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/ - hyphens Discuss causal and process readings Peer review essay #2

Use to enclose supplemental material, minor digressions, and afterthoughts

Nurses record patients vital signs (temperature,

pulse, and blood pressure) several times a day. Dorothys shoes (which are red) originally belonged to the Wicked Witchs sister.

Use to enclose letters or numbers labeling items in a series

Regulations stipulated that only the following

equipment could be used on the survival mission: (1) knife, (2) thirty feet of parachute line, (3) a book of matches, and (4) two ponchos.

Use to enclose any words/phrases that have been inserted into an otherwise word-for-word quotation
Audubon reports that if there are not enough young to

The Latin word sic in brackets indicates that an error in a quoted sentence appears in the original source. Do NOT overuse because calling attention to others mistakes can appear snobbish.
According to the review, Nelly Fortados performance

balance deaths, the end of the species [California condor] is inevitable (4).

was brilliant, exceeding [sic] the expectations of even her most loyal fans.

1. Bad movies, (some of which are quite enjoyable to watch), often have a cult following. Omit commas 2. Some films routinely make every critics list of worst films (Usually, these movies are so bad they are funny.). Lowercase usually Omit period inside of the parentheses

3. A few filmmakers [like Ed Wood] and movie companies [like American International Pictures] have acquired fame among fans of bad movies. Change brackets to parenthesis 4. Roger Cormans American International Pictures [AIP] churned out innumerable inexpensive, quickly made films. Change brackets to parenthesis

5. One Corman film, Little Shop of Horrors, (1960) was filmed in less than three days. Horrors (1960), 6. But the director Edward D. Wood Jr. [19241978] has a special place in the world of bad movies. Change brackets to parenthesis

7. Wood gained new fame with Tim Burtons film biography, Ed Wood, (1994). Ed Wood (1994). 8. Like Cormans movies, Woods were made very quickly, but Wood, (unlike Corman), thought he was making great films. Wood (unlike Corman) thought

9. Woods masterpiece, Plan 9 from Outer Space, (Bela Lugosis last film) is a science fiction and horror film with bad acting, dreadful writing, and laughable special effects. Space (Bela Lugosis last film), is 10. Wood said that Plan 9 (was his) pride and joy. Change parenthesis to brackets

Type word space dash dash space word for elongation

Use to set off parenthetical material that deserves emphasis

Everything that went wrong from the peeping Tom at

her window last night to my head-on collision today we blamed on our move.

Use to set off appositives that contain commas

An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that renames a nearby noun. They are usually set off with commas, but when the appositive itself contains commas, a pair of dashes helps readers see the importance of all pauses. In my hometown, peoples basic needs food, clothing,

and shelter are less costly than in a big city like LA.

Use to introduce a list, a restatement, an amplification, or a dramatic shift in tone or thought (basically can replace a colon, but colons are more formal and less dramatic than a dash) Only use if there is a specific reason for its use (dont want unnecessary chopiness)
In my hometown, peoples basic needs include the

following items sesame seed oil, honey, safflower oil, and that half-liquid peanuts only peanut butter.

1. Songbirds are a part of our national heritage, each state has its own official bird. Heritage - each 2. Some states have official birds unique to the region. Omit dash 3. The nene Hawaiis state bird, is a goose found only on those islands. Bird is

4. In Salt Lake City, a statue of a seagull which is Utahs state bird honors the birds that ate a huge swarm of locusts without the birds, most crops would have been eaten by the insects. Omit first 2 dashes 5. Other states share popular state birds, the cardinal, the meadowlark, and the mockingbird are all official birds in at least five states. Birds the cardinal 6. When Americans think of spring they often think of songbirds chirping in the trees. Omit dash

7. For many years the Audubon Society, an organization devoted to nature study has studied populations of songbirds. Society an organization 8. Birdwatchers mainly trained volunteers count birds in small local areas during the year-end holiday season. Volunteers count birds

9. The numbers of some songbirds though fortunately not all have declined alarmingly. Not all have declined 10. Although most people appreciate the sights and sounds of songbirds they may not realize how modern human habitats interfere with many birds lives. Omit dash

Use to indicate that words have been deleted from an otherwise word-for-word quotation

Shute acknowledges that treatment for autism can be

expensive: Sensory integration therapycan cost up to $200 an hour (82).

If a full sentence or more is deleted in the middle of a quoted passage, use a period before the three ellipsis dots
If we dont properly train, teach, or treat our growing

prison population, says long-time reform advocate Luis Rodriguez, somebody else will.This may well be the safety issue of the new century (16).

