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PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


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All praise is to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful
and every grace of Allah is on His Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H), who is always a source
of knowledge and guidance for humanity as a whole.
It is a matter of great satisfaction and pleasure for us to present this project. This project
report is a part of our Degree program which is done during fourth year of our studies. We
chose Denim sector of Textile field as it is a Shinning, growing and challenging field.
The entire contents of this report are based on our project in US DENIM. Our major
emphasis has been on process, machine and product with the calculations involved. We
have included in this project report the technical as well as the Mechanical aspects. We
moved department wise covering various aspects. These days of Industrial training
enhanced our spirit, courage and confidence. We also improved our presentation and
technical skills.

Even though every precaution has been taken, it may be possible that any
mistake(s) is found. We will feel grateful, if it is intimate.

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First of all we thank Almighty Allah who brought this moment in our life when we came in
US DENIM for the project. It has been a great experience to work with all of you and we
are feeling proud that we can say we have worked in US DENIM which is not only one of
the best DENIM manufacturer & Exporters in Pakistan but also all over the world and
where the management and the workers have demonstrated a very good performance in
all areas of the business.
US DENIM is a dynamic organization with professionals loving and professionals making
setup. As it is said “Time Spent in Training is time Well-spent”. The golden time, which we
spend here and the practical, conceptual and industry- related knowledge, which we
gained here will be a milestone in our professional carrier.

We would like to thanks

Mr. Asif (HR Manager US Denim)
Mr. Haroon (Admin)
Mr. Bilal Tariq (Production Manager)
Mr. Faisal (MT)

Mr. khurram (HR Manager US Apparel)
Mr. Hanif Khan

We are grateful to our class advisor Mr. KASHIF MUNIR for arranging this project.
We always remember the hospitality we received during our stay at the US DENIM. We
are privileged to work with experienced personnel, who are the master of their skill and
field. Their ever supporting behavior, kind advice, and professional approach taught us
how to perform tough and critical tasks with utmost ease.
We have very much enjoyed being amongst wonderful people. We wish each and every
one everlasting progress, success and of course wish US DENIM a very prosperous

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 U S Denim Introduction . . . . . .. . . . . . ..….. . .…………..….. .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . .5

 History Of Denim. . . . . .. . ………… . . . ………….. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ………... . .6
T  Types Of Denim…………………………………………………………….10
A  Introduction of Cotton………………..……………………... . . . . . ………….…….13
 Yarn Manufacturing…………………..…………………..…. . . . . . …………….....14
B  Warping………………………………..………………..…….. . . . . . ……………....16
L  Warping in U S Denim……………………………………………………...19
E  Warping Plan………………………………………………………………...22
 Dyeing………………………………….……………..…….…. . . . . . ………….......24
 Sulphur Dye………………………………………………………………….25
O  Vat Dye……………………………..…….………………….....……...........30
F  Denim Dyeing……………………..…….……………………...….……......33
 Rope Dyeing……………………..………….…………………...……….....38
 Dyeing in U S Denim………………………………………………………..44
C  Rebeaming…………………………………...………………. . . . . . …….………...46
O  Sizing……………………………………………….…………. . . . . . ………….…...47
 Weaver’s Beam……………………………...………………. . . . . . ……….……...48
N  Weaving……………….……………………...……….……. . . . . . ….……………..49
T  Air-Jet Weaving…………………..…………….…. . . . . . …….…..….....51
E  Weaving in U S Denim…………………..………. . . . . . ……..…..….....54
 Finishing…………………………….…….………..………….…. . . . . . ………......56
N  Singeing…………………………………..…….…...................….…….....58
T  Mercerizing……………………………..…………...………….….………..62
S  Stenter…………………………………..……………………………..….....64
 Inspection Department……………………..……………………. . . . . . …….…...68
 Packing……………………………………..……………….……. . . . . . ……..…...70
 Faults……………………………….……………………….…………. .. . . ……....71

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 U S Apparel Introduction……………….………………………………………….……73
 Store Room……………………………….……………………………………….……..75
 Cutting Department……………………….……………………………………………..76
 Embroidery Department………………….……………………………………………..79
 Stitching Department………………….………………………………………………...80
 Types of Stitch…………………………………………….…….………………83
 Wet processing……………….….…………………………………………………….93
 Chemicals On Denim…………………………………………………….98
 Denim Washing. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . ……110
 Mechanical Washes. . . . . .. . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ………….111
 Chemical Washes. . . . . .. . . …………. ………. . . . . . . .. . ….... ……...…119
 New Development in Denim Washes. ……….... . . . . . . .... . . . . . . …….129
 Glossary Of Denim……………………………………………………………………..139

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US Denim Mills is an upstart denim manufacturing company.

We see ourselves as the foremost source of innovative textile

products for today's apparel world and are committed to delivering value to
our customers in terms of product development, on-time delivery and high
quality. We are responsible to our shareholders for a good return on
investment. As corporate citizens we work towards achieving the best
environmental and ethical practices.
U No of Employees more than 500
S Established in 2005
Location Lahore, Punjab-Pakistan.


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In fashion history, jeans and denim history continues to baffle. No one truly knows
the perfect answer to where jeans began. As so often happens fashions often emerge
together in various parts of the world and are the result of the sudden availability of a new
fabric, cloth, dye or technique.

But we do know that the phrase denim jeans are thought to derive from several sources.
No one is totally certain where the words come from. A majority of source books suggest
that denim derives from the English translation of the South of France French phrase
'serge de Nîmes'. Denim fashion history is thus associated with Serge de Nimes.

It may well be that the fabric which was made in France also had a version made locally
in England and was called by the same name of denim in the same way that Cheddar
cheese is called cheddar all over the world. The Serge de Nîmes was originally a wool
silk mix, twill weave. Certainly by the 19th century in England denim had a white warp and
a navy woof (weft). Denim was considered a hard wearing sturdy fabric, ideal for heavy

When talking about denim the name Levi´ s is one of the first to be mentioned. Levi´ s
which stands for Levi Strauss is normally called the forefather of jeans.

When tracing back the history of these trousers to its origins it is true that Levi Strauss
played an important role concerning their development and distribution but he had also
other inventive business partners. Now the question is: who has sewn the first jeans and
where does the history of this „blue phenomenon” begin?

Levi Strauss in the year 1860 In 1847, at the age of 17 Levi Strauss left his Frankonian
native country in Germany and emigrated to New York together with his family. The
members of the Strauss family were capable and skilful businessmen and ran a pedlary
at that time. So Levi and his brother followed their parents´ footsteps and also became
peddlers. When his great gold rush began in 1850, however, he decided to take part and
sent over to San Francisco
in California. He took with him a spade, a pick hammer and a bale of fabric out of brown
sail cloth which was meant to put up a tent. This did not happen, however: Levi found out
that the gold diggers´ hard work in the mines made their clothes get worn out very quickly
and he produced stout working trousers out of the sail cloth he had taken with him which

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he called „half overalls“. When he continued producing these trousers he used cheap
cotton fabrics coming from Genova. At that time Genova was a flourishing place where
cotton was exported all over the world. The name of the town of Genova was modified
into „jeans” in the American slang. At the end of the sixties of the 19th century he replaced
the brown sail cloth by an indigo-dyed, wear resistant cotton fabric coming from France.

The name of this fabric was „Serge de Nimes“. Serge is the French Expression for
combined twill and Nimes is the French town where the fabric comes from. The fabric´s
name Serge de Nimes was quickly turned into „Denim“in American colloquial language.
By applying this indigo-dyed combined twill the first jeans out of Denim was almost born -
or better sewn. The only thing missing were the famous metallic vets. The application of
metal rivets for jeans is due to the Polish emigrant Jacob W. Davis, also called Jacob
Youphes. Although the working trousers out of Denim were stout they had a tendency to
get worn out where the pockets were. Jacob Youphes mended the trousers with a needle
and thread. One day a customer inspired him to repair the torn off pockets with the help of
rivets. From then on Jacob Youphes made a lot of money out of repairing trousers. Since
he was worried that his invention might be stolen he wanted to apply for a patent.

For doing so, however, he needed a financially strong partner. For that reason he
addressed the manufacturer of the trousers that he mended, Mr. Levi Strauss. Levi
Strauss agreed and together they applied for a patent to strengthen the pockets of the
trousers and Levi Strauss acquired a share of 50%. This patent was written down in 1873
and can thus be called the true year of birth. Under the management of Levi Strauss the
jeans were now produced in series. Since the trousers were so stout not only the gold
diggers liked them but which is not surprising in America?

The cowboys appreciated them very much, too. When the trousers were applied as
working trousers for cowboys, however they got worn out at the crotch tip. This was no
problem for Levi Strauss and Co. since they reinforced the trousers again with metal
rivets at the crossing point of the four seams at the crotch tip. The metal rivet at the crotch
had to be removed quickly since the way of living of the cowboys had not been taken into
consideration. The cowboys used to repair their meals at the campfire and then they
spent the rest of the evening sitting round the campfire. When the cowboy approached
the fire too much at night, however he quickly learned the difference between the physical
conductivity of cotton and metal.

Those wearing these trousers were then suddenly startled out of their sleep. By knowing
very well the need for such a stout garment and thanks to the good cooperation with
Jacob Youphes as well as his very good instinct for marketing Levi Strauss is still an
important brand name in today’s textile industry. About 1947 denim made a break-away
from work clothing image, chiefly in the area of sportswear and rainwear and an
occasional appearance in high fashion collections as a "different-looking" evening dress.
Jeans fashion history was truly made in the 1950s when film stars wore it in movies that
the teenagers of the day followed with avid interest. For many years jeans were only used
as work wear clothes, but by the 1940s they were considered leisure wear in America.
Once pop and film stars like Elvis Presley, James Dean, and Marlon Brando sported them
they became desirable internationally in the 1950s and are associated with rock and roll
and pop music. Later in the 1960s, jean brands old and new were worn universally in the

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western world. 1970 American youth adopted denim as their favorite fabric. Part of a
"back to nature" movement that emphasized ecology and the natural denim being a fabric
created from a natural fiber was a primary factor. Since 1960 the jeans business has
undergone an explosive transformation, from a source of tough, cheap clothing for
cowboys, blue-collar workers and penniless youth into a fashion conscious market for a
widening mass of people of almost all ages.

Substantial growth in overseas sales of American jeans and denim. Exports of American-
made blue jeans grew. Overseas manufacturers of jeans also grew. Production of indigo
dyed denim started in Europe on an industrial level in 1972. Spreading of jeans fashions
in the 1970’s and doubling of denim capacity in U.S.led to the onslaught of imports. From
1976 to 1979 U.S. imports of denim into Europe enjoyed penetration levels between 33%
and 42%. European textile industry saw in denim, an opportunity to restructure itself into a
more capital intensive high technology industry, thus becoming more competitive against
imports from lower-cost countries. From 1972 to 1976 capacities grew from approximately
20 million square meters to 130 million. All mills were basically running at capacity. It was
a period of worldwide shortage of denim when demand was substantially greater than
capacity. The 1976/7 fashion element subsided in Europe and U.S. Return to specialist
jean manufacturer producing basic jeans, with relative little fashion styling. The
introduction of "baggy" jeans – originated in Italy where previous shortage led to youth
wearing any size jeans available. Since 1978 specialized denim manufacturers re
established positions mainly in terms of quality.

Indigo denim first produced at Yarraville during 1965 on a narrow width Slasher dyeing
machine designed and built on the area. This dyeing method has now been entirely
replaced by the commissioning of the Morrison Rope Dyeing Machine on July 4th, 1980.
Dyeing capacity 15 to 16,000,000 square meters of denim per annum are possible on this
new Morrison dyeing Machine. By the 1980s ripped, frayed and torn jeans were a normal
sight. Colored jeans from white through to pastels were also popular as were
stonewashed blue jeans. In the 80s, designer jeans with names like Gloria Vanderbilt,
Calvin Klein and Armani among so many fashion designers became the designer label
jeans to be seen in. Stone washed jeans became a must.

By the 1990s black jeans were very popular for a while and jeans in general were seen a
lot in the early 1990s. But shades of blue are always loved and sometimes the darkest
shade is high fashion and sometimes the most washed out faded pairs become the
hottest. Colored jeans of all shades made an appearance.

In 2000 designers were crystal beading and silver or gold spraying jeans amid tears,
frayed slashes, and fur and feather decoration. Denim was hot yet again and used to
make everything from footwear, jackets, bags, basque corsets to jeweled cuffs.

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While the original denim was a 100% cotton serge material, you can now get it in a variety
of materials, including blends that give you the same wonderful look of 100% cotton
denim with some great additional features. Denim’s unique look comes from the rich
indigo blue in one shade or another woven together with white threads to give the “depth”
that people associate with denim. Today, some denims no longer have indigo, but other
colors with the white opposing threads, producing denims in a rainbow of shades.


Dry or raw denim, as opposed to washed denim, is a denim fabric that is not washed after
being dyed during its production. Most denim is washed after being crafted into an article of
clothing in order to make it softer and to eliminate any shrinkage which could cause an item to
not fit after the owner washes it. In addition to being washed, non-dry denim is sometimes
artificially "distressed" to achieve a worn-in look. Much of the appeal of dry denim lies in the
fact that with time the fabric will fade in a manner similar to factory distressed denim. With dry
denim, however, such fading is affected by the body of the person who wears the jeans and
the activities of their daily life. This creates what many enthusiasts feel to be a more natural,
unique look than pre-distressed denim. To facilitate the natural distressing process, some
wearers of dry denim will often abstain from washing their jeans for more than six months,[3]
though it is not a necessity for fading. Predominantly found in premium denim lines, dry denim
represents a small niche in the overall market.

Dry denim can be identified by its lack of a wash, or "fade". It typically starts out as the
dark blue color pictured here.


Selvage denim (also called selvedge denim) is a type of denim which forms a clean
natural edge that does not unravel. It is commonly presented in the unwashed or raw
state. Typically, the selvage edges will be located along the outseam of the pants, making
it visible when cuffs are worn. Although selvage denim is not completely synonymous with
unwashed denim, the presence of selvage typically implies that the denim used is a
higher quality. The word "selvage" comes from the phrase "self-edge" and denotes denim
made on old-style shuttle looms. These looms weave fabric with one continuous cross
thread (the weft) that is passed back and forth all the way down the length of the bolt. As
the weft loops back into the edge of the denim it creates this “self-edge” or Selvage.
Selvage is desirable because the edge can’t fray like lower grade denims that have

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separate wefts which leave an open edge that must be stitched. Shuttle looming is a more
time-consuming weaving process that produces denim of a tighter weave resulting in a
heavier weight fabric that lasts. Shuttle looms weave a more narrow piece of fabric, and
thus a longer piece of fabric is required to make a pair of jeans (approximately 3 yards).
To maximize yield, traditional jean makers use the fabric all the way to the selvage edge.
When the cuff is turned up the two selvage edges, where the denim is sewn together, can
be seen. The selvage edge is usually stiched with colored thread: green, white, brown,
yellow, and red (red is the most common). Fabric mills used these colors to differentiate
between fabrics.

Most selvage jeans today are dyed with synthetic indigo, but natural indigo dye is
available in smaller niche denim labels. Loop dying machines feed a rope of cotton yarn
through vats of indigo dye and then back out. The dye is allowed to oxidize before the
next dip. Multiple dips create a deep dark indigo blue. In response to increased demand
for jeans in the 1950's, American denim manufacturers replaced the old shuttle style
looms with modern projectile looms. The new looms produced fabric faster and wider (60-
inches or wider), yet lighter and less durable. Synthetic dyeing techniques along with
post-dye treatments were introduced to control shrink and twist. Raw selvage is material
that has not been washed once undergoing the dying process. It is especially desirable
because the material will fade in the creases and folds of the jeans. This process is
known as whiskering.

Here are some of the newer types of denim on the market:

STRETCH DENIM is usually about 98% cotton and 2% Spandex for a bit of that forgiving
stretch we all love. This blend gives you wonderful ease of movement and at the same
time some support for those “trouble spots” you aren’t so fond of around the hips or
thighs. Stretch denim jeans are one of the fastest growing segments of the women’s
market for jeans manufacturers.

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POLY DENIM blends appeal to those who like the look of denim but prefer polyester
blends that wash and dry quickly and are lighter weight and a bit dressier. These usually
appeal to a slightly older market, but are also finding favor for pantsuits, etc. when the
look is meant to be “dressy but casual.”

RAMIE COTTON DENIM blends are found in a variety of combinations, with a wide price
variance. Ramie is a plant fiber usually added because it reduces wrinkling and adds a
silky luster to the fabric. It isn’t as strong as cotton, however, so it has to be blended with
this stronger material in order to stand up as a denim material.

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The botanical name of cotton is Gossypium.


Length & Uniformity Fiber Strength

Upper Half Mean Length (1/8 in. gauge strength in grams/tex)
Below 0.99 Short 20 and Below Very Weak
0.99-1.10 Medium 21-25 Weak
1.11-1.26 Long 26-29 Base
Above 1.26 Extra Long 30-32 Strong
32 and above Very Strong
Uniformity Index
Below 77 Very Low Fiber Elongation (%)
77-79 Low Below 5.0 Very Low
80-82 Low 5.0-5.8 Low
83-85 High 5.9-6.7 Average
Above 85 Very High 6.8-7.6 High
Above 7.6 Very High

Fiber Fineness Fiber Maturity

Fineness (millitex) Description Maturity Ration Description
Below 135 Very Fine Below 0.7 Uncommon
135-175 Fine 0.7-0.8 Immature
175-200 Average 0.8-1.0 Mature
200-230 Coarse Above 1.0 Very Mature
Above 230 Very Coarse

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The initial stage of denim production is Opening and Blending. Opening begins with
baled cotton fiber being separated into small tufts. A blend of cotton fibers is made on
each opening line. These bales are selected using USDA High Volume Instrument (HVI)
data, and PCCA's unique computer blending software produces optimal yarn strength.

Cotton is delivered by air suction from the Opening and Blending lines, through additional
cleaning and blending machines, to the Cards. The major functions of Carding are to
remove foreign matter and short fibers, form the cotton into a web and convert the web
into a rope-like form known as a sliver.

