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Objectives:

To determine the sulfate ions concentration in a given water sample using the principles of turbidity and absorbance.

Summary:
To determine the sulfate concentration in a given sample of water from the standard curves for absorbance and turbidity, we first found out the turbidity and absorbance of samples having known concentration of sulphate ions using turbiditimeter and spectrophotometer and using this data we plotted the curves of turbidity and absorbance vs concentration. We used this graph to find the concentration of an unknown sample given the absorbance and turbidity to be known.

Background:
Sulfate ions are present in natural, ground and surface water. Sulfate salts are capable of imparting hardness to water.High concentrations of sulfate ions in water can cause the water to taste bitter and nasty. These ions can produce hydrogen sulfide as per following equation: SO42- + organic matter S2- + H2O + CO2 S2-+ H+ HSHS- + H+ H2S Health concerns regarding sulfate in drinking water have been raised because of reports that diarrhea may be associated with the ingestion of water containing high levels of sulfate. Of particular concern are groups within the general population that may be at greater risk from the laxative effects of sulfate when they experience an abrupt change from drinking water with low sulfate concentrations to drinking water with high sulfate concentrations.

Apparatus Required:
Spectrophotometer, Magnetic stirrer, Turbiditimeter, volumetric flask, beaker. Required chemicals: 1. A (Buffer Solution): solution of 30 g magnesium chloride (MgCl2.6H2O), 5 g sodium acetate (CH3COONa.3H2O), 1.0 g potassium

nitrate (KNO3), and 20 mL acetic acid (CH3COOH; 99%) in 500 mL distilled water and made up to 1000 ml. 2. B (Buffer Solution required when the sample SO42- <10 mg/L): solution of 30 g Magnesium chloride, 5 g sodium acetate, 0.111 g sodium sulphate, and 20 mL acetic acid (99%) in 500 mL distilled water and made up to 1000 ml. 3. Dry Barium Chloride (BaCl2) crystals 4. Standard Sulphate Solution: Dissolve 0.1479 g of anhydrous sodium sulphate in distilled water to make the volume 1 L. This solution contains 100 mg sulphate/L (i.e., 1 mL=100g SO42-). Prepare standards of various strengths (preferably from 0.0 to 40.0mg/L at the intervals of 5 mg/L by diluting this stock solution). Above 40 mg/L accuracy decreases and BaSO4 suspensions lose stability.

Method:
Take 6ml of sulfate stock solution having concentration 100mg/L and dilute it to 50ml. Take 0.6ml sample of unknown concentration and dilute it to 50 ml. Now add 20 ml of buffer solution in each of the samples also add 0.150 g of BaCl2 to sample and stir the solution using a magnetic stirrer thoroughly to make solution homogeneous. Measure the absorbance of distilled water at 420 nm as reference for further proceedings. To calculate turbidity, take distil water in the cuvette and place it in the turbiditimeter and set the reference. Measure the turbidity of the standard solution and the unknown sample. Plot a graph of absorbance and turbidity vs concentration of samples of known concentration and use this graph to find the concentration of a sample having known turbidity and absorbance.

Observation and Graph:


Stock solution conc(mg/L) 0 12 18 24 30 Absorbance(A) 0.05 0.196 0.184 0.307 0.265 Turbidity(NPU) 32.6 83.9 88.9 143 128

Absorbance vs conc.
0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 10 20 30 Linear (Absorbance vs conc.) Linear (Absorbance vs conc.) y = 0.0098x + 0.0521 Absorbance vs conc.

Turbidity vs conc.
160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Linear (Turbidity vs conc.) Turbidity vs conc. y = 4.24x + 29.86

Calculation: Sample No. 03 Volume of sample taken Volume of water added for dilution Value of turbidity Value of absorbance = 2 ml = 48 ml = 705 NTU = 0.827

From the standard curve of absorbance,

The concentration of the diluted sample = 119.15 mg/L. The concentration of the given sample = 119.15 25 = 2978.76 mg/L Results: The sulphate concentration of the given sample is 2978.76 mg/L. Discussion and answer to the question: We prepare the standard solutions because we want to obtain a relation between the turbidity/absorbance with concentration so that we can find the concentration of unknown solution if we know its turbidity/absorbance value. Here we obtain a straight line between turbidity and concentration and between absorbance and concentration.We calculated the average concentration from both the curves of turbidity as well as absorbance against concentration. We found out that there is a linear relation between the concentration of sulfate ions in the sample and its turbidity as well as absorbance.Higher the concentration greater is the turbidity as well as absorbance.

Conclusions: Sulfate in drinking water currently has a secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L), based on aesthetic effects (i.e., taste and odor). The concentration of sulfate in the given water sample is high. So it cannot be used for domestic or industrial purposes. Hydrogen sulfide is considered a broad-spectrum poison which means that it can poison several different systems in the body, although the nervous system is most affected. Recommendations: In the experiment, we should take reading for a greater range of values to make the result more accurrate.Otherwise the dilution should be

done such that the absorbance and turbidity can come in the range of the standard curve. References: 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_sulfide (19/02/2014) 2. http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/unregulated/sulfate.cfm(1 9/2/14)

Experiment 4: Determination of sulfate ion concentration

Date of experiment:13/2/14 Date of submission:20/2/14

Anurag Anand 2012CE10334 Afhaam Mannan 2012CE10319 Pranav Choudhary 2012CE10379 Satvik Jindial 2012CE10389

Nikhil Singhania

2012CE10369