƒfr;kÍ d`ks muds ` lkekU; (A) fgjmp tkud`kjh eÍ ^kIrkad`kÍ ds` cÈ<rs gq, ∂`e eÍ ∂`ec* fd`;k tkrk gS] rks P, T d`k Lƒku (C) fgjkp

50. MASTER SECOND NORTH (A) abnvx (C) amvwx

bnpqvx abjnow (B) bnqvx (D) abnwx fjkps fnpt (B) gnkpt (D) fjnps

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/786

52. COLUMN BIRTH LENGTH (A) grtuvx (C) mrstwx 53. POSTMAN OMEN NORTH (A) bclrz (C) dfrvz 54. RAISE CLASH SLATE (A) mruxy (C) nprty 55.

aioqrw gmtvx (B) aimvwy (D) kmnrvw bfglrvz dfrz (B) bcfoz (D) dfgrz nprtu bruxy (B) mnruy (D) npruy

m®j O;k“;k lfgr

fd`lh d`ksM eÍ CAMEL d`ks XPOGT ,oa RABBITS d`ks YPUULFZ f¥[k x;k gS\ ml d`ksM eÍ AIRMAIL d`ks D;k f¥[k tk,xk=
(A) PIYOPLT (B) PLYOPTL (C) PLROPLT (D) PLYOPLT

funsZæ—·^'u 5 6 ls 6 0 rd`‚ uhps fn, gq, ^R;sd` ^'u eÍ] pkjkÍ oSd`fYid` lewgkÍ eÍ ls la“;kvkÍ d`k og lewg Nk∑fV, tks fn, gq, lewg tSlk gS— 56. fn;k gqvk lSV # (12, 123, 25)
(A) (B) (C) (D) 57. (16, 129, 30) (16, 117, 25) (8, 77, 15) (8, 121, 35) gqvk lSV # (46, 57, 68) (35, 64, 38) (26, 44, 62) (28, 48, 74) (45, 56, 48) gqvk lSV # (36, 64, 84) (24, 45, 58) (32, 68, 82) (28, 62, 76) (16, 25, 54) (158, 134, 92) (62, 34, 14) (184, 128, 78) (74, 38, 18) gqvk lSV # (34, 50, 66) (50, 68, 86) (38, 50, 76) (36, 50, 78) (50, 64, 98)

fn;k
(A) (B) (C) (D)

58.

fn;k
(A) (B) (C) (D)

59.

fn;k gqvk lSV # (194, 142, 98)
(A) (B) (C) (D)

60.

fn;k
(A) (B) (C) (D)

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/787

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ukSlSfud` iksr ‘d`ksfPp’ d`k t¥korj.%eqEcbZ fLFkr e>xk∑o MkSDl f¥\ eÍ fufeZr d`ks¥d`krk Js.h ds` nwljs ;q*iksr ‘d`ksfPp’ d`k t¥korj. ukSlsuk÷;{k ,Mfej¥ fueZ¥ dq`ekj oekZ d`h iRuh e|qf¥d`k us 18 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks eqEcbZ ds` rV ij fd`;k\ ijek.q ge¥s eÍ l{ke o lrg-lslrg ij ekj d`jus ok¥h lqij lksfud` czEgksl felkb¥ ls ;qDr 6500 Vu foLFkkiu {kerk ok¥s bl ;q*iksr d`ks 2012 eÍ ukSlsuk eÍ 'kkfe¥ fd`, tkus d`h lEHkouk gS\ vkjksX;-2009%vkBok∑ LokLF; es¥k vkjksX;-2009 ubZ fnY¥h ds` ^xfr eSnku eÍ 18–21 flrEcj] 2009 d`ks lEiUu gqvk\

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(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

III. N © M ds`o¥ I o II lR; gß ds`o¥ II lR; gß ds`o¥ II o III lR; gß ds`o¥ I o III lR; gß I, II o III lHh lR; gß

vkbVe fd`l fnu ^næZu d`jrk gS= (A) fefe∂`h % lkseokj II. M % W III. T @ W (B) laxhr % eax¥okj (A) d`ksbZ lR; ugÓ gS (C) ukVd` % cq|okj 34. JQEBFI (B) ds`o¥ I lR; gS (D) Lihp % lkseokj (A) 6★4#2$ (B) $★4#2$ (C) ds`o¥ II lR; gS (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ (C) 6★4#26 (D) $★4#26 (D) ds`o¥ III lR; gS 38. ‘A’ lIrkg ds` fd`l fnu ^næZu d`jrk (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ (E) ds`o¥ II o III lR; gß gS= 35. UHFRND (A) eax¥okj (B) cq|okj 29. d`ƒu% B % R, R @ K, K $ N (A) @%217↑ (B) ©%217↑ (C) æq∂`okj (D) æfuokj fuÆd`"Z% I. N © R (C) ↑%217↑ (D) @%217@ (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ II. N % R (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ III. N © B 39. ‘G’ lIrkg ds` fd`l fnu ^næZu d`jrk funsZæ%·^'u 36 ls 40 rd`‚ bu ^'ukÍ (A) d`ksbZ lR; ugÓ gS gS= d`k m®j nsus ds` f¥, bl tkud`kjh d`ks ÷;ku (A) cq|okj (B) ds`o¥ III lR; gS ls ifÈ<,\ (B) æfuokj (C) ds`o¥ I lR; gS lkr fe( A, B, C, D, E, F o G (C) eax¥okj (D) ds`o¥ I o II lR; gß lkseokj ls jfookj rd` v¥x–v¥x fnu (D) fu|kZfjr ugÓ fd`;k tk ld`rk (E) ds`o¥ II lR; gS LVst æks d`k ^næZu d`jrs gß] ¥sfd`u (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 30. d`ƒu% J © D, D ★ H, H % F tÔjh ugÓ fd` mlh ∂`e eÍ\ ^R;sd` ,d` fHUu vkbVe fn[krk gS ;ƒk laxhr] u~R;] 40. ‘okn–fookn’ d`k ^næZu d`kSu d`jrk gS= fuÆd`"Z% I. H @ J fefe∂`h] ukVd`] okn–fookn] Lihp vkSj (A) B (B) D II. F $ D eksuks¥kWx] ¥sfd`u tÔjh ugÓ fd` mlh ∂`e eÍ III. F @ J (C) F (D) C ‘B’ xq:okj d`ks ‘ukVd`’ d`k ^næZu d`jrk (A) ds`o¥ I o II lR; gß (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ gS vkSj ‘E’ jfookj d`ks ‘laxhr’ d`k\ ‘G’ (B) ds`o¥ I o III lR; gß funsZæ%·^'u 41 ls 45 rd`‚ egRoiw.Z ‘fefe∂`h’ d`k ^næZu eax¥okj ;k æfuokj (C) ds`o¥ II o III lR; gß d`ks ugÓ d`jrk gS\ ‘C’ d`k ^næZu ‘G’ ds` ^'ukÍ ds` ckjs eÍ fu.Z; d`jrs le; ‘Bksl’ (D) I, II o III lHh lR; gß ^næZu ds` vx¥s fnu gksrk gS\ ‘D’ viuk vkSj ‘d`etksj’ rdZ` eÍ ^Hsn d`j ld`uk ^næZu lkseokj d`ks d`jrk gS ¥sfd`u og okaNuh; gksrk gS\ ‘Bksl’ rdZ ` egRoiw.Z vkSj (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ ^'u ls lh|s lEcfU|r gksrs gß\ ‘d`etksj’ funsZæ%·^'u 31 ls 35 rd`‚ bueÍ ls ^R;sd` ^'u eÍ ,d` v”j lewg vkSj mlds` rdZ` d`e egRoiw.Z gksrs gß vkSj ^'u ls lh|s ckn vad`kÍ vkSj ^rhd`kÍ ds` pkj la;kstu (A), (B), (C) o (D) fn, x, gß\ v”jkÍ d`ks lEcfU|r ugÓ Hh gks ld`rs gß ;k fœ`j uhps nh xbZ ;kstuk vkSj ærksÛ ds` vuqlkj vad`kÍ/^rhd`kÍ ds` d`ksM fn, tk,axs\ vkid`ks irk ^'u ds` fd`lh ux≥; ig¥w ls lEcfU|r gks ¥xkuk gS fd` d`kSulk la;kstu v”jkÍ ds` lewg d`k lgh <ax ls fuÔi. d`jrk gS vkSj ld`rs gß\ rnuqlkj viuk m®j nækZuk gS\ ;fn d`ksbZ Hh la;kstu lgh u gks rks vkid`k m®j gksxk uhps fn, x, ^R;sd` ^'u ds` ckn nks (E) vƒkZrΩ ‘bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ’\ rdZ` I vkSj II fn, x, gß\ vkid`ks ;g r; v”j # L T B E F R P H I J N A Q D U d`juk gS fd` d`kSulk rdZ` ‘Bksl’ gS vkSj vad`/^rhd` d`ksM # 3 5 # 4 2 1 9 % $ 6 7 8 ★ ↑ @ d`kSulk rdZ` ‘d`etksj’ gS\ m®j nhft,% ærksÛ% (A) ;fn ds`o¥ rdZ` I Bksl gS\ (i) ;fn ig¥k v”j Loj gS vkSj vfUre v”j O;atu gS] rks muds` d`ksM ijLij cn¥ (B) ;fn ds`o¥ rdZ` II Bksl gS\ tk,axs (C) ;fn ;k rks rdZ` I ;k rdZ` II Bksl gS\ (ii) ;fn ig¥k vkSj vfUre v”j Loj gS] nksukÍ d`ks © d`ksM fn;k tk,xk\ (D) ;fn u rks rdZ` I vkSj u gh rdZ` II (iii) ;fn ig¥k v”j O;atu gS vkSj vfUre v”j Loj gS] rks nksukÍ d`ks Loj d`k d`ksM Bksl gS\ fn;k tk,xk\ (E) ;fn rdZ` I vkSj rdZ` II nksukÍ Bksl gß\ ‘u~R;’ ;k ‘okn–fookn’ ugÓ d`jrk\ `‘A’ 41. d`ƒu%D;k ljd`kj d`ks futh ^;ksx 31. TFJNLA ‘eksuks¥kWx’ fn[krk gS tks ‘Lihp’ ds` vx¥s (A) 526738 (B) 526735 ds` f¥, d`kjkÍ d`h jftLV_sæu d`ks iwjs nsæ fnu gksrk gS\ ‘u~R;’ d`k ^næZu æfuokj d`ks eÍ rRd`k¥ ^Hko ls jksd` nsuk pkfg,= (C) 826738 (D) 826735 ugÓ gksrk\ rdZ`% (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ I. ugÓ] ljd`kj d`ks ,slk d`jus d`k 36. ‘u~R;’ d`kSu d`jrk gS= 32. EFUHDI ^kf|d`kj ugÓ gS\ (A) C (B) F (A) 42@%↑$ (B) $2@%↑$ II. gk∑] Hkjr ds` cÈMs ægjkÍ d`h (C) 42@%↑4 (D) ©2@%↑© (C) D (D) C ;k D lÈMd`kÍ ij HhÈM d`e d`jus d`k (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ ;gh ,d`ek( rjhd`k gS\ (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/793

28.

d`ƒu% W $ H, H @ M, M % T fuÆd`"Z% I. T @ H

33. RPIUBL (A) 19$@#3 (B) 39$@#1 (C) ©9$@#© (D) 39$@#3 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ

37. ‘D’ d`kSulh

42.

d`ƒu%D;k Hkjr ds` lHh futh vLirk¥kÍ d`k ^cU|u ljd`kj d`ks vius gkƒ eÍ ¥s ¥suk pkfg,= rdZ`% I. gk∑] blls bu vLirk¥kÍ }kjk jksfx;kÍ d`ks nh tkus ok¥h lsok eÍ d`kœ`h T;knk lq|kj gksxk\ II. ugÓ] bu vLirk¥kÍ d`k ^cU| d`jus ds` ljd`kj ds` ikl i;kZIr fo®h; vkSj ekuo lalk|u ugÓ gß\ 43. d`ƒu%D;k ljd`kj d`ks Hkjr d`h lHh cÈMh ufn;kÍ ij cgqr ls LƒkukÍ ij cÈMs ck∑| cukus pkfg,= rdZ`% I. ugÓ] blls lkjs nsæ d`k bd`ks– flLVe cckZn gks tk,xk\ II. gk∑] iwjs nsæ eÍ ¯lpkbZ ds` f¥, i;kZIr t¥–vkiwfrZ lqfuf'pr gks tk,xh\ 44. d`ƒu%D;k ljd`kj d`ks ¥kH d`ekus ok¥s lkoZtfud` ”s( ds` lHh mi∂`ekÍ eÍ viuh fgLlsnkjh ds` cÈMs fgLls d`ks csp nsuk pkfg,= rdZ`% I. ugÓ] ljd`kj d`ks bu mi∂`ekÍ d`k fu;a(. ugÓ NksÈMuk pkfg,] D;kÍfd` ;s ¥kH d`ekus ok¥h laLƒk,a gß\ II. gk∑] blls ljd`kj d`ks foæk¥ ctVh; ?kVs d`ks d`e d`jus vkSj vius lalk|ukÍ d`ks cÈ<kus eÍ enn fe¥sxh\ 45. d`ƒu%D;k Hkjr ds` lHh bathfu;¯jx d`kW¥stkÍ ds` f¥, nkf[¥s d`k ,d`Ôi ekunaM gksuk pkfg,= rdZ`% I. gk∑] blls bathfu;¯jx d`kW¥stkÍ eÍ nkf[¥ gq, Nk(kÍ d`h xq.o®k lqfuf'pr gksxh\ II. ugÓ] ;g foæs"d`j lEHo ugÓ gS\ funsZæ%·^'u 46 ls 50 rd`‚ uhps ,d` ifjPNsn fn;k x;k gS vkSj mlds` uhps ml ifjPNsn eÍ fn, x, rF;kÍ ds` vk|kj ij fud`k¥s tk ld`us ok¥s dq`N lEHkfor vuqeku fn, x, gß\ vki gj ,d` vuqeku d`h ifjPNsn ds` lUnHZ eÍ v¥x–v¥x ijh”k d`j mld`h lR;rk ;k vlR;rk d`h ek(k fuf'pr d`hft,\ m®j nhft,% (A) ;fn vuqeku ∏fuf'pr Ôi ls lR;∏ gS vƒkZrΩ og fn, x, rF;kÍ d`k mfpr Ôi ls vuqlj. d`jrk gS\ (B) ;fn vuqeku ∏lEHor# lR; gSπ ;»fi fn, x, rF;kÍ ds` lUnHZ eÍ ∏fuf'pr Ôi ls lR;π ugÓ gS\ ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/794

