Pathophysiology The causative agent gains entry into the body BACTERIAL *Thru the respiratory tract by way

of Inspiration or aspiration VIRAL *thru airborne droplets inhaled thru the mouth and the nose PARASITIC *thru the skin and thru swallowing

CA enters the lungs

Activation of the pulmonary non-immune defense mechanism Continuous replication of CA with concurrent release of toxins

invasion of the cell lining the airways and the alveoli cell death by direct action of the virus and thru a cell controlled self-destruction (apoptosis) further damage into lungs as fluid leaks into the alveoli damage to the ciliated epithelial cells loos of function of the organ

Inflammatory process is triggered Certain receptors at the surface of the cells known as the pattern recognition receptors(PRRs) which can recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens known as pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMPs) from that of host molecules are activated release inflammatory mediators (ex. Histamines, cytokines, prostaglandin)

vascular response thru the effect of histamine and prostaglandin

chemical response thru the effect of bradykinin

vasodilation

irritation of nerve endings hyperalgesia/ Dolor (chest pain) ANS stimulation: s/s: elevated vital signs Diaphoresis Papillary dilatation

Increase membrane permeability

increased blood supply to the area

increased thermo sensitivity

mediator molecules also alter

mainly neutrophils.Leakage of plasma CHONs And fluid in the tissues of the hypothalamic heat regulation center hypothalamus triggers increase in body temperature blood vessels to permit the migration of the WBC. outside of the Blood vessels (extravasation) into the tissue alveolar edema/pleural effusion * pleuritic pain decrease ability of the alveoli to expand and contain oxygen fever the neutrophils migrate along a chemotactic gradient created by the local cells to reach the site of injury along with the destruction of the pathogens is the death of the leukocytes dead tissues. dead leukocytes and the pathogens destroyed collect *accumulation of cellular debris and exudates within the lungs formation of mucoid airway secretions obstruction of airway consolidation due to fluids and exudates filling up the lungs insufficiency or consolidation disruption of oxygen transport and delivery to the different body organs and systems loss of organ function DEATH .

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