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Network layer functions Radio Resource Management (RRM)
RRM Functions Handover Whiteboard: relation between power control and handover
RRM Mobile IP
Suggested reading: Garg chapter 12 Garg chapter 14.6
2013-02-13 Sid 2 David Gundlegård, ITN
Network Layer Functions
David Gundlegård, ITN
GSM. UMTS GPRS transmission plane (Signaling plane not shown here) 2013-02-13 Sid 5 David Gundlegård. ITN . ITN 2013-02-13 Sid 8 David Gundlegård. WLAN Mobility Support The support for mobility is often divided into three parts Keeping track of the user location (MM) Maintain channel when moving (RRM) Keep the connection between end users Communication Management (CM) Connection management for circuit switched Mobile IP Data Link Layer Physical Layer Mobile IP Data Link Layer Physical Layer Session management for packet switched We focus on MM and RRM 2013-02-13 Sid 7 David Gundlegård. IP doesn’t support mobility… What to do? Radio specific protocols Solution #1 Special designed network layer Common in Mobile ”telecommunication” systems E.Network Layer Functions Host-to-host delivery Routing Addressing When communicating on the Internet this is performed by the Internet Protocol (IP) However. ITN 2013-02-13 Sid 6 David Gundlegård. ITN Solution #2 Use Mobile IP as network layer The solution suggested in mobile ”data communication” systems E.g.g.
ITN 2013-02-13 Sid 12 David Gundlegård. ITN Some Important RRM Functions Power Control Time Alignment Admission Control Handover (Handoff) RRM Functions Power Control Near and far terminal QoS objectives Time alignment Timing Advance (TA) value (TDMA-based systems) Shift transmission due to distance (propagation delay) RTT in CDMA-based Admission Control Allow a new user radio resources? Channel Assignment Fixed/dynamic 2013-02-13 Sid 11 David Gundlegård.RRM basics Radio Resource Management (RRM) Goal: Maintain the radio connection when the user moves Located in the network layer But affect parameters in the data link and physical layer Connected terminals 2013-02-13 Sid 10 David Gundlegård. ITN .
ITN . ITN 2013-02-13 Sid 16 David Gundlegård.Handover Change point of attachment to the network in order to keep connection alive Phases Measurement Decision Execution Handover Reasons SNR or SIR Capacity Distance E. ITN 2013-02-13 Sid 14 David Gundlegård. ITN Handover Features Handover Performance Call blocking/dropping probability Guard channels Dedicate channels for handover traffic (why?) Probability of unnecessary handover Handover decision delay Cell dragging (interference) Quality of service Duration of interruption Quality degradation before handoff 2013-02-13 Sid 15 David Gundlegård.g. max 35 km in GSM (TA value) Interference Velocity Service capabilities 2013-02-13 Sid 13 David Gundlegård.
k. ITN 2013-02-13 Sid 18 David Gundlegård.a. GSM/UMTS. in-house. personal area horizontal handover 2013-02-13 Sid 17 David Gundlegård. GSM/Satellite Soft handover ”Make before break” Possibly connected to several BTS at the same time ~20-40% of the time in UMTS Within a system Between micro and macro (umbrella) cells vertical handover campus-based in-car.g.Handover Types Hard handover ”Break before make” Only connected to one BTS at the same time Handover Types Vertical handover Between systems E. UMTS/WLAN. ITN Handover Decision (Protocols) Network evaluated handover (NEHO) The network monitors the channel quality and instructs the terminal when to handover Problem: uncorrelated uplink/downlink Handover Decision (Protocols) Mobile assisted handover (MAHO) The mobile terminal assists the network in the handover decision Monitors the downlink and send measurement reports (associated signaling channel) Mobile evaluated handover (MEHO) The mobile terminal monitors the channel quality and determines when to handover A. ”cell update” Typically fast handover decision but large interruption delay (are resources prepared in the new cell or not?) 2013-02-13 Sid 19 David Gundlegård. ITN 2013-02-13 Sid 20 Network side monitors the uplink Network decides when to handover Signaling channel required (SACCH) David Gundlegård. ITN .