Use to indicate a hesitation or an interruption in speech or to suggest unfinished thoughts The apartment building next doorits

going up in flames! yelled Marcia.

1. Correct 2. [A]ll men areendowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights,among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. 3. Thomas Jefferson wanted the Declaration of Independence to say that men were created independent. 4. Elizabeth Cady Stantons Declaration of Sentiments announces, [W]e anticipate no small amount of misconception, misrepresentation, and ridicule.

5. Stantons Declaration of Sentiments was basedon the language Jefferson had used in the Declaration of Independence. 6. Correct 7. Allusions to the language of familiar literaturecan lend authority to a text that uses them well. 8. Lincoln went on, Fondly do we hopethat this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away.

9. Martin Luther King Jr. expressed the wish that his children would be judged by the content of their character. 10. Repetition of structure can be an effective rhetorical device.

Use to separate two or three lines of poetry Add a space before and after the slash Roses are red / violets are blue / sugar is


Use to separate paired terms Do not use space before or after slash Pass/fail, producer/director Do not use and/or, he/she, is/or Rewrite instead

Use the dictionary to see if whether or not a word is hyphenated or compound Water-repellent, waterproof, water table Use when two or more words are used together as an adjective before a noun Richa Gupta is not yet a well-known


Do not use to connect ly adverbs to words they modify WRONG: A slowly-moving truck tied up traffic

Hyphenate fractions and certain numbers when they are spelled out One-fourth Use with the prefixes all-, ex-, and self Self-help Use with the suffix -elect President-elect

Use in certain words to avoid ambiguity or to separate awkward double or triple letters Re-creation and recreation Anti-intellectual (double i) Cross-stitch (double s)

1. Does buying lottery tickets and entering sweepstakes make a person selfemployed? Self-employed 2. The odds of winning a major lottery prize are often over a million-to-one. Omit hyphens

3. Yet many people, including desperately-poor ones who cannot afford the tickets, buy large numbers of them when the jackpot is high and the odds are worst. Omit hyphen 4. A sensible approach to such sky high odds would be not to enter the lottery at all. Sky-high

5. Sweepstakes are well-known to anyone with a mailbox. Omit hyphen 6. Unlike lotteries, apparently-free sweepstakes do not require any cash investment other than the price of a stamp. Omit hyphen

7. Yet many sweepstakes imply that buying a magazine-subscription or a product improves the chances of winning. Omit hyphen 8. Some sweepstakes companies have been accused of trying to dupe customers who do not read the fine-print. Omit hyphen

9. Some elderly people have thrown away their great grandchildrens inheritance, buying hundreds of products they dont need from sweepstakes advertisers. Great-grandchildrens 10. The idea of getting rich with minimal work or investment is so strikingly-attractive that many people put logic aside and come up with the money. Omit hyphen

Need 6 groups Discuss assigned essay

Multiple choice homework Journal prompt
Take notes

In next group, you will be the authority and report to your new group what the first group discussed.

On Teenagers and Tattoos 1. According to Marin, what is the typical parental reaction to such markings [tattoos and piercings]? Black Men and Public Space 2. What types of evidence does Staples provide to illustrate his point that black men can alter public space? Driving Us to Distraction 3. How does the essay make use of cause and effect? Does it analyze causes, effects, or both? My Daily Dives in the Dumpster 4. In what ways does the essay use process as a writing strategy? The Culture of Martyrdom 5. How does Brooks use process in his essay? Almost Time to Write. Almost Time... 6. What is the relationship between the subject of the essay and its structure?

General Thoughts 1. Martin argues that tattoos can be interpreted as proof of toughness and machismo, as acts of rebellion, as desires to memorialize dearly held persons or concepts. (D) 2. According to Martin, understanding why teenagers choose to get tattoos can also be a way of better understanding teenagers. (A) 3. Martin surmises that the anchor was a popular tattoo because of its association wit stability. (D)

General Thoughts 4. Martins first Case Vignette involves a thirteen-year-old boy who wanted to memorialize his dead father. (B) 5. Among the individuals who Martin believes get tattoos for fleeting reasons are hospitalized or incarcerated youth. (E)

On Teenagers and Tattoos 1. According to Marin, what is the typical parental reaction to such markings [tattoos and piercings]?

In paragraph 2, Martin writes about the conflict. Adolescents might see such markings as personalizing and beautifying their bodies, while parents construe them as oppositional and enraging affronts to their authority. Some parents see this as a form of self-mutilation.

