SAGE Visual Methods

Mapping Visual Discourses

Contributors: Adele Clarke Editors: Jason Hughes Book Title: SAGE Visual Methods Chapter Title: "Mapping Visual Discourses" Pub. Date: 2012 Access Date: October 30, 2013 Publishing Company: SAGE Publications Ltd City: London Print ISBN: 9781446241028 Online ISBN: 9781446268520 DOI: Print pages: v3-231-v3-283 This PDF has been generated from SAGE Research Methods. Please note that the pagination of the online version will vary from the pagination of the print book.

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Mapping Visual Discourses
Mapping Visual Discourses, Adele ClarkeSituational Analysis: Grounded Theory After the Postmodern Turn (Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE, 2005), pp. pp. 205–258. Copyright 2005. Reproduced with permission of SAGE Publications Inc Books in the format textbook and “other” book via Copyright Clearance Center. [T]he postmodern is a visual culture. I have been provoked to extend situational analysis to visual discourse from many directions. Stafford (1996) has called for the encouragement of visual literacies. Evans and Hall (1999: 1) have expressed concern that “‘visual culture’ has been somewhat overlooked in the rapid expansion of cultural and media studies throughout the past decade and a half.” Harrison (1996:75) has contended, “[T]he value of visual imagery and visual methods … is such as to warrant a more central location in research training and research practice.” And perhaps most important, Mirzoeff's epigraph insists that a method that seeks to engage the postmodern must engage the visual. There are visual materials in most if not all of the situations of inquiry that we research. We ignore them at our analytic peril. Instead, we can engage them, seek to understand how visuality is constitutive of those situations, and come to fuller terms with their rich and dense contributions to social life. My goals here are to foster and support the analysis of extant visual discourse materials on their own and/or as a related part of an integrated multisite/multiscape research project within the broad domain of qualitative research undertaken in various disciplinary and professional venues. Thus I do not discuss producing new visual materials as part of a research project, using visual materials in the research process itself (e.g., to solicit [p. v3-232 ] responses from participants), or exploring perception ↓ or reception – how audiences “read” visual materials – but do refer you to works on these topics. There exist vast literatures on visual materials, including some strong
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social science research texts. While still images are the main focus here, situational analysis can certainly be used with film, video, and other visual forms, including multimedia.


As with historical and narrative discourses, visual discourse can be the focus of a small or large project, or a subpart of a larger project. The digital revolution is transforming making, altering, storing, and reproducing images while simultaneously lowering the costs of doing so. The inclusion of visual materials of all kinds in scholarly journals and books is becoming increasingly routine. Thus in addition to studying the un(der)studied, we will be able to publish research on visual materials in sites and ways that in the past could only be fantasized. Because I suspect very few people who read this book will have been particularly exposed to studies of visual discourse, much less the vast scholarship on the visual, I begin by providing some historical and conceptual entrée that should be useful in actually doing analysis of visual materials. The remainder of the chapter focuses on doing grounded situational analysis of visual discourse using an exemplar from my own work.

Entering Visual Discourse
I argue for the need to recognize, and act upon, the occurrence of a profound and comprehensive intellectual revolution. This overturning affects all branches of daily life and even the more arcane reaches of humanistic and scientific research and practice. Simply put, it is the radical shift underway since the eighteenth century from a text-based to a visually-dependent culture. Visual discourses have entered the domains of the social sciences and humanities as subjects of research by multiple routes and for multiple reasons, especially since the postmodern turn. This shift recognizes that historically there has been a truly dramatic increase in both the numbers and kinds of representations with which most humans on the planet live and in the number and kinds of things with which we visually dwell

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(Mitchell 1994). Material culture has elaborated and is deeply visual (Miller 1998). Most modern modes of display of visual representation can be traced to the 1820s and 1830s when the technologies of lithography, photography, and other modes of duplication of images allowed the mass production of representations for the first time. Walter Benjamin (1970) famously argued that this intense reproduction of art and images by mechanical or technological rather than human means of copying constituted the major turning point in the development of visual cultures to that date. And it was less than 200 years ago. [p. v3-233 ↓ ] Advertising is perhaps the mass-produced visual discourse most “seen” in “modern social life.” Early ads promoted personal services, books published, apprentices, horses and dogs, commodities available at particular shops, remedies for various bodily ills, and public carnivalesque events showing monsters, prodigies, and freaks. Interestingly, drug and toiletries advertising led the way, became and remain dominant today. Raymond Williams (1980:179) argues, “The half-century between 1880–1930 … saw the full development of an organized system of commercial information and persuasion, as part of the modern distributive system in conditions of large-scale capitalism.” The combined use of visual and narrative discourses in advertising and the ways in which commercial information and persuasion cannot be meaningfully separated have made this a key site for visual discourse analysis for many decades (e.g., Barnard 1995; Goffman 1976). Advertising has also influenced other modes of visual representation. In the 19th-century West, public visual displays of the rare and exotic, long a part of fairs and carnivals, were repackaged. Displays of exotic colonial cultures and their “exports” were routinely mounted for international exhibits in a pattern that is still alive and well, including “dioramas” of live people in their cultural habitats (e.g., Bennett 1995; Smith 1999). Since about 1900, photography and film/video have been important in ethnographic anthropology. Many early visuals were efforts in “salvage ethno graphy,” attempting to save remnants of “disappearing” cultures (Marcus & Fischer 1986). However, such visuals have also been sites of major recent critiques centered on how such visuals can work in complicitous ways in “exoticizing” and “othering” native peoples, much like the living dioramas are all too reminiscent of zoos. Today, globalized tourism routinely displays exotic local cultures for visual (and aural) consumption (e.g.,
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MacCannell 1976). While visual ethnography remains vital in anthropology (e.g., Pink 2001), there has recently been a shift to the ethnography of indigenous media as well as of new intentionally transnational/diasporic indigenous media forms (Ginsberg 1999; Ginsberg et al. 2002). Among sociologists, Georg Simmel (1903/1964, 1908/1970:150) was the first to highlight the significance of the visual in modern culture: “The rapid crowding of changing images, the sharp discontinuity in the grasp of a single glance, and the unexpectedness of onrushing impressions.” Urban life “shows a great preponderance of occasions to see rather than to hear people.” In the early 20th century, he saw people becoming visual objects in new ways, including through consumption (DeGrazia & Furlough 1996; Solomon-Godeau 1996). Photography and the visual then played a serious role in two strands of early American sociology – social reform and Chicago social ecology. The social reform strand used photography for advocacy inside sociology and academia but publication of such visuals in sociology journals was abandoned by circa 1915 as scientism gained ground (Harper 1994). The [p. v3-234 ↓ ] Chicago social ecology strand produced what Denzin (1991:100) has called “the incipient cultural studies tradition and agenda, focused on communications [that] has always lurked inside interactionism.” This strand, though never extensive, followed on from Simmel in taking the visual seriously, and is continued in this book. It extends today to cultural studies topics such as tattoo, fashion, Las Vegas, video and teletechnology, film studies, media studies, and projects on visual cultures in science and medicine studies. Across the 20th century, the development of film, television, electronic media, the Internet, and so on have each added waves of new visual materials and technologies to our cultural heritage. We are routinely awash in the mass media and new media. “The new information technologies turn everyday life into a theatrical spectacle; into sites where the dramas that surround the decisive performances of race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, and age are staged” (Denzin 1991:8).
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What I would argue is that recently the second major turning point/rupture in the development of visual culture has occurred – the capacity to change photos and other images electronically. “Digitalization techniques seem to permit an unprecedented
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has classically not been concerned with what should be. one of its tenets has been that social inequalities have first to be empirically established. arguing that this is characteristic of humans (Sturken & Page 6 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . and analysis is informed by a vision of a more equitable society. then. Freud actually coined the psychoanalytic term scopophilia to capture the drive to look and the pleasure of looking. The empirical paradigm. I next briefly frame some of the key concepts in the critical paradigm that can be of use in empirical work. I concur. darkroom. [p. Harper 2000.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods enhancement and manipulation of pictorial representations … [now] more a matter of computing proficiency than camera. To do strong visual analyses. one needs to be familiar with both. or editing skills” (Ball & Smith 2001:313). Such an analysis is therefore also an argument for change. Realisms and Gazes: Concepts and Studies Visual studies is poised to become one of the most interesting and conceptually challenging subjects that has emerged in academic life in the last several decades.. on the other hand. v3-235 ↓ ] Therefore. Lister 1995).g. this manipulability is dramatically changing how visual media are to be understood (e. Widely democratized as desktop computer technologies. Chaplin asserts that these two paradigms have been held apart too long. it is concerned with what should be. can we think about the rise of the visual theoretically? Chaplin (1994:159) makes a distinction between what she calls the critical and empirical paradigms in visual cultural studies: The critical paradigm focuses attention on the unequal relations between social strata. Its proponents want to explore what human society is actually like. How.

