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Army Aviation The Army Air Corps (AAC) provide direct aviation support for the A rmy, although

the RAF also contribute by providing support helicopters. The prim ary attack helicopter is the Westland WAH-64 Apache, a license-built, modified v ersion of the US AH-64 Apache that replaced the Westland Lynx AH7 in the anti-ta nk role.[88] The Lynx remains in service as an armed escort, surveillance and li ght utility helicopter. Other types are used in specialised roles e.g. the Westl and Gazelle as a light surveillance aircraft[89] and the Bell 212 for support in specific Jungle / 'hot and high' environments [90] The Eurocopter AS 365N Dauph in is used for Special Operations Aviation[91] and the Britten-Norman Islander i s a light fixed-wing aircraft used for airborne reconnaissance and command and c ontrol.[92] Challenger II main battle tank.

Warrior IFV.

AgustaWestland Apache attack helicopter.

Soldier checking his L85A2 Assault Rifle. Recent and current conflicts[edit] Persian Gulf War[edit] Main articles: Gulf War and Operation Granby The ending of the Cold War saw a significant cut in manpower, as outlined in the Options for Change review.[93] Despite this, the Army has been deployed in an i ncreasingly global role, and contributed 50,000 troops to the coalition force th at fought Iraq in the Persian Gulf War.[94] British forces were put in control o f Kuwait after it was liberated. 47 British Military personnel died during the P ersian Gulf War.[95] Balkans conflicts[edit] Main article: Yugoslav wars The British Army was deployed to Yugoslavia in 1992; initially this force formed part of the United Nations Protection Force.[96] In 1995 command was transferre d to IFOR and then to SFOR.[97] Currently troops are under the command of EUFOR. Over 10,000 troops were sent. In 1999 British forces under the command of SFOR were sent to Kosovo during the conflict there. Command was subsequently transfer red to KFOR.[98] Between early 1993 and June 2010, 72 British military personnel died on operations in the former Yugoslavian countries of Bosnia, Kosovo and Ma cedonia.[99] War in Afghanistan[edit] Main articles: War in Afghanistan (2001 present) and Operation Herrick In November 2001 the United Kingdom, as a part of Operation Enduring Freedom wit h the United States, invaded Afghanistan to topple the Taliban.[100] The 3rd Div ision were deployed in Kabul, to assist in the liberation of the troubled capita l. The Royal Marines' 3 Commando Brigade (part of the Royal Navy but including a number of Army units), also swept the mountains.[101] The British Army is today concentrating on fighting Taliban forces and bringing security to Helmand provi nce. Approximately 7,900 British troops (including marines, airmen and sailors) are currently in Afghanistan, making it the second largest force after the US. A round 500 extra British troops were deployed in 2009, bringing the British Army deployment total up to 9,500 (excluding Special Forces).[102] In December 2012 P rime Minister David Cameron announced that 3,800 troops - almost half of the for ce serving in Helmand Province - would be withdrawn during 2013 with numbers to

fall to approximately 5,200.[103] By March 2014 troop levels were down to 4,000. [104] Combat operations are projected to end in 2014. Between 2001 and May 2012 a total of 414 British military personnel have died on operations in Afghanistan .[105] Iraq War[edit] Main articles: Iraq War and Operation Telic In 2003, the United Kingdom was a major contributor to the invasion of Iraq, sen ding a force that would reach 46,000 military personnel.[106] The British Army c ontrolled the southern regions of Iraq and maintained a peace-keeping presence i n the city of Basra until their withdrawal on 30 April 2009. 179 British Militar y personnel have died on operations in Iraq.[107] All of the remaining British t roops were fully withdrawn from Iraq after the Iraqi government refused to exten d their mandate.[108] The Troubles[edit] Main article: Operation Banner Although having permanent garrisons there, the British Army was initially deploy ed in a peacekeeping role codenamed "Operation Banner" in Northern Ireland in th e wake of Unionist attacks on Nationalist communities in Derry[109] and Belfast[ 110] and to prevent further Loyalist attacks on Catholic communities, under Oper ation Banner between 1969 and 2007 in support of the Royal Ulster Constabulary ( RUC) and its successor, the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI).[111] Ther e has been a steady reduction in the number of troops deployed in Northern Irela nd since the Good Friday Agreement was signed in 1998.[112] In 2005, after the P rovisional Irish Republican Army announced an end to its armed conflict in North ern Ireland, the British Army dismantled posts and withdrew many troops, and res tored troop levels to that of a peace-time garrison.[113] Operation Banner ended at midnight on 31 July 2007, bringing to an end some 38 y ears of continuous deployment, making it the longest in the British Army's histo ry.[114] An internal British Army document released in 2007 stated that the Brit ish Army had failed to defeat the IRA but had made it impossible for them to win through the use of violence. Operation Helvetic replaced Operation Banner in 20 07 maintaining fewer servicemen in a much more benign environment.[114][115] Fro m 1971 to 1997 a total of 763 British military personnel were killed during the "Troubles".[116] Some 300 deaths during the conflict were attributed to the Brit ish Army, including paramilitary and civilians.[117] A total of 303 RUC officers were killed in the same time period. In March 2009, two soldiers and a Police O fficer were killed in separate dissident republican attacks in Northern Ireland. [118] British soldiers in May 2007, during the War in Afghanistan.

