be 220 Degrees C.

Ventilated Dry type transformers have a UL recognized insulation system that is rated 220 HARMONICS; HOW THEY AFFECT THE DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN OF "K" FACTOR Increased harmonics will increase the eddy current loss of the windings and this will TRANSFORMERS appreciably decrease the life expectancy of by JEROME M. FRANK P.E. IEEE FELLOW the transformer. As pointed out in one of the OLSUN ELECTRICS CORPORATION papers in the Bibliography, the Arhenius The design and development of solid state Rule of Thumb reduces the life in half for switching devices has made a very important every 8 to 10 Degrees C that the temperature contribution to our ability to handle and is increased. That is one of the main reasons that process data as well as our ability to more efficiently control electrical equipment. New lower temperature rises of 115C and 80C were items must now be taken into consideration suggested in the Energy Consideration paper Overloading as well as in the design, development and application in the Bibliography. Harmonics are factors that must be taken of electrical equipment. consideration in a transformer When 60 hertz current flows through i n t o a conductor, it is relatively uniformly a p p l i c a t i o n . Changes in design have greatly distributed thruout the cross section of the conductor and its heating effect on the increased the harmonic content of present day loads. In fact, there are very few loads conductor can be readily calculated. A s the frequency increases, "skin today that do not produce harmonics. The computer manufacturers effect" causes the current to flow towards the outer edges of the conductor and the current formerly built what was known as a "Linear distribution in the conductor is no longer Power Supply." This device had a heavy 60 uniform. T o reduce this heating effect, Hertz input transformer, and was large and smaller insulated conductors in parallel were expensive t o manufacture. T h e various used rather than one larger conductor to computer manufacturers provide as much surface skin as possible device to eliminate the 60 resulting in a lower resistance to the higher Transformer, made it lighter and a high frequency frequency currents as the higher frequency less expensive and added currents tended t o flow towards the skin output transformer. This, they called a rather than to the center of the conductor. Mode Switching Power Supply. The ~ i a l y and t disadvantage was that This principle was known and used in the very important design of 400 hertz conductors in airport harmonics produced by the rapid mo lighting design. These 400 hertz cables s w i t c h i n g power supply were ver consisted of multiple insulated conductors appreciably increased , pr rather than one larger conductor. harmonic, which has c a m A transformer has a core loss which is transformer and neutral problems. ~ ~ ~ on 24 hours of the day as long as the a r e now under way by computer transformer is energized. It has a conductor manufacturers to reduce this harmonic loss at 60 hertz that varies with t h e content in t h e future generations of transformer loading. In addition, it has eddy computers but a large number of computers losses in the conductor as well as stray losses have been built in the meantime with these that are caused by the flux linking the frame higher harmonic currents. parts. These losses and the cooling ducts in The new generation of Solid State the windings determine the temperature Ballasts for lighting applications have been rise of the transformer windings. If the described as being greatly improved with transformer is designed for a temperature appreciable increase in efficiency. rise of 150 Degrees Centigrade by resistance , slight drawback, an increase in harmonic with a 40 Degree C ambient and a 30 Degree C content. The almost negligible arm^^^^ differential between the average rise by content of incandescent lighting has been resistance of the winding and its hot spot, largely supplanted by the improvement in the ultimate temperature of the winding will the better and more economical lighting of

~

r

t

0-7803-5148-6-5196 $4.00 0 9996 IEEE

204

arc also des .