and identity onto a depicted scene. In “the society of the spectacle” in which we live. To interrupt this myth. Yet even then. One area of concern centers on problematics of realism. Viewers project wholeness. ideas. Analytically. visual materials are particularly important precisely because of the claims to realism they usually convey and their consequences in particular situations. “The spectacle is capital to such a degree of accumulation that it becomes an image. That is.” The visual is surreal and in need of critical analysis.” This point is wonderfully captured in the famous surrealist painting of a pipe by Rene Magritte done circa 1928 that has written across the bottom “This is not a pipe. “viewers engage in the work of decoding. and apparently naturally” (Bell 2002:9). emphasis added). maps. capturing – and about viewing per se. the state.” many social theorists are highly critical of the visual. This rise of visual discourse was and remains integral to imperialism. viewers must think reflexively about how images are made – acts of posing. and other forms of “the powers that be. there is a gripping “myth of photographic truth.” mediating social relations in ways that serve the needs of capital but obscure its power. whether or not we consciously intend to flesh out an image. Called photorealism or documentary truth.” The painting is also titled to rupture our viewing: The Treachery of Images (Sturken & Cartwright 2001:15). Magritte is reminding us that this is a picture of a pipe – assuredly not the “real thing. framing. coherence. The “myth of photographic truth” has Page 7 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses 11 10 . globalization. material things. practices. unselfconsciously. and sundry representations. … The medium itself is considered transparent” (Sekula 1982:86). Debord (1967/1999:98) argued. colonization. “Usually this takes place instantaneously. Today technology allows us to move easily beyond the real in visual discourses through many forms of electronic creation and manipulation. It is important to note that the rise of visual discourse in the West was parallel to the rise of capitalism and consumption. our eyes/mind have been so trained as users/consumers of the visual that they tend to do it “for us”/“to us. and democratization – travels of people. refusing an ‘impoverished reality in favour of an imaginary plenitude’” (Burgin 1982:147. This has been especially true of photography. Because so many visual discourses are put to work in the service of capitalism. And since the turn of the 20th century. it has been especially linked to corporate and transnational capitalisms (Williams 1980).OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods Cartwright 2001).

school photos. v3-236 ↓ ] political and celebrity images. bodily and property “screening” technologies for “security purposes” (Tagg 1987). Perhaps the most important formulation is that of Michel Foucault (e.” The gaze manifests a power relation between gazers and gazees. all visual modes can be implicated. My own work with colleagues has followed this gaze into the 21st century and the biomedicalization of health (Clarke 2003).OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods been ruptured – but unevenly and unstably. There is a sense of being objectified. But the boundaries leak (Minh-Ha 1989:94). For example. “the gaze” is an important concept for situational analysis. Kevles 1997) has become a relentlessly disciplining gaze focused on illness and disease. and so on. In fact. Foucault was particularly interested in the relations of knowledge/power produced when a collectivity of some kind such as a discipline gains jurisdiction over broad domains of life through use of a disciplinary gaze.” Who gets to look? At whom or what? Who is in control of seeing? Who/what is the object of the gaze? With what consequences? As discussed in Chapter 2. and entertainment. The issue is the power of what has been called “the gaze. Foucault famously argues (1975) that since the 18th century. consumed. 2000. 2). 1995b. and more recently via photo and other forms of ID. subordinated. 1975. the tendency to assume stability and authenticity remains very strong in terms of many genres of visual culture such as family photos. [p. In terms of the visual as suspect. 12 Page 8 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . An institution such as the state gains power through the disciplinary gaze of the panopticon of the prison (Foucault 1979:ch. Power and privacy are deeply related. documentary films. Voyeurism is often part of the gaze. Here gazers can gaze to their heart's content. while dubiousness reigns more commonly vis-à-vis advertising. the clinical gaze of medicine in the hospital both with and without scopic technologies (see also Cartwright 1995a.g. as the gazee cannot “look back” – cannot “return” the gaze as a subject but only as an object to be looked at. Foucault means by the concept not merely looking or seeing but the production of power relations through looking or seeing – through the practices of “the gaze. the gaze can be a collective/institutional authority to stare as well as individual. or threatened by being the object of the gaze – by being stared at. That is. 1979). not just photography..

and normalized in visual discourse. who or whatever is gazed upon is feminized (read disempowered) by the gaze itself. Goffman teaches us some basics of “reading”/analyzing visual materials. That is. while the gazee is female/feminine. an interactionist heir of Simmel. Figure 1 illustrates Goffman's analysis of relative size in the image: Larger is more powerful. Goffman remains a basic entry-level primer that can Page 9 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses .OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods Let us turn now to some exemplary research projects that have used these and other concepts to analyze visual discourses. as the doer rather than the done to. and other hierarchies of power. If you plan to analyze visual discourse. illustrated. Figure 3 shows function ranking whereby the more powerful party is seen as holding an executive role. Figure 2 shows ritualistic touching and pointing compared to utilitarian touching and pointing: The utilitarian is more powerful. v3-237 ↓ ] advertising photographs.” This is the exercise of male authority in visual domains (as elsewhere) such that the gazer is usually assumed to be male/masculine (unless otherwise clearly noted). While he focused especially on gender and especially on [p. These can visually – and quite silently – “naturalize” gender. and/or vulnerability as more commonly female. exhibiting a distinctive “to-be-looked-at-ness” (Mulvey 1975/1989:19). Figure 6 shows expressions of horror. I have selected one image to illustrate each here (there are dozens in his book). Figure 5 illustrates what Goffman called the ritualization of visible subordination. women appear. Working at the same time Mulvey was theorizing the male gaze as part of secondwave feminism. racial. Last. Women typically become sexualized objects of the gaze. feminizing and disempowering in the situation imaged. “men act.” Laura Mulvey (1975/1989) framed the concept of “the male gaze. This is usually accomplished through positioning such as lowering the body as in bowing and through deferential facial gestures. He focused on six main ways in which power is commonly expressed. Erving Goffman (1976). his mode of analysis is much more broadly generalizable and useful across visual discourses. produced one of the earliest studies of power in visual materials in the social sciences. shame. Figure 4 illustrates how family scenes with appropriate age/ gender configurations often frame women (but not men) in the category of children: Men and boys are typically more powerful. Taking off in part from Berger's (1972:47) comment that in the classic Western tradition of images.

OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods accompany more contemporary introductory works such as Sturken and Cartwright's excellent text (2001). perhaps most importantly in terms of race and ethnicity. v3-238 ↓ ] Figure 2: Goffman: The feminine touch Figure 3: Goffman: Function ranking Page 10 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . 13 Figure 1: Goffman: Relative size Quite obviously. there are many other visual gazes of power. produced through Western [p.

OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods [p. v3-239 ↓ ] Figure 4: Goffman: The family Figure 5: Goffman: Ritualization of subordination Page 11 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses .

v3-241 ↓ ] (Mbembe 2001). Early anthropology offers a classic example: Page 12 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses 14 . indolent. v3-240 ↓ ] Figure 6: Goffman: Licensed withdrawal imperialism and colonization after circa 1500. far away. devious. and untrustworthy. occupation of Iraq that performed all four of these modes of othering in two short paragraphs. Various visual formats perform the colonizing gaze of racialization – past and present (see note 16).” He refers to centuries of relations between Europe/the West and Asia/the East as based in the Western presumption of Western superiority. an outcome.” carefully establishing boundaries [p. “at the edge of the world. The “imperial gaze” is that of the colonist upon the colonized. (I wrote this after reading a morning newspaper report describing the U.) Orientalism is an ongoing project. This gaze emphasizes racialization – the stratification of races and ethnicities produced by and through colonization and its various forms of domination. beginning with but far from limited to the many forms of slavery. has continually portrayed the East as exotic. The racializing gaze places marked cultures as remote. Western power and authority were achieved not only militarily but also through a relentlessly disciplining gaze that. since circa 1500. of course. and is famously captured in Edward Said's (1978) concept of “orientalism. not only directed at the East but also at the South.S.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods [p. The globalizing imperial gaze was. an early wave of globalization. and a continually remediated product of Western imperialism (see also Marcus 2001).

these sculptures have been “read” in quite varied ways – as a scientific hierarchy. In her book Black Looks: Race and Representation.’” That is. another site of the racializing gaze. and most recently as celebration of the “glorious diversity” of race. eminent Afro-Caribbean cultural studies scholar Stuart Hall (1990:230. and consisted of 101 life-sized. after the racial classification apparatus had been seriously critiqued within the sciences. “The predominant message of the [original] exhibit was clear: racial groups exist in nature … within a hierarchical scheme that relegated ‘black’ and ‘yellow’ races to primitive status on the margins of the civilized ‘white’ races. white subjects. is concerned that not only “were we constructed as different and other within the categories of knowledge in the West by those regimes. as institutionalized racism. such visuals can be constitutive of objectified people's own identities/subjectivities. They [also] had the power to make us see and experience ourselves as ‘Other. emphasis in original).” it was on show from 1933 to the mid-1960s. It is an interesting thought-experiment to consider what would happen if equivalent images were to appear in a sociology text dealing with western. realistically diverse bronze sculptures. bell hooks (1992) takes off from Hall's analyses in seeking to decolonize the gaze – to learn how to “look back” defiantly and resist. Some of these people are obviously in their early teens. who works in England. For example. … EvansPritchard's [1940] The Nuer.” Later. … a well-known text…. contains closeup pictures of completely naked (black) men and women with visible genitalia. More contemporarily. (Emmison & Smith 2000:15) This tradition of bare-breasted and otherwise bared “natives” – open to Western/ Northern visual inspection but never vice versa – has been ably sustained and brought into public culture in museums. Hall views visual cultures as significant elements of those disciplining regimes. Titled “Races of Mankind. Thus across the 60 years of their display. Her goal is to assist in developing a critical “oppositional gaze” that can displace Page 13 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . Teslow (1998:72–73) studied the Chicago Field Museum of Natural History's visual display on the science of racial classification. the sculptures were displayed on their own. especially in diasporic situations where one's visual cultural roots can be thousands of miles away and can themselves be experienced as alien.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods [C]olonial discourses and power relations provided a context in which photographs of possibly sensitive matters could be taken and reproduced with little fear of censure by those observed.

