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TEXTILE MILLL REPORT_________________________________________________________________________________________

PRESTON UNIVERSITY

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PRESTON UNIVERSITY

SESSION 2004-2008

TEXTILE MILL REPORT

Submitted To: Sir. AKHTAR ZIA

Submitted By:

NAME Registration No
AAMIR SHABBIR 1617-304003
SULMAN MANZOOR 1617-304009

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___________________ CONTENTS______________________
CONTENTS______________________

INTRODUCTION
i. Cotton………………………………………………………5
ii. Polyester…………………………………………………...8

Flow Chart ……………………….………………………………………………………................10


i. Grey Fabric Room ……………………………………………..…..11
ii. Inspection department………………………………………….....11
iii. Pretreatments……………………………………………………...……13
a) Singeing………………..……………………………….13
b) Desizing …………………...………………………….. 14
c) Solomatic………………….………………………………………..14
d) Bleaching…………………………………………..18
e) Mercerizing………………... ………………………..…22
f) Stentring……………………………………………23

iv. Printing ………………………………………………….. 25


v. Curing……………………………..…………………….. .26
vi. Stentering………………………………………………...26
vii. Finishing………………………………..……………….. 27
a) Finished fabric hall…………………………………27
b) Finished fabric checking…………………………..27
c) Fabric sent for shipping……………………………27

Dyes……………………………………………….……………………………..27
Lab Testing …………….……..…………………….……………………….28
Calendaring………………………………………….…………………32
Cad-Cam Studio………………………………….………………………...36
Engraving Section…………………………………….…………………..37
Color Kitchen………………………………………….…………………….39
Maintenance Plan……………………………………...………………….39

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SHAHRAJ MILL INTRODUCTION

Shahraj Fabrics Pvt. Ltd embarked upon textile business in the mid 70s as a sole
propriety concern. Initially it commenced its activities from trading of greige fabric
woven on auto loom. Through the dedicated and sustained efforts of the Chief
Executive, it turned into symbolic greige fabric textile trade entity. The Company was
incorporated in Aug 1993 under the banner of Shahraj Fabrics (Pvt.) Ltd and started
manufacturing greige fabric on Air Jet weaving machines by acquiring various textile
units on lease/conversion basis. With the growing business leading to strong
financial position the Company embarked on the production of greige fabric by
purchasing 52 Air Jet weaving machines in 1997 with complete back process to
include complete sizing and warping machines. In 2002-2003 the Company further
added 22 Tusdakoma air jet and 72 Picanol Omni plus weaving machines. The
company also owns a vertical integrated processing mill to bleach, dye, print and
finish all blends fabrics up to 3.2 meter wide and has stitching capacity of 4000 sheet
sets a day.

The fabric that is dyed and printed by the shahraj mills usually entertain its customer
international customers, mostly from the customers of Russia, UK USA France
Germany and a considerable amount is dyed and printed for local market. The
printing unit has an average of 9 to 12 Lac meters of average printed average 24
hours, and the mill is still working to improve the production.
The management and technical officer like Mr. Javaid (printing Manager) are very
hardworking and sincere to their job and profession

Company Profile

Company Name: Shahraj Fabrics Pvt. Ltd


Country/Territory: Pakistan
Address: 147 148 Quaid-E- Azam Industrial Estate, Kot Lakpat,
Lahore, Pakistan
Business Type: Manufacturer

Geographic Markets: North America

No. of Employees: Above 1500 People

Annual Sales Range (USD): US$40 Million - US$60 Million

Certificates: ISO 9001 -2000 , SA 8000

Year Established: 1974

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Products:
1. Chambray Fabric,
2. Blended Fabric,
3. Bottom Fabric,
4. Canvas Fabric,
5. Cloth Fabric,
6. Coated Fabric,
7. Cord Fabric,
8. Cotton Fabric,
9. Crush Fabric,
10. Damask Fabric,
11. Dotted Fabric,
12. Drill Fabric,
13. Duck Fabric,
14. Dyed Fabric,
15. Embroidery Fabrics,
16. Flannel Fabric,
17. Furnishing Fabric,
18. Grey Fabric,
19. Jacquard Fabric,
20. Khaki Fabric,
21. Linen Fabric,
22. Printed Fabric,
23. Rips top Fabric,
24. Satin Fabric,
25. Twill Fabric,
26. Combed Fabric,
27. Curtain Fabric,
28. Geiger Fabric,
29. Bleach Fabric

WORKING HOURS:
There are three shifts in (processing unit) each of 8 hours.

