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EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON PREFABRICATED HIGHWAY STEEL BRIDGE

Yongzuo Zhu, male , was born in 1948, a Member of Planning Division, Ministry of Communications of China, has undertaken research management for a total of fifteen years. He has applied himself to carry out bridge test for a long time He is in charge of technology developing and quality management of steel bridges.

ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is to study factors of Prefabricated Highway Steel Bridge (PHSB) during design theoretically and experimentally. The factors include dynamic or impact factor caused by moving vehicle, panel lateral maldistribution factor caused by vehicular eccentricty within the trusses, shear maldistribution factor caused by connecting clearance in end posts, shear impact factor caused by the slope of approach ramps. The conclusions are of guiding significance for both improving the bridge and bridging
practice.

Guanyao Xu is male, was born in 1965, Ph.D., a Member of China Steel Construction Society, a Fellow of China Operations Research Society, has undertaken research, development and consulting work on steel bridge and bridge test for a total of ten years. Now he took the task of steel bridge health monitoring system and mainly studied the fatigue response of steel bridge members under variable-amplitude long-life loading.

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EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON PREFABRICATED SECTIONAL HIGHWAY STEEL BRIDGE


YONGZUO ZHU Planning Division, Ministry of Communications, Beijing 100736, China; GUANYAO XU Beijing System Engineer Institute of Engineer Equipment, Beijing 100093, China xgy99@263.net.cn

the value of is 0.16 and 0.35 correspondingly. The

1. INTRODUCTION
Under the action of moving vehicle loads, the stress or deflection of the bridge structure is larger than that caused in static situation. The increment of stress or deflection is called as dynamic influence, the ratio of which to stress or deflection in static situation is called as dynamic coefficient. In the design criterion of bridge, the dynamic influence is usually called as vehicle loads impacting coefficient or dynamic coefficient to bridge structure. In practice the dynamic coefficient is oftentimes defined as the ratio of the maximum dynamic deflection to the static deflection at mid-span of a bridge, use the letter to respresent the dynamic coefficient. With regard to steel bridge, is prescribed in the design criterion for road and bridge of China as follows,
=
15 37.5 + L

simplest PHSB is one wherein a single truss of panels along each side of the deck forms the main girders. This type of construction is referred to as Single Single (SS) .

Figure 1 A SS PHSB The main factors affecting vehicles impacting coefficient to PHSB namely the first natural frequencies of PHSB, structure of deck system, the mass and speed of vehicles are studied in this article. And a correctional calculating formula of dynamic or impact coefficient is put forward. trusses, shear Moreover, panel lateral distribution distribution coefficient caused by coefficient caused by vehicular eccentricity within the connecting clearance in end posts and shear impact coefficient caused by the slope of approach ramps are studied as well. for The both conclusions improvement have and guiding practical significance

where L is the span or the length of influence line, whose unit is m. As to Prefabricated Highway Steel Bridge as shown in Figure 1, we find out through a great deal of field tests that its impacting coefficient is not only relative to the span, but also to the mass of vehicles, the running speed and the structure status of deck system etc. When a 170kN heavy camion passes through a 21m long SS steel bridge respectively at the speed of 15km/h and 30km/h,

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application of steel bridges.

f1

f1 2P 1+ G

2. STUDY ON DYNAMIC COEFFICIENT OF PHSB


2.1 Factors Affecting Dynamic Coefficient of PHSB

From table 1, we can know that L=15m P/G=3.23


f1 =0.366 f 1 L=21m P/G=1.65 f1 =0.482 f 1 . So, as to

and Their Analysis Factors affecting dynamic coefficient of PHSB mainly include dynamic characteristics of structure of span mainly the first natural frequencies f1 , proportional relationship between live load P and dead load G, structure of deck system and vehicle speed V. 1) Influence tocaused by f1, P and G For permanent bridges, because the mass of dead load is much larger than that of live load, the influence can be left out. For PHSB, as the length of span is usually shorter than 39m as shown in Table 1, and the mass of dead load is smaller than that of live load, the shorter the span is, the greater the ratio of dead load to live load is.

a certain PHSB, Ps effect on f1 is great, the large P is, the less f1 is. In fact, the first natural frequencies f 1 of a PHSDB is usually that caused by the action of live loads, which is f1 , not f 1 . Only when the wind load is considered, the first natural frequencies is f 1 , not f1 . So, for a PHSB, the item of P/G should be included in . From the above, we know that to express P/G s effect by 1/ 1+2P/G is feasible. Field experiments

show that the mass of loads Ps effect on is very great, the larger P is, the smaller is. 2) Influence to caused by structure of floor system

For permanent bridges, the thickness of faceplates of deck is more than 10mm, above which there is cement concrete pavement or asphalt concrete pavement so tires wont directly act on the steel faceplate. Obvious clash will be heard only when vehicles pass the expansion and contraction installationof bridge floor. For PHSB, there are two kinds of deck structure called wooden deck structure and steel deck structure. To be convenient for installing, the wooden deck faceplates are put on the longitudinal stringers, and the latter are put on the transverse beams. The wooden deck is only 190mm wide and there are gap of 5~15mm wide, so a so-called washboard road is formed actually. The faceplates of steel deck are directly put on the transverse beams. A single steel faceplate is only 3 metres long and 3~6mm thick, and there are 3~10mm slots among the faceplates, so tires will directly act on the faceplates of steel deck. Figure 2 is a steel deck, and figure 3 is its working status. Therefore, for PHSB, the influence caused by gap should be considered.