“Women Can Hide But They Can't Run. and only partially clothed. displaying exotic people at exhibitions. museums. The symbolic conquering of the animal world through trophy hunting and its imagery of both mounted “heads” and pictures of “great white hunters” with a conquering foot on a very big. The women are commonly seated or on their knees cooking or child-tending. Mitman 1996). and so on. She titled her paper. who specialized in vistas of the American West – demonstrating how nature too has become a visual spectacle for our consumption. “othering” processes that address the nonhuman. and Nature in the World of Modern Science and her other work (1991a.” The scientific version collects living and dead specimens for zoos.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods degrading white supremacist readings and visuals with more race-positive and complex discussions about visual materials. a famous early moving picture was the staged Electrocuting an Elephant. Race. very dead animal are classic visual manifestation of such “othering. The men are commonly imaged in a scattered but clearly coordinated group pursuing large beasts on foot in a pastoral yet threatening wilderness. capturing its falling and slow death (Edison Manufacturing Co. or leaning over animal skins to tan and otherwise prepare them as hides for clothing. Page 14 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . An example that combines orientalism and racialization with the male gaze is GiffordGonzales's (1993) analysis of women's “positions” in recent [p. The photohistory of redwood logging in the Pacific Northwest of the United States is similarly rife with dramatic differences in size – tiny humans versus giant trees. quoted in Cartwright 1995b:19). Visual mastery over (large) animals is complemented with visual mastery over (large) nature. 2003) take this up quite vividly. v3-242 ↓ ] dioramas of “Early Man” in anthropological museums. The most popular show ever mounted at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art was a 2002 retrospective of the photography of Ansel Adams. and making the Munich zoo (Rothfels 2002). Donna Haraway's (1989) Primate Visions: Gender. bedding.g. In these often life-sized. Perhaps most dramatic. the bodies are mostly bronze and black. but also different. three-dimensional visual displays usually intended as educational. and research purposes (e. especially animals and plants. In fact. 1903. ironically if not subtly..” In a book that tries to take the nonhuman quite seriously. one of the major companies that used resources from German colonies before World War II focused on three activities: catching animals for live export. I want to also point out that there are very similar.

but others are possible and more than likely. For example. see also King 2002). They tell us who we “should” be and what we “should” do. the male gaze.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods Most of the initial analyses of othering through visual means that I have discussed – concepts of the gaze. and consumed by males. racialization. and other visual forms of dominance – have now been seriously critiqued and theoretically complexified. Especially given metrosexuality. But if sexual and gender identities are no longer understood as rigid. v3-243 ↓ ] be diverse and the subject position of viewer is open to any who choose to view. The advertising of Viagra (discussed in Chapter 4) is an excellent example (Mamo & Fishman 2001. The same holds true for gay porn. gay men are no longer the major consumers of male versions of “to-be-looked-at-ness. it has its targeted audiences/consumers. They are ever disciplining and never Page 15 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . and permanent.” Everyone and everything can be constellated as objects in intensely visually mediated cultures of consumption. “[V]isual images which surround us in everyday life must be viewed as actively at work in constructing the world how it has to be. Usually designed to appeal explicitly to older heterosexual men. and often “how to” do it and the products to use in the process. bounded. males are also being increasingly displayed for consumption and expectations of their appearance are similarly rising.” She argued that while most heterosexual pornography may well be produced by males. and not just reflecting how it is” (Harrison 1996:80). Obviously. audiences can actually [p. in these ads there are also subtexts and keyed visual signals inserted to alert other possible consumers such as gay men and any and all women to the possibility of taking Viagra. orientalism. some lesbians can comfortably partake of the male gaze in this visual form. directed at males. multiple gazer and gazee positions are possible. Intentionally transgressive advertising also strategically attempts to work simultaneously across seemingly contradictory categories of potential consumers. Linda Williams (1989) studied hard-core pornography as a means of challenging a simplistic reading of “the male gaze. In the postmodern. I have argued that “[i]n postmodernity. including the pleasures of male privilege (however temporary). One key point is that we need to take into account the social and historical contexts of both the production of the images and the social and historical contexts of spectatorship – expectations of viewing. from advertising to popular culture. Across multiple venues today. capital has fallen in love with difference” (Clarke 1995:146). then most anyone might find pleasure through occupying the male position.

religious. subjecting. [p. they can be doing multiple and contradictory things at once. When viewed with a critical eye. deceiving. one realizes in a particularly vivid way that there is no space outside of power and discourse. Visual Cultures This is a looking culture. classifying. the Internet. advertising. racializing. preserving. distracting. the baldness. clarifying. Despite the intense linkages of visual discourses to commercial capitalism and consumption. muting. transgressing. stratifying. racialization. the male gaze. television. this pertains to all visual discourses including high art. I use the term “culture” here to specifically indicate shared collective forms of visuality. “scopic Page 16 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . cherishing. photographic. Analytically. and so on. family photos. political – artistic. orientalism. The use of the visual can also be in the service of many other social worlds and institutional forms. television. the “in-your-faceness” of visual representation – the facticity of its having been produced. gendering. investigatory – medical. fetishizing. most challenging analytically. “It is hard to think of one institution in society that does not use reproduced images” and produce a visual discourse open to analysis (Evans & Hall 1999:2). distributed.g. print media. And. then. and other forms of marking – is that in engaging in the analysis of visual materials. preserved. mesmerizing. and looked at. Evans & Hall 1999). There exist many and heterogeneous “visual cultures” (e. cluttering. capitalism is far from alone in its intense visual relations. sexing. organized in terms of a variety of gazes. v3-244 ↓ ] Disciplinary Gazes. usually again and again – insists on our learning how to take it seriously in research. social science. and so on). Visual materials can be colonizing. Again. we need to be alert to the many kinds of work visual materials can be doing in a given situation – including (in a doubled reflexivity) in the situation of our own research.. authenticating. or looks (tourist. victory over nature. The key summary point vis-à-vis all these modes of othering through the visual – the critical paradigm of the gaze. and so on. stunning.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods innocent.

No mirroring. and so on or metaphorically for an institutional formation. Disciplines are social worlds – communities of shared practices. Thus today analyzing a visual is predicated to some degree on understanding the world that produced it. That is. “art worlds” (Becker 1982). “regimes of representation” (Latour 1988b. anthropology. and cues will work in particular ways in its own conventions of visuality that frame meaning making (Becker 1982). In contrast. Foucault 1975. or realism. visual cultures are distinctively situated in institutional/discursive realms..g. In the past. nursing. or authenticity is assumed (Rorty 1979). symbols. and distinctive visual imagery – its visual culture(s) (Evans & Hall 1999). education. The term “discipline” can be used literally for scholarly disciplines such as sociology. v3-245 ↓ ] purposes. Page 17 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . Jay 1993)..g. universes of discourse. technological apparatus (Strauss 1978). Visual images are then analyzed as discursive cultural products of particular worlds or disciplines (Pryce 1996:99).. Foucault (1975. social work. signs. and so on. or social worlds (Strauss 1978). more or less realistic fashion. producing “the order of things. including rhetorics (e. Visual cultures are produced through particular disciplines and discourses (Foucault 1975). 1990). In Becker's (1998:84) concise wording: “It's (almost) all a matter of context. social world. and/or subcultures (Gelder & Thornton 1997). 1979) further argues that disciplinary gazes organize the world. today we tend to look at visual materials as “produced in and by” particular social domains for particular [p. Within a particular world. management.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods regimes” (e. Bazerman & Paradis 1991). communication. and a more than skeptical stance may be taken toward the images.” Each discipline. it was assumed that an image “reflected” the world in which it was made in a mirrorlike. Haraway 1991b). and we begin to make sense of visual cultures by taking this situatedness into account (e.” They frame apprehension and perception – we can only “see” and understand the world and “the conditions of possibility” through gazes we have learned/internalized/ been disciplined by. subculture has its own specific discourse. Thus institutional locations and their visual cultures are important features of most situations under analysis.g. One of the interesting changes in analysis of visual materials since the postmodern turn is the increasing frequency of studies of the visual cultures of particular disciplines and other social worlds.

the Internet or CD-ROMs). and the recognition of such quotations is a key part of jazz connoisseurship.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods Another focus of analyzing a visual culture in relation to its production world concerns images used in that visual culture in the past. As scholars. it appears as if the contents embedded in these new forms of representation are themselves new and innovative. the sciences and medicine have produced an array of distinctive visual cultures. due to the newness of the mechanisms of delivery (e. and citing in patterned ways that situate our work in comparison with others.) are commonly imported unquestioned into new media. I next offer a couple of examples.. It is at the heart of both creating art and producing art history. “A scientific journal such as Nature depend[s] upon depictions: tables. In music. Remediation is the concept Bolter and Grusin (1999:14–15) use to discuss how the actual contents or framings that older media cultures traditionally carry (including conventional forms of racism. and so on. valued. graphs. much of the routine work of actors in many different sciences “requires visualization as a component of human thinking and problem solving” (Harrison 2002:857). But. maps. etc. learning about remediations in your situation of research inquiry is part of learning visual analysis. and their study as part of visual discourse analyses.g. That is. First. Again. scattergrams. Here the research studies by scholars from the social sciences and humanities are usually analyses of “practices of visualization” in a particular scientific discipline or specialty (Emmison & Smith 2000:22). But referencing is also common across many if not most other forms of discourse. phrases of other composers or musicians are often “quoted. Learning to decode referentiality is part of learning visual discourse analysis.” Such quotation is at the heart of jazz improvisation. Older visual cultures are commonly thereby technically gussied up while merely reinscribing old content and/or framings (see also Forsythe 2001). quoting. sexism. To illustrate disciplinary gazes. There are two important concepts here: referencing and remediation. visual cultures. sketches and photographs. for example. These symbols usually point out something important. … The 15 Page 18 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . Referencing usually takes the form of including particular elements that symbolically refer to earlier images or events in a newly produced visual discourse. Referentiality is rife across all visual media. we are constantly referencing.

