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MATH 3705A

Test 3
March 2006
LAST NAME: ID#:
Questions 1 and 2 are multiple choice, worth 5 marks each. Circle the correct answer. Only
the answer will be marked.
1. At x = 27, the Fourier sine series of f(x) =
_
1, 0 x < 1
0, 1 x 2
_
converges to
(a) 0 (b)
1
2
(c)
1
2
(d) 1 (e) None of these
2. The solution of the wave equation u
xx
=
1
9
u
tt
, 0 < x < 2, which satises the boundary
conditions u(0, t) = u(2, t) = 0, is given by
u(x, t) =

n=1
sin
_
nx
2
_

a
n
cos
_
3nt
2
_
+ b
n
sin
_
3nt
2
__
.
If u(x, t) satises the initial conditions u(x, 0) = 0 and u
t
(x, 0) = 3 sin(x) sin(3x), the
coecients a
n
and b
n
are given by
(a) b
2
=
1

, b
6
=
1
9
, b
n
= 0 otherwise, and a
n
= 0 for all n 1.
(b) a
2
= 3, a
6
= 1, a
n
= 0 otherwise, and b
n
= 0 for all n 1.
(c) b
2
= 3, b
6
= 1, b
n
= 0 otherwise, and a
n
= 0 for all n 1.
(d) a
2
=
1

, a
6
=
1
9
, a
n
= 0 otherwise, and b
n
= 0 for all n 1.
(e) None of the above
Answers: b, a.
2
3. [6 marks] Find the Fourier cosine series of f(x) = x on [0, ].
Solution:
a
0
=
2

_

0
xdx = , and for n 1, a
n
=
2

_

0
x cos(nx) dx =
2
n
xsin(nx)

2
n
_

0
sin(nx) dx =
2
n
2

cos(nx)

0
=
2
n
2


(1)
n
1
_
.
Then the series is

2
+

n=1
2
n
2


(1)
n
1
_
cos(nx) =

2

4

cos(x)
4
9
cos(3x) ...
3
4. [8 marks] The solution of the heat equation w
xx
=
1

2
w
t
, 0 < x < L, which satises the
boundary conditions w(0, t) = w(L, t) = 0, has the form
w(x, t) =

n=1
b
n
sin
_
nx
L
_
e

2
n
2

2
L
2
t
.
Find the solution u(x, t) of u
xx
=
1
9
u
t
, 0 < x < 3, which satises the boundary conditions
u(0, t) = 1, u(3, t) = 2, and the initial condition u(x, 0) = x. Write down the complete
solution u(x, t).
Solution:
L = 3, = 3. The boundary conditions are nonhomogeneous, therefore
u(x, t) = v(x) + w(x, t),
where w(x, t) satises the PDE with the homogeneous boundary conditions, and v(x) satises
v

(x) = 0, v(0) = 1, v(3) = 2.


Thus, v(x) = x1, and w(x, t) =

n=1
b
n
sin
_
nx
L
_
e

2
n
2

2
L
2
t
=

n=1
b
n
sin
_
nx
3
_
e
n
2

2
t
.
It remains to nd b
n
, which we do by satisfying the initial condition
u(x, 0) = v(x) + w(x, 0) = x.
It follows that
w(x, 0) = u(x, 0) v(x) = x (x 1) = 1,
so b
n
is the Fouries sine coecient of 1, and therefore
b
n
=
2
3
_
3
0
sin(
nx
3
) dx =
2
n
cos(
nx
3
)

3
0
=
2
n
[(1)
n
1].
Finally,
u(x, t) = v(x) + w(x, t) = x 1 +

n=1
2
n
[(1)
n
1] sin
_
nx
3
_
e
n
2

2
t
=
= x 1
4

sin(
x
3
)e

2
t

4
3
sin(x)e
3
2
t
...
4
5. [6 marks] Find the solution of Laplaces equation u
xx
+ u
yy
= 0 within the rectangle
0 < x < 2, 0 < y < 1, which satises the boundary conditions u(0, y) = 2y, u(2, y) = 0,
u(x, 0) = 0, u(x, 1) = 2 x. Write down the complete solution u(x, y).
Solution:
The boundary condition is continuous, and linear on each portion of the boundary, so
u(x, y) = x +y +xy +.
(1) The lower horizontal segment: y = 0 x + = 0 = = 0
u(x, y) = y +xy.
(2) The left vertical segment: x = 0 y = 2y = 2
u(x, y) = 2y +xy.
(3) The right vertical segment: x = 2 2y + 2y = 0 = 1
u(x, y) = 2y xy.
Check the upper horizontal segment: y = 1 2 x = 2 x.
Answer: u(x, y) = 2y xy.