Raw material use in Shahraj textile mill is COTTON and COTTON+POLYESTER.

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COTTON

Introduction

Is a vegetable fibre obtained from the mature capsule of the cotton plant, a shrub
about 40 cm high, with leaves and flowers of a red or yellow colour. When the flower
is fecundated it loses its petals and within 25 days a capsule surrounded by a leaf
called bract grows. The capsule is sustained by a cup and has a drop shape
rounded at the lower extremity. Inside the capsule there are from five to eight seeds
on which the fibre developed. When the capsule is mature it opens into four parts
showing the cotton ball. On the same plant the maturation of the capsules does not
occur simultaneously, therefore more passages are required for the harvest of the
cotton. The harvest is carried out a week after maturation. The first operation after
harvesting is husking, which permits the removal of the fibres from the seeds. Then
the cotton is carded and combed so as to eliminate all the impurities. 4000 fibers is
the seed average. Staple length = 1/8" - 2.5" (0.32 - 6.35cm) - for manufacturing
yarns, fabrics, 7/8" - 11/4" (2.22 - 3.18cm) is standard.

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Fiber properties according to Cotton Inc.

Length & Uniformity Fiber Strength


Upper Half Mean Length (1/8 in. gauge strength in
Below 0.99 Short grams/tex)
0.99-1.10 Medium 20 and Below Very Weak
1.11-1.26 Long 21-25 Weak
Above 1.26 Extra Long 26-29 Base
30-32 Strong
Uniformity Index 32 and above Very Strong
Below 77 Very Low
77-79 Low Fiber Elongation (%)
80-82 Low Below 5.0 Very Low
83-85 High 5.0-5.8 Low
Above 85 Very High 5.9-6.7 Average
6.8-7.6 High
Above 7.6 Very High
Fiber Fineness
Fineness Fiber Maturity
Description
(millitex) Maturity Ration Description
Below 135 Very Fine Below 0.7 Uncommon
135-175 Fine 0.7-0.8 Immature
175-200 Average 0.8-1.0 Mature
200-230 Coarse Above 1.0 Very Mature
Above 230 Very Coarse

PREPARATION

Preparation is the classer's interpretation of fiber process ability in terms of degree of


roughness or smoothness of ginned cotton.

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APPLICATIONS

The major end-uses of cotton include:

• Apparel - in a wide range of wearing apparel: blouses, shirts, dresses,


children wear, active wear, separates, swimwear, suits, jackets, skirts, pants,
sweaters, hosiery, neckwear.
• Home Fashion - curtains, draperies, bedspreads, comforters, throws, sheets,
towels, table cloths, table mats, napkins
• Medical and cosmetic applications - bandages, wound plasters
• Technical applications -

STRUCTURE & CHEMISTRY OF THE COTTON FIBRE.

Cellulose may be obtained in a pure condition from cotton by treatment with alkalies,
followed by washing, and by treatment with alkaline hypochlorites, acids, washing
and, finally, drying. As thus obtained it is a white substance having the form of the
fibre from which it is procured, showing a slight lustre, and is slightly translucent. The
specific gravity is 1.5, it being heavier than water. It is characterised by being very
inert, a property of considerable value from a technical point of view, as enabling the
fibres to stand the various operations of bleaching, dyeing, printing, finishing, etc.
Nevertheless, by suitable means, cellulose can be made to undergo various
chemical decompositions which will be noted in some detail.

Cellulose on exposure to the air will absorb moisture or water. This is known as
hygroscopic moisture, or "water of condition". The amount in cotton is about 8 per
cent., and it has a very important bearing on the spinning properties of the fibre, as it
makes the fibre soft and elastic, while absolutely dry cotton fibre is stiff, brittle and
non-elastic; hence it is easier to spin and weave cotton in moist climates or weather
than in dry climates or weather. Cotton cellulose is insoluble in all ordinary solvents,
such as water, ether, alcohol, chloroform, benzene, etc., and these agents have no
influence in any way on the material, but it is soluble in some special solvents that
will be noted later on.

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POLYESTER (PET)

POLYESTER FIBERS

Polyester fiber is a " manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any
long chain synthetic polymer composed at least 85% by weight of an ester of a
dihydric alcohol (HOROH) and terephthalic acid (p-HOOC-C6H4COOH)" [3]. The
most widely used polyester fiber is made from the linear polymer poly (ethylene
terephtalate), and this polyester class is generally referred to simply as PET. High
strength, high modulus, low _shrinkage, heat set stability, light fastness and
chemical resistance account for the great versatility of PET.