Gilman 1985. 16 In terms of the discipline of medicine and its visual cultures. the feebleminded. rather than (or at least much more than) engaging with patients in speech. gynecology) and used as devices for medical training.g. There were also many collections of pathological specimens. cardiology. dermatology. and their architecture – the built visual environment – furthered such carceral projects (Prior 1988). visual images of the medically incarcerated have been at the heart of medicine in its ambitious segregation and disciplining of the insane. Among the earliest “technologies of the gaze” were a wide range of anatomical visual images and models (from carved ivory “Venuses” to wax figures). Today many such collections are in museums. enabling physicians to see inside the body through various technologies has been a central mode of bio-medical innovation. Foucault (1975) alerted us to how the very founding of modern medicine in the 18th century was based on visualization – the birth of clinic was made possible [p. Western anatomy collections have typically featured sex/gender differences as fundamental. and the diseased – often by disease (e. 1996. In the clinic.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods science that it reproduces would be impossible without visualization: depictions are constitutive of scientific production” (Fyfe & Law 1988:3. Unless a display was focused on race or racial classification such as Page 19 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses 18 17 . Tagg 1987). emphasis in original). and a number of scholars have examined these varied visual cultures of medicine. Enhancing and elaborating the medical gaze. Gradually. and one physician gets to observe many different patients. Recently. Historically. Foucault (1973) noted that a newly visualized “anatomical atlas” began to emerge (as the exemplar demonstrates below). and physicians from the Renaissance onward spent considerable time staring at items such as these (Roberts & Tomlinson 1992). the physician observes. fascinating sites for analysis of visual cultures. The body is understood to speak loudly to a skilled observer (including at autopsy) – especially when there are many bodies to compare. and some are being digitalized and organized online into Web sites and other new formats (being remediated as it were).. public displays of plastinated corpses have also been controversial but well attended. such visual cultural materials were organized by specialty (embryology. Hospitals and asylums organized such comparative work institutionally. v3-246 ↓ ] through the medical gaze.

They can appear to be dramatically more symbolic. historical. Sava & Nuutinen 2003).g. Words and pictures are primally bound. Doing Situational Analysis of Visual Discourse Kids know it better than the rest of us do. or verbal and visual narratives – are utopian modern projects. drawing inspiration from photographers like [Jo] Spence who argue that attempts to ‘purify’ media – that is to clearly distinguish images and words. Watch any preliterate child or beginning reader with a book. the convention has been to display only white bodies. even “the distinction between social analysis and visual representation is becoming less clear-cut. are (re)presentations to be reflexively analyzed (e. v3-247 ↓ ] hackneyed phrase “A picture is worth a thousand words” points to this aspect. Jordanova (1989) argues that the visual discourses of anatomy about sex/gender have themselves been constitutive of the categories of sex and gender. Kids don't look at pictures as diverting illustrations or supplements to the text.” Words and images commonly flow into one another and. In concluding this incredibly brief and partial introduction to analyzing visual culture. The discourses have actively mapped these categories onto living bodies. and … social analysis … should make more use of visual depictions” (Chaplin 1994:2). How to do this is discussed next. most importantly.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods the Field Museum exhibit discussed earlier. I want to “blur the distinction between verbal and visual narratives. The [p. with Bell (2002:6). is a science of transgression by invasion and public display. Page 20 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . Anatomy in particular. The exemplar from my work offered below follows up on Jordanova's points. and you see it immediately. Historically. the power of sciences to thereby naturalize hierarchical social relations has been considerable because of their increasingly privileged epistemological position as “official” knowledges since the 18th century. I want to note that visual materials often seem quite different from other kinds of research data.. and referential in their content. We often feel compelled to look – and are moved by looking. However. she finds. making whiteness the standard here as in other sites. Furthermore. They read the pictures avidly.

living bodies and stony statues. researchers are expected to use their insight along with the methods specified rather than symbolically stand out of the way so that some heretofore repressed “voice” or other analytic can “emerge. mystery. [p. Emmison and Smith (2000:4) also assert that “the raw material for visual investigation must also be viewed. Here. diagrams. Clothing and body language are significant signs which we use to establish identity and negotiate public situations. Consequently. 1). Objects and buildings carry meanings through visual means just like images.” Our questions become: What project will be furthered or what question better answered by analyzing a particular set of visual images? What are the visuals data for? What situation(s) of inquiry do they speak from and to? This is the theoretical/substantive question that the analyst needs to address first.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods mining them for every bit of information. xi. Situational analysis can be done with all these kinds of visual data and others. feeling. the advertisement and the television program. v3-248 ↓ ] For doing situational analysis of visual data. … directional signs. there are many more forms of visual data than the photograph. my recommendations combine the recording of initial impressionistic interpretations along with doing systematic memos.” Page 21 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . sketches. The goal is to open the visual data up for analysis. … [V]isual data can be located in sources as diverse as wedding albums and pornography. mood. and nuance of the world fanning open before them. understood [and/]or placed in some analytical framework before they can be regarded as data. august museums and playful shopping malls … drawings. living rooms and waiting rooms. maps. What do I mean by visual data? What counts as visual data for possible analysis? With Emmison and Smith (2000:ix. as elsewhere in this book. I would argue for a very broad definition: Social life is visual in diverse and counterintuitive ways.

and Tracking Visual culture is what is seen. from sweatshirts to mugs. Doing these tasks is very much like entering bibliography in that if you get it right the first time. Hall 1997). and so on can be exceptionally useful downstream. Which Visual Materials? Deciding. collecting. Perhaps the key point to remember is that there is no one “correct” reading of any image (e. are often fussy. the materials should be the best range of visuals you can obtain related to the situation that you have chosen to research. particular things imaged. obsessive. locating. Doing visual analyses requires us to stop and stare trebly hard in order to rupture the taken-for-grantedness of “good looking” (Stafford 1996). For example. and tedious tasks. We need to do multiple readings and consider them at length. The first question the researcher must address is: Where shall the visual materials come from? Research design issues – aspects of deciding and locating – have been discussed previously (esp. I assume the researcher will locate and gather particular materials of interest. and the number and kinds of such archives that can be used for visual discourse analysis projects grows daily. much anguish is saved downstream.g. S. the visual materials should articulate well with the other sites you are examining. Chapters 2 and 4). 19 The next two steps. Collecting. The Internet also provides access to a stunningly rich array of visual images. While she mapped the trial with care. parts. tracking may well be also. and so on. Four main steps are initially involved before analysis gets under way: deciding.. If you are pursuing a multisite project. Page 22 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . In short. collecting and tracking visual materials. in which we usually (read “naturally”) dwell. Fosket (2002) studied a large clinical trial of cancer chemoprevention drugs. Making and keeping lists of possible interpretations of wholes. Locating.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods One thing is clear. And because collecting may well be distributed across the life of the project. to tote bags. she could also have studied the visuals images printed on the paper materials on the trial that were given to participants. and the logo and other design elements of the various freebie items distributed. and tracking the materials.

These are not at all necessarily clear to the analyst. It is best done where there is space to spread out and a handy photocopier. 17th-century Dutch master paintings. v3-249 ↓ ] Tracking materials can be crucial if you want to publish a visual for which written permission is required – and it usually is required. A separate loose-leaf binder or folder of labeled copies of all the visuals is also useful to have. butoh dance. The content can usually be described fairly well.. what. You are looking at it and can describe it in more or less detail. where.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods If you don't. as it typically involves making working copies and preserving originals (for later duplication). as you can easily flip around and compare images without going into the files or having to refile. [p.g. In contrast. etc. how. French versus American versus Brazilian advertisements. You may well not even know that some element in the image carries symbolic weight – is actually referential. and can also be hard to hold apart meaningfully – they may blend together. Some kind of log should be maintained that tracks the “provenance” of all the materials – where every visual came from in terms of “who.). Irish weddings. 21 20 Entering and Memoing Visual Discourse Materialsocial Photography and Sociology [I]t is the act of describing that enables the act of seeing. when. rap music videos. how much” and so on. its referents may or may not be able to be “decoded” by people unfamiliar with the genre of the image (e. as becoming expert in a genre means much Page 23 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . There are three main levels of analysis of an image (Ball & Smith 1992): (1) its content – what is given. (2) its referents – what it refers to. the capacity to publish something cherished may disappear. This is one of the most challenging aspects of visual analysis. and (3) its context(s) – where it appears and what uses are made of it. For some projects. a carefully labeled separate folder and computer file (hard copy as well as digital) for each visual with all the pertinent provenance information on it inside will be the safest way to go.