The drawing process produces a single, uniform sliver from six card slivers. The
additional blending, paralleling of fibers and cleaning in this process produces a sliver for
Open End and Ring Spinning. For Ring Spinning, however, the sliver must pass through
an additional process called Roving.

Cotton Fibers are formed into a yarn by centrifugal action in Open- End Spinning.
Individual fibers are laid down in the groove of a fast spinning rotor and twisted into yarn.
After the cotton fibers are spun into yarn, the yarn is wound into a large package.

The Open End Spinning Machines have robots on

each side which automatically pieces up (repairs
broken ends). On a different track, they have another
robot that automatically doffs (removes full packages)
and starts up a new package. The size and quality of
each yarn end are monitored by the Barco Profile
System to ensure uniformity.

In Ring Spinning, the spinning frames receive

Roving via a transit system from the roving machine.
Yarn is formed from cotton fibers that are twisted
together after being drafted by passing between three
steel rolls and three rubber rolls. The yarn then is
wrapped on a bobbin as it spins on a spindle by use
of a traveler. The relationship between roll speeds,
traveler speeds and spindle speeds controls the
amount of twist in the yarn. Ends down levels and
production information are gathered by the Uster Ring
Expert System. The spinning frames automatically doff bobbins full of yarn and send them
to package winding.

ACG also has the capacity to produce Amsler Open-End yarn, also known as Faux Ring
Spun yarn. This technology enables ACG to impart various slub patterns into an Open-
End yarn. Denim made from this type of yarn has yarn character and surface interest that
cannot be achieved with traditional Open-End yarn.

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Count 6 7
Production Required per day (kg) 8763 14235
Auto Coro
Average Speed 70000 75000
TM 5 4.8
TPI 12.25 12.7
% Installed Efficiency 90 90
% waste 0.2 0.2
Prod/rotor/day 18.515 16.401
prod/day required 8763 14235
rotors 473 868
machines 1.97 3.62
rotors/mc. 240 240
production /month in tonnes 263 427
Count 6 7
Speed/mt/min 700 700
Installed n% 70 70
Production /day 3788 3788
Hank Delivered 0 0
Production Required per day 8789 14292
Passages 1 1
% waste 0.6 0.6
m/c required 2.32 3.77
Cards 6 7
Doffer dia/ inch 27 27
Doffer rpm 51 51
installed effe. 85% 85%
% waste 5% 5%
hank delivered 0.1 0.1
tension draft 2 2
production/hr in kg 43 43
produc daykg 1036 1036
production required 8842 14378
Machines required 8.53 13.87

Blowroom Lines 6 7
efficiency 90 90
Production/day 10800 10800
prod required/day 9308 9308
lines required 0.86 1.4

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In general terms, warping is transferring many yarns from a creel of single-end
packages forming a parallel sheet of yarns wound onto a beam or a section beam. The
warp beam that is installed on weaving machine is called the weaver’s beam. A weaver’s
beam can contain several thousand ends and for different reasons it is rarely produced in
one operation.

There are four types of warping, which are as follows

1. Direct Warping
2. Indirect or Sectional Warping
3. Ball Warping
4. Draw Warping

In direct warping, the yarns are withdrawn from the single-end yarn packages on the
creel and directly wound on a beam.

Direct warping is used in two ways:

a) It can be used to directly produce the weaver’s beam in a single operation. This is
suitable for strong yarns that do not require sizing and when the number of warps on the
warp beam is relatively small. This is also called direct beaming.
b) It can also be used to make smaller, intermediate beams called warper’s beams.
These smaller beams are combined later at the slashing stage to produce the weaver’s
beam. This process is called beaming.


In Indirect warping, a section beam is produce first. It is also called band warping
or drum warping. The section beam is tapered at one end. Warp yarn is wound on the
beam in sections, starting with the tapered end of the beam. Each section has multiple
ends that are traversed together slowly during winding along the length of the section to
form the angle. Due to the geometry of the yarn sections, the last section on the beam will
have a tapered end that will make the whole yarn on the beam stable. It is important that
each layer on the beam contain the same number of yarns. The same length of yarn is
wound on each section.

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After all the sections on the beam are wound completely, then the yarn on the beam is
wound on to a regular beam with flanges, before slashing. This process is called

Ball Warping is mainly used in manufacturing of denim fabrics. The warp yarns are
wound on a ball beam in the form of a tow for indigo dyeing. After the dyeing process, the
tow is separated and wound on a beam. This stage is also called long chain beaming or

Draw Warping is combining the drawing of filament yarns with heat setting and
warping processes to achieve uniform stretching and heating for improved dye uniformity,
end to end. It is used for weaving of thermoplastic yarns.

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In US Denim ball warping is used. There are three creel machines of GRIFFIN. Two
creels have capacity of 420 cones each weather one creel has a capacity of 540 cones.
The department is connected with dyeing section directly and working 24 hrs. R &D
department inspects the cones which is converted in beams of required length and
forwarded to dyeing section.




Custom designed to meet package dimensions, end count requirements and available
space. Electromagnetic Tension Control with individual post adjustment, 0-75 GPE
tension range, with individual post-post calibration. Integrated Motion Sensor with 25

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millisecond response time, end break indicator, end count confirmation, and recurring
break indication for same package.

LEASING STAND: Semi-Automatic lease insertion at programmable intervals with ertical

oscillation to reduce wear.

TURN-AROUND ROLL: Provides additional length to the yarn path (in sheet form) to
allow for recovery of lost or broken ends and reduces rolling in the trumpet at the end of
the traverse stroke.

TURN-AROUND STAND: Constructed of heavy duty steel with an aluminum flanged

300mm diameter x 125mm wide guide wheel. The guide wheel has a pneumatic disk
brake for controlled stops.

BALL WARPER: The Ball Warper is capable of producing a 1220mm width ball with
diameters up to 1524mm (60”) and safe operating speeds up to 500 mpm.

DUAL MOTOR DRIVE: utilizes the latest drive technologies, including AC vector
drive/motors, high strength polyurethane timing belts and heavy duty beveled gearboxes.
The trumpet carrier; which has no bearings, is machined from thermoplastic to reduce
weight and improve durability thus eliminating routine maintenance. Drive Rolls are
rubber covered for maximum durability and are coupled to Dual Caliper Disc Brakes for
quick stopping. The hold down arms provide programmable hold down pressure and are
used in loading and doffing the beam.
The Griffin Director is a PC based drive and control system that completely automates the
operation of the machine. Operator interface is by 380mm Touchscreen. Customer
support is provided through modem communication 24/7 by Griffin technicians.

OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT: Automatic Traveling Cleaner, Inside loading/outside running

creel design, Manual Post/Disc Tensions, Drop Wire Stopmotion System, Sheet Vacuum
System (SVS).

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Parallel warping is used for sectional V-creel is used for only in direct warping.
warping as well as for direct warping.
Suitable for comparatively low speed Suitable for high speed yarn warping.
Needs proper yarn guides. No need of yarn guide
Provide low tension on whole beam. Provide uniform yarn tension across the
whole beam.
No free yarn from creel to the warping Free yarn run from creel to the warping
machine because proper yarn guides are machine.
More time consumable because of low Less time consumable.
More space is consumed. Less space is consumed.
In indirect warping, a constant speed drive is Surface friction drive and variable speed
generally required to provide approximately drive is commonly used to attain the uniform
uniform yarn speed on the surface of the yarn speed.
H-creel has a wide range of package change V-creel has a low range of package change.
system. Example: with reversible package, Example: reversible frames, reversible
with unrolling draw off, with fixed package frames with automatic knotter, and with
frames, with package trucks, with swiveling traveling package.
package frames.


The creel stand has maximum capacity of five cones per stand. The yarn from
the cones is unwounded and passes from rod by cross wound, holed by a catcher guided
to the tensioning zone when cone rotates anticlockwise. There are three types of tension
in warping i.e. catcher tension, rod tension, and sacker tension. Magnetic tensioner is
used for yarn tension. Then the yarn comes to the winding zone or headstock. Combs
straighten the yarns towards pressure drum, which supports beam, and yarns in an
alignment so that each and every yarn end can wound separately. Static charges due to
friction of yarns on metal surface cause static charges, which are removed through an
anti static device. Then the yarn is wounded on beam in this way for a required length if
beam is changed after one filling of beam then knotting of yarns is made. Similarly if
cones are finished on one frame side then trolley system of cone changing is used in this
way chains rotates the whole frame of empty side and new filled side of frame is
forwarded again knotting is done between the new cones yarn and already winded yarn.
Extra yarn is then removed through cutting. Sensors sense any type of yarn breakage
and in case of yarn breakage knotting is done.

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The warper gets the required no of ends and the number of beams from the weaving
department and then he made the warping plan that how to complete that task whether
on one creel or on more no. of creels.
Some examples are given below to show the concept of warping plans using one creel
and two creels.
For example;
No. of ends = 1080
No. of beam = 4
Count = 10/s
No. of cones in one bag = 16
No. of warper's beams with no. of ends on each = ?
Length per beam = ?
No. of Bags of 100 lbs = ?

Plan for one Creel

The total no. of ends on the weavers beam = 1080 x 4 = 4320 ends
Cone wt. = bag wt. / no. of cones in bag
Cone wt = 100 / 16 = 6.25 lbs
Length of yarn on one cone = cone wt. In lbs x count x 768.1
Length of yarn on one cone = 6.25 x 10 x 768.1 = 48006 m
lessen the length up to 1 % because of variation in yarn length among different cones
length of yarn on one cone = 47600 m
no. of ends x no. of beams = total no. of ends
617 x 6 = 3702
618 x 1 = 618
4320 ends
so, 7 warper's beams
i.e. 6 beams of 617 ends and
1 beam of 618 ends
Length / Beam = length of yarn on one cone / no. of beams
Length / Beam = 47600 / 7 = 6800 m / beam

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Bags required = No. of ends on warper beam / no. of cones in one bag
Bags required = 618 / 16 = 39 bags approx.
For example;
No. of ends = 1140
No. of beams = 4
Count = 10/s
No. of cones in one bag = 24
No. of warper's beams with no. of ends on each = ?
Length per beam = ?
No. of Bags of 100 lbs = ?
Plan for two Creel
The total no. of ends on the weavers beam = 1140 x 4 = 4560 ends
Cone wt. = bag wt. / no. of cones in bag
Cone wt = 100 / 24 = 4.16 lbs
Length of yarn on one cone = cone wt. In lbs x count x 768.1
Length of yarn on one cone = 4.16x 10 x 768.1 = 31952 m
lessen the length up to 1 % because of variation in yarn length among different cones
length of yarn on one cone = 51600 m
no. of ends x no. of beams = total no. of ends
570 x 8 = 4560 ends

so, 8 warper’s beams 0f 570 ends each

No. of beams per creel = no. of warper’s beam / no. of creels
No. of beams per creel = 8 / 2 = 4
Length / Beam = length of yarn on one cone / no. of beams per creel
Length / Beam = 31600 / 4 = 7950 m / beam
Bags required = No. of ends on warper beam X no. of creels / no. of cones in one bag
Bags required = 570 X 2 / 24 = 48 bags approx.

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Dyeing is a process in which we impart colour to the fabric. All commercial textile
dyeing processes take place by the application of a solution or a dispersion of the dyes to
the textile material followed by some type of fixation process. The dye solution or
dispersion is almost always in an aqueous medium.
A major objective of the fixation step is normally to ensure that the coloured textile
exhibits satisfactory fastness to subsequent treatment in aqueous wash liquors.
Dyeing is mainly depends on the type of fabric, structure of fabric and the properties of

Dyes use for Denim

• Sulphur Dyes
• Vat Dyes


Sulphur dyes are widely used on cotton mainly because they are economical to
use. They have good to excellent wash fastness and good light fastness in dark shades.
Light fastness of pale shades is poor. Sulphur dyes are usually dull in shade since the
molecular structures are complex. As a class, the sulphur dyes are not resistant to
chlorine containing bleaches.

Chemical nature of sulphur dyes

Partial chemical structures involved in dyeing with sulphur dyes

Dyeing with sulphur dyes of various types

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Sulphur dyes have the dullest range of colours of all dye classes but are relatively
inexpensive. They are used to dye medium to deep, dull shades on cellulosic materials.
There are several excellent blacks giving dyeings with good wet fastness properties. In
fact, when black, and deep brown, blue and dull olive green shades are needed, with
good washing and satisfactory light fastness at reasonable cost, sulphur dyes are
irreplaceable. There are few green sulphur dyes and no true reds.
There are, however, an abundance of blacks, blues, yellows and browns. On a world
basis, sulphur dyes constitute one of the major dye classes. Sulphur dyes are used in
cotton dyeing for woven goods using jig dyeing machines and also in continuous dyeing.
They are commonly used for the continuous dyeing of corduroy. They are now being used
more widely in jet machines. Sulphur dyes are also used for dyeing denim olive, brown
and maroon, rather than the traditional Indigo blue, as well as to ‘bottom’ or ‘top’ Indigo
dyed cotton warps. To ‘bottom’ or ‘top’ means that a sulphur dye is applied either before
or after the Indigo. The fastness to wet processes and to crocking can be varied almost
as required to satisfy the demand for the faded look so popular for denim. This is
achieved by allowing premature oxidation of the leuco dye during dyeing, by using short
dyeing times so that there is inadequate time for dye penetration into the fibres, and by
poor rinsing and soaping after dyeing. The dyeings can then be subsequently treated to
produce the faded worn look by removing the surface colour.
Although cellulosic goods dyed with sulphur dyes usually have good washing fastness, it
can be further improved by resin finishing. The light fastness varies from moderate to
good in heavy shades. A major characteristic of sulphur dyes is the poor fastness to
chlorine, which distinguishes them from most quinone vat dyes. Dyeings with sulphur
dyes cannot be bleached with hypochlorite. In fact, these dyes are readily distinguished
from other cotton dyes by their dark, dull colours and the bleaching that occurs when a
dyeing is spotted with hypochlorite and allowed to dry.
Cotton dyed with some sulphur blacks becomes tendered on storing under warm humid
conditions. This is a consequence of the formation of sulphuric acid from oxidation of the
sulphur dye in the fibres. It can be minimised by thorough washing after dyeing before the
oxidation of the leuco dye, by a final alkaline rinsing with soda ash solution, and by resin
finishing. Such tendering is avoided by dichromate oxidation of the leuco dye.

Initially the goods are wet out in the bath. Since the dyeing liquor contains appreciable
amounts of sulphide, copper fittings must be avoided. If wetting or penetrating agents are
used these should be of the anionic type since non-ionic surfactants form stable, non-
substantive complexes with the leuco thiols. An anionic product such as phosphated 2-
ethylhexanol is suitable. The bath may then be set at 40 °C with some sodium
polysulphide . Polysulphides in the leuco dyebath prevent premature oxidation of the dye
and reduce the tendency to bronziness of deep dyeings of blues, navies and blacks. An
addition of a sequestrant such as EDTA avoids precipitation of the leuco thiolate by
calcium and magnesium ions. The leuco dye is then added slowly and, since the leuco
dyes only have low to moderate substantivity for cellulose, some salt may be added
initially, or in portions during dyeing, to promote exhaustion. After dyeing the goods are
rinsed, the leuco dye oxidised and the dyeing is soaped as for a conventional vat dye.

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Sulphur dyes usually have acceptable substantivity, particularly in the presence of salts,
so that stripping in a fresh reducing bath is not easy. Dyeing is often conducted at the boil
but this decreases the degree of exhaustion. Sulphur dyes require less salt than reactive
dyes and usually have reasonable exhaustion. Low sulphide leuco dyes require more salt
and no polysulphide. They do not give good exhaustion in heavy shades and the use of a
low liquor ratio is recommended. For popular shades such as black, it has long been
common practice to use a standing bath. This is a dye bath that is re-used for subsequent
dyeings after addition of more reduced dye. Any free sulphur that tends to accumulate is
dissolved by addition of sodium sulphite to give thiosulphate. This prevents it sticking to
the goods. The actual dyeing temperature can vary. At higher temperatures around the
boil, the bath exhaustion is less but penetration of the leuco dye into the fibres is better
than at lower temperatures.

After dyeing, good rinsing before oxidation helps reduce bronziness and poor
rubbing fastness by removing loosely adhering surface leuco dye solution before
oxidation precipitates the insoluble pigment. Once the rinsing is completed, the leuco dye
in the fibres is oxidised to the insoluble pigment. Some leuco dyes can be oxidised in air,
others need chemical oxidation. Sodium dichromate, hydrogen peroxide, or sodium
percarbonate or perborate are used in warm, weakly alkaline solution. The peroxy
compounds used for vat dyes can be used for sulphur dyes, but some leuco dyes (red-
browns) are not oxidised by these agents. Some blues are over-oxidised, probably by
oxidation of the disulphide links between the heteroaromatic units to form ionic sulphinate
and sulphonate groups. This increases the water solubility, decreases the wet fastness
and results in staining of other goods during washing. Even sulphur blacks oxidised with
peroxides tend to be bluer, lighter and somewhat less fast to washing. The best washing
fastness is obtained by oxidation of the leuco dye with sodium dichromate and acetic
acid. Sodium bromate (NaBrO3) is now more widely used as an oxidant, particularly in
North America. It requires a small amount of metavanadate ion (VO3 –) as catalyst.
Some dyeings are treated with copper sulphate, or with this and sodium dichromate, to
improve the light fastness, and in some cases the wet fastness. Fabrics for use inside
rubber articles should not be copper treated. Some yellowbrown dyes are treated with
copper sulphate to improve light fastness but theeffect is lost on washing. The use of
chromium salts is now declining because of their adverse environmental impact.
Because of their dull colours, dyeings with sulphur dyes are often topped with the much
brighter basic dyes. The sulphur dye pigment acts as a mordant for the cationic dyes.
Dyeings with sulphur dyes may also be shaded with some sulphide stable direct dyes, but
this tends to lower the washing fastness.