POLYMER FORMATION

Polyethylene Teraphthalate (PET) is a condensation polymer and is industrially


produced by either terephthalic acid or dimethyl terephthalate with ethylene glycol.
[26] Other polyester fibers of interest to the nonwovens field include:

(a) Terephthalic Acid (PTA), produced directly from p-xylene with bromide-controlled
oxidation.

(b) Dimethyl Terephthalate (DMT), made in the early stages by esterification of


terephthalic acid. However, a different process involving two oxidation and
esterification stages now accounts for most DMT.

(c) Ethylene Glycol (EG) initially generated as an intermediate product by oxidation


of ethylene. Further ethylene glycol is obtained by reaction of ethylene oxide with
water.

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General Polyester Fiber Characteristics:

• Strong

• Resistant to stretching and shrinking

• Resistant to most chemicals

• Quick drying

• Crisp and resilient

• Wrinkle resistant

• Mildew resistant

• Abrasion resistant

• Retains heat-set pleats and crease

• Easily washed

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FLOW CHART

Grey Fabric Room Inspection Pretreatments Printing Curing Stentering finishing

singeing + desizing finished fabric hall

bleaching +scouring finished fabric checking

solomatic fabric for shiping

stentering

2) FLOW CHAIN OF FABRIC

The fabric that is comes here to be treated particularly printed are of following
Qualities

30 x 30 76 x 56
35x 35 76 x 56
22x22 60x60
20x20 60x60
40x 40 130x 70 Satin

The rates at witch these qualities are available

30 x 30 76 x 56 at 40 – 45 RS/m
35x 35 76 x 56 at 35 RS/m
22x22 60x60 at 50-55 RS/m
20x20 60x60 at 50-55 RS/m
40x 40 130x 70 Satin at 80 RS/m

These qualities of fabric are printed both in cotton and polyester – cotton.

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i. Grey Fabric Hall

The fabric in the grey or untreated form is first through in the grey fabric hall. The
hall has the capacity of storing considerate quantity of Fabric. It can store the fabric
up to 3 Lac meters the condition of the hall are kept very strict such as

Humidity 65% +/- 20


Temperature 100 C
Labour 15 - 20

ii. Inspection Department


The grey fabric is inspected here. This hall is attached to the grey fabric hall.
The fabric is brought from there to this hall for checking any faults.

• Here the fabric is inspected at 10%


• The fabric is tested at the rate of 1 Lac meter every 3 hours.
• The labour working at this hall is same as the same as that grey stock hall i.e. 15
- 20
• The machinery that they are using here is very ordinary and locally manufactured.
• There are manual countless, spray, hooks and stitch machine.

Weaving Faults: -
• Double Ends,
• Loose Ends,
• Broken Ends,
• Wrong Dent/Draw,
• Loose Selvedge,
• Double Pick,
• Miss Pick,
• Design Cut,
• Knots,
• Hanging Threads,
• Float,

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Mechanical Faults: -
• Starting Marks,
• Rapping Marks,
• Mending Marks,
• Hole /Cuts,
• Oil Stain

Yarn Faults: -
• Cockled Yarn,
• Weft Slub,
• Slubby Weft,
• CEP,
• Count Variation,
• Hair, Jute,
• P Proplyene,
• Black Ends.
Others: -
• Oily Weft,
• Sizing Stain,
• Hard Size.

Minor Faults: -
The faults can be removed easily in further processing such as in
scouring, bleaching and mercerizing etc.

Major Faults: -
Those faults that can not be removed in further processing are
major faults such as starting mark, rapping mark, whole etc.

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iii. Pre-treatments
Although Shahraj Mills having a complete processing pre treatment range included

a) Singing
b) Desizing
c) Bleaching
d) Mercerizing
e) Stentring

All the machineries are well equipped with all necessaries, needed for effective
Pre-treatment.

a) SINGING MACHINE
This machine is made of Germany named Bal-wok.
The performance of the machine is quiet satisfactory at producing singed fabric at a
rate of 70 meters per minute
Pressure 400