;fn ∏fn, gq, rF; d`kœ`h ugÓ gßπ vƒkZrΩ fn, gq, rF;kÍ ls vuqeku lR; gS vƒok vlR; ;g vki ugÓ d`g ld`rs gß\ (D) ;fn vuqeku ∏lEHor# vlR;π gS ;»fi fn, x, rF;kÍ ds` lUnHZ eÍ ∏fuf'pr Ôi ls vlR;π ugÓ gS\ (E) ;fn vuqeku ∏fuf'pr Ôi ls vlR;π gS vƒkZrΩ fn, gq, rF;kÍ d`k lEHor# vuqlj. ugÓ d`jrk gS vƒok og fn, x, rF;kÍ ds` foijhr tkrk gS\ lkgwd`kjkÍ ds` ;qxkÍ–iqjkus H; us Hkjrh;kÍ eÍ ,d` LokHkfod` fo®h; vuqæklu iSnk d`j fn;k gS\ ¥sfd`u fiN¥s pkj o"ksÛ eÍ gq, vR;f|d` fod`kl ls cgqrkÍ ds` eu eÍ lqj”k d`h feF;k Hkouk ?j d`j xbZ gS vkSj mu ij d`tZ ikæ eÍ œa`lus d`k [rjk iSnk gks x;k gS\ cktkjkÍ ds` Œ¥ks¯Vx nj ok¥s nkSj eÍ ^osæ d`jus ds` ckn m|kjd`rkZvkÍ ds` tksf[e d`bZ xq.k cÈ< x, gß vkSj fo®h; uohurk ds` lkƒ cuk, x, mRiknkÍ] ls mud`h ns;rk,a æqÔvkrh m|kjkÍ ls d`kœ`h T;knk cÈ< xbZ gß\ Hkoh m|kjd`rkZ æk;n vius iwoZofrZ;kÍ }kjk vrhr eÍ d`h xbZ x¥fr;kÍ ls d`ksbZ lcd` ¥s ldÍ`\ 46. ig¥s ds` m|kjnkrkvkÍ us m|kjd`rkZvkÍ d`ks fo®h; lqj”k ^nku d`h\ 47. Œ¥ks¯Vx C;kt nj ij )`. ¥sus ij m|kjd`rkZvkÍ d`ks tksf[e vf|d` gksrk gS\ 48. u, fo®h; mRikn m|kjd`rkZvkÍ d`h ns;rk d`e d`j nsrs gß\ 49. Hkoh m|kjd`rkZvkÍ d`ks m|kj ¥sus ls ig¥s nwljkÍ ds` vuqHo ls lh[us d`h tÔjr gS\ 50. vkd`"Zd` fo®h; mRikn m|kjd`rkZvkÍ ij d`e cks> Mk¥rs gß\

(C)

m®j O;k“;k lfgr

xqÈMxk∑o xzkeh. cßd` vkWœ`hllZ ijh”k] 12-7-2009 d`k g¥ ^'u-i(

18.

la“;kRed` vfH;ksX;rk
·Le~fr ij vk|kfjr‚

,d` la“;k d`k 60% ,d` nwljh la“;k d`k pkj cVk ik∑p gS\ ig¥h vkSj nwljh la“;k ds` chp d`k ∂`eæ# vuqikr D;k gS=
(A) 3 : 4 (C) 5 : 3 (E) bueÍ ls (B) 3 : 5 (D) 2 : 3

funsZæ%·^'u 1 ls 10 rd`‚ fuEu- 10. 180 ds` 7 ds` 8 d`k 4 = ? 8 9 7 f¥f[r ^'ukÍ eÍ ^'ufpÕ (?) ds` Lƒku ij (A) 72 (B) 66 D;k vk,xk= (C) 60 (D) 80 01. 600 d`k 45% + 480 d`k ?% = 390 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ (A) 20 (B) 25
(C) 30 (E) bueÍ (D) 40

ls d`ksbZ ugÓ

2 1 2 02. 4 + 7 – 5 = ? 3 6 9 2 2 (A) 6 (B) 6 3 9 11 7 (C) 6 (D) 6 18 18 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 03. 252 ÷ 7 × 139 = ? (A) 4904 (B) 5104 (C) 5014 (D) 5004 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 04. 1260 ÷ 14 ÷ 9 = ? (A) 10 (B) 810 (C) 81 (D) 9 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 7 10 05. 3 × 1 + 5 = ? 9 17 (A) 6 (B) 15 (C) 11 (D) 9 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 06. 136 × 12 × 8 = ? (A) 12066 (B) 13064 (C) 13066 (D) 13046 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 07. 320 d`k 70% + 240 d`k 45% = ? (A) 322 (B) 330 (C) 336 (D) 338 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 08. 29·92 × 2·4 + 21·28 × 4·5 = ? (A) 167·568 (B) 176·568 (C) 176·658 (D) 167·658 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 09. 7523 + 2963 – 3847 = ? + 4253 (A) 2368 (B) 2386 (C) 2638 (D) 2683 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ

d`ksbZ ugÓ 19. 4 cSx vkSj 3 ckWDl d`h d`her 555 :\ gS vkSj 3 cSx vkSj 4 ckWDl d`h d`her 460 :\ gS\ 1 cSx d`h d`her D;k gS= (A) 120 :\ (B) 150 :\ (C) 140 :\ (D) 160 :\ funsZæ%·^'u 11 ls 15 rd`‚ fuEuf¥f[r la“;k Δk~a[¥k eÍ ^'ufpÕ (?) ds` (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ Lƒku ij D;k vk,xk= 20. A vkSj B fe¥d`j ,d` d`ke 12 fnu 11. 8, 12, 18, ?, 40·5 eÍ iwjk d`j ld`rs gß\ vds`¥k A blh (A) 24 (B) 27 d`ke d`ks 18 fnu eÍ iwjk d`j ld`rk gS\ vds`¥k B ;g d`ke fd`rus fnu eÍ (C) 26 (D) 28 iwjk d`j ld`rk gS= (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ
12. 13, 22, 52, 165, ? (A) 648 (B) 468 (C) 334 (D) 668 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 13. 7, 8, 18, 57, ? (A) 232 (B) 228 (C) 234 (D) 226 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 14. 7, 11, 19, 35, ? (A) 71 (B) 69 (C) 65 (D) 73 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 15. 5, 11, 23, ?, 95 (A) 45 (B) 49 (C) 47 (D) 46 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ

ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 21. Ld`kslZ ds` fuEuf¥f[r lsV ds` vkSlr d`k irk ¥xkb,%
72, 81, 93, 69, 75, 87, 63, 84, 78 (A) 83 (B) 82 (C) 76 (D) 78 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 22. 250 ehVj

(A) 24 (C) 18 (E) bueÍ

(B) 36 (D) 30

¥Ech ,d` V_su ,d` flXu¥ ds` [EHs d`ks 15 lsd`≥M eÍ ikj d`jrh gS\ V_su d`h xfr fd`rus fd`eh/^fr ?≥Vk gS=
(A) 48 (C) 72 (E) bueÍ (B) 60 (D) 64

ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 23. 12 I¥sV vkSj 9 pEep d`h d`her 339 :\ gS] rks 4 I¥sV vkSj 3 pEep 16. ,d` vk;r d`k ”s(œ`¥ 252 lseh2 gS\ d`h d`her D;k gksxh= bld`h ¥EckbZ vkSj pkSÈ MkbZ d`k vuqikr (A) 130 :\ ∂`eæ# 9 : 7 gS\ bld`h ifjf| fd`ruh gS= (B) 127 :\ (A) 64 lseh (B) 68 lseh (C) 133 :\ (C) 128 lseh (D) 96 lseh (D) fu|kZfjr ugÓ fd`;k tk ld`rk gS (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 17. ,d` f}vad`h la“;k ds` vad`kÍ ds` Lƒku ijLij cn¥ fn, tk,a rks cuh gqbZ 24. 64 cPpkÍ ds` chp lekur# pkd`¥sV ck∑Vs x, gß\ ^R;sd` cPps d`ks 7 pkd`¥sV la“;k ew¥ la“;k ls 18 vf|d` gS\ nsus ds` ckn 15 pkd`¥sV cp x,\ dq`¥ vad`kÍ d`k ;ksx 6 gS] rks ew¥ la“;k D;k fd`rus pkd`¥sV ƒs= gS=
(A) 64 (C) 42 (E) bueÍ (B) 46 (D) 24 (A) 448 (C) 463 (E) bueÍ (B) 436 (D) 446

ls d`ksbZ ugÓ

ls d`ksbZ ugÓ

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/796

euh" ls 25 fd`xzk pko¥ 32 :\ ^fr II. uafnrk }kjk fuosfær jkfæ mlds` fd`xzk vkSj 15 fd`xzk pko¥ 36 :\ ^fr HkbZ }kjk fuosfær jkfæ d`k 40% fd`xzk [jhns\ nksukÍ fd`LekÍ d`k feJ. gS\ d`j mlus mls 40·20 :\ ^fr fd`xzk 30. fd`ruh efg¥k,a 10 fnu eÍ d`ke iwjk cspk\ mls fd`rus ^frær ¥kH gqvk= d`j ld`rh gß= (A) 25 (B) 40 I. ,d` fnu eÍ ,d` efg¥k }kjk fd`;k (C) 30 (D) 20 x;k d`ke ,d` fnu eÍ ,d` iq:" (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ }kjk fd`, x, d`ke d`k 75% gS\ II. ,d` fnu eÍ ,d` efg¥k }kjk fd`;k funsZæ%·^'u 26 ls 30 rd`‚ uhps x;k d`ke ,d` fnu eÍ ,d` cPps ^R;sd` ^'u ds` ckn nks d`ƒu I vkSj II }kjk fd`, x, d`ke d`k 150% gS\ fn, x, gß\ vkid`ks ;g r; d`juk gS fd` d`ƒu eÍ fn;k x;k MkVk ^'u d`k m®j funsZæ%·^'u 31 ls 35 rd`‚ fuEunsus ds` f¥, i;kZIr gS ;k ugÓ\ lEHkO; f¥f[r ^'ukÍ eÍ ^'ufpÕ ds` Lƒku ij m®jkÍ ds` chp pquko d`jus ds` f¥, vkid`ks ¥xHx D;k ewY; vk,xk= ·rF;r# ewY; MkVk vkSj vius xf.r ds` Kku d`k mi;ksx d`h x.uk visf”r ugÓ gS\‚ d`juk pkfg,\ m®j nhft,% 31. 8999 – 315 × 8·005 = ? (A) ;fn ds`o¥ d`ƒu I ^'u d`k m®j (A) 6480 (B) 6460 nsus ds` f¥, i;kZIr gS] tcfd` ds`o¥ (C) 6570 (D) 6520 d`ƒu II i;kZIr ugÓ gS\ (E) 6550 (B) ;fn ds`o¥ d`ƒu II ^'u d`k m®j nsus ds` f¥, i;kZIr gS] tcfd` ds`o¥ 32. 2102 d`k 85·05% = ? d`ƒu I i;kZIr ugÓ gS\ (A) 1750 (B) 1795 (C) ;fn ;k rks ds`o¥ d`ƒu I ;k ds`o¥ (C) 1755 (D) 1775 d`ƒu II ^'u d`k m®j nsus ds` f¥, (E) 1785 i;kZIr gS\ (D) ;fn vki d`ƒu I vkSj II nksukÍ ls 33. 27·07 × 1499·09 ÷ 24·99 = ? (A) 1630 (B) 1640 fe¥d`j Hh m®j ugÓ ik ld`rs gß vkSj vf|d` MkVk d`h vko';d`rk gS\ (C) 1620 (D) 1560 (E) ;fn ^'u d`k m®j nsus ds` f¥, (E) 1590 d`ƒu I vkSj d`ƒu II nksukÍ vko';d` 34. 33·003 × 25·005 ÷ 5·001 = ? gS\ (A) 160 (B) 165 26. o~® d`k ”s(œ`¥ fd`ruk gS= (C) 168 (D) 162 I. o~® d`h ifjf| 88 lseh gS\ (E) 161 II. o~® d`k O;kl] ,d` oxZ d`h Hqtk 2 2 ds` leku gS ftld`k ”s(œ`¥ 35. (22·01) – (17·95) = ? (A) 152 (B) 172 784 lseh2 gS\ (C) 155 (D) 160 27. jktu d`h orZeku vk;q D;k gS= (E) 168 I. jktu vkSj enu d`h orZeku vk;q d`k vuqikr ∂`eæ# 3 : 4 gS\ funsZæ%·^'u 36 ls 40 rd`‚ 400 cPpkÍ ds` ,d` Ldw`¥ eÍ] ¥ÈMd`kÍ vkSj II. 5 o"Z ckn jktu vkSj enu d`h vk;q d`k vuqikr ∂`eæ# 4 : 5 ¥ÈMfd`;kÍ d`k vuqikr ∂`eæ# 9 : 11 gS \ gksxk\ ^R;sd` cPpk ;k rks xk;u d`h d`”k ;k u~~R; 28. ^frær ^fro"Z C;kt d`h nj D;k gS= d`h d`”k ;k nksukÍ eÍ tkrk gS\ 40% ¥ÈMds` ds`o¥ xk;u d`h d`”k eÍ tkrs gß\ dq`¥ I. 10 o"Z eÍ mifpr lk|kj. C;kt 20% cPps nksukÍ d`”kvkÍ eÍ vkrs gß] ftueÍ jkfæ ds` leku gS\ ls 25% ¥ÈMds` gß\ 45% ¥ÈMfd`;k∑ ds`o¥ II. 2 o"Z eÍ mifpr p∂`o~f* C;kt u~R; d`h d`”k eÍ tkrh gß\ 1,050 :\ gS\ 29. uafnrk vkSj mlds` HkbZ ds` chp ck∑Vs 36. ds`o¥ u~R; d`h d`”k eÍ dq`¥ fd`rus cPps tkrs gß= tkus ok¥s 20,000 :\ ds` ¥kH eÍ (A) 213 (B) 189 uafnrk d`k fgLlk fd`ruk gS= (C) 133 (D) 187 I. uafnrk us 50,000 :\ d`k fuosæ fd`;k gS\ (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/797

