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Efren Pana, petitioner v. Heirs of Jose Juanite, Sr. and Jose Juanite, Jr., respondents G.R. No.

164201, December 10, 2012 Nature: Petition for review on certiorari Topic: Marriage Settlements !on"#gal $artners%i$ $re&n#$tial agreements Facts: S$o#ses 'fren an( Melecia Pana an( ot%ers were acc#se( of m#r(er. 'fren was ac)#itte( b#t Melecia an( anot%er $erson was fo#n( g#ilt* of t%e crime c%arge( an( sentence( t%em to recl#sion $er$et#a an( %el( liable for civil in(emnit* an( moral (amages. +%e (ecision became final an( e,ec#tor*. -$on motion for e,ec#tion b* t%e %eirs of t%e (ecease(, R+! or(ere( t%e iss#ance of t%e writ, res#lting in t%e lev* of real $ro$erties registere( in t%e names of 'fren an( Melecia. . notice of lev* an( notice of sale on e,ec#tion were iss#e(. +%e s$o#ses file( a motion to )#as% t%e writ of e,ec#tion, claiming t%at t%e levie( $ro$erties were con"#gal assets, not $ara$%ernal assets of Melecia. Issue: /%et%er t%e $ro$erties levie( were con"#gal $ro$erties of t%e s$o#ses t%at can be e,ec#te( #$on for t%e satisfaction of Melecia0s civil liabilit* in t%e m#r(er case. Ruling: +%e con"#gal $artners%i$ of gains t%at governe( t%e marriage between 'fren an( Melecia w%o were marrie( $rior to 1122 cannot be mo(ifie( e,ce$t before t%e celebration of t%at marriage. -n(er t%e con"#gal $artners%i$ of gains establis%e( b* .rticle 142 of t%e !ivil !o(e, t%e %#sban( an( t%e wife $lace onl* t%e fr#its of t%eir se$arate $ro$ert* an( incomes from t%eir wor3 or in(#str* in t%e common f#n(. /%at is clear is t%at 'fren an( Melecia were marrie( w%en t%e !ivil !o(e was still t%e o$erative law on marriages. +%e $res#m$tion, absent an* evi(ence to t%e contrar*, is t%at t%e* were marrie( #n(er t%e regime of t%e con"#gal $artners%i$ of gains. +%e $a*ment of $ersonal (ebts contracte( b* eit%er s$o#se before t%e marriage, t%at of fines an( in(emnities im$ose( #$on t%em, as well as t%e s#$$ort of illegitimate c%il(ren of eit%er s$o#se, ma* be enforce( against t%e $artners%i$ assets after t%e res$onsibilities en#merate( in t%e $rece(ing .rticle %ave been covere(, if t%e s$o#se w%o is bo#n( s%o#l( %ave no e,cl#sive $ro$ert* or if it s%o#l( be ins#fficient b#t at t%e time of t%e li)#i(ation of t%e $artners%i$, s#c% s$o#se s%all be c%arge( for w%at %as been $ai( for t%e $#r$ose above&mentione(. Since 'fren (oes not (is$#te t%e R+!0s fin(ing t%at Melecia %as no e,cl#sive $ro$ert* of %er own, t%e above a$$lies. +%e civil in(emnit* t%at t%e (ecision in t%e m#r(er case im$ose( on %er ma* be enforce( against t%eir con"#gal assets after t%e res$onsibilities en#merate( in .rticle 121 of t%e 4amil* !o(e %ave been covere( 5f t%e con"#gal $artners%i$ is ins#fficient to cover t%e foregoing liabilities, t%e s$o#ses s%all be soli(aril* liable for t%e #n$ai( balance wit% t%eir se$arate $ro$erties. .rticle 121 above allows $a*ment of t%e criminal in(emnities im$ose( on %is wife, Melecia, o#t of t%e $artners%i$ assets even before t%ese are li)#i(ate(. /6'R'47R', t%e !o#rt .445RMS wit% M7D545!.+57N