Large amounts of such dyes are sold in liquid form. They are of two types –1. Water-
soluble reduced leuco dyes, and-2. solubilised sulphur dyes – the former being far more
important. The water soluble leuco dyes are completely in solution and contain far less
insoluble matter than a sulphur dye powder. This is beneficial in package dyeing. They
often still require a small addition of sodium sulphide or another reducing agent. These
liquids contain the stabilised leuco dye, sodium sulphoxyate-formaldehyde or sulphide
and sodium carbonate. The solubilised sulphur dyes are thiosulphate esters prepared
from the leuco thiols with sodium sulphite . They usually have low substantivity for

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cellulose and are useful for package, padding and pad–jig applications. Reduction is
necessary before or during dyeing and the usual aftertreatments are needed.


Sulphur dyes are used for continuous dyeing of cotton goods using a pad–steam–
wash process, with three groups of wash boxes for rinsing, oxidising and soaping.
Padding may take place at up to 80 °C to reduce the substantivity of the leuco dye for the
cotton fibres. This reduces the problems of selective absorption and the resulting initial
colour tailing that it causes. As for other vat dyes, steaming is carried out in air-free
saturated steam. Then the dyeing is rinsed at 40–60 °C and oxidised with sodium
bromate plus metavanadate catalyst at pH 4 in the presence of acetic acid. In the
remaining wash boxes, the best possible soaping and rinsing is done. For black dyes
tending to produce sulphuric acid by oxidation on storage, a final soda ash rinse may be
added. In some instances better appearances result using a two-pad method. This
involves padding with the sulphur dye suspension or solution, followed by intermediate
drying, padding with sodium sulphide solution, steaming, and the usual aftertreatment


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Vat dyes are mainly applied on cellulosic fibres, but some can be applied to protein
fibres. They usually have outstanding colour-fastness properties. Vat dyes are more
expensive and difficult to apply than other classes for cellulose such as directs, sulphurs,
and reactive. Indigo is a special case in the vat dye class. Indigo is attractive for its
pleasing blue colour and for the unique fading characteristics of garment dyed with it. Vat
dyes are characterized by the presence of a keto group. Vat dyes in keto form are water
insoluble pigments.


CI Vat Red 42 (1); leuco compound formed by reduction (2); vat acid formed by
protonation of the anionic leuco derivative (3); CI Vat Blue 4 (4)

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Reducing vat dyes with hydros




The dyeing of cellulosic materials with quinone vat dyes follows a four-step sequence:
(1) Preparation of the vat containing the leuco forms of the dyes;
(2) Dyeing of the material, in which the fibres absorb the water-soluble leuco compound;
(3) Oxidation of the absorbed leuco compound back to the parent pigment inside the
(4) Soaping of the dyed material to remove pigment loosely adhering to the fibre surfaces
and to develop the true shade and fastness properties.


Natural Indigo was rapidly displaced from the market once the synthetic product
became available. The quality of natural Indigo was quite variable because of the
presence of other coloured impurities. The fastness properties of Indigo dyeings are not
up to the standards expected from the vat dye class as a whole. It is, however, the
appearance of faded Indigo in denim that is so fashionable today. After dyeing, various
wet processes, such as stone washing, deliberately enhance this faded effect. Indigo
builds up primarily on the cotton fibre surface. This is one reason for the somewhat
inferior fastness properties of Indigo compared to quinone vat dyes.


Dyeing cotton yarn for blue jeans is an important use of Indigo. In a typical batch
operation, concentrated reduced Indigo is added to a dyebath from which oxygen has
been removed with little alkaline hydros. The goods are entered and fully immersed to
avoid oxidation. After about 15 min at 20–25 °C, the goods are removed and well
squeezed before air oxidation. Indigo does not exhaust well because of its limited
substantivity for cotton, not surprising considering its small molecular size . Deep shades
must be built up by repeated dipping in the dyebath after each oxidation. The use of too
concentrated a dyebath is not effective for deep shades as it results in poor rubbing
fastness. Some salt may be added to aid exhaustion. After dyeing, the goods are well
soaped. The final dyed material may be aftertreated to produce a faded, worn look.
Continuous methods are used for dyeing ball warps, warp beams and piece goods with
Indigo. This is usually carried out in a series of 4–6 wash boxes with upper and lower
rollers and nips at the exits. The goods are threaded through each box and may be skyed
at the mid-point. The first box is used to wet out the material. In subsequent boxes, the
goods are immersed in the leuco Indigo solution for 10–30 s at a linear speed of about 25
m min–1, squeezed and skyed for 2 min to oxidize the leuco dye to Indigo. The boxes are

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fed with a stock vat of leuco Indigo and the liquor in the boxes is circulated to maintain
constant dyeing conditions. This process of several dips and oxidations is then repeated
in a second series of boxes, and so on. Several rinsing and washing boxes complete the


Besides Indigo itself, there are a number of other important indigo and thioindigo
derivatives used for dyeing cellulosic fibres. These include chlorinated and brominated
indigo and thioindigo dyes in which the nitrogen atoms of Indigo are partially or totally
replaced by sulphur atoms. Compared to the anthraquinone type vat dyes, Indigoid vat
dyes give much paler yellow to brown leuco compound solutions. The vatting process is
also slower and requires less alkali.


The solubilised vat dyes provided a means of avoiding the difficult vatting process
required for quinone and indigoid vat dyes. The preparation of a solution of a leuco vat
dye requires care and time, and protection of the solution from excessive exposure to air.
The solubilised vat dyes avoid these problems. These dyes are preprepared sulphate
esters of the leuco vat acid. The first product of this type was that derived from Indigo .
Later solubilised leuco dyes derived from quinone vat dyes were marketed.

Cotton absorbs these dyes directly from a neutral or slightly alkaline solution but they are
not very substantive even in the presence of added salt. Although a leuco sulphate ester
has the same negative charge as the normal leuco dye, its charge is localised in the
sulphate groups whereas that of the phenolate ion is delocalised. Cotton therefore repels
a leuco sulphate ester molecule more strongly than the normal leuco compound. Because
of their limited substantivity, solubilised vat dyes are generally only suitable for pale
shades. After dyeing, the goods are rinsed or hydroextracted to remove superficial dye
solution, and the vat dye pigment is developed in the fibre by oxidation with sodium
persulphate or acidified sodium nitrite solution. After neutralising with dilute soda ash
solution, the goods are soaped as in the case of normal vat dyeing. The dyeing has the
same fastness properties as one prepared from the original vatted pigment.
The low substantivity of the leuco sulphate esters avoids the problems of the high strike of
leuco vat dyes. Since they can be used in solutions close to neutrality, they can also be
used for wool dyeing. Unfortunately, the dyeing and oxidation conditions for each dye
vary so it is important to follow the supplier’s instructions. The use of these dyes was
never widespread and has declined in recent times. They are not particularly competitive
because of their high cost.

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The classical jeans was produced out of indigo-dyed Denim fabric. The special
character of this fabric – only the warp thread is dyed – makes it necessary to carry out
dyeing in yarn form. The yarns applied for Denim were exclusively produced on ring
spinning machines in former times. The development of OE(open end) yarns – by
applying smaller rotors with a spinning speed of up to 200 m/min – has led to the
application of OE rotor yarns both for warp and weft. The yarns applied for weaving must
be of high quality: a high fiber for strength, regularity as well as a small part of short-
stapled cotton fibers belong to the basic features of the denim yarn. For regular jeans
qualities the warp yarns are spun in a fineness of 50 to 90 tex, for the weft yarn the
fineness ranges are mainly 75 to 120 tex. If Denim is made out of Tencel or Modal
especially for jeans shirts the finenesses are up to 25 tex. Indigo, sulphur and indanthrene
are mainly used in the dyeing process. Two methods are applicable for continuous dyeing
with indanthrene dyes: rapid dyeing and vat dyeing. While processing the basic colored
denim, reactive dyes are used and fixed with hot caustic soda solution. The dyeing
process is mainly influenced by the dyestuff characteristics, dyeing temperature and
necessary chemicals used in the process. Indigo dye is the most popular choice as it has
good depth of shade and suitable rubbing and washing fastness. When cotton yarn is
dyed with indigo, it leaves a ring-dyeing effect, because of which the outer layer of warp
yarn is coated with indigo, and the core of the yarn remains undyed. This gives the denim
garment a unique ‘faded look’ and a rich blue shade after repeated use and wash.
Originally, the warp yarns or ends were put through the dye bath side by side to form a
sheet of yarn, which passed continuously through several dye baths, squeeze rollers or
airing sequences.
However, if there were breaks in the yarn (and there would be, as each yarn had to take
the tension of being pulled through these processes virtually on its own), the dyeing
process had to be stopped. The yarns would be then mended, or else it would lead to
very bad tangling. These stoppages would in turn cause large shade variations, and the
yarn breaks would show up as bad faults in the fabric. Now, an infinitely more efficient
system has been introduced.
Special attention shall be paid here to Indigo, the „king of dyestuffs“since it plays an
important role in obtaining the jeans effect. Indigo belongs to the category of water-
insoluble dyestuffs. It was first mentioned in a book 13 BC; at that time the name Indian
blue indicated the country the color came from. It is said to have been used for dyeing in
India and China 2000 years BC already.

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The Indigo plant is used for preparing Indigo

(Indigo tinctoria L.)

This plant came to Europe in the 16th century via India and gradually replaced the
woad which was one of the most important dyeing plants up to this time. Only the leaves
were used for good qualities whereas the leaves together with the stalks were applied for
normal qualities. In a vat filled with water and partially with human fermented urine as
alkali donor stems and leaves were exposed to a putrefactive process. During this
putrefactive process hydrogen was created by means of micro-organisms which, as a
reduction agent, transformed the dyestuff contained in the Indigo plant into a water-
soluble form.

When this process was over the whole mass was filled into a liquid where the fermented
mass was stirred with poles. The reason for doing so was to transform the Indigo into its
water insoluble form again by air oxidation. In a last step the water-insoluble dyestuff
particles could then deposit on the bottom of a stationary vat.
Then the liquid standing above was drained and what was left was a thin mash which was
dried in the open air and was put on the market in pressed or in powder form

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As shown in figure trading form of Indigo at that time, approx. 9 cm length of edges and
163 g in weight. When looking at these methods one can easily imagine that the reduction
of Indigo was considered to be an evil-smelling trade. In 1880 Adolf von Baeyer
succeeded in carrying out the first synthetic production of Indigo. In the year 1897 the
“Badische Anilin- und Sodafabrik“in Ludwigshafen -hich is nowadays called BASF - was
able to carry out an industrial-scale production of the Indigo dyestuff for the first time. A
few years later this synthetic dyestuff replaced the indigo coming from British-India almost
completely. As was already mentioned Indigo is a dyestuff insoluble in water. In order to
be able to apply it on cotton it must be transformed into a water-soluble form. Similar to
the former production of Indigo this is done by reducing the dyestuff (ill. 4). In practice this
is nowadays carried out with sodium dithionite or hydroxiacetone in the alkaline range.

C16H10O2N2 + Na2S2O4 + 4NaOH . C16H10O2N2Na2 + 2Na2SO3 + 2H2O

Na2S2O4 + O2 + 2NaOH . Na2SO4 + Na2SO3 + H2O + C16H10O2N2Na2 + ½ O2 + H2O +
Sodium Hydrosulfide C16H10O2N2 + 2NaOH

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Fiber cross-section of a yarn dyed with Indigo

This is Fiber cross-section of a yarn dyed with Indigo simplified description of the
reduction/oxidation of Indigo In former times dyeing with Indigo was carried out in wood or
metal vats, normally in rope form.

Indigo sample dyer as very clearly visible on the above picture, at the bottom side of the
rope the water-soluble Leuco form of the indigo is yellowish and on the side of the rope
oxidized with air the indigo blue can be seen again. Nowadays, yarn dyeing with indigo is
done continuously. Here the various dyeing processes with different concentrations of
chemicals as well as the subsequent yarn sizing exert an influence on the quality and the
appearance of the ready fabric.

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In a tank of 1000 liters:

a. take 400 litres of water (soft)
b. add setamol ws--> 4 g/l (stirring) ( dispersing solution)
c. Add 100 kg of Indigo ( at 1.8 % shade -see the indigo calculations- stirring)
d. add caustic soda --> stirring ( for solubilising and pH)
e. allow to cool it for 2/3 hours
f. Add hydrosulphide ( As reducing agent)
g. Make the solution to 1000 l by adding water.
If pH is fluctuating, if it is > 11.7 then hydro is added (2-3 kg), if (<11.2) then caustic is
For 100 kg of Indigo,
Caustic Required= 90 kg
Hydro Required= 80 kg

For 12 ropes, at 24 m/min, of 344 ends of 14000 m length of 7s count.

wt of yarn = (12*344*14000*100*453.6)/(7*840*36*2.54*1000) kg= 5000 kg

at 24 m/min, a lot of 14000 m will be completed in 14000/24 = 583.3 min

at 1.8% shade
100 kg of yarn needs--> 1.8 kg of Indigo
5000 kg of yarn needs --> 90 kg of dye

at 100 gpl
100 gms of dye = 1 lit of solution
90 kg of dye = 900 litres

900 litres should be completed in 583.3 min

1 litre would be completed in = 583.3/900= 38.8 seconds
so flow rate will be 38.8 seconds / litre

Similarly flow rate of caustic and hydro can be determined

Hydro is taken around 100 gpl
caustic is taken around 90 to 100 gpl

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There are three processes in the practice for continuous dyeing:
1) Rope Dyeing
2) Slasher Or Sheet Dyeing
3) Loop Dyeing

Indigo Rope Dyeing When dyeing according to the rope dyeing or cable dyeing
method.350 - 400 warp threads are bound on the ball warper to very thick cables of
10000 - 15 000 m length. On the continuous dyeing installation, 12 to 36 cables are led
side by side, wetted, dyed and dried after the dyeing process on cylinders and put into
cans. Then the cables are dissolved to warps on the long chain beamer. The warps are
added to the sizing machine, sized and then led together to warp depending on the total
numbers of threads.
In practice, this method has proven to be very good through obtaining an optimum indigo
dyeing. However it is important that the cables have a constant tension in order to avoid
warp stripes. The disadvantage compared to other methods is that yarn breakages do
occur more often. Size of the dyeing unit is between 60 - 80 m. normally, 6 dyeing vats
are in use. There are nevertheless variations with 3 to 8 dyeing vats.

The dyeing methods described here do not allow a total penetration of the dyestuff during
the short dyeing time and give the desired and necessary ring dyeing important for the
jeans effect.

The sizing process follows the dyeing process of the yarn; this is already visible by the
machine sequences and is necessary to stabilize the warp thread against the high
mechanical stress while the weft thread is being fed. For sizing the warp, PVA, CMC and
acrylate sizes are used besides starch-containing products.


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1. Concentration of Hydrosulphite

It is measured by vatometer. It should be from 1.5 gpl to 2.5gpl , or by redox

potential of dye bath which should be from -730 mV to -860 mV.

2. Caustic Soda or pH value

Should be from 11.5-12.5

3. Dye concentration in Dye bath

it is measured by spectrophotometer. It should be in g/l

High Indigo Concentration --> Shade is greener and lighter
Low Indigo Concentration --> Shade is dull and Red.

High pH or Caustic Concentration --> Redder and lighter

Low pH or caustic concentration --> greener and darker

Dipping Time
Longer the dipping time, better will be the penetration and lesser will be the ring
dyeing effect. It varies from 15-22 seconds.

Squeeze Pressure
High pressure will lead to lower wet pick up and result in lesser color and better
penetration. At rope dyeing, squeeze pressure is 5-10 tonnes, ie. wet pick up is as
low as 60%. Hardness of squeeze roller is about 70-75 deg. shores. It sqeeze rolls
are too hard then there are chances of slippage and uneven yarn tension.. If
squeeze rollers are too soft then shading will occur. Surface of the squeeze rolls
should be ground twice a year.

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Airing Time

it should be 60-75 seconds. Longer airing time results in high tension on the yarn and
subsequent processes will become difficult.

Insufficient or unevenly dried yarns will result in poor rebeaming

Calculation of Replenishing Dye feed/min

Conc. of stock vat is g/l= 90

range speed in yards/min=25
count = 7s
totoal ends = 4100

Wt of yarn dyed /min= (4100*25*1000)/(7*840*202)= 7924 gms

shade desired = 2%
Amount of dye to be replenished/min= 158.5 gms

Effect of pH
At pH of 10.5 to 11.5, there will be formation of more monophenolate ions, which lead
to higher color yield, as strike rate of the dye to the yarn bundle is very high, and wash
down activities will be very good.

At pH higher than this, dye penetration will be less and wash down characteristics are
also poor.


1. Alkalanity in Dye Bath Liquor

Pipet 10.0 ml of vat liquor into 100ml of distilled water in a 150 ml beaker. place under
continuous agitation and insert the electrodes of a pH meter caliberated at pH 7.0 with
standard buffer solution.

Titrate with tenth normal HCl ( 0.1 HCl) to pH 7.0 (ml = A)

g/l of NaOH = A *0.40

2. Hydro in Dye bath Liquor

Add 2 ml of 37% HCHO to 150 ml beaker. Add 2 ml of dye range liquor . Add 6 ml of

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
25% glacial acetic acid solution prepared by diluting 1 part acid with 3 parts water.
Add 2 ml of starch/KI indicator. Add ml of water. Titrate with 0.046 N ( prepared by
diluting 460 ml of 0.1 N Iodine to one liter ) solution until the color changes from
emarald green to bluish purple.

G/l of hydro= mo fo 0.046N of Iodine

Importance of High Concentration of Free Hydrosulphite

The clearest shades with minimum reddish streaks are observed at by relatively high
conc. of hydrosulphite. On the other side, with lack of hydrosulphite, the leuco indigo is
less dissolved and thereby adheres to a greater extent to the fibres. With lack of
hydrosulphite furthermore, the amount of unreduced dyestuff by oxidation at the upper
level of the liquor and through activiation of unfixed dyestuff, gets separated from the
fibrous material would constantly rise as the reducing agent for creating leucoform
would be missing. Under these circumstances a reddish bronze like shade results due
to dispersion of not reduced dyestuff in the yarn. The min. proportion of hydrosulphite
should be around 1.3 to 1.5 gpl in case of rope dyeing and 3-4 gpl in case of sheet
dyeing. Also to avoid the lack of hydrosulphite or Indigo at certain places in the
immersion, vat, the whole quantity of the liquor should be circulated 2-3 times every

Reaction Time

At very short reaction time, an adequate liquor exchange ( i.e. the amount of
chemicals consumed and replaced by fresh addition of reduced indigo) is not assured.
This has a negative influence on dyeing and depth of dye penetration. In addition to
this the time available for diffusion of dyestuff until oxidation commences is too short.
To ensure an even and good depth of dye penetration by dyeing in several passages,
the reaction time should be 20-30 sec. for each vat (eg. at a speed of 20m/min for a
reaciton time of 10 seconds, the immersion path should be maximum 3.3 meters).
A reaction time exceeding 60 seconds should be avoided as the amount of dyestuff
again get reduced and released may again supersede that of additionally take up dye
stuff, resulting in higher shades.
Softening Agent: 8 g/lit
Drying: Rest humidity should be 30% and then sized.