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Sr
No Description
1 TENSION UNIT WITH GUIDE ROLLERS & BARS
2 S.S. PRE-DRYING CYLINDER (OPTIONAL)
3 PRE-BUSHING UNIT WITH SUCTION
4 SINGEING CHAMBER WITH EXHAUST
5 WATER-COOLED ROLLER
6 WATER-COOLED BURNER
7 CARBURETOR WITH BLOWER
8 STEAM QUENCHING DEVICE
9 POST BRUSHING WITH SUCTION (OPTIONAL)
10 DE-SIZING UNIT ST-12/ST-15
11 SQUEEZING MANGLE 3 TONS.
12 MAIN DRIVE (A.C. MOTOR WITH FREQUENCY CONTROLLER)

 Labour

Operator 1
Helpers 2

b) DESIZING
The fabric is desized for removing sizes and starches. The fabric is already removed
of producing fibers.
One thing to note is that Shahraj is using a singe- Desize techniques according to
which one machine can both sing and desize the fabric
Shahraj Mills is using the enzymes desizing method

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 Recipe

Washing Soda 10 g/l


Salt 2 g/l
Detergent 1 g/l
Acetic Acid 1 g/l

After singe – desize they give fabric a dwelling period of 3 hours in which the padder
is covered and not covered (optional) by the polyethene, plastic and a normal
revolution is given so that the solution is evenly distributed and no spots are
produced in the fabric

PREPARATION OF DESIZING SOLUTION

1. First of all wash the tank


2. The tank fills by 400 liter water and then staring
3. First of all salt is added as a (catalyst) then S.E is added then K.D (detergent)
is added and then L100 (desizer) is added
4. Tank fills by 1000 liter water. Measure 1000 liter water by rod.
5. Start the chemical feed pump and open flow meter according to the using of
chemical.
6. Make a record how much is using.

c) SOLOMATIC PROCESS (SCOURING + BLEACHING)

Scouring is a process of removing natural as well as synthetic impurities. In this


process maximum cleaning c effect is produced with minimum effect on cellulose
natural fibres contains oils, fats, waxes, minerals, leafy matters and notes as
impurities that interfere with dyeing and finishing. Synthetic fibres contain producer
“spin finishes” coning oils and knitting oils. Mill grease uses to lubricate processing
equipment shift on the processing fabric and contaminate it. “The process of
removing these impurities is called scouring” even through these impurities are
not soluble in water and can be removed by extraction, dissolving.

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PREPARATION OF SCOURING SOLUTION

• 400 liter water takes in a tank and stirring it.


• Soda ash added in water
• KEB dissolved in water
• After dissolving there are mentioned thinks, stop stirring.
• Now added caustic and measured by scale.
• Further take water in a tank and tank fill by 1000 liter water.
• The concentration of caustic soda checked according to gm/liter.
• Start the chemical feed pump.
• Flow meter opened according to the uses of chemical.
• Checking the concentration of caustic from saturator after 5 or 10 minutes.
• Make a record of uses chemical and how much concentration of caustic in
saturator.

M/c Company Name GTM Gollar


Model # 2003
Made in Germany
Process time 30-40 minutes

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After the dwell period, the fabric is set to scour bleach treatment for removing
impurities and obtaining the whiteness on fabric
The machine has 9 tanks, Including 7 washing tanks, 2 out of which 3 are pre-
washing tanks while 4 are post-washing tanks and 1 is naturalization tank and other
is chemical tank.

The sequence of the fabric treated here is as follows

 Fabric loaded
 1st wash at normal temp
 2nd wash 60c
 3rd wash 90c
 Chemical tank 40-50c
 Steamer 100c
(Fabric length kept in 1300-3000 meters time 35-40 minutes)

 4th wash 30c


 neutralization wash with 1%acitic acid
 6th wash 90c
 7th wash 30c
 Dryer
(22 cylinders with 10 cylinder columns, the cylinders are gas heated)

 Bleached fabric

 Labour

Workers 5
Shift in-charge 1

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BLEACHING
Natural fibers, i.e. cotton, wool, linen etc. are off-white in color due to color bodies
present in the fiber. The degree of off-whiteness varies from batch-to-batch.
Bleaching therefore can be defined a s the destruction of these color bodies. White
is also a n important market color so the whitest white has commercial value. Yellow
is a component of derived shades. For example, when yellow is mixed with blue, the
shade turns green. A consistent white base fabric has real value when dyeing light to
medium shades because it is much easier t o reproduce shade matches on a
consistent white background than on one that varies in amount of yellow.
Bleaching may be the only preparatory process or it may be used in conjunction with
other treatments, e.g. desizing, scouring and mercerizing. The combination of such
treatments for an individual situation will depend on the rigorousness of the
preparation standard and economic factors within the various options.
Other chemicals will be used in addition t o the bleaching agent. These serve
various functions such as to activate the bleaching system, to stabilize or control the
rate of activation, to give wetting and detergent action, or to sequester metallic
impurities. This section gives consideration to the selection of bleaching agents and
to the role of the various chemicals used in conjunction.