Table 1 Realation Between Live Loads & Dead Loads Span m 15 18 21 24 30 36 39 Construction SS SS SS DS DSR DSR DSR G kN 108.5 130.2 151.9 229.6 357.0 428.4 464.1 P kN 350 250 250 500 500 630 500 P/G 3.23 1.92 1.65 2.18 1.40 1.47 1.08

Mass of loads affects because of its effect on f1. Formula of mass of loads effect on f1 is provided (Fryba,1972) as follows:

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should be adopted in order to enhance the system reliability of PHSB. 3) Influence to caused by the velocity V of moving vehicle tructure of floor system Field tests show under the velocity of from 0 to 30 km/h, the greater velocity is, the greater is. Figure 2 A Steel Deck 2.2 The Improved Dynamic Coefficient

The first natural frequencies f 1 , the ratio of live load P to dead load G, and the velocity V of moving vehicle have more influence on the impact of trusses.The impact factor of truss can be explained as follows: =1+ 0.0157+0.4068log f1 2P 1+ G V 60

Figure 3 Working Status of Steel Deck The method used to deal with floor slots effect on impacting coefficient in AASHTO design criterion for bridges of the USA can also be applied to Prefabricated Sectional Highway Steel Bridge. Experiments show that when a JIEFANG CA10B camion passes through a PHSB with wooden deck system at the speed of 20km/h, the value of of transverse beams is from 1.90 to 2.0. For PHSB with steel deck system, the value of of transverse beams is from 0.2 to 0.3. Through analysis of systematic reliability, we know that under the action of track load 50, a 21m long DSR steel bridge, the reliability index of invalidation mode of bending stress of a transverse =2.357, that of invalidation mode of the compressed stress of upper diagonal bracing =2.834 and that of thedeflectionin the middle of span =4.532, The system reliability index of the bridge =2.274. It can be seen that transverse beams have the greatest effect on the system reliability. So, if transverse beams are not to be changed, steel decks

where the maximum value of is less than 0.5 and V is less than 50 km/h..

3. STUDY ON THE PANEL LATERAL MALDISTRIBUTION FACTOR CAUSED BY VEHICHE ECCENTRICTY WITHIN THE TRUSSES OF PHSB
Field test adopted a PHSB of DD construction as shown in Figure 4. The span of bridge is 27 metres.

Figure 4 A PHSB of DD Construction

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Test results are as following: Case 1, e=0. While the trucks were at the central line of the bridge, the distribution factor of panels lateral maldistribution was shown as in Figure 5.
e=0

A PHSB is a through bridge. The advantage of the through bridge is the simplicity of the panels of the bridge, and the deficiency of the through bridge is to set end posts to bear large shears. The posts dont bear the same shear because of the connecting clearance between the end panels and end posts. Field experiment shows the maldistribution factors of shears of end posts varies from 6.0% to 120%.

0.23 0.27

0.27

0.23

Figure 5 Distribution Factor of Panels Case 2, e=0.20 metre eccentricty apart from the central line of the bridge. While the trucks were at the eccentricty line of the bridge, the distribution factor of panels lateral maldistribution was shown as in Figure 6.
e=0.20

5. SHEAR IMPACT FACTOR CAUSED BY THE SLOPE OF APPROACH RAMPS OF PHSB


The shear of the end panels is sensitive to the slope of approach ramps. The greater the slope is, the greater impact factor the shear of the end panels is. Field experiment shows the impact factors of shears of end posts varies from 1.2 to 2.0 according to the changes of the slope from 8% to 17%.

0.21 0.24

0.29

0.26

Figure 6 Distribution Factor of Panels Case 3, e=0.50 metre eccentricty apart from the central line of the bridge. While the trucks were at the eccentricty line of the bridge, the distribution factor of panels lateral maldistribution was shown as in Figure 7.
e=0.50

6. CONCLUSION
Viewed overall above, many factors such as
dynamic or impact factor caused by moving vehicle, panel lateral maldistribution factor caused by vehicular eccentricty within the trusses, shear maldistribution factor caused by connecting clearance in end posts, shear impact factor caused by the slope of approach ramps,

should be considered in the design and practical application.

0.18 0.20

0.32

0.30

References
Fryba L,1972: Vibration of solids and structures under

Figure 7 Distribution Factor of Panels

4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SHEAR DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENT AT THE END POSTS OF PHSB

moving loads. Noordhoff International Publishing, Groningen, The Netherlands.

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