Addition of chemicals
1. Red Tinge: reduce addition of NaOH, increase slightly Na2S2O3
2. Darkish Red: increase Hydro
3. Light Greenish: decrease Hydro
4. Dark Green: Increase Caustic

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

1st Wash tank: mercerisation by taking 22% NaOH ie. 250 gpl
2nd Wash Tank: Hot Wash
3rd Wash Tank: Cold Wash

In 1st and 2nd dye bath take sulphur color 6-8% on the weight of the yarn sheet.
Temperature 90 deg. cel. The solution contains the following:

1. solubalised sulphur color: 150 gpl

2. Na2S--> reducing agent: It is added to increase its reducing power
3. Caustinc Soda --> 10 gpl--> reducing agent
4. Wetting agent--> 2gpl
5. Antioxident Sulphide ( Glucose paste--> 5gpl). This is added to prevent the oxidation of
of Sulphide solution. It will always remain in reduced form
( Alos if the shade is slightly greyish, one can add tiny tinge of sulpher blue--> 20gpl)

in III, IV and V dye bath--> cold wash

in 6th dye bath. We take H2O2(30%)+Acetic Acid(2:1 by weight). H2O2 acts as an
oxidising agent. But as it acts on neutral pH (=7) and after cold bath the solution is slightly
alkaline, to make it neutral wil add acetic acid. Acs in alkaline pH, oxidising action of
H2O2 will be similar to the bleaching action, which may cause tendering in the fabric.

7th and 8th Dye Bath: Cold Wash

Wash Box Number 4: Here washing is done with detergent and soda ash at 60-70 deg.c

5th and 6th Wash Box: Hot Wash

7th wash Box: Here softner is added at 25 gpl. It is cationic softener with pH 4.5 to 6.5. As
during oxidation of sulphur, strength is reduced by 10%. On a yarn sulphur is of two types
1. Free Sulphur
2. Reacted Sulphur.

The free sulphur will react with moisture in the atmosphere to form:
H2O + S --> H2SO4
Which tenders the yarn. Now at acidic pH reaction is much faster. So we add only a small
amount of softener (25 gpl) as against that in indigo which is 100gpl.

3rd Point
Over all during sulphur dyeing and storing, the yarn strength is reduced by 15% as
compared to Indigo.

4th point
If ball formation takes place of sulphur dyed warp at loom shed, then we can taken in 4th
dye bath little Na2S+Caustic to reduce the free sulphur.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


Warp yarns are assembled on the ball Warp yarns are directly wound on a beam
warper to form a rope. in the form of a sheet.
Ropes are drawn through dyeing range Dyeing is done in sheet form
side by side.
After dyeing they are dried on a drum drier After dyeing the warp sheet is dried on
and deposited in cans. The ends are the same machine in continuous
spread out on long chain beamer Or on a process by drying cylinders and then
rebeamer, and the yarn sheet is wound sizing is done on the same machine
onto warp beams. These beams are then and after drying it is wound on a
taken to sizing. After sizing they are dried weaver beam
and assembled on the weaving beam.
Good depth of shade is achieved Depth of shade is not good
In rope dyeing we have very high In Slasher dyeing productivity is less but it
productivity but the limitation is that it is is feasible for short lots.
very expensive for short lots.
It can only run for coarse yarn as the It can run for fine yarns too
tension on rope breaks the yarn
Time consuming processes are rebeaming Rebeaming is not required and sizing is
and then sizing done after dyeing.
As the dye bath is less exposed to air so Setting up or stabilization of the dye baths
dye is affected less. is affected faster.
The oxidation time is greater for fixation The immersion and oxidation times are
much shorter
The wetting time is greater and so dye Owing to the paralleled warp threads, the
is applied uniformly wetting process is shorter and a wetting
trough may be adequate.
The rope dyeing machine is much The sheet dyeing machine is smaller
expensive than Slasher. than a rope dyeing machine, which
means that the prime costs are lower
Rope opening is avoided Warp sheet entanglement is a danger

The Rope Dyeing section is equipped with Morrison's Rope Dyeing Range.
Morrison has more than 200 Rope Dyeing systems installed the world over, making it the
globally recognized "first quality" method of indigo dyeing is the world.

Dyed Lots are inspected at US Denim's in-house Dyeing Lab to ensure the fabric shade
as per customer requirements. The Inspected Lots are then transferred to the Re-
Beaming section for further processing.
Dyeing department is present on first floor. There are two working shifts in the department
each of 12 hours a day.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Custom designed Indigo Rope Range for maximum flexibility with minimum waste
 Dyes multiple yarn weights with multiple dye classes
 Runs short or long production lots with light or heavy depths of shade
 Pretreatment consists of counter flow scour / wash boxes
 Mercerizing adds improved dye affinity, luster, strength & fashion effects
 Multiple dips of indigo & oxidation time in the skier section for shade depths
 Multiple wash boxes for rinsing & chemical application
 Coilers lay ropes into drums in a pattern that facilitates Re-beaming operation

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
After rope dyeing, dyed yarn is rebeamed. This is also called warper beam.


 Heavyweight [66 tax (G 75's)] to lightweight [2.25 tax (1800's)] yarn processing
 High energy efficiency by utilizing AC generated power
 Tension-controlled motors in creel to drive the size box & head end motors
 Greater yarn stability through fluted rolls
 Precise tension control
 Individual beam tension control in the creel via load cell tension rolls & AC tension
controlled motors

Machine Layout

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


Although the quality and characteristics of the warp yarns coming out of the winding,
warping and dyeing processes are quite good, they are still not good enough for the
weaving process for most of the yarns. The weaving process requires the warp yarns to
be strong, smooth and elastic or extensible to certain degree. To achieve these properties
on the warp yarns, a protective coating of polymeric film forming agent (size) is applied to
the warp yarns prior to weaving; this process is called slashing or sizing.

The main purposes of slashing are as follows:

 To increase the strength of the yarns

 To reduce the yarn hairiness that would cause problems in weaving process
 To increase the abrasion resistance of the yarn against other yarns and various
machine elements
 To reduce fluff and fly during the weaving process for high speed weaving


After the size box the yarns go through the dryer section. The wet yarns are dried by
using cylinder drying. Cylinder drying is done using steam heated hot rolls called the
drying cylinders. The cylinders are coated with Teflon to prevent sticking of the yarns on
the cylinders.



Make Germany
Quantity 01

Modern control systems for reproducible quality and efficient handling

Individual drives & precise measuring systems
Pre-wetting technology significantly reduces size & increases weaving
Features efficiency
Precise sizing control
Perfect beams for better weaving results
Reproducible size preparation - manual or fully automatic

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


The yarns are wound on to weaver’s beam at the headstock. A pressing roller is
pressing the warp yarn for uniform tension winding. A guide roller guides the yarns to the
weaver’s beam. A pressing roller is pressing the warp yarn for uniform tension winding.


After the winding of dyed warp beams the form the head stock the samples of
the yarn are taken to laboratory for testing and then it is transported to the weaving

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

The process of producing a fabric by interlacing warp and weft threads is known as
weaving. The machine used for weaving is known as weaving machine or loom. Weaving
is an art that has been practiced for thousands of years. The earliest application of
weaving dates back to the Egyptian civilization. Over the years, both the process as well
as the machine has undergone phenomenal changes. As of today, there is a wide range
of looms being used, right from the simplest handloom to the most sophisticated loom.


There are three basic weaves:

1) Plain weave

2) Twill weave

3) Satin Weave

Most of the other weaves are derived from these three basic weaves. The immediate
derivatives of these three structures are warp rib, filling rib, and basket weave.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Classification of Weaving Machines:

Weaving machines are classified according to their filling insertion mechanism.

The classification is as follows:





Air-jet weaving is a type of weaving in which the filling yarn is inserted into the warp shed
with compressed air. Air-jet system utilizes a multiple nozzle systems and a profiled reed.
Yarn is drawn from a filing supply package by the filing feeder and each pick is measured
for the filling insertion by means of a stopper. Upon release of the filling yarn by the
stopper, the filling is fed into the reed tunnel via tandem and main nozzles, which provide
the initial acceleration. The relay nozzles provide the high air velocity across the weave
shed. Profiled reed provides guidance for the air and separates the filling yarn from the
warp yarn.

Here are some of the common fabric defects and their troubleshooting as observed on
Denim weaving Airjet looms. I have included the damages observed on Tsudakoma
looms, but I am sure the principles can be applied on other airjet looms also:

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

1. Check catch cord drawing in and its position

2. Air pressure of all nozzles
3. Heald Frame height and shed crossing
4. Check stretch nozzle timing and position
5. Reed dent gap opposite to stretch nozzle.
6. Check condition and position of weft rubber stopper.
7. H1 Feeler head condition to check for any damage etc.
8. Heald frame side play to check
9. Binding of Leno Yarn


1. Check pressure of AGS

2. Check AGS piston
3. Check beam gear and beam drive pinion
4. Check beam bearing bush, clamper condition and beam bearing
5. Check ELO timing
7. Check tension lever rod freeness and shock absorber position
8. Check take up gear and take up belt condition
9. Check press roll spring tension
10. The machine should not be stopped for long duration


1. Check Air pressure

2. Check leakage of air pipes
3. Check nozzle jet timing
4. Check catch cord end drawing in position
5. Check stretch nozzle position against reed dent gap.
6. Check heald frame height and shed crossing timing
7. Check fringe length
8. Check LHS cutter timing
9. Check position and condition of rubber stopper
10. Check proper winding of weft turn on FDP
11. Check individual subnozzles for blowing
12. Check all warp ends are tight enough
13. RH/LH selvedge should run on last ring of the temple.


1. Check all serrated bars are not in loose contact at the clamp
2. Serrated bars should be thoroughly cleaned with petrol/thinner
3. Dropper sensitivity to be checked
4. Electric connection at the cable with clamp should be checked.
5. Remove fluff from the serrated bars
6. Ensure that each warp end is attached with one drop pin.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

1. Check that temple cover is face to face with temple bracket

2. Ensure that temple bracket are fitted firmly on temple bar
3. Check heald frame height and shed crossing timing.
4. Check warp tension
5. Check bottom guide bar setting
6. Check press roll spring tension

1. Check position of warp stop motion separator
2. check cross ends
3. Check freeness of heald wires.
4. Check emery roll for any cuts etc.
5. Check freeness of temple rings
6. Check smoothness of temple covers
7. Bottom guide bar position and condition to be checked
8. Check reed-dent spacing


1. check sub nozzle angle and height

2. Check scratches at tip of sub nozzle
3. Sub nozzles should be parallel
4. Check Reed dents


1. Check working of H1/ H2 feeler
2. Check feeler timing in I-board
3. Check setting of FU-203 (sensitivity of H1 and H2 feelers)
4. Clean H1 and H2 Feeler head

1. Check that ends should be parallel
2. Remove entanglement of warp ends
3. Check that sticky ends of selvedge should not run in the body.


1. Check that no oily fluff is stuck to the warp sheet

2. Check that no oily fluff is stuck to the emery roll or pressure roll.


1. Check leno stop motion

2. check proper RH cutter setting
3. Check continuous working of batching winder

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
In US DENIM weaving is carried out through air Jet looms. Like some other
departments weaving department is running 24 hours a day and meeting the sales
requirements. Weaving department is playing a leading role in denim manufacturing at of
denim at US DENIM.
Air jet weaving is a type of weaving in which the filling yarn is inserted into the warp shed
with compressed air. Air jet weaving utilizing a multiple nozzles system and profile reed.
Yarn is drawn from a filling supply package by the filling feeder and each pick is
measured for the filling insertion by means of a stopper. Upon release of the filling yarn by
the stopper, the filling is fed into the reed tunnel via tandem and main nozzles. The
tandem and the main nozzle combination provide the initial acceleration, where the relay
nozzles provide the high air velocity across the weave shed. Profile reed provides
guidance for the air and separates the filling yarn from the warp. A cutter is used to cut
the yarn when the insertion is completed.
Air jet machine has an extremely high insertion rate .Due to its exceptional performance,
air jet machines are used primarily for the economical production of standard fabrics,
covering a wide range of styles. Meanwhile, more and more special fabric segments are
covered: heavy cotton fabrics such as denim, terry fabrics, glass fabrics, etc.

The advantages of air jet weaving machines are:

• High productivity.
• Low initial outlay.
• High filling insertion rates.
• Simple operation and reduced hazard because of few moving parts.
• Reduced space requirements.
• Low noise and vibration levels
• Low spare parts requirement.
• Reliability and minimum maintenance.

After the tandem and main nozzles are turned on, yarn is released from the clamp
(stopper).When all the coils of the particular pick have been pulled off the feeder, the
stopper closes the yarn decelerates and then will be beaten into the fabric. Thereafter, the
air is turned off and the pick is cut to complete the cycle.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Make Belgium
Total looms 86 looms

Fast, simple width changes & symmetrical width reduction

Modular feature equipped to fit a superstructure
Newly designed relay nozzles & valves for highest
Split frame for style change in less than 30 minutes
Optimized insertion preparation for up to eight colors or yarn
Standard design for cam, dobby and jacquard motions
Warp beam and cloth roll can be changed quickly without


A doff of required length according to Let off of the loom and quality of the fabric
is removed from the loom and transported to the finishing department

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

“A process done to fibers, yarns and fabric causing them to change in appearance,
texture and performance.”

The term finishing covers all those treatments that serve to impart to the textile the
desired end-use properties. These can include properties relating to visual effect, handle
and special characteristics such as waterproofing and nonflammability. Finishing
treatment is done to achieve the ultimate customer requirements.
These are mostly value added processes.
Finishing may involve
• Mechanical Finish
• Chemical Finish


Mechanical Finishing is defined as any operation performed to improve fabric

appearance or function by physical manipulation. Steam or water may accompany the
physical manipulation; however, chemicals other than lubricants are seldom used. Fabric
luster, smoothness, softness, residual shrinkage and hand are examples of the properties
that can be altered by mechanical finishing.

• Compacting (Shrink-proofing)
• Calendaring
• Raising (Napping, Sueding)
• Shearing
• Polishing
• Corduroy Cutting


Among chemical treatments one can further distinguish between treatments that
involve a chemical reaction of the finishing agent with the fiber and the chemical
treatments where this is not necessary (e.g. softening treatment). Some finishing
treatments are more typical for certain types of fibers like easy care finishes for cotton
antistatic treatment for synthetic fibers and mothproofing and anti-felt treatments for wool.
In case of fabric the finishing treatment often take place as a separate operation after
dyeing. In more than 80% of cases the finishing liquor, in the form of an aqueous
solution/dispersion, is applied by means of padding techniques. The dry fabric is passed
through the finishing bath containing all the required ingredients, and is then passed
between rollers to squeeze out as much as possible of the treating solutions before being
dried and finally cured. Washing as final step, tends to be avoided unless absolutely

Following are some of the Finishes:

• Flat finish (singeing – mercerizing- padding- sanforizing)
• Regular finish (singeing –padding- sanforizing)
• Coating

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
US DENIM finishing department is a well-established modern section with a
suitable range of the finishing processes required for denim.


It is divided in to following main sections:

 Batcher formation
 Mercerizing (chemical treatment)

Finishing is done according to the customer` s requirement and as per profit of the
organization. Singeing, skewing, washing and sanforizing are done according to end use
of fabric. Parameters of the finishing are set by testing under the supervision of the
finishing department.

The finishing of denim fabric is accomplished for several purposes. The fabric is
brushed to remove the loose lint, singed to burn off the hair-like fibers. The denim must
be preshrunk to prevent the finished garment from shrinking after washing. The fabric is
often chemical treated with size, wetting agent and lubricants. Washing a piece of
unfinished fabric and measuring the normal shrinkage that occurs determine the amount
of shrinking needed. During finishing the fabric is skewed to prevent the garments from
skewing after fabrication. The basic denim compressive shrinking range is used in the
factory that has most denim finishing in a separate denim finishing range. The machine
consists of entry end, shrinking machine, drying, folding or batching.


Singeing means burning off loose fibers sticking out of textile goods.


Common reasons for singeing include:
1. Textiles are first and foremost singed in order to improve their wear and end use
2. The burning-off of protruding fiber ends which are not firmly bound into the yarns
results in clean surface which allows the structure of fabric to be clearly seen.
3. Fabrics which have not been singed soil more easily than singed fabrics.
4. The risk of pilling, especially with synthetic fibers, is extremely low in case of singed
5. A closely singed fabric is essential for printing fine intricate patterns.
6. The risk of skitter dyeing with singed piece dyed articles in dark shades is considerably
reduced as randomly protruding fibres cause a diffuse reflection of light.
7. Singeing process facilitates and speeds up desizing. This effect, however, is achieved
only if the fabric is impregnated with desizing liquor immediately after singeing.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Before singeing After singeing


Singeing can be classified into two types:

1. Direct singeing
2. Indirect singeing

DIRECT SINGEING is the most popular procedure. The fabric passes either glowing
metal with contact (mainly for pile fabric) or a direct gas flame. Important for both
techniques: when the machine stops, the fabric is moved from the metal and the flame
stops, too.
The indirect singeing works with highly heated ceramic modules. Infrared beams are
burning the loose fibers; speed controls the singeing effect.

It is a type of direct singeing in which fabric is exposed to direct flame in such a way
that it only burns the protruding fibers at the surface not the fabric. Gas singeing machine
along with burner also equipped with cooling rollers to cool down the fabric and brushing
zone in front and after singer.