25.

37.

u~R; d`h d`”k eÍ tkus ok¥h ¥ÈMfd`;kÍÍ d`h dq`¥ la“;k fd`ruh gS=
(A) 161 (C) 99 (E) bueÍ (B) 121 (D) 60

ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 38. fd`ruh ¥ÈMfd`;k∑ ds`o¥ xk;u d`h d`”k eÍ tkrh gß=
(A) 99 (C) 61 (E) bueÍ (B) 72 (D) 60

ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 39. dq`¥ fd`rus ¥ÈMds` xk;u d`h d`”k eÍ tkrs gß=
(A) 92 (C) 80 (E) bueÍ (B) 88 (D) 90

ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 40. ds`o¥ xk;u d`h d`”k eÍ tk jgs cPpkÍ d`h dq`¥ la“;k] Ldw`¥ ds` dq`¥ cPpkÍ d`h la“;k d`k fd`ruk ^frær gS=
(A) 46·75 (C) 46·25 (E) bueÍ ls (B) 33·25 (D) 33·75

d`ksbZ ugÓ funsZæ%·^'u 41 ls 45 rd`‚ bu ^'ukÍ ds` m®j nsus ds` f¥, uhps nh xbZ lkj.h d`k ÷;kuiwoZd` v÷;;u d`hft,\
foxr o"ksÛ eÍ N# jkT;kÍ d`h tula“;k ·gtkjkÍ eÍ‚ jkT; o"Z
1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 A 125 135 142 148 155 160 B C D E 98 110 130 140 145 160 F 138 152 160 175 190 198 210 85 150 225 89 170 240 93 180 250 99 215 270 105 230 290 110 240

41. 1998

eÍ lHh jkT;kÍ d`h fe¥d`j vkSlr tula“;k fd`ruh ƒh=
(A) 157500 (B) 175000 (C) 157200 (D) 172500 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ

42. 2001

eÍ jkT; C d`h tula“;k ml o"Z lHh jkT;kÍ d`h dq`¥ tula“;k d`k ¥xHx fd`ruk ^frær gS=
(B) 11 (D) 8

(A) 12 (C) 10 (E) 13 43. 1995

ls 2007 eÍ jkT; C d`h tula“;k eÍ ¥xHx fd`rus ^frær o~f* gqbZ gS=
(A) 29 (C) 28 (E) 24 (B) 30 (D) 20

44. 2001

ls 2004 rd` fd`l jkT; d`h 50. fd`l o"Z ds` nkSjku ugÓ csph xbZ enkÍ tulaa“;k eÍ ^frær o~f* vf|d`re d`k ^frær lokZf|d` ƒk= gqbZ ƒh= (A) 2004 (B) 2006
(B) B (D) F (C) 2008 (E) bueÍ ls (D) 2002

ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 45. lHh o"ksÛ ds` f¥, fe¥d`j jkT; D d`h vkSlr tula“;k fd`ruh gS=
(A) 195700 (B) 197500 (C) 175900 (D) 179500 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ

(A) C (C) D (E) bueÍ

d`ksbZ ugÓ

m®j O;k“;k lfgr

funsZæ%·^'u 46 ls 50 rd`‚ bu ^'ukÍ ds` m®j nsus ds` f¥, uhps fn, x, xzkœ` d`k ÷;kuiwoZd` v÷;;u d`hft,\ foxr o"ksÛ eÍ ,d` d`Eiuh }kjk fofufeZr vkSj csph xbZ enkÍ d`h la“;k ·¥k[kÍ eÍ‚
100 90

enkÍ d`h la“;k ·¥k[kÍ eÍ‚

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

fofufeZr csph xbZ

o"Z 46.

lHh o"ksÛ ds` f¥, fe¥d`j ugÓ csph xbZ enkÍ d`h ¥xHx vkSlr la“;k fd`ruh gS`=
(A) 10,50,000 (B) 10,55,000 (C) 10,43,000 (D) 10,40,000 (E) 10,70,000

47.

lHh o"ksÛ ds` f¥, fe¥d`j csph xbZ enkÍ d`h ¥xHx vkSlr la“;k fd`ruh gS= (A) 60 ¥k[ (B) 61 ¥k[ (C) 63 ¥k[ (D) 67 ¥k[ (E) 69 ¥k[ 48. 2007 eÍ fofufeZr enkÍ d`h la“;k] lHh o"ksÛ eÍ fe¥d`j fofufeZr enkÍ d`h dq`¥ la“;k d`k fd`ruk ^frær gS= ·næe¥o ds` ckn nks vad`kÍ rd` iw.kÛfd`r‚
(A) 17·31 (C) 17·03 (E) bueÍ ls (B) 13·71 (D) 13·97

d`ksbZ ugÓ 49. lHh o"ksÛ eÍ fe¥d`j] csph xbZ enkÍ d`h dq`¥ la“;k vkSj fofufeZr enkÍ d`h dq`¥ la“;k ds` chp d`k ∂`eæ# vuqikr D;k gS=
(A) 87 : 104 (B) 89 : 102 (C) 87 : 102 (D) 89 : 104 (E) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/798

fd` ¥ksd`ra(h; lektokn D;k gS`=
lektokn (Democratic mˆs'; ¥ksd`rkaf(d` vƒkZrΩ lalnh; ¥ksd`ra( ds` ek÷;e ls lektokn d`h Lƒkiuk gS\ bleÍ oxZ la?"Z vkSj ¯glk ds` f¥, d`ksbZ Lƒku ugÓ gS\ bld`k fo'okl gS fd` tulk|kj. d`ks lektoknh mˆs';kÍ ds` ^fr tkxÔd` d`j mud`k leƒZu ^kIr fd`;k tk ld`rk gS rƒk fu;e vkfn cukd`j bu mˆs';kÍ d`ks iwjk fd`;k tk ld`rk gS\ Hkjr eÍ bl fl*kUr d`ks viuk;k x;k gS\ fd` ‘jkÆV_h; d~`f" fod`kl ;kstuk’ (RKVY) ds` D;k mˆs'; gß = ☛ d~`f" ”s( eÍ fod`kl gsrq ;g ,d` ubZ ;kstuk ‘jkÆV_h; d~`f" fod`kl ;kstuk’ (RKVY) Hkjr ljd`kj ds` d~`f" ea(k¥;/ foHkx }kjk eq“; mˆs';kÍ gsrq æqÔ d`h xbZ gS] tSls%[k» œ`l¥kÍ ds` ,d`hd~`r fod`kl gsrq ftleÍ eksVs vukt (Coarse cereals), lw{e vukt (minor millets), n¥guÍ « d~`f" ;a(hd`j.« e~nk LokLF; ,oa mRiknd`rk] o"kZ vk|kfjr [srh i*fr fod`kl] ,d`hd~`r d`hV ^cU|u (IPM), ekdsZ`V <k∑pk] ckxokuh] iæqik¥u] Ms;¯jx ,oa fœ`æjht vkfn ij\ bl ubZ ;kstuk }kjk laLƒkvkÍ d`ks enn nsd`j d~`f" ,oa ckxokuh bR;kfn ”s(kÍ« tSfod` ,oa tSo-moZjd`kÍ] bUuksosfVo Ld`hEl d`ks ^ksRlkfgr fd`;k tk,xk\ o"Z 2007-08 eÍ 1500 d`jksÈM :i, ctV d`k ^ko|ku j[k x;k vkSj o"Z 2008-09 gsrq 2,891·70 d`jksÈM :i, 31 ekpZ] 2009 rd` fj¥ht fd`, x,\ fd` ‘jkÆV_h; [k» lqj”k feæu’
(NFSM–National Food Security Mission) D;k gS`= ☛ orZeku eÍ jkÆV_h; [k» lqj”k feæu (NFSM) ns æ ds ` 17 jkT;kÍ ds` 312 ☛ ¥ksd`ra(h; Socialism) d`k

ohMlZ] uSd`-lSi L^s;lZ] ikni lqj”k gsrq jlk;u] ck;ksiSLVhlkbMΩl] œ`kjelZ œ`hYM Ldw`Yl vkfn d`h O;oLƒk gS\ o"Z 2008-09 gsrq bl ^ksxzke ds` vUrxZr 883·26 d`jksÈM :i, Hkjr ljd`kj }kjk fj¥ht fd`, x,\ fd` d~`f" ”s( gsrq ‘India’s Vision, 2020’ D;k gS = ☛ iwoZ jkÆV_ifr ,oa oSKkfud` MkW\ ,\ih\ts\ vCnq¥ d`¥ke us ‘India’s Vision, 2020’ ds` ckjs eÍ d`gk gS “A vision is not a
Project Report or Plan Target; but it is an articulation of the desired end results in broader term.” ‘India’s Vision, 2020’ eÍ d`gk x;k gS fd` o"Z 2020 rd` ekuo tula“;k vf|d` gksxh]

igpkfur ft¥kÍ eÍ pk¥w fd`;k x;k gS ftleÍ pko¥] xsgw∑] n¥gu eq“; Ôi ls œ`l¥Í ¥h xbZ gß\ vƒkZrΩ NFSM–Rice, NFSM–Wheat, NFSM–Pulses feæu gß\ bl feæu eÍ bu œ`l¥kÍ ds` HYVs cht] cht feuhfd`VΩl] lw{e-rRokÍ] pwuk] d`ksuksohMlZ] thjks-fV¥ lhMfM_Yl] lhMfM_Yl] jksVkosVlZ] Mht¥ iEi lSVΩl] ikWoj ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/800