MAJOR BLEACHING AGENTS

 SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE

Hypochlorite bleaching (OCl-) is the oldest industrial method of bleaching cotton.


Originally, calcium hypochlorite, Ca(OCl)2 was used. Most cotton fabrics were
bleached with sodium hypochlorite up until 1940. Today it accounts for only 10 % of
the cotton bleaching agents in the U.S. It is however the main stay of home laundry
bleaching products. Hypochlorites are excellent cidal agents for mildew and other
bacteria and are used as disinfectants and to control bacteria in swimming pools.
Sodium hypochlorite is the strongest oxidative bleach -used in textile processing.
Prior to bleaching with hypochlorite, it is necessary to thoroughly scour fabrics to
remove fats, waxes and pectin impurities. These impurities will deplete the available
hypochlorite, reducing its effectiveness for whitening fabric. Sodium hypochlorite is
made by bubbling chlorine into a solution of sodium hydroxide.

Conversely, when acid is added to a hypochlorite solution, chlorine gas is liberated.


Product strength of hypochlorites is generally expressed as the available chlorine
content. This relates to the chlorine formed on reaction with acid.

Commercial sodium hypochlorite will have 12 to 15 % active chlorine. House-


hold bleach is 5 % active chlorine. Calcium hypochlorite is sold a s a solid material
and contains 65 % active chlorine.

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 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

Hydrogen peroxide was first used to bleach cotton in the 1920's. By 1940, 65 % of
all cotton fabrics were bleached with hydrogen peroxide, largely brought about by
the invention of the J-box which lead to continuous processing. Today, it is
estimated that 90 t o 95 % of all cotton and cotton/synthetic blends are bleached
with hydrogen peroxide. It is available commercially as 35, 50 and 70 % solutions. It
is a corrosive, oxidizing agent which may cause combustion when allowed to dry out
on oxidizable organic matter. Decomposition is accelerated by metal contamination
and is accompanied by the liberation of heat and oxygen, which will support
combustion and explosions in confined spaces. The material is a n irritant to the skin
and mucous membranes and dangerous to the eyes

 SODIUM CHLORITE (NaC1O2)

Bleaching with sodium chlorite is carried out under acidic conditions which releases
chlorine dioxide, a toxic and corrosive yellow-brown gas. Sodium chlorite is sold as
an 80% free flowing powder. Chlorine dioxide is thought to be the active bleaching
specie. It is not used much in the USA for bleaching but it is sometimes used to strip
dyed goods and is often described as the bleach of last resort. One advantage of
sodium chlorite bleaching is that it leaves the fabrics with a soft hand. Because of
the gaseous nature, toxicity and corrosiveness of chlorine dioxide, special attention
must be paid to the equipment. It must be designed so a s to not allow the gas to
escape into the work place. Emissions into the atmosphere are of concern too. The
gas corrodes even stainless steel so special passivating treatments must be carried
out to prolong the life of the equipment. When a solution of sodium chlorite is
acidified, chlorine dioxide (ClO2), hypochlorous acid (HClO2), sodium chlorate
(NaC1O3) and sodium chloride are formed. Chlorine dioxide and hypochlorous acid
are bleaching species, sodium chlorate and sodium chloride are not. The reactions
may be written:

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BLEACHING RECIPE CHART

 100% cotton
Quality
22x22 60x60
30x30 76x68

Recipe
H2O2 30
NaoH 22
Sag 4
Wet agent 2
Stab Agent 0.5

 Sateen

Quality
40x40 127x79

Recipe
H2O2 30
NaoH 25
Sag 4.5
Wet agent 2
Stab Agent 0.5

 Pc

Quality

30x30 76x56
30x30 76x68

Recipe

H2O2 26
NaoH 18
Sag 3.5
Wet agent 2
Stab Agent 0.5

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 CVC

Quality

30x30 96x56
30x30 76x56

Recipe
H2O2 25
NaoH 20
Sag 4
Wet agent 1.5
Stab Agent 0.5

 For dyed

Quality

22x22 60x60
30x30 76x68
22x10 40x44

Recipe
H2O2 30
NaoH 20
Sag 4.5
Wet agent 2
Stab Agent 0.5

 For white
Quality

22x22 60x60
30x30 76x68
22x10 40x44

Recipe
H2O2 35
NaoH 22
Sag 4.5
Wet agent 2
Stab Agent 0.5

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d) MERCERIZING
The bleached fabric is usually not transfer to the mercerizing section in case the
fabric is printed at the end
Similarly Shahraj Textile only mercerizes those fabrics that have very strict
conditions at last i.e.
The fabric to the printed is only mercerized is the condition are very strict.