The singeing process contains three steps:

1. One cleaning step in front of the singer,

2. The singeing itself and
3. The cleaning step afterwards.

1. Pre-cleaning:
Well prepared and cleaned fabric is a pre-condition for good singeing. The first
cleaning should contain brushing and beating units to achieve the best output. Fabric
heavily vibrates due to the beating bars. Dust, fibres and other residues get loosened and
are extracted; fibers sticking to the surface get lifted by the brush segments presenting it
in such a way that they easily can be singed-off.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Singeing:

It is of utmost importance since if proper control is done here it leads to very severe
damage to the fabric. The heart of any singeing machine are the burners, together with
the supply and control units for the gas-air mixture.
The essential conditions to prevent fabric damage and singeing faults are:
a) A high energy flame (mechanical and thermal) to burn polyester with any
b) A uniformly hot and hard flame to prevent singeing marks
c) Machine design that minimizes flame/fabric contact time and keeps thermal energy
away from the ground as much as possible to avoid thermal effects. Burner should be
such that it gives oxidizing flame so that there are no soot marks on fabric. Oxidizing
flame or blue flame is only possible if there is proper mixing of the fuels [Normally it is
mixture of air and oxygen (3:1)

3. Post cleaning:
A second cleaning after the singeing unit ensures that ashes and other products resulting
from singeing are separated from the system. Cleaning after singeing is as well of
importance, impregnating liquor remains cleaner and reduced amount of dust in the
following process steps.

Fabric speed (m/min)
Flame intensity (mbar)
Fabric temperature (C)
Singeing positions
Burner fabric distance (mm)

Common singeing faults are as follows:
 Uneven singeing effect
 across the fabric width
 along the fabric length
 in the form of horizontal and/ or vertical steps
 Thermal damage of the fabric or individual fibre types within the fabrics e.g.,
formation of beads of molten material in polyester.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
In US Denim one Singeing machine of OSTHOFF is installed.

Manufacturer: Osthoff Singeing - Goller Desizing

Year 1997-98
Fabric Width 103" / 2600mm
Roller Width 108" / 2800mm

Rotation Stations:

Hydraulic Rotation Station

Motorized Rotary
Total 14 points

Machine Configuration

Batcher / Plaited Stack

Singeing Compartment, 2 Burners, 15 mbar Pressure both side adjustment
Desizing Compartment, 5/6 Top and Bottom Roller, approx 22m cloth content
Batcher at exit

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

It is the process by which natural twist / convolutions are open by the help of
concentrated alkali under tension conditions. It is a treatment which makes the cellulose
start to swell at a certain alkali concentration.

Advantages of Mercerization:
 improves dye uptake up to 40%
 permanent luster is obtained
 improves tensile strength
 dimensional stability
 dead cotton coverage
 less pilling effect

The advantages of mercerization are considerable. The increase in the dye uptake
capacity results in deep shades and expensive dyes savings can be achieved.
Furthermore as a rule, the color fastness and uniform appearance of goods are also

 Concentration of NaOH is very important

 29-30° Bome of NaOH
 Cold water is used i.e. 15-18°C is ideal temperature for mercerization or maximum
room temperature.
 pH should be in alkaline range

Since mercerization affects the dyeing properties, any irregularities have a direct effect on
the dyeing or print. The result of inadequate mercerizing are:
 unleveled dyeing
 reduced color fastness properties
 ending or cross shading
 varying dimensional stability
 inadequate coverage of dead or immature cotton
 alkali marks

Sometimes when we are in need of light shades than mercerization is done on a
small scale by applying less caustic to the warp sheet.

After mercerization pre-washing of the warp sheet is done. Once the sheet is washed by
hot water and then cold water. Pre washing is done in order to remove the excess pre-
treatment chemical from the warp sheet. If they remain inside the sheet than it will cause
the fibers to loose and also dyeing will not occur uniformly.
Squeezing rollers are provided at the end of each bath to remove the excess liquor from
the sheet. These rollers also drive the warp sheet. Pressure on these rollers is adjusted
according to the tensile strength of the warp sheet with the help of load cells.
Clod washing is done after hot washing in order to reduce the temperature of the warp

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


Manufacturer: Goller
Year 1997-1998 Refurbished in 2004
Fabric Width 70" / 1800mm
Roller Width 79" / 2000mm
Dwell Time in the mercerizing section 35 second
Speed 45 m/min
Mercerizing Section 18 pairs of rollers, cloth content in mercerizing machine 30-35m,
Stabilizing Section 18 pair of rollers, cloth content in stabilizing machine 30- 35m
No of Washing Compartment 5
Cloth Content 22 x 5 = 110 meters
Can Dryers 12

Machine Configuration

> Batcher / Plaited Stack

> Scray
> Wet on Wet Mercerizing Arrangement (trough and padder)
> Mercerizing Section (Chiller option included)
> Stabilizing Section
> 1 Modified Turbo Washing Compartment with 2 suction sloth, 22m cloth
> 4 Normal Goller Washing Compartment 22 meter cloth
> Drying Cans
> Scray
> Batcher

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


The stenter is a gas fired oven, with the fabric passing through on a chain drive, held
in place by either clips or pins. Air is circulated above and below the fabric, before being
exhausted to atmosphere. As well as for drying processes, the stenter is used for pulling
fabric to width, chemical finishing and heat setting and curing. It is a very versatile piece
of equipment.

Modern stenters are designed with improved air circulation, which helps to improve drying
performance, and with integrated heat recovery and environmental abatement systems.

Infra-red drying is used for both curing and drying. It is used as either a stand alone piece
of equipment or as a pre-dryer to increase drying rates and hence fabric speed through a

Stenter ALKAN Year 2001

Location Turkey
w/width 2400mm,
Horizontal.pins clips chain ( Combi)
6 chambers, diathermic oil heating,
Squising padder with 2 cylinders with impregnation tank,
Corino electronic weftstraightener,
collector at the entrance, air cooling at the exit, entrance and exit on big roll or folder.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________



The sole objective of sanforizing is to control the length wise shrinkage of fabric.
The maximum percentage of shrinkage depends on fabric construction and quality but
controlled according to the customer specifications.


The internationally well-known and most important shrinking process today dates back
more than 70 years. Though the correct expression for this process is Controlled
Compressive Shrinkage, the average person knows it as SANFORIZED. The process is a
purely mechanical treatment without any addition of chemicals.
The Sanforized label means dimensional stability for garments made up of Sanforized
labelled fabrics.
The purpose of the process is to shrink fabrics in such a way that textiles made up of
these fabrics do not shrink during washing.
The amount of potential wash shrinkage must be determined prior to shrinking. A full
width sample is wash-tested according to the test method. After the lengthwise and
widthwise shrinkage has been determined, the compressive shrinkage machine can be
adjusted accordingly.

Monforts Sanforizing Range

Manufacturer: Monforts
Year 1997-98
Fabric Width 1800mm
Roller Width 2000mm
Shrinking Cylinder 640 mm
Moisturizing Unit Monforts
Palmer Unit 2 meter Rollin Rubber Belt

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


> Batcher / Plaited Stack

> Scray
> Moisturizing Unit from Monforts and Steaming Can
> Shrinking Unit Rollin Belts
> Palmer Unit
> Scray
> Batcher

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________



PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


Quality is ultimate concern; every single yard of the denim goes through inspection
department and rated by a point count system to ensure that quality is up to standard
before packing. Defective fabric pieces are rejected and sold as seconds and relatively
minor defective points are marked clearly using stickers to alert cutters


• Removable defects
• Non-Removable defects


Removable defects are those defects which are removed by washing and by cutting.
Defects are:

When fabric gets spots of oil lubrication from any part.

It is the collection of the threads at the surface of the fabric. Similarly fibers present
in the form of bunch at the fabric are called slubs. This defect is removed by

When fabric passes through temple it produces holes on the fabric due to its wiry


Those defects which cannot be removed by mending and these are count in fabric
grading. These are:

In warp and weft direction there is a gap, it looks like that some warps or wefts are

During weaving when m/c stops and again starts running then there is a gap between the
two wefts. It seems like that the beating is not done properly.

It is the dark color or thick weft lines in the fabric.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

The two or more threads are inserted at the same place. It is somewhat emboss and
occur at the full length of the fabric.

If the double or thick yarn is inserted 1/4 or ½ width of the fabric then it is known as cut or
broken pick.

When the warp end is broken.

It comes due to knotting of broken warp end.

It comes when a person touches the warp ends.

Creases occur due to improper finishing.

When more yarns are passed through dents.

When warp end becomes tight due to tension in dyeing.

It comes when warp end is coarse.

If the weft yarn is missing from any place of fabric then it is known as miss pick.

The lines are formed on the fabric due to reed movement and this defect is called reed

That mark which is due to the beating motion of the loom is called starting mark.

If 30 points come in meter fabric it is considered as A grade fabric.

If more than 30 points comes in fabric then it is considered as B grade fabric.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

In the packaging section, fully inspected A-Grade fabric is packed as
bale or roll according to customer requirements. Shipping marks are also
printed on the packaging using computerized ERP labeling software.


PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

• Stop motion does not work on creel and on warping drum as a result broken ends are
not traceable for knotting.
• Chain breakages
• If frictional drum should not be kept in a polished state, then thermal damages occur due
to abrasion.
• Brake could be inefficient.
• Sprockets are jammed.
• If comb do not move properly then there is a chance of cutting of comb due to friction
with yarn.
• Tension supplied if varied it causes breakages or loosening in yarn.
• If speed of warper increase than yarn sheet may break


• Neps
• Long thick places (in case of non slub yarn)
• Short thick places (in case of non slub yarn)
• Thin places
• Weak places
• Count variation
• Hairiness

• Misalignment of yarn sheet if the yarn sheet is not properly adjusted
• Uneven package density
• Too soft package winding
• Package could not be in uniform density



• Leakage of steam in drying cylinders

• Wear and tear of rollers if bearing is jammed
• Improper working of load cell on squeezing roller. Which causes entanglement of warp
sheet as pressure is not properly distributed
• Faults in dosing system can cause serious problem of shade variation.
• If the accumulator do not work properly than the machine is stopped.
• If speed of the machine is kept greater than the yarn‘s bearable strength

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

The main causes of the dye ability variations in yarn are:

• Immature fibres
• Dead fibres
• Vegetable matter or other foreign matter
• Wrong twist
• Bad splice
• Neps
• Count variations


• Pressure rolls do not work properly

• Squeezing rollers do not work properly


• Dropper will not fall

• Sensors do not work properly
• Problem in electrical panel
• Problem in electronic card
• Wear and tear of temple
• If dust comes in nozzles
• Improper working of solenoid valves

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

US Apparel & Textiles (Pvt.) Ltd.

Is the foremost garment manufacturing company of Pakistan with 3 Factories and more
than 30 years of experience behind its back. We are fully capacitated to handle any
volume orders. Weaving, Cutting, Stitching, Embroidery, Washing /Special effects and
Packing are all dealt with in house according to “ISO-9001:2000” and “WRAP” certified

For many years major US, European and UK retail stores and mail order companies in
Europe have counted on our quality, making US Apparel & Textiles a fully vertical and
specialized textile company.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


U Instead of relying on a single in-house fabric source; US apparel has

invested in an impressive warehouse facility stocks up to 1.2 million meters
S of fabric at all times, plus a host of garments related accessories acquired
from the renowned world wide suppliers. U S Apparels stores fabric in latest
“fabric storage racks”

D The total storage capacity is more than one million meters for fabrics alone.
In addition to this, the material management store at U S Apparel stocks
E bulk button, stitching threads and labels; we also keep spare key machines
N for stand by purposes.



PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


To retain its flexibility U S Apparel has

evolved systems to provide optimal
C services to broad spectrum of multi
product based customers.
We have also invigorated our cutting
T department with the addition of the
most modern GERBER fully automatic
T fabric spreader and vacuum tables.


PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Gerber Automatic Cutting Machine

The GERBER S-91 high-ply cutter provides users with benefits of speed, flexibility, and
accuracy - in addition to saving fabric and labor. Up to 76 mm (3 inches) of compressed
fabric can be consistently and accurately cut, utilizing Gerber's high-efficiency vacuum
hold-down system. Cutting precision is assured with features such as automatic knife
sharpening and Knife Intelligence, which automatically accommodates for blade
deflection and variable knife-speed control. The S-91 is the most reliable cutter for high-
volume, high quality cutting, ideal for heavy duty materials such as denim.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Embroidery Machine

E Tajima (Japan)

M Place of origin: China

Model No: TLC-602/612/620/624/902/906/908
Payment Terms: T/T, L/C, D/P
R Supply Ability: 1,000sets/year


PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


S One of the biggest reasons of U S Apparel’s

T success has been its commitment to invest
in the future while not forgetting the tried and
I tested. Today U S Apparel is a fine blend of
traditional yet optimized production
T techniques, plus the most advance computer
aided SMV production management system.
C U S Apparel is unique in its size and scale
in the comparison to other companies
H considering its multidimensional approach.


PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Juki DDL-8700 High-speed Single Needle Straight Lockstitch Industrial Sewing
Machine with Table and Motor

Juki DDL-8700 High-speed Single Needle Straight Lockstitch Industrial Sewing

Machine with Table and Motor Product Details

JUKI DDL8700 is a newly designed unique lockstitch machine, which perfectly

matches clothing, plants for creating the 21st century fashion.

The optimum-balance and highly rigid machine head were created using the latest 3D-
CAD design technology. Thanks to its low vibration and low noise feature, the machine
head provides the operator with a comfortable work environment. In addition, the distance
from the machine arm to the needle on the front of the machine head is sufficiently wide
to allow easy handling of the sewing material. The machine inherits the desirable
features, such as high-speed stitching performance 5,500rpm, extreme stitching
performance, ease of operation, and reliability, from the highly evaluated previous JUKI
lockstitch machines. (DDL-87007: 5,000rpm)

Sewing mechanism that demonstrates outstanding responsiveness to materials to

be sewn.

By thoroughly investigating and modifying the sewing mechanisms in order to achieve

low-tension sewing, the machine flexibly responds to various kinds of materials and
produces beautiful seams of consistent quality.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Maintainability was improved.

Enhanced maintainability is ensured by the improved machine head, such as

incorporation of an eccentric pin that is used to adjust the feed dog.
In addition, the machine is provided with a mounting seat for attachment to improve
workability while replacing the attachment and increasing the durability of the machine
bed surface.

The machine has easy-to-operate functions to achieve improved operability.

By providing a presser foot with a higher lift (13mm), a light-touch stitch dial, a throat plate
with marker grooves that can be used as guide for seam allowance, and other easy-to-
operate functions, the burden on the operator is lightened, and productivity is further

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Good sewing, good pressing, well finished ends and corners, lightness of touch which
holds the work without apparently touching it, thus giving to the finished garment a fresh
look–all these are important considerations.

Plain stitches

• basting,
• running,
• the running and back stitch,
• half back stitch,
• back stitch,
• overhand or whipping stitch,
• overcast,
• hemming, and Blind or slip stitch

Ornamental stitches

• outline,
• chain,
• cat or herringbone,
• blanket or loop,
• feather, coral or briar,
• hemstitching,
• French knots,
• button hole
• Cross stitch.
• The satin stitch

Plain stitches

(1) Basting proper is used only in the preparation of work to hold the stuff and lining, or
any two or more parts of the work together while it is being stitched, none being left in the
finished garment. It is also used as a guide for sewing, feather stitching, etc.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Even Basting

1. Even basting is used for marking purposes and for very particular fastenings, such
as important seams. The stitches should be very carefully taken.
2. Always knot the end of the thread; use No. 40 or 50 with a 5 or 6 needle.
3. Begin at the right-hand end of the work, passing the needle through the material or
materials from the upper side. Take a stitch underneath the exact length you want
all succeeding stitches to be and bring needle up again through the material. For
all ordinary purposes make your stitch about one-half inch long.
4. Place the needle again through the material at the same distance from where the
thread came through as the stitch underneath is. Take another stitch the same
length as the one previous, and continue until the whole length of the material is

Uneven Basting

1. Uneven basting is used for very much the same purpose as even basting, except
that it is more often used to hold together temporarily edges of material that are
later to be permanently sewed together. It is used most commonly in turning hems.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Begin in the same way as you did for even basting, but instead of taking a long
stitch underneath, take a short one of about one-quarter of an inch.
3. Bring the thread out and draw it over about an inch before taking another short
stitch. In other words, make a long stitch on top and a short one underneath.

(2) Running is closely related to basting. It is not used for any seams that have to bear
great strain, but for joining seams in this material, gathering, tucking, making cords, etc.
The stitches are usually of equal length on both sides. Take one stitch in the seam and
hold the goods between the thumb and first finger of each hand, as shown in the
illustration, with the back of the thimble on the eye of the needle.
Then, with as free wrist motion as possible, run or shake the needle through the material.
The motion of the hand should come from the elbow joint.
Gathering, gauging, casing, etc., are used for drawing up the fullness of skirts, ruffles,
flounces, etc., into a given space. The running stitch is used for these.

(3) The running and back stitch is made by taking a few running stitches, drawing out the
needle and making a back stitch over the last running stitch to strengthen the seam. Care
must be taken not to hold the side next the worker too full and not to miss the under
material, but to take the stitches even on both sides.

(4) The half-back stitch is made by taking one stitch and placing the needle half way back,
then bringing it out twice the length of the stitch and placing the needle half way back
each time from where the last stitch ended. The appearance on the right side will be of
regular space as in the running stitch.

(5) The back stitch is made by placing the needle back to the last stitch, bringing it out
once the length of the last stitch, then placing the needle back into the last stitch, and so
on, making the stitches follow each other without any space between. This is used in all
places that are to bear great strain.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
(6) Overhanding, oversewing, whipping, top sewing are one and the same–small stitches
taken over edges, to join folded edges or selvages, for sewing bands on gathers, sewing
lace and insertion, and for sewing carpet strips together.
The pieces for an overhand seam should be pinned carefully, placing the pins at right
angles to the edge. The folded edges or selvages are placed together, the right side of
the goods being in.
Do not use a knot to begin sewing, but leave the knot end of the thread and sew it in with
the first stitches, carrying the thread on top of the seam. To finish off the seam, overhand
back over the last few stitches.