vPNs fæf”r] rUnq:Lr ,oa |u|kU; O;fDr gkÍxs] vis”kd~`r vius iqjkus ¥Ecs ,sfrgkfld` le; d`h rq¥uk eÍ\ d~`f" eÍ [k»kUu mRiknu bl vof| eÍ nksxquk d`juk gksxk\ o"Z 2008-09 eÍ] tks [k»kUu mRiknu 229·85 fef¥;u Vu nsæ eÍ vk∑d`k x;k gS mls HfoÆ; eÍ cÈ<kuk gksxk] pw∑fd` o"Z 2050 rd` Hkstu ek∑x 350 fef¥;u Vu] 1·7 fcf¥;u tula“;k d`h iwjh d`juh gksxh\ ,d` lkspuh; fo"; gS fd` d~`f" d`h fgLlsnkjh o"Z 1950-51 eÍ 52% dq`¥ GDP (Gross Domestic Product) eÍ ƒh og vc ?Vd`j o"Z 2007-08 eÍ ek( 17·8% vƒkZrΩ ,d`-frgkbZ jg xbZ gS ftls cÈ<kuk gksxk\ vr# d~`f" ”s( eÍ vc nsæ eÍ ‘nwljh/lrrΩ gfjr ∂`kfUr’ (Second/Evergreen Revolution) ¥kuh gksxh] rHh cÈ<rh tula“;k o~f* nj @2·1% okf"Zd`] vis”kd~`r d~`f" ”s( d`k GDP eÍ fgLlsnkjh 17·8% ds`] d`ks [k» lqj”k lqfuf'pr gks ik,xh\ ftl gsrq œ`l¥kÍ d`k fofo|hd`j. (Crop diversification) ,oa l?uhd`j. (Intensification) d`juk gksxk\ bl lUnHZ eÍ œ`l¥ ^.k¥h vuqla|ku funsæk¥; (ICAR) eksnhiqje] esjB ·m\ ^\‚ iwjs nsæ eÍ d`k;Z d`j jgk gS\ fd` fd`u O;fDr;kÍ ij la;qDr Ôi ls vkjksi ¥xk;k tk lds`xk`= ☛ fuEu O;fDr;kÍ ij ,d` lkƒ vkjksi ¥xk;k tk lds`xk% (1) os O;fDr ftu ij ,d` gh laO;ogkj ds` vuq∂`e eÍ fd`, x, ,d` gh vijk| d`k vfH;ksx gks\ (2) os O;fDr ftu ij fd`lh vijk| d`k vfH;ksx gS rƒk os O;fDr ftu ij ,sls vijk| d`k nqÆ^sj. vƒok ^;Ru d`k vfH;ksx gS\ (3) os O;fDr ftu ij ckjg ekl d`h vof| ds` vUnj la;qDr Ôi ls muds` }kjk

fd`, x, |kjk 219 ds` vƒZ eÍ ,d` gh fd`Le ds` ,d` ls vf|d` vijk|kÍ d`k vfH;ksx gS\ (4) os O;fDr ftu ij ,d` gh laO;ogkj ds` vuq∂`e eÍ fd`, x, fHUu vijk|kÍ d`k vfH;ksx gS\ fd` fd`lh vijk| d`k laKku d`kSu d`j lds`xk = ☛ d`ksbZ ,slk eftLV_sV] tksfd` ^ƒe oxZ eftLV_sV ;k foæs"r;k læDr d~`r f}rh; oxZ eftLV_sV fd`lh vijk| d`k laKku d`j lds`xk\ d`ksbZ eq“; U;kf;d` eftLV_sV fd`lh f}rh; oxZ eftLV_sV d`ks ,sls vijk|kÍ d`k ftud`h tk∑p ;k fopkj. d`juk mld`h ”erk ds` vUnj gS] mld`ks laKku d`jus ds` f¥, læDr d`j ld`rk gS\ fd` D;k fcuk feVΩVh ds` œ`¥ vkSj lfCt;kÍ d`ks mxkuk lEHo gS = ☛ ^'u vViVk ¥xrk gS\ fcuk feVΩVh vkSj ikuh ds` œ`l¥ mxkuk ,d` etkd`-lk ¥xrk gS] ijUrq ;g etkd` vc ;ƒkƒZ cu x;k gS\ ;fn vki nloÓ eaft¥ ij NksVs-ls Œ¥SV eÍ jgrs gß] rks ckxokuh d`h vkid`h bPNk vc iwjh gks tk,xh\ uklk us ,slh fof| d`k fod`kl d`j f¥;k gS\ uklk ds` oSKkfud`kÍ }kjk rS;kj ‘xStsV’ eÍ ckxokuh ds` f¥, feVΩVh d`h tÔjr ugÓ gksrh gS\ xStsV eÍ œ`¥ ;k lCth d`k ikS|k jksiÍ vkSj œ`l¥ id`us d`h ^rh”k d`jÍ\ oSKkfud`kÍ ds` vuqlkj] bl ‘ikoj I¥kaV xzksbax eæhu’ eÍ ikS|kÍ d`h tÈMkÍ d`ks eæhu d`k ,d` Hkx ikSfÆVd` inkƒZ ls lÓprk jgsxk] ftlls ikS|s rsth ls cÈ<Íxs vkSj cÈMs vkd`kj ds` œ`¥ nÍxs\ uklk us ;g ‘xStsV’ varfj” ;kf(;kÍ ds` f¥, fod`flr fd`;k gS] ftlls fd` os ¥Ech varfj” ;k(kvkÍ eÍ rkts œ`¥ vkSj lfCt;kÍ d`k etk ¥s ldÍ`\ ^;ksxkÍ eÍ ik;k x;k gS fd` xStsV eÍ iSnk gksus ok¥h œ`l¥] [srkÍ d`h iSnkokj ls vf|d` ikSfÆVd` vkSj buds` nkus vkd`kj eÍ cÈMs gksrs gß\ vc ;g eæhu tulkekU; ds` f¥, Hh mi¥C| gS\
●●●

(Useful for Various Competitive Exams.) By : Dr. Alok Kumar Code No. 1630 Rs. 40/-

UPKAR PRAKASHAN, AGRA-2
E-mail : publisher@upkar.in Website : www.upkar.in

lokZ f |d` uq d `lku d`jrk gS \ blds ` fu;a(. gsrq mik; D;k gß= m®j ^'u%D;k ;q* eÍ Hh jkscksV d`h d`ksbZ Hwfed`k gks ld`rh gS= m®j

^'u%rhljh nqfu;k ds` nsæ d`kSuls gß= m®j

^'u%o"kZ t¥ (Rain Water), tks HoukÍ/bekjrkÍ d`h NrkÍ (Roof-tops) ds` }kjk uhps vkrk gS vkSj mls vkj\lh\lh\ (RCC) Vßd` eÍ bd`VΩBk fd`;k tkrk gS] ml ,d`f(r o"kZ t¥ d`h x.uk d`k D;k rjhd`k gS= m®j ^'u%vaVkdZ`fVd`k eÍ Hkjr d`h orZeku fLƒfr D;k gS= m®j

^'u%D;k d`ksbZ vius fo:`* l”e lk”h gks lds`xk`= m®j

^'u%‘fj¥sfVo ¥hœ ` xzksƒ jsV’ ^'u%o;Ld` erkf|d`kj d`k D;k (RLGR % Relative Leaf Growth vƒZ gS= Rate) œ`l¥kÍ eÍ fd`l ^d`kj Kkr d`jrs gß = m®j m®j

^'u%‘[jhœ`’ ekSle eÍ mxkbZ tkus ok¥h œ`l¥kÍ%Tokj ·nkuk/pjh‚] eDd`k] cktjk vkfn d`ks fVMΩMk (Locusts) ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/801

●●●

^'u%¥ksd` lHk eÍ lkalnkÍ d`h ^'u%d`U;kdq`ekjh vkSj d`'ehj eÍ la“;k ,oa mud`ks fn, tkus ok¥k osru fnu-jkr d`h vof| eÍ vUrj d`k D;k fd`ruk gS= % veu [ku] tk¥kSu d`kj. gS`= LiÆV d`jus d`h d~`ik d`jÍ\ m®j % ˜"k jatu dq`ekj ·>kj[≥M‚ m®j ^'u%œz`kal vkSj teZuh ds` e÷; lhek js[k d`ks fd`l uke ls tkuk tkrk gS`=
% pUnzHku fc'uksbZ] tks|iqj ·jktLƒku‚

^'u%vcq¥ œ`Èt¥ d`kSu ƒs= mud`h bfrgkl izfl* d~`fr d`k D;k egRo gS=
% fjtokuk [k∑] v¥oj ·jktLƒku‚

m®j

^'u%Hkjr eÍ orZeku eÍ dq`¥ fd`rus jkÆV_h; jktekxZ gß`= lcls cÈMk vkSj lcls NksVk jktekxZ d`kSulk gS=
% je.h d`kSj] jkorlj ·jktLƒku‚

m®j

^'u%vk∑o¥k (Aonla) d`h mUur fd`LeÍ d`kSu–d`kSulh gß= ¥{eh–52 ^tkfr vk∑o¥s eÍ D;k xq. gksrs gß=
% ^nhi dq`ekj] ';kexÈ< ·e\^\‚

m®j

m®j

^'u%,fæ;kfVd` lkslkbVh vkWœ` caxk¥ d`h Lƒkiuk fd`lus d`h ƒh= blls lEcfU|r fofHUu f∂`;k-d`¥kikÍ d`h tkud`kjh nhft,\
% lqfer dq`ekj] ægMks¥ ·e÷; ^nsæ‚

m®j

^'u%dq`ekjtho d`kSu ƒk=
% fn¥hi dq`ekj feJk] v¥hxÈ< ·m®j ^nsæ‚

^'u%esjh ˜∑pkbZ 5 œ`hV ls ,d` bap d`e gS\ D;k js¥os d`h fofHUu ukSd`fj;kÍ ds` f¥,] ˜∑pkbZ ds` vk|kj ij mi;qâ` g∑w=
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m®j

m®j

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^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/802

^ƒe iqjLÎ`r fucU|

21oÓ lnh d`k fo'o 
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ds` chp xgjs vkSj etcwr lEcU| 21 oÓ lnh d`ks fnæk nÍxs\ nksukÍ nsækÍ ds` chp tkjh ;g ckrphr fo'o d`h vU; f}i”h; okrkZvkÍ d`h rjg egRoiw.Z gS vkSj ;g ijek.q gfƒ;kj ls lEiUu m®j d`ksfj;k ls fuiVus ds` f¥, lgk;d` gksxk\ jke

lkekftd` ∂`kfUr
vejhd`k eÍ jkÆV_ifr cjkd` vksckek d`k pquko okLro eÍ 21oÓ lnh d`h nqfu;k eÍ ,d` foLe;d`kjh ,sfrgkfld` ifj?Vuk gS\ vksckek d`k pquko fo'o-Hj eÍ ubZ vkækvkÍ vkSj fo'okl ds` lkƒ ns[k tk jgk gS\ [kld`j fod`klæh¥ nsækÍ ds` ckjs eÍ ;g d`guk lcls lVhd` gksxk\ ;g d`ksbZ ekew¥h ckr ugÓ] tgk∑ 'osr-v'osr ds` vfLrRo d`ks ¥sd`j cjlkÍ-cjl ig¥s ,d` vkokt mBh\ cjkd` vksckek d`h fot;] ekfVZu ¥wƒj ¯d`x ds` lius ds` lp gksus tSlk gS\ cjkd` vksckek ds` vejhd`h jkÆV_ifr pqus tkus ls tgk∑ fo'o eÍ uL¥Hsn ds` lekIr gksus d`h vkæk txh gS] ¥sfd`u vkt Hh vkLV_sf¥;k egk}hi jaxHsn flUM_kse ls xzLr utj vk jgk gS\

bDd`hloÓ lnh ds` xHZ ls mith fopkj|kjk ijEijkxr vƒkZrΩ 20 oÓ lnh d`h jktuSfrd` ijEijkvkÍ] ¥ksd`rkfU(d` ,oa jktuhfr d`h vk|kjfæ¥k vkSj jkÆV_ ds` ew¥ fopkj d`ks Hh [kfjt d`j jgh gS\ chloÓ lnh d`h ikjEifjd` jktuhfr ds` iÈMkokÍ ls vNwrh jgh vkt d`h ihÈ<h ds` f¥, vUrjkZÆV_h; lanHksÛ ds` fcuk HfoÆ; d`h d`Yiuk d`j ikuk d`fBu gS\ vkWu¥kbu LVMh vƒok bZ-xq: ,oa bZ-VΩ;wV¯jx] ekb∂`kslkWŒV fo≥Mkst] d`kW¥ ls≥VjkÍ] ,p- 1 ch ohtk ds` fcuk mTTo¥ HfoÆ; d`k liuk vlEHo ¥xus ¥xk gS\ X¥ksc¥ cktkjkÍ d`h fi?¥u] |kfeZd` vkrad`okn ds` laxfBr mRƒku tSlh ?VukvkÍ ds` lkƒ uSuks rd`uhd`h] vk|qfud` ijek.q iuMqCch] LVse-ls¥ ^R;kjksi. vkfn ubZ oSKkfud` bZtknkÍ us ,d`ne ubZ rjg d`h ,slh vkfƒZd` |kfeZd` vkSj uSfrd` fLƒfr;k∑ jp nh gß] ftud`h d`Yiuk xka|h] iVs¥] ¥sfuu xks¥o¥d`j ds` oDr eÍ vlEHo ƒh\

efg¥k læfDrd`j.
bDd`hloÓ lnh ds` ^ƒe næd` eÍ efg¥kvkÍ us gj ”s( eÍ viuh lœ`¥rk d`k ijpe ¥gjk;k gS\ tgk∑ d`kÍMksf¥tk jkbl vkSj fg¥sjh fD¥aVu us nqfu;k ds` lcls æfDræk¥h nsæ vejhd`k d`h fonsæ ea(h ds` in d`ks lqæksfHr fd`;k gS\ ogÓ vUrfj” eÍ lquhrk fof¥;El us viuh lœ`¥rk ds` u, vk;ke Lƒkfir fd`, gß\ Hkjr eÍ nsæ ds` nwljs lcls cÈMs futh cßd` vkbZlhvkbZlhvkbZ ds` eqf[;k ds` in ij lqJh pank d`kspj fojkteku gqbZ gß\ fæ”k ds` cÈ<rs ^pkj d`h otg ls efg¥kvkÍ d`ks viuh bPNk ds` vuqdw`¥ vius HfoÆ; d`k fuekZ. d`jus ds` volj fe¥us ¥xs gß\