Salient Features

 Tailored for individual requirements, Modular Design to suit all requirements.


 Low Width Shrinkage and Low residual shrinkage with excellent dimensional
stability.
 Good dye-stuff pick-up---good luster--- better handle --- uniform and
repeatable finishing results.
 Can be equipped with PLC /Micro Processors Controls for different functions
such as fabric tension in Impregnator and Stabilizer, Shrinkage Controls for
different functions such as fabric tension in Impregnator and stabilizer,
Shrinkage control cum Indicator etc.
 pH Indication/control at the end of Washing , Dwell time control by
controlling speed etc. Remote controlling possibility.

 Labor

Chemical Checker 1
Operator 1
Fabric Checker 1
Checker 1
Helper 1

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e) STENTRING

The bleached fabric is past and loaded on to the machine called stenter
The machine is used for multi purposes such as

 Width control
 Creases Removal
 Tem Maintenance
 Luster improvement

The basic function is however to control the width of the fabric since the fabric being
passed from wet processes like de size, scour and decrease in the width
considerably as the fabric swells up and loose its strength to recover this width the
stenter is used which gives the required width.
The width that the stenter here are controlling are such as increasing the width up to
114.

Shahraj Mills have two stenters having following data

1st stanter made by balcock (Germany)


2nd stanter made by Alkan (Turkey)
The temp is maintained at dry heated
120, 140, 170, 180

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 Labour
per each stenter is 4 people

Operator 1
Assistant operator 1
Checker 1
Helper 1

MALO System
Is attached before the stanter to control the scouring and bleaching, in the weft yarn
of the fabric.

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iii. PRINTING
The fabric is then passed on to printing machine for printing the fabric
There are 2 machines launched at Shahraj Mills

 Labor

Labour per each machine


5 persons for color side and 5 persons for machine side.

Rotary machine

The machine is made by Zimmer (Austria)


The important parameters for the machine are

 12 colors machine
 50 – 60 percent efficient
 Production of this machine is 1200000 meters per day.
 The thinker is acrylic based
 The binder is used by sandal bar and the name is tex acrylic binder

 Recipe

shahraj is using a following typical recipe

Dye (pigment) As required


Starch (glycerin) 30 g /l (for quality like 35x35 and
122x66 quantity is 60 g/l)
Apratam (poly vinyl acetate ) 10 g/l
Binder + thinker As required
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 Apratam is used for darkness of colors


 Starch is use for uniformity
 Binder is used for effective sticking of Fabric
 Thinker is used in dye paste to make dye

The temperature is normal as that of production hall.


Before the fabric is loaded for printing a sample is printed to ensure the customer
satisfaction

 Sample machine (for testing)

The sample is of 15m


One color used at a time
One screen is used for carryout print
The screen that the machine is using is made by Cu + Ni having uniform meshes

v. Curing / Ageing
The printed fabric is transport for curing to make the color permanent.

Temp 150 c
Manufactured by Bab cock
Made in Germany
Time 10 – 15 min

 Labour

Operator 1
Helpers 2

vi. Stentering
For curing chamber, the fabric is past towards 2nd stenter to carry out the required
width of the fabric and produce further creaseless fabric.

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vii. FINISHING

a. Finished fabric hall


The printed fabric after caring out all the processes in the production hall is attached
and sent to finished fabric hall. This hall stores the fabric that is printed.
The hall capacity is 3-4 Lac meters.

b. Finished fabric checking

The finished fabric is again checked here to ensure quality. This is done to see the
fabric is printed uniformity or not. If there are tiny parts left unprinted, they are filled
by touching, while a large part is reprinted.

Labour 10
Production average 40,000 m/day

c. Consignment sent

The printed fabric is folded, packed and then loaded in trucks to send fabric to the
desire places

Dyes
The dyes used by Shahraj textiles for printing or pigments, due to there cost
effectiveness and better fastness properties over fabric in the printed form
The pigments are used of company named Sandal Bar.