13.42.Decision Variables Received Signal Strength (RSS) Power of received signal Averaged over time Handover Reduction Methods Avoid oscillations and unnecessary handovers Increased delay Thresholds Timer Margin Hysteresis Combination E.g.42. ITN 2013-02-13 Sid 22 David Gundlegård. you will not be able to receive packets as soon as you leave your subnetwork 2013-02-13 Sid 24 David Gundlegård.13.0/24 are the addresses 129.1 – 129.e. TA-value Distance Traffic conditions E. handover probability between different cells… Velocity Fading rate or dwell time Transmit power Minimize Close to max.g: in the subnetwork 129.g.42.13. ITN Motivation Objectives Reachable Mobile IP Maintain connection Problems IP-adresses structured in hierarchy E. traffic load on neighbouring cells Signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) Power of the signal compared to the interference Estimated with bit error rate (BER) Statistics Time since previous handover. ITN .254 included I. power? 2013-02-13 Sid 21 David Gundlegård.
. . ITN 2013-02-13 Sid 28 David Gundlegård. 130. .236.132.132. . . . . .133. . . . . . 255. .130.4 Supports temporary (dynamic) IP addresses Mobility between different networks Difficult to provide this information manually when A host is diskless A host moves 2013-02-13 Sid 27 David Gundlegård. .119 Subnet mask .Why not… …assign new address when changing network? DHCP No one knows where you have gone Interrupts current sessions Why not… …change routing tables? Host-specific routing Long updating time Not scalable …update the IP address with dynamic DNS? (reachable via hostname) Long updating time Not scalable Interrupts current sessions …use Mobile IP? That could be something! 2013-02-13 Sid 25 David Gundlegård.254. . ITN .236. 130.236. .0 Default gateway. . . .1 DNS server .255. . . ITN 2013-02-13 Sid 26 David Gundlegård. ITN DHCP A host needs to have An IP address A subnet mask A default router A name server DHCP DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Example IP. . . . . . .
ITN 2013-02-13 Sid 30 David Gundlegård. ITN Components Care-of Address (COA) The topologically correct IP address Destination for the tunneled datagram Can be located in FA or MN Can be obtained with DHCP Example HA MN router home network Internet FA foreign network router (current physical network for the MN) Correspondent Node (CN) The host with which the MN is communicating CN end-system router 2013-02-13 Sid 31 David Gundlegård. ITN .Requirements Compatibility Compatible with current applications Routers shall generally not need to be updated Components Mobile Node (MN) Mobile terminal that can change connection point to the network without changing the IP address Transparency Mobile IP shall not be noticed by other functions Home Agent (HA) Function in the home network for the MN (usually located in the default router) Keeps track of MN location and uses tunneling to send the traffic to COA Scalability There can not be too much signalling traffic generated per mobile node Foreign Agent (FA) Function in the foreign (visited) network (usually located in default router) Forwards tunneled datagrams to the MN Security At least authentication 2013-02-13 Sid 29 David Gundlegård. ITN 2013-02-13 Sid 32 David Gundlegård.
ITN Signaling Agent Advertisement Sent via ICMP Broadcast from FA Tunneling Tunneling between HA and COA original IP header original data Agent solicitation MN looks for a FA new IP header outer header new data inner header original data Registration Inform HA of current COA Requires authentication 2013-02-13 Sid 35 David Gundlegård. FA forwards the packet to the MN 1. Internet foreign network MN CN sender 1 1. HA tunnels packet to COA. by encapsulation 3. here FA. router FA 4. Sender sends to the IP address of MN. ITN . CN router 2013-02-13 Sid 33 David Gundlegård. HA intercepts packet 2. ITN 2013-02-13 Sid 34 David Gundlegård.Traffic to MN HA Overview MN 2 COA home network Internet 3 FA receiver foreign network 3. home network router HA 2. ITN 2013-02-13 Sid 36 David Gundlegård.
Optimizations Prevent triangular routing ”Two swedes in Japan…” Solution HA informs CN about current COA CN tunnels directly to COA Next lecture RRM Performance and (analytical) modeling Signaling Authentication 2013-02-13 Sid 37 David Gundlegård. ITN 2013-02-13 Sid 38 David Gundlegård. ITN .