lq|jrs gq, vkilh fj'rs
fnlEcj 2008 eÍ Ôlh jkÆV_ifr fnfe(h esnosnso d`h Hkjr ;k(k ds` nkSjku Ôl vkSj Hkjr ds` chp tks le>kSrs gq, vkSj ftu vVds` gq, eqnΩnkÍ ij nksukÍ nsækÍ ds` chp ckr vkxs cÈ<h gS] os Hkjr ds` HfoÆ; ds` f¥, egRoiw.Z gß\ bDd`hloÓ lnh eÍ rs¥ egkæfDr ds` Ôi eÍ gkfl¥ ubZ |kd` d`ks Ôlh gk¥ rd` Ôlh d`k;ns ls gte ugÓ d`j ik, ƒs\ rs¥ d`h d`herÍ fxjus ds` lkƒ Ôl d`h vkfƒZd` fLƒfr Hh d`etksj iÈMus ¥xh gS\ oSls rs¥ ds` eke¥s eÍ Hkjr Ôl ds` Hhrj l[kf¥u vkSj nwljs b¥kd`kÍ eÍ ,d` cÈMs fuosæd` ds` Ôi eÍ mHjk gS\ Lisl VsDuks¥kWth vkSj ,Veh ,uthZ Ôl ds` nks lcls vxz.h ”s( gß vkSj nksukÍ eÍ gh Hkjr vkxkeh næd`kÍ eÍ tcnZLr fuosæ d`jus tk jgk gS\ bl le>nkjh d`h cqfu;kn ij esnosnso us viuh bl ;k(k eÍ Hkjr ds` lkƒ ftu lEcU|kÍ d`h uÓo j[h gS] muls nksukÍ nsækÍ d`h nksLrh u, eqd`ke ij igq∑pus d`h mEehn d`h tk ld`rh gS\ bDd`hloÓ lnh eÍ Hkjr-vejhd`k ijek.q le>kSrk ,d` egRoiw.Z ?Vuk gS\ ijek.q le>kSrs ls ijek.q ˜tkZ ds` ”s( eÍ vUrjkZÆV_h; lg;ksx d`k jkLrk [q¥ x;k gS ,oa vR;k|qfud` d`E^slj] Vs¯LVx flLVe] ˜tkZ mRiknu d`h lqfo|k,∑ ^kIr gkÍxh\ vejhd`h jkÆV_ifr cjkd` vksckek us d`gk gS fd` vejhd`k-phu lEcU| 21 oÓ lnh d`h fnæk fu|kZfjr d`jÍxs\ vejhd`k vkSj phu

ijek.q gfƒ;kjkÍ d`k [rjk
fo'o eÍ ækfUr d`h Lƒkiuk vkt d`h ^eq[ vko';d`rk gS\ fo'o ds` lHh nsæ viuh ^xfræh¥rk vkSj æfDr d`k ^næZu d`jus ds` f¥, æL( ,d`f(r d`jus eÍ ¥xs gß\ f}rh; fo'o;q* eÍ vejhd`k }kjk 6 rƒk 9 vxLr] 1945 d`ks fgjksfæek vkSj ukxklkd`h ij ijek.q ge¥s d`h foHhf"d`k d`ks ns[rs gq, bld`k [rjk gesæk ls gh ekuo-tkfr ij e∑Mjkrk jgk gS\ vkt fo'o ds` vusd` nsækÍ us muls Hh æfDræk¥h cekÍ d`k fuekZ. d`j f¥;k gS] ftuls d`bZ nsækÍ d`ks ,d` lkƒ ”.Hj eÍ gh uÆV fd`;k tk ld`rk gS\

foKku vkSj ^kS»ksfxd`h
bDd`hloÓ lnh eÍ foKku d`h fot; irkd`k pkjkÍ vksj ¥gjk jgh gS\ cz©kaM cuus d`h xqRƒh lq¥>kus ds` f¥, vc rd` ds` lcls egRoiw.Z] lcls [phZ¥s vkSj lcls egk^;ksx ‘fcx cßx- 2 ’ d`k ig¥k pj. ftusok ds` ikl lhvkbZvkj,l ¥Sc eÍ æqÔ gks x;k gS\ d`EI;wVj d`k mi;ksx bZ\lh\th\] jkscksV] jDrpki vkfn d`k;ksÛ ds` f¥, fd`;k tkus ¥xk gS\ ;q* d`¥k eÍ vR;k|qfud` ekuo-jfgr ;q*d` foeku M_ksUl d`k bLrsek¥ vke gksrk tk jgk gS \ vkbZikWM vkSj ,eihƒzh d`h nqfu;k iwjh rjg ls cn¥ pqd`h gS\ vkt ,d` lkƒ d`bZ lwpukvkÍ d`k vknku-^nku fd`;k tk jgk gS\ Hkjr vkfƒZd` fod`kl d`h ubZ ˜∑pkb;k∑ ukirs gq, fo'o d`h egkuΩ vkfƒZd` rkd`r cuus ds` lius d`ks ewrZ Ôi nsus eÍ ¥xk gS\ pUnzek ij pqukSrhiw.Z vfH;ku ds` ckn bljks us vx¥s Ng lk¥ ds` Hhrj eax¥ ij vUrfj” ;ku Hstus ds` f¥, rS;kfj;k∑ æqÔ d`j nh gß\ nsæ ds` ig¥s vUrfj” d`k;Z∂`e pUnz;ku- 1 us ;qok oSKkfud`kÍ d`h d`Yiuk d`ks ia[ ¥xk fn, gß vkSj mUgkÍus eax¥ xzg rd` vfH;ku ds` f¥, vUrfj” foKku vkS j bljks d`h ;ks t ukvkÍ eÍ Hkxhnkjh d`h gS\ ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/803

vækar ,fæ;k
pkgs if'pe ,fæ;k gks ;k e÷; ,fæ;k gks ;k fœ`j nf”. ,fæ;k] iwjs ”s( eÍ vækafr d`k nkSj tkjh gS\ d`bZ nsæ fcx cznj flUM_kse ls xzLr gß\ ikfd`Lrku eÍ bu fnukÍ vkrad`okfn;kÍ ds` f[¥kœ` vejhd`h vkSj ikfd`Lrkuh lsukvkÍ d`k vfH;ku p¥ jgk gS] rks nwljh rjœ` vœ`xkfuLrku eÍ gtkjkÍ ukVks lSfud` rkf¥cku ¥ÈMkd`kÍ ds` lkeus gß\ tkfgj gS fd` bl eqfge d`k vke ukxfjd`kÍ ij ^Hko iÈM jgk gS\ ikfd`Lrku eÍ lsuk vkSj vkrafd`;kÍ ds` chp la?"Z d`h otg ls foLƒkfir ¥ksxkÍ d`h la“;k 2 5 ¥k[ ls Hh ˜ij igq∑p xbZ gS] tks iwjs fo'o eÍ nsæ ds` vUnj foLƒkfirkÍ d`h lcls T;knk la“;k gS\ ikfd`Lrku us vkrad`okn d`h ftl vkx d`ks u ds`o¥ gok nh] vkt

og Lo;a vkrad` d`h vkx eÍ cqjh rjg >q¥lk gqvk vfLrRo d`h ¥ÈMkbZ ¥ÈM jgk gS\ v¥d`k;nk] rkf¥cku vkSj vU; ftgknh laxBukÍ d`h ekStwnxh ok¥k vkrad`h ¯lfMds`V iwjs fo'o ds` f¥, ,d` cÈMk [rjk gS\ d`Hh d`'ehj ds` cgkus Hkjr rd` gh ds`fUnzr crk;k tkus ok¥k ¥'d`js-rS;ck vc vUrjkZÆV_h; laxBu cud`j iwjh nqfu;k ds` f¥, [rjk cu jgk gS\ viuh euekuh ds` f¥, fo“;kr m®j d`ksfj;k us [qn d`ks cn¥rs le; ls v¥x j[d`j fo'o tuer ds` f[¥kœ` [ÈMs gksd`j tks nwljk ukfHd`h; ijh”. fd`;k gS] bl ijh”. ls m®j d`ksfj;k u flœZ` nf”. ,fæ;k d`h lqj”k ds` f¥, [rjk iSnk d`j jgk gS] cfYd` la;qDr jkÆV_ lqj”k ifj"nΩ lfgr fo'o tuer d`ks BÍxk fn[k jgk gS\ bZjku d`ks Hh ¥sd`j ;gh vkæad`k O;Dr d`h tk jgh gS fd` og ijek.q ce cukus d`h rd`uhd` ,tsUlh ds` le>kSrs ls c∑|s gksus vkSj ijek.q v^lkj laf| ij gLrk”j d`jus ds` ckotwn ijek.q ce bZtkn d`j jgk gS\ usik¥ Hh ^paM ds` bLrhœs` ds` ckn vfLƒj gks p¥k gS\ 2007 eÍ jktækgh ds` [kRes ds` lkƒ mEehn c∑|h ƒh fd` vc ¥ksd`rkfU(d` ljd`kj eqYd` d`ks fLƒjrk nsxh vkSj usik¥ vkfƒZd` etcwrh d`h iVjh ij [ÈMk gksxk] ¥sfd`u ekvksoknh usrkvkÍ d`h gB|feZrk] vnwjn~fÆV vkSj Hkjr fojks|h uhfr us fœ`j ,d` ckj nsæ d`ks jktuhfrd` m¥>u eÍ œ∑`lk d`j vfLƒj d`j fn;k gS\ Jh¥ad`k rfe¥ VkbxjkÍ ds` [kRes ds` ckn v¥x rjg d`h leL;kvkÍ ls tw> jgk gS\ ogk∑ vkUrfjd` Ôi ls foLƒkfir ¥xHx nks ¥k[ vLlh gtkj ¥ksxkÍ ds` chekj gksus] Hw[s jgus vkSj dq`iks". tSlh leL;k ls xzflr gksus d`h [cjÍ fe¥ jgh gß\ f¥VΩVs lq^heks oh\ ^Hkd`j. vkSj f¥VΩVs ds` lœ`k, ds` ckn eqYd` ds` lkeus vc vf|d`kjkÍ ds` fods`Unzhd`j. d`h pqukSrh lkeus gS\ tc rd` rfe¥kÍ d`ks lafo|ku ds``nk;js eÍ tk;t vf|d`kj nsd`j mUgÍ eq“;|kjk eÍ ugÓ ¥k;k tkrk] rc rd` Jh¥ad`k eÍ Lƒk;h ækfUr d`h mEehn d`juk csekuh gksxh\ ckaX¥knsæ eÍ gk¥ gh eÍ ckaX¥knsæ jÍtlZ ds` fonzksg eÍ lkS ls vf|d` ¥ksxkÍ d`h tkuÍ xbÛ\ ogk∑ d`VΩVjiaƒh tekrÍ tÈMÍ tek, gq, gß\ vkrad`h xqVkÍ d`k <k∑pk cjd`jkj gS vkSj d`c ogk∑ vækfUr œS`¥ tk,] d`guk d`fBu gS\ bl le; E;kaekj Hh vUrjkZÆV_h; gLr”si d`k ds`Unz cuk gqvk gS\ ¥ksd`rU( cgk¥h vkUnks¥u usrk vkax lku lw d`h 13 lk¥ ls ts¥ eÍ ;k utjcanh d`h gk¥r eÍ gS\ fo'o leqnk;] foæs" Ôi ls vejhd`h psrkofu;kÍ vkSj ^frcU|kÍ d`ks |rk crkrs ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/804