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LAB TESTING
Shahraj textiles have a very well equipped and elaborated laboratory having almost
every type of modern day testing instruments.

Oven ten major machineries are available apart from many basic instruments,
chemicals and appliances.
Some of the important tests carried out are

1. Diameter check and measure


2. Weight check and measure
3. Quality check and measure
4. Construction check and measure
5. Blend ratio check and measure
6. Size % check and measure
7. Absorbency check and measure
8. Take up check and measure
9. Whitener check and measure
10. pH check and measure
11. Washing fastness check and measure
12. Light check and measure
13. Crocking check and measure
14. Shrinkage check and measure
15. Staring check and measure
16. pilling check and measure
17. perspiration check and measure

The important machinery and equipments used by Shahraj textiles are

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i. GS.M cutters
This is a manual cutter used to cut in sound shape of diameter. The diameter fabric
is fixed that is 42 inches and 11 cm.
This fabric is later used to find weight in grams and which is used to find the total
length of fabric.

ii. Weight Machine


It is a digital weight machine used to find the fabric piece weight having an accuracy
of measuring in grams up to 3 decimal places.

iii. Crock meter (CM5)


by AATCC (USA)

The fabric piece along with white cotton fabric is placed and rubbed by a solid 10
times and the fabric piece is checked against the grey scale to find the reading.

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iv. Sun test (CPS)


by ALAS (USA)

It is a light fasteners taster. The fabric piece is put for 24 hours, in the machine and
recoded.

v. Light box
The fabric piece is checked is various lights such as

 day-light
 incandescent
 back-light
 U-V light

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vi. Oven
It is a typical home based oven to heat chemicals, substances or any other thing in a
short time.

vii. Pilling control tester


by ATLAS – USA (PT4)

The fabric pieces of size 5x5 inches is put in pill box and allow to be rotated for
almost ½ hour. The speed of rotation can be varied.

viii. Thermo fix curing machine


As the name suggest, this machine is used to check the fixation of dyes on the fabric
surface under various atmospheric and temperature conditions.
Normally it is used to see the fixation at 130c-160c for 5 mints.

ix. Quick-wash plus (fabric testing system)


by Raitech ( ATLAS USA )

A sample of size 10x10 inch is inserted in each of the small containers, to carry out
its effect when the temperature is 150c
Other parameters are

pressure 25 bars
Used for Drying and squeezing
Voltage 4 KW
pH 3

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x. Laundro meter
by ATLAS ( USA )

It used to check the

 exhaustion
 washing fastness
 exhaust dyeing
 dry-cleaning

Temperature 60 c
Time ½ hours

Some other tests that are carried out

 titration
 thickener and dyes and softeners mixing
 ironing
 Checking starch percentage for measuring the quantities of chemicals in
desizing.

CALENDARING

After using the color the fabric is calendared that is brought into ironed form, making
sure that the fabric is dry and in actual form demanded by customers

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Machine Name RAMISCH-GUARNERI


Made by Bristo Arsizio
Made in Italy
Model # 2002
Volt 380v
Frequency 50hz
Total mass 2800g

TYPES OF CALENDARS

The type of calendar used depends on the type of cloth to be run and what the
desired effect is to be. There are embossing calendars, friction calendars, swizzing
calendars, chase calendars, and compaction calendars. The difference between
them is the number of rolls and the drive system.

a) Swizzing Calendars

Swizzing is a British term used to denote that the fabric runs through all of the nips a
t the same surface speed as the rolls. Swizzing calendars usually consists of seven
to ten bowls and are run at ambient temperatures. The fabric effect is closed
interstices, a smooth appearance and gloss without the high glaze characteristic of a
friction calendar. A schematic of 7 bowl calendar is shown

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b) Chasing Calendars
Chasing calendars are similar to swizzing calendars. The major difference is that the
thread-up is such that the cloth makes several passes through the nips before it
exits to a take-up roll. This is done by having cloth pass over chasing rolls which
feed it back through the nips. The cloth is compressed against itself with as many as
5 to 6 layers being in a nip. This gives the cloth a thready-linen appearance and a
soft special feel.

c) Friction Calendars
As the name implies, friction calendars (see figure 76) apply a friction force to the
face of the fabric. This is done by driving the pattern roll faster than the support bowl.
Friction is created by speed differentials ranging from 5% to 100% so it is necessary
to have a strong fabric to withstand the strains. Frictioning produces a high degree of
luster on one side and the final effect is similar to ironing with a hot iron.