All three levels are addressed in the memos. It can also be quite fun and exciting. Transcribing them later then becomes a reflexive revisiting and polishing of your preliminary ideas. Entering the visual discourse you have chosen to study is accomplished through writing analytic memos – producing various kinds of narratives about each visual.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods greater ease of decoding the referents – but can take considerable time and effort. Only by its embeddedness in a concrete discourse situation can [it]…yield a clear semantic outcome. for what audience(s) (as far as you know). as it allows faster pacing. You will return to it later when you map the social worlds/arenas in your project. Page 24 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . segment-by-segment initial “open” grounded theory coding of interview and ethnographic materials (see also G. where the image came from. with what goals and intended uses. These memos require the researcher to articulate – to “put into words” – what you “see” and what you think about what you see in particular ways. Three kinds of memos are recommended: These are parallel acts to the word-by-word. [p. who in particular produced it (if you know). 2). and so on. Rose 2001:ch. Situating the visual is extremely important and the focus of the first memo on each image. Then stop writing this memo for the moment. Enter now as much as you can about the situation from which your visual emerged. You may well prefer to tape record these memos. line-by-line. It should first describe how this image fits into the situation of inquiry that is your overall visual project focus. v3-250 ↓ ] Locating Memoocial Photography and Sociology An image “presents merely the possibility of meaning. Then it should at least sketch the social world(s) that produced this visual: why you chose this world(s) and these visual materials.

The goal here is to make visual data more like other data while at the same time retaining its distinctiveness as [p.” Putting it into words also creates an intertextuality – a moving back and forth between words and images – that can rupture the taken-for-grantedness of either or both modes of representation (e. Park (1952) called “the big picture” – what is going on overall in the visual. it always conveys more than it intends. and precisely. Graham 1992). what is this whole thing an image of? There can and should be multiple and even possibly conflicting answers – your own impressions of the overall image. v3-251 ↓ ] visual and retaining our interpretations and analyses of it as visual.g. I strongly advocate spending your initial time with the images memoing your first impressions on audiotape or in a computer file so that your own alternative/contradictory readings do not get lost – even if you do get lost (Lather 2001a.” Page 25 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . and so on are the goals for memoing first impressions. you will likely write a lot to describe it adequately for analysis.” What had been open closes.. The big picture describes the visual fully. An important mode of entrée into visual discourse is to analyze what Robert E.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods Big Picture Memoocial Photography and Sociology Representation follows two laws. and it is never totalizing. It can shift “good looking” (Stafford 1996) into “good seeing. All too quickly an image can “resolve” into X or Y such that we cannot recapture our initial visual grasp when it was “other. The demands of actually writing a narrative description of the image(s) will make you “see” more clearly. Quick and dirty bulleted notes about your main “takes. “[I]t is the act of describing that enables the act of seeing. If a picture is worth a thousand words. off the top of your head. 2001b) for a while in reading the image(s). The “excess” meaning conveyed by representation creates a supplement that makes multiple and resistant readings possible.” and how the image hits you. The big picture memo has three parts: First impressions: Quickly. elaborately. In the words of Mary Price (1994:5).

Later. The goal is to memo for each segment “what are these images of?” Your own words. “What is that yellow shoe doing there?”). any text. or by some other means that parallel taking textual segments one at a time. of its external claims to authority. There are a number of ways to analytically “break the frame” so that we can “see” an image in multiple ways. I return to this point later. Every text must be taken on its own terms. Having photocopies you can draw on to divide the image into segments may be helpful. Next we break the frame as another means of analytic entrée. For example. The goal here is to get outside the frame through which we are supposed to view that image (likely as a member of the audience envisaged by the creator(s) of the image – but not always).OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods The little pictures section of the memo does the same for the different parts of the image. premature bounding and closure on the readings. by moving systematically upward or downward. don't worry about perfect typing – just memo. Depending upon the kind and number of visuals you are dealing with. you may or may not need to do elaborate memos of every single visual.. Write all the impressions down. it lies in the recurring attempt to strip a text. in fact. These narratives tell us what has been framed – what is there. Pretend you want to fully convey the image to someone who cannot see it. Funny – there is no Z!” The goal is to describe in lush and vivid detail – purple prose is fine – what you see. “I see X and Y.g. You will need to divide the image up into sections either by quandrants. Further deconstruction of an image can be accomplished through addressing each of the following topics in a specification memo: 22 Page 26 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . your own takes on the images are all that is desired at this stage of analysis. The main risk of producing a narrative text is. Begin by narrating the big picture and then the segments. you can put questions to what you have described (e. Specification Memoocial Photography and Sociology If there is a center to poststructural thought.

and symbolic/ discursive elements of a particular image. this first effort is usually intentionally very messy. They rely. Do annotate or keyword files so that you can retrieve key points or codes. not all will remain of interest. perhaps more than with interview and ethnographic data. certainly breaks frame and reopens the analytic moment. Before I discuss doing the situational maps. on the researcher's creative insight. over time. after you have worked with your initial takes on the image and memoed them in a narrative. The general tasks of doing situational maps and analyses of narrative materials can now be applied to the narratives and codes you have produced of the visual materials along with the visual materials themselves. as well as on the research materials. It is likely that. v3-254 ↓ ] material. I want to emphasize that the situational. social worlds/arenas. Doing Situational Maps of Visual Materialsocial Photography and Sociology [T]he postmodern era is one where visual and spatial forces are coming to organize our social life in ways which defy easy comprehension. you do not need to say the same thing five times. As in situational analyses of other materials. and positional maps done vis-à-vis visual research materials can take you far beyond these discursive materials per se. [p. v3-252 ↓ ] Any or all of these can be important or not in your overall analysis. Code first. logic. But systematically considering these issues.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods [p. and reflexivity. prior coding according to the precepts of basic grounded theory is requisite. Page 27 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . They rely especially on the knowledge the researcher has gained about the research area through the very doing of the research – the research processes per se. and hence very accessible and manipulable. As with other data. Some people will prefer to continue working in this fashion. Your situational map should include all analytically pertinent human and nonhuman. The memos you have written serve as the narrative data to be coded. Once a particular point is made in your memo.

You can clarify these points through theoretical sampling downstream. and so on. and so on. but you also don't want to play dumb. smartly. …each new discourse situation generating its own set of messages. and so on in your memos. But you have. human and/or nonhuman actors in the arena. That is. More commonly. if you like. actants. From whose perspective are the visuals constructed? For whom? What/who are the intended audience(s)? Do(es) the Page 28 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . The issue of perspective is obviously key here. you should do both messy and orderly situational maps. carefully dating them and keeping old versions “in case. Your responsibility as an analyst is to try and specify these while also noting their explicit absence.” and one way to do so is to analytically point to possible implicated actors. the visual imagery you have gathered will have been produced by a major social world in your situation of concern.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods One of the challenges of mapping visual materials is their partiality. institutions. in your memos. there is a particular delicacy and ethicality at play here: You do not want to argue beyond the evidence. institutions. if they exist in your data. Whether you ultimately find these interesting and worthy of further analytic pursuit remains at this juncture a wide-open question. Lather (1991) has talked about “getting smart. other worlds. implicated elements can. As with other genres of data/materials. be indicated as implicated – or not. Thus you may have images of one particular social world representing itself. or not. you will need to address such partialities. The visual materials you have gathered and begun analyzing may or may not allow you to portray what in the epigraph Sekula calls a “discourse situation” and do a social worlds/arenas analysis of them. marked your question down. actants. Parts – elements – may well be missing that you know as an intelligent analyst are “really” present in the broader situation of which this visual is a part. There may well be many implicated actors. in the situational map. and you may or may not be studying the entire arena. So.” Doing Social Worlds/Arenas Maps of Visual Materialsocial Photography and Sociology Any given photograph is conceivably open to appropriation. Ultimately.

The narration of the images. but… [p. Positional maps allow the specification of absences – what is not there – and this can be especially useful in the analysis of visual materials that one cannot necessarily theoretically sample or further interrogate. Let us move next to the exemplar. should generate a listing of key issues and their axes in the visual data – or implicated by the visual data. I would recommend persisting in the face of disinterest here for at least a little while. These may or may not be interesting at first glance. especially those aspects generated through breaking the frame.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods image(s) refer to collective action in any way? What kinds of action? Involving what social worlds? Are other social worlds represented. The analyst can then simply proceed with making positional maps as described in Chapter 3. using science studies perspectives that examine the contents of sciences and technologies as well as their institutional and other manifestations. how? Is there an arena implicated by the pattern of social worlds visualized? How is it portrayed? Again. but some should at least be there. v3-255 ↓ ] Doing Positional Maps of Visual Materialsocial Photography and Sociology [D]emystification is the permanent revolution. you do not want to venture too far beyond your data. Visual Discourse Exemplars: Moore and Clarke's Anatomiesocial Photography and Sociology Lisa Jean Moore and I have been studying anatomies since the early 1990s. and if so. We chose genital anatomies Page 29 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses .

v3-256 ↓ ] Figure 7: Federation of feminist women's health centers: Female side view Page 30 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . is essentially complete and stable. We found both to be very uncommon images. we have examined images from medieval texts to the present. and narrated the various “male and [p. In part. In our work to date. 23 We were interested in anatomy as a discipline because it is widely understood as a science that has been done. especially the female. Collecting. Which Visual Materials? Deciding. and Trackingocial Photography and Sociology We began by casting a very wide net. we wanted to see if the innovations of feminist anatomies had been taken up in other recent genital anatomies. We analyzed how anatomists represented. Locating.). focusing on how different historically based visual cultures do the work of representation differently (Clarke & Moore n.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods based on our prior knowledge of what we suspected were radical interventions made by two early feminist publications: Our Bodies Our Selves (Boston Women's Health Book Collective 1970/1998) and A New View of a Woman's Body (Federation of Feminist Women's Health Centers 1981/1995). Both show the genitalia at rest and erect/engorged.d. Figures 7 and 8 show the female and male side views produced in 1981 by the Federation of Feminist Women's Health Centers. labeled. Our published work has centered on both anatomy texts and online “cyberanatomies” of human genitalia circa 1900–2000.

while the terms “sex. is a meaning-making interpretation – part of the visual culture of anatomy itself. 2001).” “generative. “Genital” is closest to a generic regional term. Labels hold power: Whether the areas of the body where the clitoris [p.” focusing especially on what (if anything) counted as “the clitoris” (Moore & Clarke 1995. or reproductive anatomy.” “sexual. or some combination thereof. v3-257 ↓ ] and penis lie are labeled genital.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods Figure 8: Federation of feminist women's health centers: Male side view female parts. Exemplar I: Furneaux Text Anatomy (circa 1904)ocial Photography and Sociology Locating Memo: Furneaux Page 31 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . sexual. We use the term “genital” as our generic term to designate “what's down there” for specific histori-copolitical reasons.” and “reproductive” became our analytic categories.

OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods I have chosen two sets of images from our published work to use here as exemplars. One exemplar is from medical texts published in Britain circa 1904. This format evokes the long tradition in both art and craft of visuals as narrative storytelling devices that [p. First Impressions. She reminds me of cutout dolls that came in some coloring books when I was a child. though they were not bare-breasted.” Her face looks somehow like a Victorian child. I see drawings of a quite young-looking white girl/ woman done in a very flat plane. but she certainly does not seem British from the neck down! The series of three connected images reminds me of the triptych format of three connected paintings (often literally connected by hinges) I associate with Renaissance and later Christian religious art. I can produce such memos for selected images. Although we did not explicitly use situational analysis as laid out in this book. She also reminds me of Egyptian art with its full frontal imaging and some Greco-Roman figures. the female “flap anatomy” (Furneaux circa 1904:back cover). These impressions are reinforced by the fabric covering her genitalia. but do not narrate them due to space limitations (see Furneaux 19??). At the end of this section. In Figures 9–10. draped togalike around her lower torso and tucked in around the waist. I have included the male images here as Figures 11 and 12 for comparative purposes. Triptychs typically show three aspects of the same event – such as the Annunciation or the coming of the Magi. Big Picture Memo: Furneaux I begin with my overall locating memo of Figures 9–10. but likely having earlier origins. I was using elements of it in my own work. v3-258 ↓ ] are usually read left to right in the West. Looking Page 32 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . So. and the other is from a CD-ROM cyberanatomy produced in the United States in 1994. These exemplars document the conclusions nicely. I also wanted to use exemplars in this book from my own work with which I am most familiar. while I cannot reproduce for you a memo we wrote about any of the images per se. You can seek out our published work for greater detail on the project as a whole. This toga thing makes her feel culturally remote – “other. I give the overall conclusions that Lisa Jean Moore and I have reached on our anatomies project to date.

The young woman has long hair flowing below her shoulders (we cannot see how long). Her arms are at her sides. Figure 10: Furneaux female anatomy front view: Flap open Page 33 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . Big Picture. She also does not look real. I. she is not portrayed realistically but rather more abstractly and somehow symbolically. We are clearly [p. am always struck by the complexity – even of simplifications such as these. In fact. Her bared breasts are high. at least. given our prior knowledge of reading anatomies. perhaps to provide another view of the hand or to indicate its flexibility. seemingly instructing us to pay attention. is turned palm facing us. and indicate by their shape that she has not breastfed. That is. and athletic-looking. that we are supposed to be seeing/reading “deeper and deeper” from left to right. v3-259 ↓ ] not looking at a representation attempting to be the real thing. This is definitely a preTwiggy female: big. in contrast.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods at the series of anatomical images of this young woman overall. healthy. yet does not look away. the effort seems to have been to be intentionally unrealistic through being somewhat artistic. She is clearly not engaging us in the gaze. Figure 9: Furneaux female anatomy front view: Flap closed The young woman looks at us seemingly directly but also straight ahead and seems not to see us. I can tell. Her left hand. Her pointer finger on her right hand is in fact pointing downward in a clear way. Her abdomen is muscular and rounded.

revealing a fetus in the uterus. The anatomy of the two legs is different. one of the reasons [p. uterus. kidneys. and shoulders. though the outline/shape of the original body remains (which it would not do in a dissection. an overall flap seemingly constituting the skin and surface flesh has been drawn back to reveal circulatory and neurological systems/networks and major internal organs of the body (heart. and fallopian tubes [both still sealed/whole]). The eyes are half dead and staring. It is the combination Page 34 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . Many areas are simply dark and murky. Some absences are thus indicated. The ribs are still in place except where (somehow) deleted to reveal the heart/lung(s). we see that the shape of the hair is still there but the hair is not. revealing different bodily elements. There is no need to repeat oneself endlessly.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods Little Pictures. The head looks almost fully skull-like with skeletal sockets without eyeballs. very systematic in examining the visual.. Moving downward from the top of the image. v3-260 ↓ ] dissections are challenging to see). indicating that what was there has been removed. The uterus and fallopian tubes/ovaries have been opened (dissected frontally). legs. The body too is further reduced essentially to skeleton and some musculature in arms. In Figure 10. two more flaps over the torso that have been drawn back are shown – the ribs and the abdominal musculature. In the image on our right labeled C. in the image labeled B. The purpose of the specification memo is to push oneself to be very. Specification Memo: Furneaux The questions used to construct the specification memo are here in italics for clarity.

Figure 12: Furneaux male anatomy front view: Flap open Figure: 11: Furneaux male anatomy front view: Flap closed I could. The questions themselves provoke analysis.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods of the groundedness of overall interpretation with the systematic handling of data that makes grounded theory and situational analysis robust approaches in qualitative research – applied to visual as well as other materials. Situational Maps and Analysis: Furneaux Page 35 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . there is nothing more worthwhile. be much more thorough in my responses to these questions. of course. and at the early stages of a visual research project. The payoff from systematic looking and writing is exceptional.

the technologies of both producing the illustrations and publishing them. Figure 13: Messy situational map: Furneaux text anatomy (circa 1904) [p. the history of anatomy and of anatomical illustration. and so on. v3-266 ↓ ] The ordered situational map in Figure 14 makes the medical orientation even more clear. the historical and contemporary politics of gender and sexuality. living females and female bodies available for dissection. It has always already “schooled” the gaze of medicine. Looking at Figure 13. To me. social worlds/arenas map. the techniques and Page 36 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . and positional map for these images. Presences beyond medicine include print pornography. What came before matters a lot. urology. obstetrics and gynecology and their histories. the messy situational map for the Furneaux (circa 1904) anatomy text visuals. All the likely “audiences/consumers” are also on the map. a handful of early scientific studies of sexuality and reproductive phenomena. we see many human and nonhuman elements – and most are medically related.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods Let us now turn to the situational map. There is quite a range of nonhuman elements. These especially [p. historical and contemporary popular cultural representations of human bodies. formatting anatomical illustrations into visual cultures of which this is one example. v3-265 ↓ ] include medical illustrators and publishers. historical and contemporary art.

Hospital/clinic worlds are more tangential to this arena. The medical/biological publishing world. The text is situated within the medical arena. and medical education world intersect with those of anatomy and medical/scientific illustration.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods technologies of doing such illustration and the technologies available to reproduce them stand out. as not all sexologists are medically trained. Social Worlds/Arenas Map and Analysis: Furneaux Figure 14: Ordered situational map: Furneaux text anatomy (circa 1904) Figure 15 presents the social worlds/arenas map for the Furneaux illustrations of circa 1904. v3-267 ↓ ] primarily in medical education. [p. including alternative health care providers who have an interest in anatomy and college biology educators who have an interest in anatomy and who teach premed students and others. medical journal publishing world. Figure 15: Social worlds/Arenas map: Furneaux text anatomy (circa 1904) Page 37 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . Outside the medical arena are nonmedical interested individuals. as are private medical practices. Sexology as an emergent discipline is partially inside the medical arena and partially outside.

This is very much my map. Positional Map and Analysis: Furneaux Figure 16. many of whom would be physicians). so the image stood on its own. I have placed the image in an intermediate position between obscure and clear in part because of the absence of labels naming and signaling body parts. is organized along two axes: (1) from obscure to clear and (2) from a reproduction emphasis to a sexuality emphasis. deciding among them. Let me say that the act of conceiving the possible axes. and then placing the visual within this scheme feels very highly charged. I have placed the image at the reproductive emphasis end of that continuum. especially in medical libraries. They may also be found (especially older or outdated versions) in hospitals. and in (likely medical) bookstores. the libraries of private book collectors (especially those specializing in the history of anatomy and/ or medical/scientific illustration.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods The social worlds/arenas map also makes it clear how restricted access was to medical illustration at this time. These images reside almost exclusively inside the academic medical arena. There were no [p. private physicians’ offices. clinics. v3-268 ↓ ] labels. the positional map I have drawn for the Furneaux illustration of circa 1904. Researcher reflexivity is intense here – as is interpretation. Because of the fetus in utero. Figure 16: Positional map: Furneaux text anatomy (circa 1904) Page 38 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses .

Big Picture Memo: BodyWorks 1994 Page 39 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . I will be very terse here for reasons of space. this CD contains line and color drawings. With its vast database. reproductive and more. three-dimensional images. In Figures 17–20. cardiovascular. muscular. and movies with sound. zooming in and out for a complete look at the world within you. comprehensive graphics guide you on a journey through the body.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods Exemplar II: BodyWorks 1994 Cyberanatomyocial Photography and Sociology Locating Memo: BodyWorks 1994 Colorful. we have images from a CD-ROM produced by Softkey Multimedia in 1994. A “popular culture” [p. BodyWorks Classic lets you study specific areas from head to toe. v3-269 ↓ ] general anatomy for the lay public and likely aimed at families with children. BodyWorks cyberanatomy enables the user to click onto bodily systems from an icondriven menu at the top of the screen. and focusing on different internal systems such as the skeletal.

Note that the icon for genital anatomy is a male symbol and a female symbol literally attached to each other. and “includes the urinary and reproductive organs. After we leave the “Genitourinary System” with its buffed. Because these organs are located in the same area of the body. Her innards are shown where her breasts and abdomen would be. Moreover. The cover image (Figure 17) is of an attractive young white woman looking sideways away from us. athletic male silhouette (Figure 18) standing for both males and females in high modern universalist mode. largely from the visual culture of biomedical abstraction. using Goffman's power analytic on this icon.” represented by the male and female symbols. Our viewing skills are left to make sense of it all. they're often treated together.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods First Impressions. and share some functions. but rely instead on medical illustration techniques. there are body parts and labels and no whole persons. While the female is labeled “Side View. Genital anatomy falls under the broad heading of “Genitourinary System. the next click moves us immediately into the “Reproductive Systems” of the female (Figure 19) and male (Figure 20). Page 40 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses .” Figure 17: BodyWorks 1994 cyberanatomy classic edition CD-ROM cover [p. The labels do not stay still all at once.” no such instructions are offered with the male (also presented in side view). Images are not from a vivid realist visual culture such as photographs of cadavers. v3-270 ↓ ] Visually. we see the male symbol portrayed as both larger and in the superior (higher) position.

The only mention of the clitoris is in the narrative listing of the parts of external organs of the vagina. and ejaculatory ducts of [p. A Fetus Icon provides entry into “The Living System” that “covers many of the processes of living including conception.” Figure 19: BodyWorks 1994 cyberanatomy female reproductive system: Side view Page 41 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses .OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods Figure 18: BodyWorks 1994 cyberanatomy genitourinary system page Little Pictures. corpus cavernosa. while the female reproductive system is exclusively portrayed. as the site of conception and childbirth. while the penis. Nothing lights up. both visually and textually. and hypertexted (all lighting up on the visual when the words are clicked on). glans of the penis. v3-271 ↓ ] the male system are depicted. the clitoris is not. The female body is a wholly nonsexual body. pregnancy and childbirth. Male erection is described as part of sexual arousal. it is not on the list of visual options. Specifically. In keeping with many 20th-century representations. labeled. narratively defined. the male and female genitalia are unequally represented.

However. it is often Page 42 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . as all the visuals I am referring to are not clear on the pages reproduced here. v3-272 ↓ ] Figure 20: BodyWorks 1994 cyberanatomy male reproductive system: Side view Therefore. copyrighted products such as this might not be able to be imported into them for annotation. If analyzing a Web site. using the Print Screen function often and keeping the images with the memos are important. There is software that allows annotation for use with some visual materials.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods It is difficult to memo this CD-ROM. [p. when analyzing such materials.

the social worlds/arenas map of BodyWorks. medical libraries). Figure 21: Messy situational map: BodyWorks 1994 cyberanatomy Social Worlds/Arenas Map and Analysis: BodyWorks 1994 Looking at Figure 23. medical illustrators. the ordered map is handy. as there are usually no archives available online. the messy situational map for BodyWorks cyberanatomy. and carefully date and archive it yourself. Others may be more [p.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods also useful to download the entire Web site. See Figure 22. Situational Map and Analysis: BodyWorks 1994 Looking at Figure 21. and sex education as a specialty field. It is important to carefully date anything you print from any Web site. I do not provide the specification memo for the BodyWorks cyberanatomy but move directly into an abbreviated situational analysis. Some are expected such as computers and software.. But there are many new elements as well. we see that it appears in the sex education Page 43 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . if you can.g. medical publishers. we see first that all of the elements in the situational map of the earlier text anatomy from c1904 are still present (e. and things tend to disappear. As usual. which may be analytically important. v3-273 ↓ ] surprising such as medical illustration training programs (now in place due to the increasing demand for such illustrations).

Two additional arenas of significance also impinge: the [p. Digital popular cultural anatomies are situated at the intersection of software and computing industries with medical publishing worlds that extend into this arena from the medical arena itself. v3-275 ↓ ] Figure 23: Social worlds/Arenas map: BodyWorks 1994 cyberanatomy Page 44 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . Print and digital medical anatomy illustration worlds also intersect and have similarly extended into the sex education arena from the medical arena. v3-274 ↓ ] Figure 22: Ordered situational map: BodyWorks 1994 cyberanatomy [p.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods arena.

Sex education products such as BodyWorks are in competition with all kinds of popular cultural products. v3-276 ↓ ] Positional Map and Analysis: BodyWorks 1994 Page 45 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . which has obvious interests in and commitments to sex education. from music videos to movies about/including sexual content. [p. And children typically operate at the cutting edges of both new visual technologies and popular cultural trends. One of the most influential arenas for the development of a CD such as this is popular culture. The most significant for our purposes was the development of the sex education arena through which popular cultural anatomies such as BodyWorks are now both produced and consumed – at home and in schools. Looking at the social worlds/arenas maps of both of the exemplars.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods popular culture arena and the pornography/sex work arena (themselves increasingly overlapping). Creating and maintaining such a product as economically viable would be challenging. we can see that major historical changes have occurred. Keeping “appropriate” distance from the pornography/sex work arena. is important to the developers of such products.

v3-277 ↓ ] Page 46 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . You will see that the similarities between the positional maps of both exemplars offered in Figures 16 and 24 constitute the heart of the analysis offered below in the summary. For the same reasons. and the work they do – and don't do – in the world should be clarified by these maps. What is there is clear. So.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods Finally. this positioning is deeply reliant upon the researchers – it is our vision based on our assessment of what was technically possible at the time of its production. Figure 24: Positional map: BodyWorks 1994 cyberanatomy [p. in Figure 24 the BodyWorks CD is clearly positioned at the reproductive emphasis end of the reproduction/sexuality continuum. This is especially true given the incredible array of visual resources available to the producers – almost a century's worth since the Furneaux anatomy of 1904. but highly partial. I have positioned it between Clarity and Obscurity. Given the complete absence of female sexuality and the downplaying of male sexuality. the positional map(s) will likely be particularly important in analysis of visual materials because these are discursive items.

2001): In short. These memos should provide the foundations of your analytic work. Focus here should also be on similarities and differences with other images. regardless of whether these are subsequently deemed worthy of further attention. you can do abbreviated analyses of the remaining images. Carefully situating the materials you have chosen to analyze in your written reports is also very important. Page 47 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . while females are reproductive. big picture and specification memos. any image that jumps out at you for any reason deserves full systematic treatment. Subsequently. and writing. males are largely visualized as sexual. situational maps and analyses of all of them. Final Comments on the Visual Discourse Exemplarsocial Photography and Sociology I have offered here fairly thorough locating and big picture memos and one specification memo as exemplars.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods Analytic Summary of the Anatomies Projectocial Photography and Sociology The following are our conclusions to date regarding the anatomy texts and cyberanatomies we studied circa 1900–2000 (a much wider array than presented here) (Moore & Clarke 1995. along with the situational analyses and maps of the two sets of exemplar images. analysis. They should make you at least think through all the key relations. You can easily imagine that being this thorough with every image you study would get more than tedious. The memos and maps are particularly helpful here. v3-278 ↓ ] have collected that are as different as you can find and doing very thorough locating. seeking variation as a form of theoretical sampling in visual domains. What I recommend is selecting about half a dozen images from those you [p. focusing especially on their differences/innovations compared to other images. Also. grounded coding.

film studies. in which seeing is as important as saying and doing. and many other disciplines where qualitative research is pursued.” This chapter is long and detailed because Becker is still correct today. viable. Page 48 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . reproduced and experienced. You will already have a well-grounded and situated empirical analysis. anthropology. and may well be most exciting. education. Howie Becker (1974:7) said: “Visual social science isn't new … but it might as well be. Earlier I noted Chaplin's (1994:159) point about the critical paradigm and the empirical paradigm in visual studies (as elsewhere) having been too long segregated. I want to emphasize that hybrid approaches to visual analyses are possible. Though one certainly does not want to slap on an extant analytic (Kendall & Wickham 2004). That is. cultural studies. I want to conclude by addressing the usual tension regarding using received theory versus grounded theorizing. nursing. for example. exploring where such concepts take one can be provocative. v3-279 ↓ ] (the locating. at least in terms of sociology. Certainly after the initial stages of visual analysis recommended here [p.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods Final Comments: Situational Analysis of Visual Discourse We should cease to be paralyzed by a heritage of claims about “realism” in visual data and accept the challenge they offer for sociological investigation into ways our social world is constituted. basic grounded theory coding. At the same time. My goal here has been to draw upon and refer you to that excellent work as well as perform situational analysis of visual materials in order to provoke inclusion of the visual in qualitative research projects. and the three situational maps and analytic memos). grounded and situational analysis can be highly compatible. Thirty years ago. and specification memos. big picture. with an analysis of how “the male or female gaze” or “the gaze of racialization” works in a particular image. this chapter is superficial and oversimplified given the stunning density and theoretical sophistication of the literature that takes up analysis of visual discourse in art history and criticism. visual studies. communications. and beyond. and visual depiction performs social work. this does not need to be an either-or decision.