gq, lSfud` ækld` euekuh d`j jgs gß nqfu;k ds` lcls cÈMs ik∑poÍ rs¥ mRiknd` nsæ bZjku eÍ egewn vgenhustkn ds` nksckjk jkÆV_ifr cuus ij bZjku d`h lÈMd`kÍ ls ¥sd`j ;wjksi ds` vusd` nsækÍ eÍ muds` f[¥kœ` fojks| ^næZu gks jgs gß\ bu ^næZukÍ eÍ d`bZ ¥ksx g¥kd` gks x, gß\ bZjku d`h ÷oLr gks pqd`h vƒZO;oLƒk d`ks iVjh ij ¥kus eÍ ¥Eck le; ¥xsxk\ bl chp phu eÍ Hh ¯glk vkSj vækfUr ds` Loj mHjus ¥xs gß\ fæuft;kax ^kUr ds` mÔEd`h b¥kds` eÍ tkrh; naxkÍ eÍ 184 ¥ksxkÍ ds` ekjs tkus ls Hkjh ruko gS\ vkt frCcr phuh lSfud` rkd`r ds` ^næZu d`k ,d` eap cu x;k gS\ n¥kbZ ¥kek us Hh LorU( frCcr d`k liuk ns[uk NksÈM fn;k gS vkSj phu ls ckrphr d`ks rS;kj gß] D;kÍfd` mUgkÍus vglkl fd`;k gS fd` dq`N lk¥kÍ eÍ gku vkcknh cgqla“;d` gks tk,xh rƒk frCcrh vYila“;d` gks tk,axs\ frCcfr;kÍ ds` v¥x-ƒ¥x iÈMus ls phu mRlkfgr gS vkSj n¥kbZ ¥kek ls bZekunkjhiwoZd` okrkZ eÍ mld`h d`ksbZ fn¥pLih ugÓ jg xbZ gS\ 1959 d`ks æqÔ fd`, x, vlœ`¥ frCcrh vkUnks¥u d`ks vkt 50 o"Z iwjs gks x;s gß] ¥sfd`u frCcr d`h vktknh ,d` lius ls T;knk dq`N ugÓ gks ld`rh\ phu fu.kZ;d` Ôi ls ijkftr gks tk, vkSj [rjukd` gku lkezkT; rƒk nqfu;k d`h lcls cÈMh œ`kSt uk[wukÍ-iRƒjkÍ rd` ls ¥ÈMus d`k gkSl¥k [ks cSBs\ ds`o¥ rHh frCcr vktkn gks ld`rk gS\ Hkjr vkSj phu ,fæ;k egk}hi d`h cÈMh æfDr;kÍ ds` lkƒ-lkƒ nksukÍ iÈMkslh jkÆV_ ,oa lalkj d`h lcls cÈMh vkcknh ok¥s jkÆV_ Hh gß\ nksukÍ ds` lEcU|kÍ d`k vUrjkZÆV_h; n~fÆV ls egRo gS\ nksukÍ nsækÍ ds` chp O;kikj d`jhc 34 fef¥;u MkW¥j rd` igq∑p x;k gS] ¥sfd`u le;-le; ij Hkjr-phu lk>hnkjh d`h ?ks".kvkÍ ds` ckotwn nksukÍ nsækÍ ds` lEcU| fnu-c-fnu tfV¥ curs tk jgs gß] D;kÍfd` nksukÍ ,fæ;kbZ rkd`rÍ viuh oSf'od` gSfl;r d`ks eq[j <ax ls isæ d`j jgh gß\ nksukÍ ds` chp lhek fookn ij ruko gk¥ eÍ blf¥, Hh cÈ<k] D;kÍfd` phu us ,d` ,sls ”s( ij ,rjkt trk;k] ftlds` ckjs eÍ ekuk x;k fd` mld`k fuiVkjk gks pqd`k gS\ vejhd`k ls Hkjr d`h cÈ<rh utnhd`h phu eÍ ud`kjkRed` ^frf∂`;k iSnk d`j jgh gS fd` Hkjr] tkiku] vkLV_sf¥;k tSls ,fæ;k^ækUr ”s( ds` ¥ksd`rkfU(d` nsæ rƒk vejhd`k fe¥-tq¥d`j lk>k [rjkÍ d`k lkeuk d`jÍ\ d`kj. pkgs tks gks] Hkjr vkSj phu nksukÍ d`k d`ÈMk :[ ”s(h; fLƒjrk ds` f¥, Bhd` ugÓ\ vkxkeh le; eÍ ;g c¥orh

lEHkouk gS fd` nksukÍ nsæ ds` lEcU| oSf'od` jktuhfr d`h jkg r; d`jÍxs\ dq`N le; ig¥s ch¯tx eÍ ^.c eq[thZ us lgh d`gk ƒk fd` Hkjr-phu lEcU| ,d` vf|d` egRoiw.Z œS`DVj gksxk] tks 21oÓ ærkCnh ds` ekuo bfrgkl d`h fnæk r; d`jsxk\ ;fn ekStwnk lads`rd`kÍ ij tk,a] rks ekuo bfrgkl ds` f¥, vx¥k le; dq`N d`fBukbZ Hjk utj vkrk gS\ gekl }kjk HÈMd`k˜ d`k;Zokgh ds` tokc eÍ btjkb¥ }kjk Hh". ge¥s eÍ ¥xHx 1300 ¥ksx ekSr ds` fæd`kj gq, vkSj ¥xHx 5000 ¥ksx ?k;¥ gq,\ bu ge¥kÍ ds` nwjxkeh nqÆifj.ke lkeus vk,axs\ if'pe ,fæ;k eÍ ruko cÈ<us ls u ds`o¥ d`Pps rs¥ d`h lI¥kbZ ij vkæad`k ds` ckn¥ Nk,axs vkSj muds` ewY; eÍ o~f* gksxh] cfYd` jk[ ds` uhps tks vkx nch gqbZ ƒh] og fœ`j lrg ij vkd`j >q¥lus ¥xsxh\ fœ`f¥Lrhu fookn d`kœ`h iqjkuk gS vkSj mld`k fuiVkjk ;q* ;k rkd`r ds` c¥ ij ugÓ] cfYd` ækfUr okrkZ ds` tfj, gh lEHo gS\ tc rd` nksukÍ i” ;g vglkl ugÓ d`jrs] rc rd` ækfUr ,d` e~x-ejhfpd`k gh cuh jgsxh\ 21oÓ lnh eÍ rs¥ d`h lEink ls brus vf|d` le~* vf|d`rj vjc nsækÍ eÍ d`EI;wVj vkSj baVjusV ds` bl ;qx eÍ Hh vkcknh d`k ,d` cgqr cÈMk fgLlk vfæf”r gS] dq`iksf"r gS vkSj H;kud` HzÆVkpkj eÍ thus ds` f¥, fooæ gS\ vf|d`kaæ LƒkukÍ ij ¥ksx vius okLrfod` ^frfuf| d`ks pquus eÍ vleƒZ gß\ ,d` ckj fœ`j la;qDr jkÆV_ fod`kl d`k;Z∂`e us viuh jiV eÍ bl ”s( d`h (klnh d`ks js[kafd`r fd`;k gS\

vkfƒZd` eanh d`k nkSj
vkt iwjk ;wjksi vkfƒZd` eanh ds` nkSj ls xqtj jgk gS\ vkfƒZd` fod`kl ekbul eÍ gS vkSj csjkstxkjh cÈ< jgh gS\ rhl ds` næd` d`h vkfƒZd` eanh ds` ckn vejhd`h vƒZO;oLƒk ig¥h ckj cqjs nkSj ls xqtj jgh gS\ fnlEcj 2007 ls mRiUu lc ^kbe lad`V ds` p¥rs vejhd`k ds` ¥xHx 20 cÈMs fo®h; laLƒku fnokf¥;k gks pqds` gß\ X¥ksc¥kbtsæu] fo'o cktkj] [q¥k lalkj ;s lkjh ckrÍ vpkud` gh ƒe-lh xbZ gß\ ,d` vgeΩ ckr ;g Hh gS fd` fcuk d`kjxj mik; ds` vejhd`h fo®h; laLƒku T;knk le; rd` ljd`kjh jkgr iSds`t ds` ne ij lkal ugÓ ¥s ldÍ`xs\

j”k ctV eÍ Hkjh cÈ<ksrjh
oSf'od` vkfƒZd` eanh ds` ckotwn vf|d`kaæ nsækÍ ds` j”k ctV eÍ Hkjh cÈ<ksrjh gqbZ gS\ o"Z 2008 ds` j”k ”s( eÍ lHh nsækÍ }kjk dq`¥ 46 [jc MkW¥j d`h

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X¥ksc¥ okfeÛx d`h pqukSrh
bDd`hloÓ ærkCnh eÍ i~Foh d`h vkcknh rd`jhcu lkr vjc d`k vk∑d`ÈMk ikj d`j pqd`h gS\ tkfgj gS fd` bl nkSj eÍ jkstejkZ ds` d`kekÍ eÍ ˜tkZ d`k bLrsek¥ cÈ<sxk gh\ gokbZ tgkt] Vs¥hfotu vkSj ckn eÍ gj etZ d`h nok cu pqd`k baVjusV] lHh d`ks ˜tkZ thok'e ls fe¥rh gS vkSj bld`k ifj.ke ge X¥ksc¥ okfeÛx ds` Ôi eÍ ns[ jgs gß\ oSKkfud`kÍ us psrkouh nh gS fd` vkus ok¥s le; eÍ geÍ ^Î`fr eÍ vk'p;Ztud` vkSj H;kog ifjorZu vkSj ns[us d`ks fe¥Íxs\ ,sls eÍ vkS»ksxhd`j. d`ks bld`h d`her pqd`kuh iÈMsxh\ D¥kbesV pÍt ds` d`kj. fofHUu nsækÍ eÍ Î`f" ds` lkƒ vU; mRiknkÍ ds` mRiknu iSVuZ ^Hkfor gksus d`k [rjk gS vkSj xjhc nsækÍ eÍ bld`k lokZf|d` ^frdw`¥ ^Hko iÈMsxk\ vkt ,MΩl d`h chekjh lEiw.Z fo'o ds` lkeus ,d` xEHhj pqukSrh cu pqd`h gS\ fo'o eÍ ^fr feuV 10 ¥ksx ,MΩl ds` fæd`kj gks jgs gß\ nqfu;k eÍ euksjksxkÍ d`k vk∑d`ÈMk cgqr rsth ls ˜ij tk jgk gS\ fo'o Hj eÍ d`jhc 12·1 d`jksÈM ¥ksx blds` fæd`kj gß\ vkt Lokbu Œ¥w tSlh chekfj;k∑ pqukSrh ds` rkSj ij gekjs lkeus gß\ nqfu;k eÍ xjhc vkSj vehj dss` chp [kbZ cÈ< jgh gS\ oSKkfud` ^xfr ds` lkƒ-lkƒ lqj”k ds` f¥gkt ls d`bZ pqukSfr;k∑ Hh [ÈMh d`j nh gß\ fofHUu LƒkukÍ ij vktd`¥ gksus ok¥s vkrad`h ge¥kÍ eÍ lkbcj rd`uhd` d`k ted`j bLrsek¥ gks jgk gS\ ,sls eÍ ;g tÔjh gS fd` lkbcj lqj”k d`ks vkSj T;knk pkd`-pkScan fd`;k tk,\ blh ∂`e eÍ lkoZtfud` rkSj ij ekStwn lkbcj dS`œs` d`k lqj”k d`op Hh T;knk etcwr cuk, tkus d`h O;oLƒk gksuh pkfg,\ tgk∑ vœ`xkfuLrku tks dq`N gh lk¥ ig¥s rkf¥cku d`h l“r fxjŒr ls eqDr gksd`j |hjs-|hjs ikcanh d`h ekufld`rk ls eqDr gks jgk gS rƒk [qn d`ks ,d` u, jkÆV_ ds` Ôi eÍ <k¥ jgk gS] ogÓ bjkd` ls 2011 rd` vejhd`h lSfud`kÍ d`h Lonsæ okilh ds` lkƒ tuthou lkekU; gksus d`h mEehn cuh gqbZ gS\ ikfd`Lrku ds` rkf¥cku d`ek≥Mj cSrqY¥k eglwn ds` vejhd`h ^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/805

felkb¥ ge¥s eÍ ekjk tkuk ikfd`Lrku ds` f¥, cÈMh jkgr d`h ckr gS\ ikfd`Lrkuvœ`xkfuLrku eÍ vkrad`okn fojks|h ;q* vius fu.kZ;d` nkSj eÍ igq∑p jgk gS\ bl oDr egRoiw.Z ;gh gS fd` ikfd`Lrkuh lsuk eÍ ekStwn rkf¥cku leƒZd` rRo fd`lh Hh d`her ij rkf¥cku ij ncko gYd`k u gksus nÍ ojuk fd`lh nwljs d`ek≥Mj ds` usr~Ro eÍ os fœ`j mrus gh etcwr gks ld`rs gß\ vc vUrjkZÆV_h; vkrad`okn ij O;kid` lEes¥u ij lgefr d`k le; vk x;k gS\ fo'o ds` lHh nsækÍ d`ks vkrad`okn ds` f[¥kœ` [ÈMk gksuk gksxk rƒk xgjh tÈMÍ tek, vkrad`oknh xqVkÍ ls fuiVus ds` f¥, tcnZLr tehuh d`ke d`h tÔjr iÈMsxh\ ,slk d`jrs gq, lHh nsækÍ d`ks bu rkd`rkÍ d`h lEHkfor ^frf∂`;k ls fuiVus ds` f¥, Hh iwjh rS;kjh d`juh gksxh\ lEiw . Z fujLrhd`j. næd`kÍ rd` la;qDr jkÆV_ la? d`h d`k;Zlwph eÍ ækfe¥ jgk gS] ¥sfd`u ijek.q vL(kÍ ds` vkxeu ls ;g d`k;Zlwph vR;Ur tfV¥ cu xbZ gS\ iwjh nqfu;k blh vkæad`k d`ks ¥sd`j ƒjƒjk jgh gS fd` ;fn v¥d`k;nk tSls vkrad`oknh laxBukÍ us ijek.q vL(kÍ d`ks ;k bld`h VsDuks¥kWth d`ks gkfl¥ d`j f¥;k] rks iwjh nqfu;k d`Hh Hh vkx ds` æks¥kÍ eÍ cn¥ ld`rh gS\ blf¥, iwjs fo'o d`h ;g ftEesnkjh gS fd` og ,sls nsækÍ d`h ijek.q æfDr vius laj”. eÍ ¥s tgk∑ vkrad`okn iuius ds` [rjs fNis gq, gß\ ftl ^d`kj phu] vejhd`k] Ôl] ≠`kal vkSj fczVsu bu ik∑p ijek.q æfDr lEiUu ih-5 nsækÍ d`h ;g ftEesnkjh gS fd` ijek.q æfDr d`k ^;ksx ds`o¥ fod`kl vkSj ækfUriw.Z d`k;ksÛ ds` f¥, fd`;k tk, vkSj lkƒ gh fd`lh Hh Lrj ij fd`lh ,sls nwljs nsæ d`ks ;g ijek.q æfDr gkfl¥ u d`jus nÍ] tks vUrjkZÆV_h; fu;ekÍ d`ks |rk crkrk jgk gks\ tkiku ij fo'o ds` ig¥s ijek.q ge¥s d`h 64 oÓ cjlh ij lHh nsækÍ d`ks ijek.q jfgr fo'o cukus d`k lad`Yi ¥suk gksxk\ vc vUrjkZÆV_h; vkrad`okn ij O;kid` lEes¥u ij lgefr d`k le; vk x;k gS\ fo'o ds` nsækÍ ds` chp [q¥k O;kikj gks] geÍ ekfVZu ¥wƒj ¯d`x ds` ^se vkSj xka|h ds` v¯glk ds` fl*kUrkÍ d`ks viukuk gh gksxk\ geÍ ch¯tx vks¥fEid` [s¥kÍ d`k L¥ksxu ‘ou oYMZ ou M_he’ d`ks gd`hd`r eÍ cn¥uk gksxk] ftld`k er¥c gS ‘,d` lalkj ,d` lksp’ ø bl vkLƒk ds` c¥ ij æh?z gh og fnu Hh vk,axs tc |jrh ij ækfUr gksxh vkSj euqÆ; ek( ds` ^fr lnΩHkouk\ rHh fo'o ds` gj nsæ eÍ] gj egk}hi eÍ 21oÓ lnh eÍ jkejkT; Lƒkfir gks lds`xk\ ●●●