General Thoughts 1. The fear that Staples elicits from passersby is occasioned by his race, gender, youth, physical size. (E) 2. The experiences about which Staples writes primarily occur at night in relatively deserted urban areas. (B) 3. When Staples writes about public spaces, he is referring to park areas open to the public, city streets and sidewalks, stores, urban neighborhoods. (E)

General Thoughts 4. The reactions of other pedestrians to his presence make Staple feel alienated from those he encounters, aware of the dangers that surround him, conscious of the stereotyped image by which he is judged, aware of the fears of others. (E) 5. Now, when Staples walks late at night, he whistles selections from classical music. (C)

Black Men and Public Space 2. What types of evidence does Staples provide to illustrate his point that black men can alter public space?

The evidence comes from his own personal experiences as well as those of a fellow black, male journalist.

General Thoughts 1. According to the article, a serious safety hazard on the road is using a cell phone. (A) 2. The profession that 2% of effective multitaskers are skilled at doing is fighter pilot. (B) 3. Thirty-seven percent of the population is fairly impassive to the new law. (E) 4. The Center for Auto Safety proposes that all new cars have a device that prevents all calls except in an emergency. (E) 5. The main goal of the Center for Auto Safety is to make talking and driving socially unacceptable. (A)

Driving Us to Distraction 3. How does the essay make use of cause and effect? Does it analyze causes, effects, or both?

It analyzes effects the impact on drivers.

General Thoughts 1. Divers, Eighner argues, move through a predictable series of stages in learning to scavenge, including disgust and self-loathing, a compulsion to acquire everything they touch, a realization that they must restrict themselves to those things immediately useful, satisfaction at having found something useful. (E) 2. Many people will salvage something from a dumpster, but what separates the amateur from the professional diver is eating discarded food. (A)

General Thoughts 3. According to Eighner, can scroungers differ from scavengers in that they are peole who must have small amounts of cash, they value only the cans and will ignore other valuable or usable items, they make a mess of the dumpsters, they are often drug addicts. (E) 4 One important lesson Eighner mentions as having learned from his experiences in diving is that all material things are short-lived and not worth centering ones life around. (B) 5. According to Eighner, the wise diver shares with the very wealthy the realization that the quest for things is endless. (D)

My Daily Dives in the Dumpster 4. In what ways does the essay use process as a writing strategy?

Process underlies two aspects of the essay - Implicitly described process of diving to include eating safely - Explicitly described predictable stages that a scavenger goes through (disgust and selfloathing, desire to acquire everything, realization to keep only the useful)

General Thoughts 1. Brooks major purpose in the essay seems to be to show how culture has created the process of martyrdom. (D) 2. Suicide bombing is a relatively new thing, beginning roughly in the 1980s. (B) 3. Typically, suicide bombers in the Middle East are motivated by loyalty to their group. (E) 4. According to Brooks, most Palestinians regard suicide bombings as an acceptable means of resisting Israel (C) 5. Throught the essay, Brooks likens the culture of martyrdom to a drug addiction. (A)

The Culture of Martyrdom 5. How does Brooks use process in his essay?

The core of the essay uses process to describe how suicide bombers are recruited.

General Thoughts 1. According to Werner, habits can lead to a productive life if balanced. (B) 2. Werner justifies so much time spent on social networking sites by saying she needs them to fact check. (B) 3. The irony about Werner applying lip balm to insure she remains concentrated on her work is that depsite putting on her lip balm to keep from focusing on her dry lips, she is far from concentrated on her work. (A)

General Thoughts 4. Werner decided to keep her FB and MySpace accounts because she simply likes social networking. (B) 5. Werners ultimate plan to becoming more focused on her work is that she plans on continuing with her current procedures and hope for the best. (E)

Almost Time to Write. Almost Time... 6. What is the relationship between the subject of the essay and its structure?

Its structure mimics the delaying tactics of the writer a process description of a process.

On peer review sheet, write

Reviewed by: (insert your name) Summary author: (peers name) Exchange essays. Read the essay and complete the peer review sheet. Give both to author (your peer).

Essay #2 final copy (causal or process)

Submit rubric, prewrite, plan, rough, peer review,

Prewrite & Plan (causal or process)

Submit rubric, prewrite, plan of essay not developed into a rough draft

Read chapter 4 pages 211 227 on Division and Classification Complete worksheets on sentence variety, parallelism Essay #1 mulligans