3 Para in combat in Helmand Province, Afghanistan

British soldiers in March 2003, during the invasion of Iraq.

British Army patrol in South Belfast during the Troubles. Current deployments[edit] High intensity operations[edit] Country Dates Deployment Details Afghanistan 2001 4,000[119] troops British troops have been based i n Afghanistan since the US-led invasion there in 2001. Currently, under Operatio n Herrick, the Army maintains troops in Camp Souter, Kabul and a brigade on 6-mo

nthly rotation in the southern province of Helmand, mostly based in Camp Bastion and forward operating bases. As of November 2013 the 19th Deployment (Herrick 1 9) is underway. In December 2012 Prime Minister David Cameron announced that 3,8 00 troops - almost half of the force serving in Helmand Province - would be with drawn during 2013 with numbers to fall to approximately 5,200. Combat operations are projected to end in 2014.[103] Low intensity operations[edit] Country Dates Deployment Details Cyprus 1960 Two resident infantry battalions, Royal Engineers, 16 Flight Arm y Air Corps and Joint Service Signals Unit at Ayios Nikolaos as a part of Britis h Forces Cyprus The UK retains two Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus after the isla nd's independence. The bases serve as forward bases for deployments in the Middl e East. British forces are also deployed separately with UN peacekeeping forces on the island. Principal facilities are Alexander Barracks at Dhekelia and Salam anca Barracks at Episkopi.[120] Falkland Islands 1982 An infantry company group and an Engineer Squadr on Previously a platoon-sized Royal Marines Naval Party acted as the milita ry presence. After the 1982 war between Argentina and the UK, the garrison was e nlarged and bolstered with an RAF base at Mount Pleasant on East Falkland.[121] Gibraltar 1704 1991 One infantry battalion, Joint Provost and Security Unit as a part of British Forces Gibraltar British Army garrison is provided by an indigenous regiment, the Royal Gibraltar Regiment, which has been on the Army re gular establishment since the last British battalion left in 1991.[122] Northern Ireland 1920 About 3,200 troops[123] Since 2007 part of Opera tion Helvetic which replaced Operation Banner.[124] Sierra Leone 1999 Minimal The British Army were deployed to Sierra Leone, a former British colony on Operation Palliser in 1999 to aid the government in q uelling violent uprisings by militiamen, under United Nations resolutions. Troop s remain in the region to provide military support and training to the Sierra Le onean government.[125][126] Permanent overseas postings[edit] Country Dates Deployment Details Belize 1940s Ten soldiers British troops have been based in Belize from th e late 1940s until 1994. Belize's neighbour, Guatemala claimed the territory and there were numerous border disputes. At the request of the Belizean government, British troops remained in Belize after independence in 1981 to provide a defen ce force.[127] The main training unit closed in November 2011, leaving a token p resence of around ten soldiers.[128] Brunei 1962 One battalion from the Royal Gurkha Rifles, British Garrison, Tr aining Team Brunei (TTB) and 7 Flight Army Air Corps A Gurkha battalion has b een maintained in Brunei since the Brunei Revolt in 1962 at the request of Sulta n Omar Ali Saifuddin III. The Training Team Brunei (TTB) is the Army's jungle wa rfare school, while the small number of garrison troops support the battalion. 7 Flight Army Air Corps provides helicopter support to both the Gurkha battalion and the TTB.[129] Canada 1972 British Army Training Unit Suffield and 29 (BATUS) Flight Army A ir Corps A training centre in the Alberta prairie which is provided for t he use of British Army and Canadian Forces under agreement with the government o f Canada. British forces conduct regular, major armoured training exercises here every year, with helicopter support provided by 29 (BATUS) Flight AAC.[130][131 ] Germany 1945 2020 1st (UK) Armoured Division as part of British Forces Germany British forces remained in Germany after the end of the Second World War. Forces declined considerably after the end of the Cold War, and in October 2010 Prime Minister David Cameron announced large cuts in defence with all UK troops curren tly in Germany to leave by 2020.[132] Kenya 2010 British Army Training Unit Kenya The Army has a training centre in Kenya, under agreement with the Kenyan government. It provides trainin g facilities for three infantry battalions per year[133] Formation and structure[edit]

British Army arms and services Flag of the British Army.svg Combat Arms Royal Armoured Corps Infantry Guards Division Scottish Division King's Division Queen's Division Prince of Wales' Division Royal Irish Regiment Parachute Regiment Royal Gurkha Rifles The Rifles Special Air Service Army Air Corps Combat Support Arms Royal Artillery Royal Engineers Royal Corps of Signals Intelligence Corps Combat Services Royal Army Chaplains Department Royal Logistic Corps Army Medical Services Royal Army Medical Corps Royal Army Dental Corps Royal Army Veterinary Corps Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Adjutant General's Corps Staff and Personnel Support Branch Educational and Training Services Branch Army Legal Services Branch Provost Branch Royal Military Police Military Provost Staff Military Provost Guard Service Small Arms School Corps Royal Army Physical Training Corps General Service Corps Corps of Army Music Main article: Structure of the British Army The structure of the British Army is complex, due to the different origins of it s various cons