(7) Overcasting is a slanting stitch used to keep raw edges from ravelling. This stitch, like
Oversewing may be worked from right to left or from left to right.

(8) The hem stitch and blind or slip stitch will be considered under hems.


Never use a knot in any embroidery, but start by running a few stitches along the line
which is to be covered.

(1) The outline stitch is the simplest of all embroidery stitches. Take a long stitch on the
surface, with the needle pointing towards the chest in the line to be covered, and a short
back stitch on the under side of the material. The effect of the under or wrong side of the
mate-rial is exactly that of an ordinary back stitch.
The beauty of this stitch depends upon its regularity and in always keeping the thread on
the same side of the needle.

(2) The chain stitch when perfectly done should look like the stitch made by a single-
thread machine.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
This stitch is made by taking the thread toward the worker, and before the needle is
drawn out of the cloth the thread is held by the thumb under the point of the needle, as in
a buttonhole, making a loop. The needle is inserted in the last loop for the next stitch. The
chain stitch is used in modern embroidery as an outline and for darning, but in old
embroidery, the outline and chain stitches were used for filling as well. They are found in
Persian, Indian, and Italian Renaissance work. Like the feather
stitch, the chain stitch is worked towards the worker.

(3) The cat stitch or herringbone stitch is an alternate slanting back stitch, the needle
being placed first to the right and then to the left. This stitch must be worked evenly to be
effective. It is used to finish flannel seams and hems, fasten down linings, opened seams,
and canvas facings and featherbone, in millinery– in fact, this stitch is one of the most
useful in sewing. The -catch- stitch is a variation of the cat stitch. Instead of pointing the
needle towards the chest, the stitch is taken parallel with the chest. It is used for about the
same purposes as the cat stitch. As with the outline stitch, the cat stitch is worked -from-
the worker.

(4) Blanket or loop stitch, used to ornament the edge of blankets, etc., and for finishing
the edge of stockinet or web material, is worked from left to right, the edge of the material
being held towards the worker. Start with three or four running stitches along the edge so
the line of stitching will cover them. Insert the needle the desired width from the edge,
draw it towards you down over the thread, being careful not to draw the thread too tightly
over the edge of the flannel. Fasten the thread by taking running stitches under the last
blanket stitch on the wrong side.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
(5) Single, double, and triple feather or coral stitches may be made very ornamental and
are used in all kinds of sewing and on all materials.
They are always made towards the worker, the stitches being taken alternately to the right
and left of the line of the design. The thread should always be carried under the needle as
in a buttonhole stitch. The design may be varied by taking the stitches diagonally or
straight, by making them close or separated, etc.

(6) Hemstitching is used for ornament in making hems and tucks. The first step in
hemstitching is the drawing of threads. Rubbing the cloth along the line of threads to be
drawn will make the drawing easier if the cloth is sized.
After the threads are drawn, the hem is turned and basted even with the lowest edge of
the drawn space. Insert the needle into the edge of the hem and material, taking up a
cluster of threads bring the thread under the needle to form a buttonhole stitch or make a
simple stitch in the edge of the fold. The number of threads drawn and the number in a
cluster must be determined by the coarseness or fineness of the material, the greater
number being drawn and taken in fine material. There are several methods of
hemstitching, but the results are about the same.

(7) French knots are used in connection with other stitches for borders enclosed in outline
and chain stitches, in initials, centers of flowers, and as a filling-in stitch. The simplest
method is of taking a small back stitch, bringing the thread from the -eye- of the needle
under the point from right to left and drawing the needle perpendicularly from the cloth.
Place the needle back of the knot and bring the point out in the place where the next knot
is to be made. The size of the thread will determine the size of the knot.

(8) The embroidery buttonhole stitch has many possibilities and many variations. It is
worked from left to right instead of from right to left as in a buttonhole. The thread from
the work is carried under the point of the needle from left to right, just the reverse of the
buttonhole. This stitch is used on flannel and in embroidery of all kinds; it may be padded
or worked flat and the stitches may be taken a distance apart or near together.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
(9) The cross stitch is worked on linen, scrim, canvas, or any open-meshed material. If
done on a flat, smooth surface, it will be necessary to work over canvas, afterwards
drawing out the canvas threads. The canvas should be well basted on the material, the
warp threads of the canvas lying -perfectly straight- on a line with the warp threads of the
material on which the pattern is worked. The stitches should always run the same way. If
the first ground stitches are made from left to right, from bottom towards the top, the cross
stitches should be made from right to left from the top towards the bottom.
All the ground stitches run one way and the cross stitches in the opposite way.
This stitch is used for marking table linen, underwear, and embroidery designs. When
marking linen and unlined work, make the under side very neat by running the thread
under the stitches already made, instead of taking a long stitch when beginning in another
part of the letter or design.

(10) The satin stitch is an over and over stitch and is used on materials of all kinds for
marking linen, etc.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


A hem is a fold of goods twice folded to protect a raw edge.

Sewing Hems

In sewing the hem, the needle should take up only the edge to be hemmed down and just
enough to hold on the cloth or lining. In white work the stitches should be fine, showing as
little as possible.

I found this fabulously perfect way to hem jeans on the Cavaricci site, which has since
been taken down, so here’s the lowdown. This method keeps the original hem in tact and
is especially helpful now that all jeans are made to be 34 inches long for mammoth
supermodels. Plus, it took less than 30 minutes.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
A couple notes: It’s best to do one leg at a time, so as not to have too much undoing to do
in case something goes awry. Also, it’s good to know the length that you want each leg to
be. Sometimes, one leg will be a bit shorter or longer than the other before you hem.

Step 1: Decide how much length you would like to take off. Divide that number in half.
(Hems should fall just below the bottom of your ankle. Also, if you generally wear high
heels, or a certain height of heel, you might want your hem a bit longer - it should fall an
inch to a half inch above the floor at your heel.)

Step 2: Cuff the jeans. I wanted to take two inches off my hem, so I measured one inch
out from the original hem line and pinned. (Do not include the distance from the hem to
the end of the jean in your calculations.)

Step 3: Pin around the rest of the cuff, taking care to measure each time you pin.

Mind the seams while you’re pinning. Make sure that the stitching lines up at each seam.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Step 4: It’s time to stitch. You want to place your needle and continue sewing right next to
the original hem. Stitch on the right side of the hem, or the side farthest from the bottom
of the jean. Sew all the way around the cuff. Be sure you don’t sew through both front and
back sides of the jeans (making it so that the foot hole is sewn shut)!

You can either cut the excess off, leaving about a half inch for fraying, or iron the extra
material in.

Turn the leg right side out and press the new seam flat, revealing the old hem.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


U S Apparel has one of the most modern garment wet processing facility in
the country. The electric mix of Italian, Spanish and Far Eastern equipment
allows U S Apparel to provide its customers an almost infinite range of
W garment washing/dyeing facility.

E Computerized control over wash process allows U S Apparel to give

consistent wash quality in long running or repetitive production
T requirements. Wet process department performance is further cemented
with the support of extensive computerized database and a well equipped

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


Machines suitable for all types of washing processes, such us stone washing, bleaching
and other washing treatments on garments of different materials (cotton, linen, viscose,
tensel treatment etc). Particularly indicated for the treatment of jeans, they are supplied
with baskets provided with special beaters, speeding up the process and guaranteeing at
the same time uniformity in the treatment and softness to the denim fabric.

They have variable speed and are equipped with an industrial B&R PC and a PLC Mod.
PP 200.

The software, and in particular the “Wash program”, entirely worked out by Tonello’s
engineers, allows to manage and to control all the functions of the machine as well as the
process operations.

It is possible to store up to 500 recipes (with 200 steps/each).

G1 420 LS EV1
Made in Italy

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Technical Data G1 420 LS EV1

Cylinder Volume 4180 l
Cylinder Dimensions Ø1890x1490 mm
Variable Speed 0/110 rpm
Installed Power 17 kW

Height 2600 mm
Width 2940 mm
Depth 3100 mm
Weight 4400 kg

Tupesa Tumble Dryer

Steam heated dryer

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Commonly used chemicals

'18 KMNO4

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________



Process Recipe Sheet

Date: 30/5/2008 Customer Levi, s
Article no 550+505
Wash type Light Wash Total Qty (pcs): 140 PCS Total Weight (kg): 110kg
Color Light Blue

Process & Standards:

SrNo Porcess Chemical Weight Water Level • Time Temp
Name Itrs Minutes "C"

1 Desiring Desizer 1000ml 800 Llr 10 min 60 C

RAP 1000ml
Ni 400ml
2 Simple Rinse 1 lOOOLtr 2 min R.T

3 Simple Rinse2 lOOOLtr 2 min R.T

4 Enzyming Enzyme 1500gms 700 Ltr 70 min 55 C

RAP 1500Ltr
5 Simple Rinsel lOOOLtr 2 min R.T

6 Simple Rinse2 lOOOLtr 2 min R.T

7 Soda Soda Ash 1 kg 1000 Ltr 5 min 50 C

8 Simple rinsel lOOOLtr 2 min R.T

9 Simple Rinse2 lOOOLtr 2 min R.T

10 Bleaching Bleach Per/Sample lOOOLtr 50 C

11 Simple Rinse 1000 Ltr 2 min R,T
12 Neutral Sodium 2.5kg 800 Ltr 5 min R,T
13 Simple Rinsel 1000 Ltr 2 min R.T

14 Simple Rinse2 lOOOLtr 2 min R.T

15 Softning Softner 2Ltr 700 Ltr 5 min 50 C

Orange LSN 2.2 gms
Brown AGL 2Ltr

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
1. Bleach fast Indigo

− Value addition to denim

− Retains indigo on certain parts
− Kind of resist effect
− Chemical applied by brush, cured at 150ºC
− Ex. Indigofix AXN

2. Anti-depositing agent

− Prevents “back staining” of fabric by loose indigo during washing

− Improves contrast in denim
− Used in stone wash step

3. Dye stuffs with softener

− To carry dyeing and softening in one step

− Soft and supple hand
− Saves time, money and energy as added to final rinse
− Gives used and worn out effect

4. Anti creasing agent

− Provides fabric to fabric lubrication

− Prevents formation of crack marks and streaks
− Minimizes abrasion and gives strength

5. Wrinkle formation

− Creating smooth and permanent wrinkle

− Cross linking concept
− White pigment
− Can be applied by brush, spray or screen
− Then cured at 150ºC
− Washed and treated with softener

6. White pigment

• Can be applied by brush, spray or screen

• Then cured at 150ºC
• Washed and treated with softener

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Multifunctional, low-foaming wetting agent and detergent with emulsifying and
extractive action for mobilising and removing cotton impurities in pretreatment processes.

Quantity 4g/l
Chemical nature Mixture of sequestering agents and surfactants.
Physical form yellowish, clear liquid.
Shelf life Keralon F-ALB can be kept in the original sealed containers at temperatures
between 0 °C and 35 °C for at least 24 months. Once containers have been opened, the
contents should be used up quickly. Containers should be closed tightly after use.


Viscosity Approx. 60 m.Pas at 23 °C (LVT, sp. 1, 50min-1)

Freezing point Approx. –5 °C

Density Approx. 1.0 g/cm3 at 20°C.

pH Approx. 1.5 – 2.5 ( 100 g/l in water) The values given are approximate. Tolerances
are given in the product specification.

Stability In the concentrations at which it is normally employed, Kieralon F-ALB is stable

to hard water, acids, reductive and oxidative bleaching agents, and in caustic soda of up
to 250 g/l NaOH 100% at room temperature. Between the range of 90-130 g/l of NaOH
100%, please note the homogeneous gap.

Solubility Soluble in cold water.

Action Low-foaming wetting agent and detergent with emulsifying and extractive action
for mobilising and removing cotton impurities.


Washing Extraction of hard-water salts and pectins.

Desizing Softening hard water and extracting catalytic substances. Note: no adverse
effect on enzyme activity when pH is adjusted to 6-7

Boiling-off Removal of fiber impurities, removal of degraded size.

Oxidative desizing Removal of fiber impurities.

Bleaching Prevention of precipitation of alkaline earth carbonate. For preventing

deposits. Improves the stabilizing action of conventional peroxide stabilizers.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Cold bleaching Softening hard water, inactivating catalytic substances; improves the
stabilizing action of conventional peroxide stabilizer.

Scouring Improvement in handle and absorbency with shortened pretreatment methods.

Notes on formulating liquors:
Kieralon F-ALB should be stirred into the liquor.

1 -- 3 g/l Kieralon F-ALB
0.25 -- 2 g/l Soda
Temperature: 70 – 95 °C

… g/l Luzyme MT
2 -- 3 g/l common salt
2 -- 5 g/l Kieralon F- ALB
1 g/l Leophen® FR-M
(pH 6 – 7 )
Impregnation temperature: 60 - 70 °C
Liquor pick-up: approx. 100% for Co
approx. 70% for PES/Co
dwell time: approx. 4 – 5 hours

30 -- 50 g/l NaOH 100%
3 -- 5 g/l Kieralon F- ALB
Impregnation temperature: 20 - 80 °C
Liquor pick-up: approx. 100% for Co
approx. 70% for PES/Co.
Steaming temperature: approx. 100 °C
Steaming time: 5 – 20 minutes
(e.g. combination steamer, U-box)

Oxidative desizing/boiling-off
30 – 50 g/l NaOH 100%
2 – 3 g/l Persulphate
3 – 5 g/l Kieralon F-ALB
Impregnation temperature: 20 – 40 °C
Liquor pick-up: approx. 100% for Co
approx. 70% for PES/Co
Steaming temperature: approx. 100 °C
Steaming time: 5 – 20 min
(e.g. combination steamer, U-box)

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Bleaching with Hydrogen peroxide

1. Bleaching of desized and alkaline-pretreated fabrics

20 – 50 ml/l hydrogen peroxide 35%
4 –5 g/l NaOH 100%
8 – 12 ml/l Prestogen®
2 –4 ml/l Kieralon F-ALB
Impregnation temperature: approx. 20 °C
Liquor pick-up: approx. 100% for Co
approx. 70% for PES/Co
Steaming temperature: approx. 100 °C
Steaming time: 15 – 20 min
(e.g. combination steamer, U-box)

Cold bleaching with Hydrogen peroxide

40 – 50 ml/l hydrogen peroxide 35%

10 – 25 g/l NaOH 100%
(7 – 15 g/l sodium silicate 38 ° Bé)
8 – 12 g/l Prestogen PL
3 g/l persulphate
3 – 5 g/l Kieralon F-ALB
1 g/l Leophen FR-M
Impregnation temperature: approx. 20 – 40 °C
Liquor pick-up: approx. 100% for Co
approx. 70% for PES/Co
Dwell time: 16 – 24 hours

2 g/kg Lufibrol® MSD
1 – 2 g/kg Kieralon F-ALB
Temperature: 80 – 95 °C

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


All purpose liquid dye dispersing agent.

Quantity 2g/l

Nature Sodium salt of a condensation product of naphthalenesulphonic acid and

formaldehyde, anionic.

Physical form Brown, mobile liquid.

Storage When stored correctly, in sealed containers, Setamol® BL has a shelf life of upto
24 months.


Density approx. 1.16 g/cm3 at 20 oC

pH approx 9-10 (10% solution)

Solubility Infinitely soluble in water

Boiling point From approx. 100 oC

Stability Setamol® BL is stable to acids, alkalis, hard water and electrolytes and retains
its high efficiency even under HT dyeing conditions.

Compatibility Because it is anionic, Setamol® BL has good compatibility with all anionic
and nonionic products. In combination with cationic auxiliaries, e.g. Peregal® P,
precipitation may occur in neutral or acid liquors, but not under alkaline conditions.

Action Setamol® BL improves the stability of dye dispersions. It prevents agglomeration

and improves the solubility of many dyes. Setamol® BL has no wetting action or,
detergency and practically no retarding effect on vat and disperse dyes. The product has
affinity for animal fibres and polyamide, especially in acid liquors.

Setamol® BL can be added direct to the dye liquor.

Vat dyes Setamol® BL is ued to improve the stability of stock vats and when vatting is
carried out in a long liqour. An addition of Setamol® BL is definitely recommended when
vatting highly concentrated powder and paste-type dyes, which contain only a small
amount of dispersing agent. In the oxidation of vat dyes, Setamol® BL prevents filtering-
out of the insoluble dye pigment, which if formed in the bath by oxidation of the residual
vat dye.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Amounts used:
Stock vat : 5-30 ml/I
Long liquor : 5- 6 ml/l
In the oxidation bath : 1- 3 ml/I

Anthrasol dyes Because of its good dispersing action, even in acid liquors, Setamol BL®
prevents the precipitation of loose dye and the consequent risk of stains when dyeing is
carried out by the two-bath process. The product is used both in the continuous dyeing
procedure and during development in jigs, winches or circulating-liquor machines.
One-bath process :
1-3 ml/I Setamol® BL
Two bath process :
1.5-5 ml/I Setamol® BL

Disperse dyes Setamol® BL is widely used as a dispersing agent in the dyeing of

manmade fibres, e.g. acetate, triacetate and polyester, with disperse dyes. It also retains
its full efficiency. under HT conditions (120-140 oC). The amounts used are largely
dependent on the liqour ratio, e.g.:

in winches, soft-stream machines and jets

1-3 ml/l

in beam and yarn-dyeing machines

1.5-5 ml/l

in jigs
3-6 ml/I
Setamol® BL prevents agglomeration of the residual dye particles in the liquor when the
dyebath is cooled down, and thus ensures good rubbing fastness.

Napthol As dyes 3-6 ml/I Setamol® BL is added to stabilize Naphtol AS padding baths.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Product description REPUTEX 201 is a product for the durable antimicrobial finishing of
cellulosic fiber materials. It contains the active substance PHMB, which very effectively
inhibits the growth of odor-causing and pathogenic microorganisms. As with all
biologically active substances, special rules must be applied when handling REPUTEX 20
and using it in the textile industry. These concern industrial safety, safe disposal and
appropriate treatment of waste water.