interpretation. Harper (1994. as long as we remember: “Interpreting images is just that. major visual studies scholar W. 5). Chaplin (1994:ch.” I would argue that this is a broader phenomenon: Everyone is becoming a visual discourse geek now! Yet at the same time.g. Rose (2001). Page 49 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses ..rsl. Prosser (1998). After all. 25 Notes 1. not the discovery of their ‘truth’” ( Mitchell (1994:13) has said.g. As we might draw upon a century of social theory to explore identity or subjectivity issues in analyzing fashion. and G. T. See. and so on. see. Banks (2001). Banks (2001) and his Web site. analyzing how “the gaze” works in a particular visual does not predetermine any outcome! These tools are – or can be used as – what Blumer (1969) called “sensitizing concepts” that tell us directions in which to look but not what to see. what their relation to language is. it offers an established and elaborating set of tools not unlike social theory. how their history is to be understood and what is to be done with or about them. “[e]veryone's a film geek now. Bauer and Gaskell (2000).” We can proceed and research the visual regardless. The danger is. and Harrison (2002). not to be seduced by others’ concepts and analyses and instead to keep working until you produce your own – but also not to waste time reinventing wheels or play dumb about other possible and even likely interpretations of your materials. J. e. Ball and Smith (2001). as always. how they operate on observers and on the world. Given the elaboration of visual discourses and of their analysis. talking-head commentary. Becker (1998). On using visual materials in interviewing. there is definitely not much “purity” of vision remaining. “[W]e still do not know exactly what pictures are.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods While the sophisticated conceptual armamentarium of visual studies may not be familiar. Elvis Mitchell (2003:AR1) recently argued that through recent DVD formats with directors’ cuts. Papademas (2002). 2000).ox. Ball and Smith (2001). 2. Rose 2001:2). e. Whether using such tools turns out to be as interesting as some other analytic point is an empirical question to be addressed by the researcher. your own work will be situated in terms of them.. out-takes.

reception... Chaplin (1994).g. Altheide (1996. 9). See. There exists a range of video annotating computer programs. G. Strauss (1976). On symbolist and structural analyses. see Sturken and Cartwright (2001) and Chaplin (1994). and Dickens (1999). On cultural studies. see also Ball and Smith (2001).g. 1991.g. The extensive theoretical debates are reviewed by Chaplin (1994:1–158). Cressey (1932). 4) and van Leeuwen and Jewitt (2001:chs. Impressive volumes on analysis include Altheide (1996). Harper (1994. Rose (2001:ch. On audience. For interactionist examples. Rose (2001:ch. 4)... 2).d. Emmison and Smith (2000). Denzin (e. 7. On content analysis. Elkins (2003) offers an advanced status report [p. Mirzoeff (1998). Zorbaugh (1929). 2000. 6. or spectatorship studies. Ball and Smith (1992). On compositional analysis. Denzin (1991.. built environment (ch. and Jones (2003). Rose (2001:ch. 3). On semiology. Altheide (1996. See Emmison and Smith (2000:5). see Ball and Smith (1992:ch. The major readers offering the classic texts in visual studies are Evans and Hall (1999). see DuGay et al. Davis (1992). van Leeuwen and Jewitt (2001:ch. 2). 2001). Kaiser (1990). G. 3). Moore and Clarke (1995. G.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods 3. 1997).. 8. and Evans and Hall (1999).g. Rose (2001:ch. and living forms such as bodies and identities (ch. 4. 5. Gottdeiner. Rose (2001). and van Leeuwen and Jewitt (2001). and Prosser (1998). 7. Ball and Smith (1992:ch. On the history of uses of visual materials in sociology and anthropology. On the marginalization of the visual in the social sciences. Peretz (1995). and Phelan and Hunt (1998). three-dimensional (ch. Denzin pioneered interactionist film studies. Page 50 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . e. Fontana and Preston (1990). Collins. 5). Clough (2000). 6). see.g. see.g. 5). On psychoanalytic approaches. and van Leeuwen and Jewitt (2001:ch. Gottschalk (1995). n. 3). e. see. Emmison and Smith (2000) organize their methods text by types of visual materials under study: two-dimensional (ch. G. e. 1992. 1992. Harrison (1996).g. 2). 2002b). (1997).). see especially Fyfe and Law (1988) and Emmison and Smith (2000:10–20). e. 5. G. Sturken and Cartwright (2001). see. and Lofland (1998). Moore (2003. see Park (1925). e. 4). v3-280 ↓ ] on the field. For entrée. 2000). e. see. 2002a) and Kress and van Leeuwen (1999).. 1997). 2002a.

and Treichler. Denzin (1991).. Dines and Humez (2002). Emmison and Smith (2000:50–54) take up scientific and medical visual studies comparing the United States and the United Kingdom. etc. Cartwright. Gilman (1985). see Fenstermaker and West (2002:6–9). For a critique of Goffman. see also Baker (1998). 15. On sex/gender and sexuality in visual studies. 1998) as well as minor works (Moore & Clarke 1995.g. The concepts of “the gaze” and the “Other” as used in visual studies have roots in Jacques Lacan's psychoanalytic theory as well as in Sartre. see Sturken and Cartwright (2001:72–108) and Elkins (2003). which appeared well before their book.. and King (2002). 10. Hall (1997).. (2000). and Mitchell (1992). and Sturken and Cartwright (2001). 1995b). Mundy 2001. Waldby 1997). Smith (1999). Teslow (1998). Cartwright (1995a. Bloom (1999). Burgin (1982). Solomon-Godeau (1996). Gunaratnam (2003). [p.g. Surrealism has offered a sophisticated critique of visual realism (e. begin with Said (1978). 2000). 1995b. On race/ethnicity in visual cultures. Abu-Lughod. they failed to cite several major works (e. Hammonds (1997b). Gray (1995).g. see also. 2000. see especially Altheide (1996.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods 9. 11. For more theoretical elaboration. Bloom (1999). On television. S. Smith (1999). at least in the medical domain with which I am deeply familiar. Bolter and Grusin (1999). Kolko et al. See Irigaray (1985) on the feminine gaze. 14. Twine and Warren (2000). However. Dines and Humez (2002). e. see also the chart situating surrealism vis-à-vis other traditions in Western art circa 1890–1935 in Pollock 1988:51). and Penley (1998). see especially Clough (2000:972). 2002b). e. On realisms and visual materials. On media studies. Evans and Hall (1999).. 12. see. 2002a.g. Treichler et al. 13. Cartwright 1995a. For an introductory overview. Dines and Humez (2002). Jones (2003). Gray (1995). and Van Dijk (1999). see Irigaray (1985) and Silverman (1996). Foucault. Ball and Smith (2001). Ginsberg. hooks (1992). and Larkin (2002). Denzin (1997). v3-281 ↓ ] Page 51 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . Haraway (1989). Harper (1994.

whichever holds the copyright. see also SwanJones (1999) and Evans and Evans (1996).corbis. http://www.htm.” San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. and around the use of color as well. In Lynch and Woolgar (1988).org Moore (2003). Page 52 of 55 SAGE Visual Methods: Mapping Visual Discourses . Hammonds (1997b). 4 for a review). images can be accepted like text. 1996). Gilman (1985. Payment for permissions may also be required. http://www.. careful narratives of the images must suffice and can be more than adequate. Jordanova (1989). and advance planning is requisite for timely publication.g. See. e. Chaplin (1994:ch.htm. See http://www. Fyfe and Law (1988).com/nytstore. Thanks for inspiration here from Deborah Loft's lecture and handouts on “Looking at Photographs. Harrison and Aranda (1999). Fall 1999.g.. 2000). e. 1994). Lynch ( and Treichler et al. http:// www. 21. 20. The currently operant rule of thumb is that as long as the author both covers the costs of the production work and provides the publisher with either camera-ready (scan-able) or digital files along with appropriate written permissions for publication. Permission to reproduce visual materials for “academic scholarly purposes” is usually free and usually granted upon request – once you have located the right person or original publisher. Advance inquiries to possible venues for publication are recommended. Cartwright (1995a. http://nmhm. and Mitman (1996). e.. Haraway (1989). for the Federation. Latour (1986. some advertisers and other copyright holders will not grant permission. (1998).ourbodiesourselves. 1988b). authors rather than publishers are usually responsible (see also note 20). see also Balsamo (1996).fwhc. 17. see. Daston and Galison (1992). Obtaining permissions can be quite time consuming. 19. 1995b.g. 23. There are still usually some limits on numbers of images. Harrison (2002). 22. See. For entrée into visual studies of sciences.OCTOBER FREE TRIAL Copyright ©2013 SAGE Research Methods 16. Tagg (1987). in such situations.nytimes. 18. However.

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