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oLrqfuÆB ^'u
01. N A C I L (National Aviation Company of India Ltd.), Hq.–

eqEcbZ] Lƒkiuk ubZ d`Eiuh ds` Ôi eÍ 30 ekpZ] 2007 d`ks ·czkUM use%Air India ‚ d`h xbZ] ftld`k ¥ksxks (Logo) gS% (A) egkjktk (B) bxzqvk (C) iougal (D) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ 02. ‘bxzqvk’ ·IGRUA %bafnjk xka|h jkÆV_h; mÈMku vd`kneh) }kjk nsæ eÍ okf.fT;d` ik;¥VkÍ ds` mÈMku ,oa Lƒ¥ ^fæ”. eÍ lq|kj ¥kus ds` mˆs'; ls Lƒkiuk d`gk∑ d`h xbZ`= (A) t;iqj ·jktLƒku‚ (B) œq`lZrxat] jk;cjs¥h ·m®j ^nsæ‚ (C) Hksik¥ ·e÷; ^nsæ‚ (D) iVuk ·fcgkj‚
03. A A I (Airport Authority of India)%AAI Act. 1994 ds` rgrΩ

Lƒkiuk] nsæ eÍ d`c ls d`k;ZjrΩ gS`= (A) 1 v^S¥] 1995 (B) 1 v^S¥] 1997 (C) 1 ebZ] 1998 (D) 2 vDVwcj] 2000 04. iougal gs¥hd`kWIVlZ f¥feVsM (Pawan
Hans Helicopters Ltd.–PHHL)

·jftLVMZ vkWfœ`l] ubZ fnY¥h‚ ,d` ljd`kjh d`Eiuh ds` Ôi eÍ Lƒkiuk d`h xbZ ƒh% (A) vDVwcj] 1975 eÍ (B) vDVwcj] 1977 eÍ (C) vDVwcj] 1985 eÍ (D) vDVwcj] 2000 eÍ 05. ukxj foekuu ea(k¥; (Ministry of Civil Aviation, GOI) }kjk fod`¥kax O;fâ`;kÍ gsrq leku volj] vf|d`kjkÍ ds` j”kiw.Z fgLlsnkjh gsrq fod`¥kax O;fâ` vf|fu;e cuk;k gqvk gS] tks ……… gS%
(A) Protection of Rights, Act 1995 (B) Protection of Rights, Act 1996 (C) Protection of Rights, Act 1998 (D) None of These

m®jek¥k
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lkekU; Kku ^fr;ksfxrk
01.

02.

03.

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05.

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07.

,l\ pUnzæs[j d`k uke fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l ”s( ls tqÈMk gS = (A) cz©k≥M foKku (B) jlk;u foKku (C) rj¥ ;kaf(d`h (D) [xks¥ HkSfrd`h lafo|ku eÍ fd`l ij egkfH;ksx p¥kus ds` f¥, d`ksbZ ^ko|ku ugÓ gS = (A) Hkjr ds` eq“; U;k;k|hæ (B) fd`lh mPp U;k;k¥; ds` eq“; U;k;k|hæ (C) jkT;ik¥ (D) mijkÆV_ifr d`kslksoks us fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l nsæ ls viuh Lok|hurk d`h ?ks".k d`h = (A) eSlhMksfu;k (B) ∂`ks,fæ;k (C) cqYxkfj;k (D) lfcZ;k vksxkMu ”s( ds` f¥, fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`u nks nsækÍ us ¥ÈMkbZ ¥ÈMh = (A) ,jhfV_;k vkSj lwMku (B) bfƒ;ksfi;k vkSj lksekf¥;k (C) ds`U;k vkSj lksekf¥;k (D) bfƒ;ksfi;k vkSj lwMku xksYMu ƒzsækssYM (Golden Threshold) fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`ld`h jpuk gS = (A) ljksftuh uk;Mw (B) ,uh cslÍV (C) v:.k vklœ` v¥h (D) fot;¥{eh if≥Mr ;wjksih; la? ds` fuEuf¥f[r lnL;kÍ eÍ fd`l lnL; jkÆV_ us vU; lnL;kÍ }kjk Lohd~`r f¥Lcu laf| d`ks Lohd`kj d`jus ls bud`kj d`j fn;k = (A) vk;j¥S≥M (B) œz`kal (C) teZuh (D) bV¥h xhrk pUnzu fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l Ôi eÍ ^fl* gß = (A) ok;f¥u oknd` (B) ækL(h; d`ukZVd` xkf;d`k (C) fœ`Ye vfHus(h (D) HjrukVΩ;eΩ u~R;kaxuk

08.

09.

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14.

fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk nsæ d`jksÈMkÍ ^frær eqnzkLœ`hfr d`h pisV eÍ gS ftlds` p¥rs ogk∑ eqnzk d`k ewY; ux≥; jg x;k gS = (A) bfƒ;ksfi;k (B) lksekf¥;k (C) d`hfu;k (D) ftEckCos Hkjr eÍ eqnzkLœ`hfr fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls 16. ‘fcElVsd`’ (BIMSTEC) fd`rus nsækÍ fd`l lwpd`kad` ij ekih tkrh gS = d`k ikjLifjd` vkfƒZd` lg;ksx ds` (A) fuokZg O;; lwpd`kad` (COLI) f¥, cuk;k x;k laxBu gS = (B) miHksDrk ewY; lwpd`kad` (CPI) (A) 5 (B) 7 (C) ƒksd` ewY; lwpd`kad` (WPI) (C) 9 (D) 10 (D) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulk tuin 17. ‘vksjsUt ∂`kfUr’ fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l nsæ ls lEc* gS = b¥kgkckn tuin ds lkƒ lhek ugÓ (A) lwMku (B) rqd`hZ cukrk gS = (C) ;w∂s`u (D) czkth¥ (A) fp(dw`V (B) lksuHnz 18. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls fd`l ,d` ds` lkƒ ‘Vsful d`ksVZ vksƒ’ lEc* gS = (C) tkSuiqj (A) vejhd`h ∂`kfUr (D) lUr jfonkl uxj (B) œz`kalhlh ∂`kfUr ‘ufpds ` rk’ vk“;ku d`k mY¥s [ (C) baxf¥æ ∂`kfUr fd`leÍ fe¥rk gS = (D) Ôlh ∂`kfUr (A) vƒoZosn eÍ (B) o~gnkj≥;d` mifu"nΩ eÍ 19. vk;ZHVΩV d`ks d`gk∑ ls NksÈMk x;k ƒk = (C) d`Bksifu"nΩ eÍ (A) Jhgfjd`ksVk ls (D) æriƒ czk©. eÍ (B) pkanhiqj ls (C) fr:ouUriqjeΩ ls lqHk" pUnz cksl d`ks ‘nsæuk;d`’ (D) bueÍ ls d`ksbZ ugÓ fd`lus d`gk ƒk = (A) jchUnzukƒ VSxksj us 20. ^fl* da`nfj;k egknso efUnj d`gk∑ (B) egkRek xka|h us vofLƒr gS = (C) t;^d`kæ ukjk;. us (A) ukfld` eÍ (D) tokgj¥k¥ usgÔ us (B) vejkorh eÍ (C) [tqjkgks eÍ fuEuf¥f[r eÍ fd`l ns æ d`ks (D) gfj}kj eÍ ‘;wjsfu;e flVh’ Lƒkfir d`jus d`k Js; fn;k tkrk gS = 21. ∂`ks e os ¥ |kjk fd`l egklkxj eÍ (A) la;qDr jkT; vejhd`k ^okfgr gksrh gS = (B) Ôl (A) ^ækUr egklkxj (C) d`ukMk (B) vV¥kf≥Vd` egklkxj eÍ (D) vkLV_sf¥;k (C) fgUn egklkxj eÍ (D) vkdZ`fVd` egklkxj eÍ ‘ujfxl’ uke fn;k x;k gS% (A) tkiku lkxj eÍ lqukeh d`ks 22. Hkjr eÍ chek d`Eifu;kÍ ds` f¥, eq“; (B) bjkonh MsYVk ”s( eÍ vk, fofu;ked` ^kf|d`j. fuEuf¥f[r eÍ fo÷oald` p∂`okr d`ks ls d`kSulk gS = (C) vestu csflu eÍ fo÷oald` ckÈ< (A) RBI (B) SEBI d`ks (C) IRDA (D) LIC (D) eSfDld`ks d`h [kÈMh eÍ fo÷oald` 23. ukSlsuk d`h nf”. d`eku fLƒr gS% gjhds`u d`ks (A) foæk[kirueΩ eÍ œ`ukZ≥Mks ¥qxks fd`l nsæ ds` jkÆV_ifr (B) fr:ouUriqjeΩ eÍ pqus x, gß = (C) d`ksphu ·d`ksfPp‚ eÍ (A) czkth¥ ds` (B) lksekf¥;k ds` (D) eqEcbZ eÍ (C) ijkxq, ds` (D) vtsZUVhuk ds`

15.

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/806

24.

tw¥sl fjesV d`i (Jules Rimet Cup) fd`l [s¥ ls lEcfU|r gS = (A) gkWd`h (B) Vsful (C) ckLds`Vck¥ (D) œq`Vck¥ miHksDrk mRikn cukus ok¥h ‘,¥ th’ (LG) d`Eiuh ew¥r# fd`l nsæ d`h gS = (A) phu d`h (B) tkiku d`h (C) nf”. d`ksfj;k d`h (D) e¥sfæ;k d`h

25.

26.

fuEuf¥f[r eÍ ls d`kSulh ,d` d`EcksfM;k d`h jkt|kuh gS = (A) gks ph feUg flVh (B) gsuksbZ (C) lsek jax (D) ukse isUg 27. ik'oZ eÍ fn;k x;k fp( fd`ld`k gS`= (A) ,l\ ds`\ oku[sÈMs (B) ¥k¥k vejukƒ (C) jkt¯lg Mwwaxjiqj (D) lh\ ds\ uk;Mw
28.

ik'oZ eÍ fn, x, fp( d`ks igpkfu,% (A) fnxEcj d`ker (B) ikaK;w œ`kWe (C) ih\ lh\ tksjelaxf¥;kuk (D) iou pke¯¥x
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lkekU; Kku izzfr;ksfxrk eÍ lfEef¥r gksus ds` fu;e
1. 2.

3. 4.

5. 6. 7.

