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CC2417 Tutorial 2 – Chapter 3 Cells

Level 1
Part A True/False Questions
 
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1. TRUE
2. TRUE
3. FALSE
4. FALSE
5. TRUE
6. TRUE
7. TRUE
8. TRUE
9. FALSE
10. FALSE
11. FALSE
12. FALSE
13. FALSE
14. FALSE
15. TRUE
16. TRUE
17. FALSE
18. TRUE
19. FALSE
20. FALSE
21. TRUE
Part B Fills in the blank
1. selectively permeable
2. Golgi apparatus
3. mitochondria
4. diffusion
5. filtration
6. active transport
7. pinocytosis
8. Equilibrium
9. Microtubules
10. ribosomes

Level 2 Review Questions


1. Discuss the structure and functions of a cell membrane.
The basic structure of the cell membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer. It contains embedded
protein molecules. It functions to keep the inner portion of the cell intact. It controls the entrance and
exit of substances.
2. Define selectively permeable.
Selectively permeable means that the cell membrane allows some substances to pass through easily
while excluding other substances.
3. Explain how the structure of a cell membrane determines which types of substances it is
permeable to.
As the cell membrane is comprised chiefly of fatty acid portions of the phospholipid molecule, it
allows substances that are soluble in lipids to pass through easily. It is impermeable to water soluble
molecules.
4. Explain the function of membrane proteins.

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The functions of membrane proteins include acting as a receptor to combine with a specific substance
such as a hormone, while some form narrow passageways, or channels, through which various
molecules and ions can cross the cell membrane. Others function as enzymes in signal transduction.
5. Distinguish between diffusion and facilitated diffusion.

Diffusion is the process by which molecules or ions become scattered or are spread spontaneously
from regions where they are in higher concentrations toward regions where they are in lower
concentrations. Diffusion is a passive process that occurs naturally. Facilitated diffusion occurs when
a substance that is not normally soluble in lipids combines with a receptor protein carrier molecule.
This union forms a compound that is soluble in lipids and diffuses to the other side of the membrane.
This receptor then releases the substance allowing for reuse of the carrier molecule.
6. Define osmosis.
Osmosis is a special type of diffusion involving water. This is when water molecules diffuse from a
region of higher water concentration to a region of lower water concentration.
7. Explain how the number of solute particles in a solution affects its osmotic pressure.
When the number of solute particles is great, the water concentration will be lowered while the
osmotic pressure will be greater. Water will diffuse toward solutions with greater osmotic pressure.
8. Distinguish among solutions that are hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic.
Hypertonic refers to a solution that has a higher osmotic pressure than that of the cell. This causes the
cell to shrink as water moves out of the cell. Hypotonic refers to a solution that has a lower osmotic
pressure than that of the cell. This causes the cell to swell and possibly burst as water moves into it.
Isotonic refers to a solution that has the same osmotic pressure as body fluids. This allows the cell
size to remain unchanged as water or solutes are not being pulled in any specific direction.
9. Explain the function of carrier molecules in active transport.
Carrier molecules are proteins that have binding sites that combine with the particles being
transported. This union triggers the release of cellular energy, and this causes the shape of a carrier
molecule to be altered. This allows the “passenger” molecule to move through the membrane.

10. Name the two processes included in cell reproduction.


The first is the process by which the nuclear portions of the cell divide (karyokinesis). The second
process is where the cytoplasm divides (cytokinesis). These two processes together are called mitosis.
11. Explain what happens during interphase.
Interphase is the stage in the life cycle of a cell where young cells, grow, manufacture compounds,
new organelles are made, and the chromosomes and the centrioles replicate.

Level 3 Critical thinking


Answers to Critical thinking:
1. Which process –diffusion, osmosis, or filtration – accounts for the following situations?
a. Injection of a drug that is hypertonic to the tissues stimulates pain.
b. A person with extremely low blood pressure stops producing urine.
c. the concentration of urea in the dialyzing fluid of an artificial kidney is kept low.

2. Which characteristic of cell membranes may explain why fat-soluble substances such as chloroform
and ether rapidly affect cells?

3. A person exposed to many X-rays may lose white blood cells and become more susceptible to
infection. How are these effects related?

4. Exposure to tobacco smoke causes cilia to cease moving and degenerate. Why might this explain
why tobacco smokers have an increased incidence of respiratory infections?

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6. How is knowledge of how cell division is controlled important to an understanding of each of the
following?
a. growth
b. wound healing
c. cancer

1. Which process –diffusion, osmosis, or filtration – accounts for the following situations?
a. Injection of a drug that is hypertonic to the tissues stimulates pain.
b. A person with extremely low blood pressure stops producing urine.
c. the concentration of urea in the dialyzing fluid of an artifical kidney is kept low.

a. Osmosis. The hypertonic drug solution would cause water to leave the cells, swelling the tissues,
pressing on nerves, and causing pain.

b. Filtration. A low blood pressure would not result in enough hydrostatic pressure to force water and
dissolved particles (glomerular filtrate) from the glomerular capillaries into the kidney tubules.

c. Diffusion. Urea, an end product of protein metabolism, would need to diffuse from a higher
concentration in the patient's blood to a lower concentration in the dialyzing fluid if it is to be
removed from the blood.

2. Which characteristic of cell membranes may explain why fat-soluble substances such as chloroform
and ether rapidly affect cells?

Cell membranes contain phospholipids, into which fat-soluble substances (organic solvents) would
easily diffuse.

3. A person exposed to many X-rays may lose white blood cells and become more susceptible to
infection. How are these effects related?

White blood cells normally increase in number during an infection. Exposure to an X -ray may destroy
these cells, along with their ability to phagocytose bacteria and produce antibodies against bacteria and
viruses.

4. Exposure to tobacco smoke causes cilia to cease moving and degenerate. Why might this explain
why tobacco smokers have an increased incidence of respiratory infections?
The rhythmic beating of cilia normally aids in moving respiratory secretions up into the pharynx where
they are swallowed or expectorated. If cilia are immobile, secretions remain in the lower respiratory
tract where they may harbor microorganisms, resulting in infections.

6. How is knowledge of how cell division is controlled important to an understanding of each of the
following?
a. growth
b. wound healing
c. cancer

a. growth—cells continually undergo mitosis, increasing their numbers; they may also increase in
size;
b. wound healing—cells undergo mitosis only when necessary to replace those that have been
injured;
c. cancer—immature, undifferentiated cells undergo uncontrolled, continued mitosis, often
metastasizing, or separating from the original site of the malignancy to distant organs of the body.
-End-

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