For Denim
Ph 6 to 6.5
Temperature 35°C to 40°C
Application on cold conditions

Nature 20 % aqueous solution of poly(hexamethylenebiguanide hydrochloride),

Structural formula

with n = 16 (average value)

CAS name Poly(hexamethylenbiguanide) hydrochloride, 20 % in water

Physical form Slightly hazy, colorless, odorless low-viscosity liquid

Storage REPUTEX 20 has a shelf life of approx. 2 years when stored at a pH of 6 – 8

and a temperature of 25 °C. Storing the product at temperatures that differ significantly
from 25 °C may reduce the shelf life. The product should be stored in the original sealed
containers. It should be protected from temperatures below 0 °C and above 40 °C.
The product must not be stored together with strong bases, hypochlorites or strong
oxidizing agents.

Product specification The values below are approximate. Tolerances are given in the
product specification.

Viscosity (25 °C) Approx. 5 mPa · s

pH (25 °C) Approx. 6 – 8

Density (25 °C) Approx. 1.04 g/cm3

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Boiling point Approx. 102 °C

Flash point Nonflammable (when heated to boiling point)

Dispersibility in aqueous systems Readily dispersible in all proportions

Compatibility Not compatible in solution with anionic products, such as some optical
Not compatible with chlorine bleaching agents. Precipitated by strong alkalis and complex

Application Can be applied to cellulosic fibers at a pH of approx. 6 to 9.


PHMB, the active substance in REPUTEX 20, was optimized especially for finishing
textiles. It has a very high binding affinity for cellulosic fiber materials, outstanding wash
fastness and an extremely low tendency to migrate. This ensures that the antimicrobial
effect of REPUTEX 20 is entirely limited to the treated fiber material.

Antimicrobial properties Examples of pathogenic microorganisms whose growth can be

effectively controlled with REPUTEX 20 (for example, those that cause skin infections
associated with body odor) are listed below. Please note that the minimum inhibitory
concentrations (MICs) only show the activity spectrum of REPUTEX 20 and are not the
actual application concentrations for textiles. They cannot be used to derive
recommendations on the use of the product in the medical or public health sectors.

Minimum inhibition concentrations Method: microtitration in nutrient solution

(MICs) of REPUTEX 20


Application in the textile industry

REPUTEX 20 can be used in the textile industry to produce a durable finish on cellulosic
textiles such as cotton, cotton blends with a cellulosic component of over 35 %, rayon,
and viscose rayon blended fibers.
REPUTEX 20 contains high-molecular-weight PHMB, whose positively charged functional
groups bind firmly to negatively charged cellulosic molecules*. During finishing, the
cationic biocide binds to the fibers where it produces its effect by inhibiting the growth of
odor-causing microorganisms, preventing associated quality defects and ensuring that the
finished textiles are permanently fresh and hygienic.
* REPUTEX 20 therefore does not bond to protein fibers such as wool and
silk or synthetic fibers such as nylon, polyester and polypropylene.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fields of application

Finishing with REPUTEX 20 is suitable for the following textile applications:

• Garments
• Towels, bed linen
• Cloths
• Nonwovens
• Upholstery cloth
• Technical textiles


REPUTEX 20 is applied after pretreatment, optical brightening (compatibility test

required!), printing or dyeing. Before application of the product on bleached cotton, it
should first be ensured that any bleach residues present are quantitatively removed from
the fabric.
REPUTEX 20 can be applied as a dilute aqueous solution by standard finishing
processes such as padding and the exhaust method. Application by spraying is also
possible but appropriate precautions must be taken and the equipment used must be
enclosed to avoid exposure of personnel to spray mist. Subsequent curing at high
temperature of largely cellulosic substrates finished with REPUTEX 20 is unnecessary.

pH dependence

The affinity of REPUTEX 20 for cellulosic fibers is strongly pH dependent. Optimum

bonding between the textile substrate and the active substance is achieved in the 6 – 9
pH range. The pH is set with sodium hydroxide. Sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium
carbonate can also be used. To prevent foam formation, the buffer should not be added
too quickly. The pH of REPUTEX 20 liquors should be tested with indicator paper or test
strips. Glass pH electrodes do not give reliable measurements in the presence of
REPUTEX 20. By way of example, the following graph shows the absorbing power of
viscose for REPUTEX 20 at various pH values:

Spray application

The product should be sprayed on only if the methods described above cannot be
employed, e. g. in the case of loose cellulosic fibers or certain
nonwovens, e. g. viscose and rayon.
The equipment used must be closed and appropriately secured to avoid exposure of
personnel to REPUTEX 20 spray mist.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

FINOZYME AX is specially designed for application in superior BioFinishing Process and

Denim washing of all cellulosic fabrics both woven and knits.


Appearance Amber coloured clear and viscous liquid.

Odour Mild fermentation odour

pH 4.5 – 4.9


Clean Finish

More effectively removes fuzz and cotton pill balls from fabric/ garment compared to most
other acid cellulases. The cutting effect is very obvious.

Low Colour Bleeding

Exhibits low colour bleeding properties when compared to regular acid cellulases.


Significantly softens cellulosic fabric/ garment with reduced strength loss.

Flexibility in finish

Versatile looks and finish can be achieved by varying the dosage and process

Natural Look

Yields permanent softness and luster to the fabric / garment and improves the general

FINOZYME AX is active at a broad range of pH (3.5 to 6.5) and temperature (45 to 65


PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
1. BioFinishing Process:
FINOZYME AX hydrolyses the microfibrils of fabric/ garment thereby effectively
removing fuzz/ pill ball and imparts a smoother and polished appearance to
surface of fabric/ garment.
Temperature 50 – 60 deg.C
PH 4.5 – 5.0; best at 4.8
Liquid to goods Fabric 8:1 to 15:1
ratio Garment 6:1 to 10:1
FINOZYME AX 0.5% - 3% on weight of garment
Time 30 to 60 minutes

For drum washers try to maintain a low garment liquor ratio for best results. In fabric
processing follow the minimum F/L ratio recommended by equipment manufacturer.
Unlike many BioFinishing Process Cellulases FINOZYME AX can run at 60 deg.C,
thereby offering an approximate of 25% saving in dosage or time.

2) Softening :

FINOZYME AX effectively softens fabrics/ garments made up of cellulose and its blends
imparting a silky soft permanent finish. FINOZYME AX can be applied on any wet
processing step in the garment Finishing Process process.

Optional: FINOZYME AX can be applied after preparation/ bleaching, either as a separate

process or in conjuction with garment Dyeing Process (more suitable with bifunctional
reactive dyes). However, with FINOZYME AX bio-Finishing Process , fabrics/ garments
may also be processed after Dyeing Process.

3) Fuzz/ Pill Ball Removal :

Using the above process parameters 0.5% -2% owg FINOZYME AX has been found effective in the removal of
fuzz balls and fuzziness when run for 15 to 20 minutes.

4) Denim Washing :

Effective desizing is required for efficient denim washing.


Temperature 50 – 55°C; best at 52°C
PH 4.5 – 5.0; best at 4.8
FINOZYME AX 6.5 : 1 to 10:1
Time 30 to 60 minutes

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

FINOZYME AX can also be used with pumice stones.

Removal of loose stains:

Follow-up enzyme process with a hot (60 – 70 deg.C) detergent wash. Can be optional if
followed up by bleaching.


There are two methods of resin applications on the garment
1) Dipping method
2) Spray method



Fixapret F-ECO 125 g/l to 150 g/l

Condensol FM 25 g/l to 32 g/l
Perapret F-PEB 60 g/l to 70 g/l
Silicon softener 15 g/l to 20 g/l (depends on finish)
Non-ionic softener 15 g/l to 20 g/l



Perapret PU-New 80 g/l to 100 g/l ( for spray finish)

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


The company is able to offer garments from all kind of exotic washing techniques like
Sand Blasting/ Brushing to most basic stone wash.



Denim washing is the aesthetic finish given to the denim fabric to enhance the appeal and
to provide strength.
Dry denim, as opposed to washed denim, is a denim fabric that is not washed after being
dyed during its production.
Much of the appeal of dry denim lies in the fact that with time the fabric will fade in a
manner similar to that which artificially distressed denim attempts to replicate. With dry
denim, however, such fading is affected by the body of the person who wears the jeans
and the activities of their daily life. This creates what many feel to be a more natural,
unique look than pre-distressed denim.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

1. Mechanical washes
- Stone wash
- Microsanding

2. Chemical washes
- Denim bleaching
- Enzyme wash
- Acid wash


In the process of stone washing, freshly dyed jeans are loaded into large washing
machines and tumbled with pumice stones to achieve a soft hand and desirable look.

Variations in composition, hardness, size shape and porosity make these stones
multifunctional. The process is quite expensive and requires high capital investment.

Pumice stones give the additional effect of a faded or worn look as it abrades the surface
of the jeans like sandpaper, removing some dye particles from the surfaces of the yarn.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Selection of stone

Stone should be selected of the proper hardness, shape, and size for the particular end
product. It should be noted that large, hard stones last longer and may be suited for
heavy weight fabrics only.
Smaller, softer stones would be used for light weight fabrics and more delicate items.

Stone wt. /fabric wt. = 0.5 to 3 /1

It depends on the degree of abrasion needed to achieve the desired result. Stones can be
reused until they completely disintegrate or washed down the drain.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


- Damage to wash machineries and garment due to stone to machine and machine to
stone abrasion
- Increase in labor to remove dust from finished garments.
- Water pollution during disposal of used liquor.
- Back staining and re deposition.


The dye removed from denim material after the treatment with cellulose or by a
conventional washing process may cause "back staining” or "redeposition”. Re-coloration
of blue threads and blue coloration of white threads, resulting in less contrast between
blue and white threads.


- Adding dispersion/suspension agent to wash cycle.

- Intermediate replacement of wash liquor.
- Using alkaline detergent like sodium per borate with optical brightener as after wash.


- Quality of the abrasion process is difficult to control Outcome of a load of jeans is never
uniform, little percentage always getting ruined by too much abrasion.
- The process is non-selective.
- Metal buttons and rivets on the jeans in the washing machines get abraded.
- This reduces quality of the products and life of equipment, and increases production
- Stones may turn into powder during the process of making the garment grayish in color
and rough too
- Provides rougher feel than enzyme wash
- Stone may lead the harm to the machine parts

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


In traditional washing process, volcanic rocks or pumice stones are added to the
garments during washing as abradant. Due to ring dyeing and heavy abrasion fading is
more apparent but less uniform.

The degree of colour fading depends on the garment to stone ratio, washing time, size of
stones, material to liquor ratio and load of garments. Normally after desizing, stone wash
process starts with pumice stone addition in rotary drum type garment washer. Process
time varies from 60-120 mins.

Stone wash effect is one of the oldest but highly demanded washing effects. Stone wash
process gives “used” look or “vintage” on the garments, because of varying degree of
abrasion in the area such as waistband, pocket, seam and body.

There are many limitations and drawbacks associated with stone washing process, which
can be overcome by using new enzyme based washing technology. This technology also
helps to conserve water, time, energy and environment.


There are 3 ways for this technique:

• Sandblasting
• Machine sanding
• Hand sanding or hand brushing

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Used in various ways: -

- Flat surfaces (tables, ironing boards)

- On the dummy (inflatable dummies, sometimes standing, sometimes flat, sometimes


- Various templates can be used to create a 3D effect.


Sand blasting technique is based on blasting an abrasive material in granular, powdered

or other form through a nozzle at very high speed and pressure onto specific areas of the
garment surface to be treated to give the desired distressed/ abraded/used look. - It is
purely mechanical process, not using any chemicals.

- It is a water free process therefore no drying required.

- Variety of distressed or abraded looks possible.
- Any number of designs could be created by special techniques.


To give worn out effect, abraded look or used look, some mechanical processes
have been developed. These are based on mechanical abrasion by which the indigo
can be removed. Some of these processes are sueding, raising, emeresing, peaching
and brushing.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Advantages of these processes:

- Control on the abrasion

- Different look on the garment can be achieved.
- All are dry process.
- Economical, ecological and environmental friendly.

Other Mechanical washing

 Shot gun denim
 Water jet fading
 Super stone wash
 Ice wash
 Thermo denim
 Laser technology finish


- Also known as ‘Cat's Whiskers’

- Crease lines around the crotch.
- Industrially done with laser, sandblasting, machine sanding, hand sanding and abrasive
- Also used for 'knee whiskers' (whiskers on the sides of knees) and 'honeycombs'
(crease marks on the back of the knee)

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


- Hydrojet treatment is used for enhancing the surface finish, texture, durability of denim
- Hydroject treatment involves exposing one or both surfaces of the garment through
hydrojet nozzles.
- The degree of colour washout, clarity of patterns, and softness of the resulting fabric are
related to the type of dye in the fabric and the amount and manner of fluid impact energy
applied to the fabric.
- As this process is not involved with any chemical, it is pollution free.


- It is a computer controlled process for denim fading.

- This technique enables patterns to be created such as lines and/or dots, images, text or
even pictures.

- It is water free fading of denim.

- Being an automatic system, chances of human error are slim.
- Also called spray painting in denims.
- This technique has relatively high cost.

- Prolonged stonewashing, up to six hours or more.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


- Ice washing in denim fabrics is done to remove more than half the dye during washing


Also called double denim. A lightweight fabric (either plain, fancy or colored) is glued to
the denim. The glue comes off after washing and the trousers look like they've been lined


− Applies heavy stonewashing or a cellulose enzyme wash, with or without bleach

− Gives an old and worn look

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

In this process a strong oxidative bleaching agent such as sodium hypochlorite or KMnO4
is added during the washing with or without stone addition.
Discoloration produced is usually more apparent depending on strength of the bleach
liquor quantity, temperature and treatment time.
It is preferable to have strong bleach with short treatment time.
Care should be taken for the bleached goods so that they should be adequately
antichlored or after washed with peroxide to minimize yellowing. Materials should be
carefully sorted before processing for color uniformity.

Process cycle:

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

• Process is difficult to control i.e. difficult to reach the same level of bleaching in
repeated runs. When desired level of bleaching reached the time span available to
stop the bleaching is very narrow. Due to harshness of chemical, it may cause
damage to cellulose resulting in severe strength losses and/or breaks or pinholes
at the seam, pocket, etc.
• Harmful to human health and causes corrosion to stainless steel.
• Required antichlor treatment.
• Problem of yellowing is very frequent due to residual chlorine.
• Chlorinated organic substances occur as abundant products in bleaching, and
pass into the effluent where they cause severe environmental pollution.


• New Laccase based bleaching technique only affects the indigo and natural raw
white of weft yarn is retained, giving the woven fabric a darker shade, which is not
implicitly achieved with hypochlorite bleaching.
• The product is so specialised on indigo that it does not attack any other dyes.
• Laccases open up the door to bleach Lycra containing denim without loosing the
strength of the fabric. In case of hypochlorite bleaching Lycra containing product
affects adversely by loosing the tear and tensile strength.
• Finally the process is based on enzyme so no risk of environmental pollution and
harmful effluent discharge.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

• Cellulase enzymes are natural proteins which are used in denim garment
processing to get stone wash look on to the denim garments without using stones
or by reducing the use of pumice stone.
• Cellulase attacks primarily on the surface of the cellulose fibre, leaving the interior
of the fibre as it is, by removing the indigo present in the surface layer of fibre.

Cellulase enzyme is classified into two classes:

• Acid Cellulase: It works best in the pH range of 4.5-5.5 and exhibit optimum
activity at 50.
• Neutral cellulase: It works best at pH 6 however its activity is not adversely
affected in the range of ph 6-8 and show maximum activity at 55 C.

Advantage of enzyme washing

• Soft handle and attractive clean appearance is obtained without severe damage to
the surface of yarn.
• Simple process handling and minimum effluent problem.
• Better feel to touch and increased gloss or luster.
• Prevents tendency of pilling after relatively short period of wear.
• Can be applied on cellulose and its blend.
• Due to mild condition of treatment process is less corrosive.
• Fancy colour-flenced surface can be obtained without or a partial use of stone.
• More reproducible effect can be obtained.
• It allows more loading of the garment into machines.
• Environmental friendly treatment.
• Less damage to seam edges and badges.
• Wear and tear of equipment is minimum due to absence of stone.
• Use of softener can be avoided or minimised.
• Easy handling of floor and severs as messy sludge of stones does not interfere.
• Due to absence of stone, labour intensive operation of stone removal is not
• Homogenous abrasion of the garments.
• Puckering effect can also be obtained.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

It is done by tumbling the garments with pumice stones presoaked in a solution of sodium
hypochlorite or potassium permanganate for localized bleaching resulting in a non
uniform sharp blue/white contrast.
In this wash the color contrast of the denim fabric can be enhanced by optical brightening.
The advantage of this process is that it saves water as addition of water is not required.

Process cycle

Limitations of acid wash:

- Acid washed, indigo dyed denim has a tendency to yellow after wet processing.
- The major cause is residual manganese due to incomplete neutralization, washing or rinsing.

- Manganese is effectively removed during laundering with addition of ethelene-diamine-tetra-
acetic acid as chelating agent.

- Acid washing jeans avoided some of problems of stone wash, but came with added dangers,
expenses, and pollution.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Other chemical washes:

• Rinse wash
• Cellulase wash
• Ozone fading
• Snow wash
• Salt water denim
• Flat finish
• Over dye
• Sun washing
• Super dark stone


- Chemically bleaching jeans so that the color fades away

- Breaks down the fibers of jeans and creates white streaks or spots on denim
- Gives a unique rugged look, also called snow wash
- Earlier involved the use of pumice stone
- Presently process involves spraying chemical and removing it immediately
- Come in colors like blue, black, green, brown, grey etc.


- This is done to achieve a wash down appearance without the use of stones or with
reduced quantities of stones.
- Cellulase enzymes are selective only to the cellulose and will not degrade starch.
- Under certain conditions, their ability to react with cellulose (cotton) will result in surface
fiber removal (weight loss).
- This will give the garments a washed appearance and soft hand.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Factors influencing cellulase performance

- pH
- Temperature
- Time
- Dose
- Mechanical action


- By using this technique, the garment can be bleached.

- Bleaching of denim garment is done in washing machine with ozone dissolved in water.
- Denim garments can also be bleached or faded by using ozone gas in closed chamber.
- In the presence of UV light, there is an interaction between the hydrocarbons, oxides of
nitrogen and oxygen that causes release of ozone.
- Indigo dyestuff tends to fade or turn yellow due to ozone reaction.