8.

bleÍ lHh fo»kFkhZ vFkok fd`lh izfr;ksfxrk ijh{kk eÍ lfEef¥r gksus ok¥s izR;kæh Hkx ¥s ldÍ`xs\ izfr;ksfxrk eÍ Hkx ¥sus ok¥s izR;kfæ;kÍ d`ks fu|kZfjr frfFk rd` vius mÂkj Hstuk vko';d` gS\ izfofÆV;k∑ lkekU; Mkd` ls gh Hsth tk,a rFkk f¥œ`kœs` ij ckbÛ vksj ‘lkekU; Kku izfr;ksfxrk’ vo'; f¥[Í\ izfr;ksfxrk ds` mÂkj if(d`k eÍ fn, x, izi( ij gh ekU; gkÍxs\ iz'u ds` ∂`ekad` ds` vkxs pkj [kus cus gß\ izfr;ksxh ftl mÂkj d`ks Bhd` le>Í ml d`kW¥e eÍ ds`o¥ xq.k (×) d`k fpÕ ¥xk,a\ ,d` iz'u d`k ,d` ls vf|d` mÂkj nsus ij og iz'u fujLr d`j fn;k tk,xk\ izfr;ksxh ftrus iz'u g¥ d`jÍ mud`h la“;k Lo;a vo'; f¥[Í\ væq* mÂkj nsus ij vad` d`kVs tk,axs\ lokZf|d` æq* g¥ Hstus ok¥s izfr;ksxh d`ks izFke iqjLd`kj LoÔi 700 :i, fn, tk,axs\ mlls d`e æq* g¥ Hstus ok¥s izfr;ksfx;kÍ d`ks ∂`eæ# f}rh; o r~rh; iqjLd`kj fn;k tk,xk] tks ∂`eæ# 500 :i, o 300 :i, d`k gksxk\ ;fn fd`lh iqjLd`kj d`ks izkIr d`jus ok¥s izfr;ksfx;kÍ d`h la“;k ,d` ls vf|d` gksxh] rks iqjLd`kj jkfæ mueÍ leku Ôi ls foHDr d`j nh tk,xh\ iqjLd`kj ds` fo"; eÍ lEiknd` d`k fu.Z; loZekU; gksxk\ fd`lh Hh næk eÍ og U;k;k¥; d`k fo"; ugÓ gksxk\

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/807

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Andhra Bank Marketing Associates, (IInd Shift) Exam., 5-7-2009 Solved Paper

English Language
(Based on Memory)

Directions—(Q. 1–8) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. A new analysis has determined that the threat of global warming can still be greatly diminished if nations cut emissions of heat-trapping greenhouse gases by 70% this century. The analysis was done by scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). While global temperatures would rise, the most dangerous potential aspects of climate change, including massive losses of Arctic sea ice and permafrost and significant sea-level rise, could be partially avoided. “This research indicates that we can no longer avoid significant warming during this century,” said NCAR scientist Warren Washington, the study paper’s lead author. “But, if the world were to implement this level of emission cuts, we could stabilize the threat of climate change”, he added. Average global temperatures have warmed by close to 1 degree Celsius since the pre-industrial era. Much of the warming is due to human-produced emissions of greenhouse gases, predominantly carbon dioxide. This heat-trapping gas has increased from a preindustrial level of about 284 parts per million (ppm) in the atmosphere to more than 380 ppm today. With research showing that additional warming of about 1 degree C may be the threshold for dangerous climate change, the European Union has called for dramatic cuts in emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. To examine the impact of such cuts on the world’s climate, Washington and his colleagues ran a series of global studies with the NCAR-based Community Climate

System Model (CCSM). They assumed that carbon dioxide levels could be held to 450 ppm at the end of this century. In contrast, emissions are now on track to reach about 750 ppm by 2100 if unchecked. The team’s results showed that if carbon dioxide were held to 450 ppm, global temperatures would increase by 0·6 degrees Celsius above current readings by the end of the century. In contrast, the study showed that temperatures would rise by almost four times that amount, to 2·2 degrees Celsius above current readings, if emissions were allowed to continue on their present course. Holding carbon dioxide levels to 450 ppm would have other impacts, according to the climate modeling study. Sea-level rise due to thermal expansion as water temperatures warmed would be 14 centimetres (about 5·5 inches) instead of 22 centimetres (8·7 inches). Also, Arctic ice in the summertime would shrink by about a quarter in volume and stabilize by 2100, as opposed to shrinking atleast three-quarters and continuing to melt, and Arctic warming would be reduced by almost half. 01. Why has the European Union called for dramatic cuts in carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas emissions ? (A) As global warming is not an issue of concern (B) As the temperatures may rise almost by an additional one degree and this may lead to severe climate change (C) As the NCAR has forced the European Union to announce the cuts (D) As all the nations have decided to cut emissions of carbon dioxide (E) None of these 02. What would not be one of the impacts of cutting greenhouse gas emissions ?

03.

04.

05.

06.

(A) Temperatures will stop soaring (B) Ice in the Arctic sea would melt at a slower pace (C) The rise in sea level would be lesser (D) All of the above would be the impact (E) None of these What would be the impact of holding the carbon dioxide level at 450 ppm at the end of this century ? 1. Global temperatures would increase by 0·6 degrees Celcius. 2. Arctic warming would be reduced by half. 3. Thermal expansion will stop completely. (A) Only 1 (B) Only 1 and 2 (C) Only 2 and 3 (D) All the three 1, 2 and 3 (E) None of these What does the scientist Warren Washington mean when he says “we could stabilize the threat of climate change” ? (A) Climate change can be stopped completely (B) Climate change can be regularized (C) Climate change and its effects can be studied extensively (D) The ill-effects of the change in climate can be minimized (E) None of these Why did Washington and his colleagues conduct a series of studies ? (A) Because they realized that the temperature increase was almost about 1 degree (B) So that they could stabilize the climate change (C) So that they could help the European Union in cutting the carbon dioxide emissions (D) Because they found out that the greenhouse gas emissions could be cut by 70% (E) None of these What would be the impact of unchecked greenhouse gas and carbon dioxide emissions ?

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/810

(A) The temperature would rise from the current temperature by 2·2 degrees Celsius (B) The sea-level would rise by about 5·5 inches (C) The arctic ice would stabilize by 2100 (D) The arctic ice would reduce by one-fourth (E) None of these 07. What can be the most appropriate title of the above passage ? (A) A study of the rise in water level (B) A study of rise in temperatures (C) A study of the effects of greenhouse gas emissions (D) A study of the Arctic region (E) A study of change in seasons 08. Which of the following statements is true in context of the passage ? (A) At present the carbon dioxide emission is about 284 ppm (B) The carbon dioxide emissions will be about 450 ppm at the end of this century if unchecked (C) The carbon dioxide emission was about 380 ppm during the pre-industrial era (D) The carbon dioxide emissions will be about 750 ppm at the end of this century if unchecked (E) None of these Directions—(Q. 9–12) Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in MEANING to the word printed in bold as used in the passage. 09. predominantly (A) clearly (B) (C) mainly (D) (E) faintly 10. massive (A) tall (B) (C) total (D) (E) severe 11. shrink (A) contract (B) (C) wither (D) (E) reduce aggressively firstly

12. dramatic (A) unprecedented (B) thrilling (C) spectacular (D) effective (E) feeble Directions—(Q. 13–15) Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in MEANING to the word printed in bold as used in the passage. 13. opposed (A) resistant (B) against (C) favouring (D) similar (E) agree 14. diminished (A) created (B) rose (C) increased (D) lessen (E) finished 15. significant (A) substantial (B) miniscule (C) incoherent (D) unimportant (E) irrelevant Directions—(Q. 16–20) Which of the phrases (A), (B), (C) and (D) given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct ? If the sentence is correct as it is given and No Correction is Required, mark (E) as the answer. 16. Naturally, with everything gone so well for them, it was time for celebration. (A) go so well (B) going so well (C) gone as well (D) going as well (E) No Correction Required 17. The ban was imposed by the state’s commercial taxes department last Friday after protests by a certain community, which had threat to burn cinema halls screening the controversial movie. (A) had threats of burning (B) had threated to burn (C) had threatened to burn (D) had threatened to burning (E) No Correction Required 18. Rakesh, an avid football player who captained his team in school

and college, will inaugurate the match tomorrow in Pune. (A) will be inaugurate (B) is inauguration (C) will inaugurating (D) is inaugurate (E) No Correction Required 19. At a musical night organised for them, the artistic side of the doctors came as forward, as they sang beautifully and made the evening truly memorable. (A) come forward (B) come to the fore (C) came to the forth (D) came to the fore (E) No Correction Required 20. Although scared of heights, she gather all her courage and stood atop the 24-storey building to participate in the activities. (A) gathered all her courage (B) gathered all courageous (C) gather all courageous (D) is gathered all courage (E) No Correction Required Directions—(Q. 21–25) Each question below has two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Choose the set of words for each blank which best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole. 21. Along with a sharp rise in ……, a recession would eventually result in more men, women and children living in …… (A) crime, apathy (B) fatalities, poor (C) deaths, slums (D) unemployment, poverty (E) migrations streets 22. Behaving in a …… and serious way, even in a …… situation, makes people respect you. (A) calm, difficult (B) steady, angry (C) flamboyant, tricky (D) cool, astounding (E) silly, sound 23. An airplane with …… passengers on board made an unscheduled …… as the airport to which it was heading was covered with thick fog.

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physician shrivel

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/812

(A) irritable, slip (B) faulty, stop (C) variety, halt (D) tons, wait (E) numerous, landing 24. The government has …… to provide financial aid to the ones …… by severe floods in the city. (A) desired, troubled (B) promised, havoc (C) failed, affected (D) wanted, struck (E) decided, ill 25. Deemed universities …… huge fees, but have not been successful in providing …… education to our students. (A) collect, maintaining (B) pay, better (C) ask, good (D) charge, quality (E) demand, quantitative Directions—(Q. 26–30) Rearrange the following six sentences 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph; then answer the questions given below them. 1. In turn the buyer is called the franchisee. 2. These two parties are called the franchisor and franchisee. 3. This means that it gives permission for the buyer to use its name and sell its products. 4. He pays money to the franchisor, and agrees to obey the rules the franchisor makes. 5. A franchising agreement includes two parties. 6. The franchisor is the business house/entity which grants the franchisee license. 26. Which of the following should be the LAST (SIXTH) sentence after rearrangement ? (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5 (E) 6 27. Which of the following should be the THIRD sentence after rearrangement ? (A) 5 (B) 6 (C) 1 (D) 4 (E) 2

28. Which of the following should be the FOURTH sentence after rearrangement ? (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5 (E) 6 29. Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after rearrangement ? (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 (E) 5 30. Which of the following should be the SECOND sentence after rearrangement ? (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5 (E) 6 Directions—(Q. 31–40) Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error or idiomatic error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The letter of that part is the answer. If there is no error, the answer is (E). (Ignore errors of punctuation, if any). 31. The angry at being / left out of (A) (B) the bonanza / is palpable among/ (C) employees of the organization. (D) No error (E) 32. There are just too few trains / for (A) the ever-grow / number of (B) (C) passengers / in the city. No error (D) (E) 33. If all goes well, / the exami(A) nation scheduled for next month / (B) is all set to be completely free / (C) from annoying power cuts and (D) disruptions. No error (E) 34. His comments came after / the (A) research group said that its / (B) consumer confidence index were/ (C)

35.

36.

37.

38.

slumped to its lowest level. (D) No error (E) The buzz at the party was / that a (A) famous / filmstar and politician, (B) (C) would / probable drop by for a (D) while. No error (E) The President has denied / that (A) the economy is in recession / or (B) was go into one / despite a spate (C) of downcast reports. No error (D) (E) Aggression in some teenage (A) boys / may be linkage to overly / (B) large glands in their brains, / a (C) new study has found. No error (D) (E) The opposition disrupted pro(A) ceedings / in both Houses of (B) Parliament / for the second (C) consecutive day / above the

plight of farmers in the country. (D) No error (E) 39. In response to the growing crisis / (A) the agency is urgently asking (B) for / more contributions, to make (C) up for / its sharp decline in (D) purchasing power. No error (E) 40. The tennis player easy through / (A) the opening set before her oppo(B) nent, / rallied to take the final (C)

^fr;ksfxrk niZ./uoEcj/2009/813

two sets / for the biggest victory (D) of her young career. No error (E) Directions—(Q. 41–50) In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case. In economics, the term recession generally describes the reduction of a country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for atleast two quarters. A recession is …(41)… by rising unemployment, increase in government borrowing, …(42)… of share and stock prices and falling investment. All of these characteristics have effects on people. Some recessions have been anticipated by stock market declines. The real-estate market also usually …(43)… before a recession. However real-estate declines can last much longer than recessions. During an economic decline, high …(44)… stocks such as financial services, pharmaceuticals and tobacco …(45)… to hold up better. However when the economy starts to recover growth, stocks tend to recover faster. There is significant disagreement about how health care and utilities tend to …(46)…. In 2008, an economic recession was suggested by several important indicators of economic downturn. These …(47)… high oil prices, which led to …(48)… high food prices due to a dependence of food production on petroleum, as well as using food crop products such as ethanol and biodiesel as an …(49)… to petroleum and global inflation; a substantial credit crisis leading to the drastic bankruptcy of large and well …(50)… investment banks as well as commercial banks in various, diverse nations around the world; increased unemployment and signs of contemporaneous economic downturns in major economies of the world, a global recession. 41. (A) visualized (B) characterized (C) imagined (D) depict (E) shown

42. (A) (C) (E) 43. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 44. (A) (C) (E) 45. (A) (C) (E) 46. (A) (C) (E) 47. (A) (C) (E) 48. (A) (C) (E) 49. (A) (C) (E)

decrease increase more strengthens volatile weakens initiates awakens result maintained heavy yearn are tend increased distribute wait included meant numbered healthy fearful abnormally element alternative substitute

(B) abundance (D) variance

50. (A) created (C) wealthy (E) stand

(B) established (D) costly

Answers with Hints

(B) payment (D) yield (B) made (D) want (B) fight (D) recover (B) encompass (D) show (B) nutritious (D) dangerous (B) integral (D) variant

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