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d) Compaction Calendar
A compaction calendar has a n adjustable gap between the pattern roll and bowl.
This type of calendar is used to make filter media of certain thickness.

e) Embossing Calendar
Embossing calendars are normally two or three roll calendars with one engraved roll
and one or two bowls. The patterns range from polished rolls or cire' to very deep
floral patterns. Moire is a watered appearance which resembles paper after it has
been wet with water. The moire effect can be obtained by using a moiré pattern
embossing roll. Thermoplastic fabrics can be permanently embossed with heated
rolls and the effect can withstand repeated laundering. Natural fibers are more
difficult to emboss and usually starch is needed for the embossing to take; however,
this effect is not durable to laundering. Certain melamine resins can be added prior
to embossing and when properly cured, the embossing effect is more durable.

f) Schreiner Calendar
Often it is desirable to increase fabric luster without overly thinning the cloth.
Schreinering is a method of doing this. Schreinering is actually embossing by the se
of a very special pattern. The pattern roll has anywhere from 250 to 350 lines per
inch, etched at 26 degrees from the vertical. These lines are lightly embossed into
the fabric and being regular, reflect light so as to give the surface a high luster. This
operation gives a silk-like brilliance to cotton fabrics. Schreinering mercerized cotton
fabrics gives the nearest resemblance t o silk.

CYLINDERS
It has 3 cylinders of steal and other of 2 cotton cylinders (squeezing roller)

Temp 80c
Max-Speed 100m/min
Pressure 19648 bars for 100 ton

 Labour

Operator 1
Assistant 1
Checker 1

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CAD CAM SECTION

Here the design given by the customer on paper or fabric is scan in the computer

design team uses CAD CAM technology

Combination of sketches and fabric

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ENGRAVING HALL
In this section the rotary films are exposed and pattern are printed on them
Uniform meshes screens are available in different sizes and mashes.

 The number of mashes or a screen varies as 60, 80, 100, 125, 155, 180 per
linear inch
 The diameter of screen is 640, 720, 820, 914, 1018mm
 Max screens length = 3500mm
 The screens they are using made of Cu + Ni

Shahraj is using following techniques for screen printing

a) Striping

The previous pattern are removed by washing screen using water and chemicals
such as
 Phenyl
 Formic Acid
 Flouric Acid
 Methylene

After striping the chromic acid is applied which maximizes the removal and ensure
that there is no
 Color softness on screen
 There is luster improvement
 Mashes are removed

b) Screen Coating

Screen is coated with coated material named “roto-coat 100”


In a special machine called climatizer.
Screen is coated upside down for 15-30 min at high temp over 200c

c) Screen Dying

The new coated screen is dyed to ensure the screen coating is thoroughly fixed on
it.This process is also done at high temp and the process takes over 15-30 mints.

d) Screen exposing

Exposing section is connected to cad-cam section. Shahraj have 2 micro computers


in exposing room. One system gets the design from the cad cam section and
transfers it to other which is again connected to exposing machine and it exposes
machine
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e) Exposing Machine

The exposing machine is called CST ink Jet and it works on almost the same way as
an ink jet printer. The header is loaded with color pasted and it prints the pattern in
the required paste.
The room has a light pale yellow light ensuring no effect on coating and color.

f) Screen Developing

The screen is developed which means only that parts where patterns are printed on
screen are removed from coating while other remains same.

g) Oven Heat (polymerization)

The screen is again oven heated.

h) Hindering

The screen is thoroughly washed normally to make sure the patterned area is open
i.e.
Mashes are not closed by coating or another dust.

i) Dried and Heated

Finally the screen is heated and dried and sent to the rotary machine.

 Labour

Shift in-charge 1
Developer man 1
Checker man 1
Hankering man 1
Coating man 1
Store in-charge 1
Stripper 1
helpers 3

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COLOR KITCHEN

For printing department Shahraj has a separate hall where pigment dyes are
converted in a form to be used for printing.
The hall has the capacity of making color can ready to be used within 5-15min. It has
the capacity to store starch which is mixed with pigment paste to firm the color of
proper density of 8000kg

 1 tank of 4000kg
 1 tank of 2000kg
 1 tank of 2000kg

 Labor

6 people work at a single shift

Color man 1
Assistant color man 1
Starch carrier 1
Helpers 3

MAINTENANCE PLAN
A break-down maintenance system is carried out in the printing department by
printing manager Shahraj textiles. That the machines detailed maintenance is
carried out every weekend and twice a month.

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