The advantages associated with this process are:

- Color removal is possible without losing strength.

- This method is very simple and environmentally friendly because after laundering,
ozonized water can easily be deozonized by UV radiation.


It is a special process done to impart fabric with an even wash down effect and very clean
surface. Originally liquid ammonia was used, but now use mercerization plus calendering
processes to achieve the flat surface.
Mercerization swells up the cotton fibers and allows the calendering to press flat the
They consider this as an imitation process to the use of ammonia, which is toxic and not
allowed in commercial use in most countries

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


- Dyeing over the fabric or jeans to add another tone of color

- Most often used is a 'yellowy' overdye to create a 'dirty' look
- Also can be applied with spray gun or paintbrush for local coloring


- A very light shade by bleaching and stoning

- Looks as if the sun faded the fabric


- Commercial term for an extra dark indigo color

- Results from a double-dyeing technique

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Denim treated with a variation of acid wash that imparts bright white highlights.


• Aims at minimizing wash cycle time

• Results in more economical washes and solving many other washing problems faced by
launderes during fashion wash cycles
• The yarns are ring dyed using indigo giving 25 to 30% less fixed dye to obtain a given
• During wash cycle,indigo dye can be removed quickly,giving washed look

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Advantages of quick wash denim

1. Streaks develop in garments after washing process due to differences in dye

concentration of denim fabrics are avoided using a modified alkali-ph controlled system
giving uniformity of shade.
2. Amount of indigo dye required is less thus making it an economical process
3. Time required for washing is 20-30% less than that required for conventional denim.
4. Lesser enzymes and oxidising agent used
5. Environment friendly process
6. Back staining is minimised due to less concentration of of indigo dye in the wash liqour.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

The right selection of fabric can help minimize the cost of treatment and to solve
environment related issues.


To cut processing time, effluent load, minimum damage to fabric and minimum use of
chemical, there are different depth of indigo on denim. For example, in case of ice wash
where we remove more than half the dye during washing, one can use lighter shade
fabric which will help to cut the process time, chemical consumption, effluent load. It will
help garment processor to process garment more economically and with minimum faults.


Different chemicals and processes are used to get flatter look on the denim garments. To
meet this requirement special denim fabric has been developed which offers flat look after


Quick wash denim fabric is dyed with modified technique of dyeing, so that during wash
cycle, indigo dye can be removed quickly, giving washed look at shorter washing cycle.
This results in more economical washes i.e. low water consumption, less usage of
chemicals, less time and retaining fabric strength.


With increase in demand of tinted/ overdyed look on garment, garment processor is using
an additional process of tinting/ overdyeing, which is time consuming. It consumes large
quantity of water and chemicals. It is also associated with the risk of patches and
unevenness on garments. Now the denim fabric is also available in tinted form which
saves processors time and risk.


Different chemicals and processes are used to get grain look on the denim garments. To
meet this requirement special denim fabric has been developed which gives grainy look
after processing of denim garment.


To meet such requirement, different varieties of denim fabric are available, which are
having inherent softness. These fabrics require minimum application of softener at the
garment stage.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________




It is a computer controlled process for denim fading. This technique enables

patterns to be created such as lines and/or dots, images, text or even pictures. In one
version of this concept, a mask is used to give the desired shape that is to be applied on
the fabric. The laser projects through a lens system, which expands the beam. This beam
is passed through the shaped mask that comprises an aperture of the desired shape and
is then deflected by a mirror to strike the textile substrate. The duration of exposure
determines the final effect on the fabric.

The novelty of this system is that

• It is water free fading of denim.

• It is an ecological and economical process.
• It can create local abrasion and fabric breaks, used look effect, moustache with
excellent reproducibility and higher productivity.
• Being an automatic system, chances of human error are slim.
• The design is electronically translated on the fabric, thus avoiding the need for
photolites of serigraphy cleaning.

The machine is very simple and compact, therefore requires very low maintenance and
cleaning, extremely safe and reliable.


By using this technique, the garment can be bleached. Bleaching of denim garment is
done in washing machine with ozone dissolved in water. Denim garments can also be
bleached or faded by using ozone gas in closed chamber.The advantages associated
with this process are:

- Colour removal is possible without losing strength.

- This method is very simple and environmentally friendly because after laundering,
ozonized water can easily be deozonized by UV radiation.


Hydrojet treatment has been developed for patterning and/or enhancing the surface
finish, texture, durability, and other characteristics of denim garment. Hydroject treatment
generally involves exposing one or both surfaces of the garment through hydrojet

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
The degree of colour washout, clarity of patterns, and softness of the resulting fabric are
related to the type of dye in the fabric and the amount and manner of fluid impact energy
applied to the fabric. Particularly good results are obtained with blue indigo dyed denim.

As this process is not involved with any chemical, it is pollution free. By using water
recycling system, the technique can be used as economical and environmental friendly
denim processing. Color washout of dye in the striped areas produces a faded effect
without blurring, loss of fabric strength or durability, or excessive warp shrinkage.


This technique is based on spraying the chemicals or pigments to get different effect on
the garments. This can be done by using robotic spraying gun or by manual spray and
followed by curing of the garment.

- It a water free process therefore zero effluent discharge.

- Less time consuming
- Different designs are possible
- Easy to use
- No adverse effect on fabric strength.

PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


Tinting of denim garment is usually done after the stone wash process. In this, garment
has been lightly coloured in order to give the final denim appearance a slight shift. This is
not true over dyeing but merely gives the impression of a change in overall colour of the
fabric. This process consumes large quantity of water and chemical. To make this
process economical and ecologically friendly, some novel colour based enzymes have
been introduced in the market. By using this new technique, tinting and stone washing
effect can be achieved in a single bath.

- Less process time to achieve tinted look.

- No extra chemical required therefore making process more economical.
- Less water consumption.
- Less energy consumption.
- Less chance of patches or unevenness

Alternate of pumice stone

To overcome the shortcoming of pumice stones, synthetic stones have been developed.
These are made of abrasive material such as silicate, plastic, rubber or Portland cement.

The advantages of using such type of products are:

- All major problems associated with the use of volcanic grade pumice stone can be

- Durability of such product is much higher and can be used repeatedly from 50-300 cycle
depending upon type of synthetic stone.

- Reproducibility of washing is manageable.

- As stone discharge of the process is very less, therefore making process is economical
and ecological.

- Less damage of machine and garments.


As the municipal discharge criteria are restrictive and cost of water high, producers will
need to reuse the waste water. Many techniques are readily available for a processor to
treat waste water. The basic limitation of a garment processor is the higher installation
cost associated with such technique.

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After washing, broken threads are removed by trimming. In U S Apparel

manual trimming is carried out which is mostly done by women.


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Pressing is as important as any other process in garment development. To

finish the high quality product that has come through all the stages from
cutting, sewing and wet process; no expense has been spared to equip this
process by using the latest technology available in the international market.
We have machines from Pessani (Italy) for laser guided accurate buttoning


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Button Advice

• Choose your buttons before making buttonholes or loops.

• To determine the buttonhole size, wrap a narrow strip of paper or non-stretch string
or twill tape around the button at its greatest vertical circumference (thickness).
Hold it securely and slip the button out. Flatten the loop. Add 1/16" to the resulting
length. That’s the buttonhole size, but make a test buttonhole to confirm. Button
sizes included in pattern notion lists are only suggestions, not absolutes. However
there may be design elements that restrict the size choice.

• Button sizes included in the pattern notion lists are the base diameters, not the
buttonhole size. Sizes included in our button selections are also the base

• Square buttons are measured on the diagonal and appear smaller than a round
button of the same diameter.

• Thick edge highly domed and ball buttons will require much larger buttonholes.

• Make sure the weight of the button and the weight of the fabric are compatible; or
think about how to make them work together. Make sure the fabric texture and
button texture are compatible; be careful of delicate surface fabric with irregular
finish buttons.

• Single or high-contrast buttons call attention to themselves. Think about the

placement. Is that where you want to draw attention?

• If your choice is a square button and you don’t want excess buttonhole stitching
exposed, sew the button on diagonally.

• Transparent buttons solve color-matching problems, but they also can disappear or
look small or insignificant if they have no outer definition. Look for a translucent
style that allows the fabric color to influence the button’s final appearance.

• If an especially large buttonhole is required, or if the fabric is not strong enough for
the repeated stress of buttoning/unbuttoning, consider sewing the button on top of
the buttonhole and using snap or hook fasteners underneath.

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1. Cut thread 20-24" long. Use buttonhole twist thread for coats and jackets, good
quality hand sewing thread for other garments. Wax the thread in both directions.
Thread the needle and knot the ends of the thread together.

2. Start stitching with the knot on the surface where the button will be. The knot
will end up under the button. Stitch top to bottom to top, through the button, and
back to the bottom.

3. Place a smooth, small "lift" between the button and fabric and between the
threads. Try using a T-pin, a round toothpick, a size 1 knitting needle, or a
finishing nail. (If you are attaching a shank button, use a smaller lift device.)

4. Make 3 to 4 thread passes through the fabric, button and around the "lift",
ending with the needle between the fabric and the button. Remove the "lift".

5. Wrap the needle and thread "figure-8" style, 3 or 4 times around the thread
strands to create a shank.

6. End by passing the needle and thread through the cross of the "figure-8" and
end with a pass over the final thread loop.

7. The resulting thread shank will be firm and resistant to wear by friction. It will
allow flexibility and not pull the fabric.


• When replacing buttons on a completed garment, knowing the size of the

buttonhole is more helpful than having the original button.

• Is the buttonhole flexible? Stiff? Fully clipped?

• If the original button is flat or has a thin edge, you will need to look at a smaller
diameter if your replacement choice is higher or has a thick edge.

• Unfortunately, inappropriate size buttons are often on ready-to-wear clothing.

• Never force a button through the buttonhole. Repeated stress or pushing a too-
large button through a tight buttonhole is a primary reason for losing buttons.

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Automatic topper presses and auto body presses are used with a
combination of manual and auto steam irons from MACPI.

Electropneumatic pressing machine with manual / automatic control, steam-
heated shapes, movable and steaming head fitted on an arm having a lever
mouvement. Fixed buck.

Complete with:
- adjustable pressing pressure and sponging height
- electronic safety head guard device
- 555.04 locking of the plate: unstable
- 555.05 locking of the plate: stable Feeding: 1+N~50Hz 230 V

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US Apparel has one of the most modern garment wet processing facility in
the country. The electric mix of Italian, Spanish and Far Eastern equipment
allows U S Apparel to provide its customers an almost infinite range of
garment washing/dyeing facility.
F Computerized control over wash process allows U S Apparel to give
I consistent wash quality in long running or repetitive production
requirements. Wet process department performance is further cemented
N with the support of extensive computerized database and a well equipped
laboratory. The company is able to offer garments from all kinds of exotic
I washing techniques like Sand Blasting/Brushing to most basic stone wash.


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Abrasion The process of making garments look worn and aged by scraping or rubbing the surface of the
fabric causing abrasion.

Acid Wash The finish that gives indigo jeans sharp contrasts by soaking pumice stones in chlorine and
letting the stones create the contrast.

Bartak Stitching that reinforces places on jeans such as flies and pocket openings.

Bleach A chemical used to make denim fade.

Carding The process in which raw cotton is separated and cleaned to make a sliver.

Cotton After blooming, this plant turns from white to purple, providing the well-known textile that
withstands high temperatures, accepts dyes well, and increases in strength when wet. The quality of cotton
is determined by the length of fibres; the longer the fibres, the higher the quality.

Crocking A term used to describe how dye rubs off fabric on skin or other fabric.

Crosshatch Mixing uneven yarns in both the weft and warped directions to create a unique type of
denim that shows a square grid-like pattern in the weave.

Defoliant A chemical that causes plants' leaves to drop off earlier, used to speed up the harvesting
process of cotton.

Denim The word denim is believed to be a derivative of the French term, serge de Nîmes, a rugged
cotton twill textile, in which the weft passes under two or more warp fibers, producing the familiar diagonal
ribbing identifiable on the reverse of the fabric distinguishing denim from cotton duck.

Dips What fabric or yarn are called when dipped in dye.

Double Needle A common seam on jeans where two stitches run parallel to each other for

Dual Ring Spun The process in which both the warp and weft threads are made of ring-spun yarn. It
creates a much softer and textured hand than regular (single) ring-spun denim.

Enzymes Proteins that speed up chemical processes. They are used in textile processing, mainly in the
finishing of fabrics and garments.

Enzyme Wash A more environmentally sound way to create a stone wash, organic proteins are used to
eat away at the indigo.

Finishing The overall processes performed on a garment giving it its unique look.

Five Pocket Jeans Most frequent design for denim: two back pockets, two front pockets and a coin
pocket inside the right front pocket.

Ginning The process in which seeds are removed from picked cotton.

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Hand The term used to describe how denim feels.

Indigo A blue dye obtained from indigo plants. The chemical structure was synthetically produced in
1987. Indigo's inherent features are good colorfastness to water and light and a continual fading. This
allows the blue color in jeans to always look irregular and individual.

Jean Possibly derived from the French work "genes", it was first used to describe the type of pant worn by
Genoan sailors.

Laundry A facility that takes unwashed jeans and processes them; i.e. stone wash, sandblasting,
finishing, etc. It is essential in creating commercial denim and has become as important as fabric

Laser technology, initially used by the military, has developed dramatically in the last few years as a
textile treatment with laser finishes. Used with automated Tonello machines, lasers can be directed
vertically or horizontally and used to create both specific detailing or a textured all-over effect. The
frequency of the laser is set to erode the indigo surface in order to either alter the color or burn through the
cloth. Laser treatments are used exclusively in the upper end of the denim market and are considered a
more environmentally acceptable process than the traditional methods of finishing.

Left-Hand Twill A weave in which the grain lines run from the top left-hand corner of the fabric towards
the bottom right. Usually in piece-dyed fabrics, left-hand twill fabrics are woven from single piled yarns in
the warp. They often have a softer hand feel to them after washing.

Loop Dyed One of three major industrial methods of dyeing indigo yarn.

Open-End Spinning A spinning process in which individual fibers are fed into a high-speed rotor
shaped like a cup where they begin to accumulate. The yarns produced using this method are not as strong
as the ring-spun yarns of the same size.

Overdye A dying process in which additional color is applied to create a different shade or cast on the

Oxidation In denim manufacturing, when indigo yarn comes out of the dip and joins oxygen,
penetrating the fibre.

Padazoic A dye used in the late 1960's - early 1970's in place of indigo, which was in short supply and
high demand.

Pigment Dyes Dye that lack the ability to grab onto the fibers and must be held to the fabric with resins.

Pima Cotton Originally grown in the 1900's in Peru, Pima Cotton is known for its long fibres, making it a
very high quality, luxurious cotton. Pima Cotton was brought to America and got its name from the Pima
Indians, who harvested this particular type of cotton.

Polyurethane Provides a chemical resistance in the washing and dyeing process in order to achieve
the desired denim wash/ color. It is the basis of a novel type of elastomeric fiber known generically as
spandex. It is a man-made fiber (segmented polyurethane) able to stretch at least 100% and snap back like
natural rubber.

Pumice Stone Lightweight and strong, this stone is used in the process of stone-washing apparel.

Ring Dyeing Describes a quality unique to indigo dye in which only the outer ring of the fibers in the
yarn is dyed while the inner core remains white.

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Ring Spinning The process that creates unique surface characteristics in a garment by feeding
individual fibers into the end of the yarn while in its twisting zone producing an irregular authentic vintage
look. Ring-spun yarns add strength, softness and character to jeans.

River Washing The process that creates a naturally aged look by combining pumice stones and
cellulose enzymes. The washer is first loaded with stones and fabric. The second stage introduces the
enzymes and tumbled together to give denim a vintage, worn hand.

Rivet A metal accessory that is used for reinforcement of stress points as well as nonfunctional

Sanding Process that makes the surface of a garment soft by rubbing aggressively with paper
containing small loose grains of worn rock.

Sanforization: A process which shrinks and stabilizes cloth before it is cut. Sanforization was invented
by Sanford L. Cluett and patented in 1928. Most denim companies followed suit, apart from Levi who still
produced “shrink to fit” denim for three decades following.

Sea Island Cotton Known for its silky feel and lustre, one of the best cotton fibres.

Selvage The edge of a fabric that is woven so that it will not fray or ravel. Old 28 to 30 inch shuttle looms
produce denim where selvages are closed, whereas on the larger modern weaving machines the weft yarn
is cut on every pick, creating what is called a fringe selvage.

Slasher Dyeing One of the three main methods of dyeing indigo yarn

Spinning A process used to create yarn or thread where short fibres are twisted together. These yarns
will be used to weave into cloth or used in sewing. Longer fibres like silk are not spun.

Spraying & Staining: Spraying color can be added at various stages in the finishing cycle, either by
hand or by automated robot. The effect adds to the aged look of a garment by introducting stained areas,
color contrast or blotched tints. These appear more “natural” following laundry treatment. Overdyeing and
tinting is carried out in giant washing machines, where a dirty or stained effect is achieved via the use of a
pigment dye. The more subtle and sophistocated effects are hand-applied to individual areas.

Stone Washing Process that physically removes color and adds contrast using pumice stones. The
longer the denim and stones are rotated the lighter the color becomes and more contrast occurs. The denim
is then rinsed, softened, and tumble-dried.

Sulphur Bottoms: Many manufacturers apply a sulphur dye before the customary indigo dye. This is
known as Sulphur Bottom Dyeing. It can be used to create a grey or yellow “vintage” cast.

Warp: Yarn that runs parallel to selvedge. In denim, it’s dyed indigo.

Weft The un-dyed crosswise filling yarns used in denim weave.

Weight: Denim is traditionally graded by its weight per yard of fabric at a 29-inch width. Early jeans were
nine-ounce Levi’s, increasing to 10-ounce in 1927. Lee Cowboy Pants were introduced in the much heavier
13-ounce weight, and most modern jeans are now 14 ounces.

Whiskering Term used to describe a denim that has a fading of the ridges in creases in
the crotch area and back of the knees giving the appearance of aged denim.