thru which all currents f l o w . Another important fact is that a properly designed K rated transformer is wed at a lower flux density than a non K transfDrmer. . A DC current flows uniformly through the entire cross section of a conductor. for the reduced e core loss is on continuously. was found to be appreciably dependent on the t r a n s f o r m e r design and the transformer impedance. you have increase factor of safety of the application. as low as possible. 'The derated transformer still has c o r e loss of t h e original VA rating and it is a core loss. necessary. drawn a reasonably It is desirable to keep the impedance of the transformer. transformer has an that is grounded between secondary windings that barrier between 480 and ion. Voltage distortion. otors fed by a balanced sinusoidal voltage sinusoidal current. for ring the degree of high frequency ~". While the voltage received from the utility has less than 1% voltage distortion. the output voltage of the transformer becomes increasingly distorted especially as nonlinear currents flow through the windings to the load. However. As the f r e ~ u ~ n c y increases. an 1 squared R loss in the windings and an eddy current and stray loss in the winding conductors. there is the possibility er line voltage which occurs at drive the core into saturation. the shield gives some c~mrnon and transverse mode noise encountered and most troublesome. in my opinion. a esirable effect. is also desirable. measured with a non-linear load bank. and e for revision. Unless additional d to the core. Eddy current losses in transformers can be reduced by using multiple insulated conductors rather than a single larger conductor. A good grade 6. The M factor of the load. increasing the the core. determined from the C57.110 calculation. Strip windings often are used. This is especially true. The windings of all transformers have resistances.They give a procedure for derating a ~ ~ exposed ~ to non-linear ~ ~ loads. Qther techniques include interleaving windings and transposing ~ n ~ ~ conductors. adding to the motor's heating . T h e transformer impedances. due to skin effect. will cause secondary voltage distortion. When it is used to multiply the combined eddy and stray loss.e a i ~ Ui s listed devices to be used withdin their l:sting. The greater the impedance. if the currents are nonsinusoidal. the eddy current component increases and it is very difficult to separate the eddy from the stray in the conductor. since they are difficult to separate. T h e additional col-e material in a K rated transformer will make the transformer quieter. due to the fact that the ~ ~ in the ~ secondary r ~ winding ~ causes a 3rd harmonic current to circulate in Ita winding. The purpose is to get as much skin as possible. attenuation. the greater t h e voltage distortion. Mlben transformers are derated. the core loss e to the third harmonic flux he delta primary winding. it ecessary expense. although there are no IEEE standards to my knowledge. a distorted voltage to an induction motor will cause nonlinear currents to flow in the motor windings . second problem with C57-110.ojse attenuation. the namep'aale 1s usualEy not changed and the ncxi pcrson coming along does not know that the t r a n s f o r m e r was derated due to e is likely to consider that the is lightly loaded and will increase the load up towards the KVA on the n ameplare. multiplies the eddy current loss of the windings. inductances and capacitances. y s a also violate the National Electric Code. of the harmo ~n i c s . when you derate for use with a you are violating the old os& listing and in doing so. but still large enough that the . is the example on which should include a third 2s i t is one of the naost frequently A s mentioned earlier. . ~ r ~ e A transformer has a c o r e loss (consisting of an eddy current and hysterisis loss in the iron) . which ~ e q . As a consequence.

Midwest Electrical News. In summary. M a c h i n e Design October. which operate more frequently. 207 . the cost of down time is very high or dependability very important. April. Frank. dry type and liquid filled transformers can be designed to give many years of satisfactory operation even when exposed to the ever increasing non-linear load environment. Frank. Electrical Construction and Maintenance. They can have all of the desirable features. July. Since on a new design. transformer designers must also take into consideration the rise in the primary winding voltage for a few micro-seconds due to the distributed reactance and capacitance of the winding. The vacuum breaker and/or contactor opens the circuit in a few microseconds and the L Di/Dt does not have the opportunity to dissipate . References Unde rs tan d i n g Trans f IDrm e r In su 1at i on by Jerome M. If the arrestors are more than 5 feet from the terminals. Frank. UL1562 requires a Transient Voltage Analysis Test to determine the maximum voltage rise when a transient hits the primary winding. Dry Type Transformers have a BIL of 60 KV at 15000 volts per IEEE and ANSI Standards. the same as the Oil Filled units. As pointed out in one of the papers in the Bibliography. If on Low Voltage Transformers. and these devices are known as vacuum switches and even more troublesome a r e vacuum contactors. there is no reason why Dry Type Transformers should not be specified to have a 95 KV Basic Insulation Level. Liquid transformers have a 95 KV Basic Impulse Rating. As more installations are completed and harmonic measurements taken. UL1561 listed transformers be used on Low Voltage transformer applications and K-4 on UL 1562 listed Medium Voltage Units. the load profile may not be known. Today. When a load break switch was opened the L Di/Dt in the transformer winding was partially dissipated in the resulting arc in the switch. the arrestor does very little good as far as helping to protect the transformer's windings from the transients caused by lightning. there are devices that replace the load break switches previously used. the higher the short circuit current and vice versa. On 5 KV units specify 60 BIL the sarne as for liquid filled units. Coordination must be maintained with the protection devices. 1970. The lower the impedance. in addition. The iimpressed voltage upon energization can double in magnitude for a few micro-seconds although it is usually in the order of 30 to 35 % increase in the primary applied voltage. solid state arrestors mounted at the terminals of the transformer. It used to be that only lightning was the primary cause of transformer failures. As a result there is a transient rise in voltage in the transformer primary winding that can cause a dielectric failure unless the winding is properly designed to withstand it. Since Oil and Dry type Transformers are connected to the same utility system . In addition to Harmonics there are several other factors to be taken into consideration on Medium Voltage Transformers. 'I "Specifying Transformer Insulation" by Jerome M.primary protection will take the unit off the line in the event of a fault. 1970. lower than normal full load temperature rises and indoor or outdoor enclosures. It is good practice to specify the minimum impedance the application can stand. than K-30 would be my recommendation for low voltage and K-13 f o r medium voltage transformers. Medium Voltage Transformers have a greater load diversity and that is the reason for the K-4 recommendation. we will be in a better position to specify appropriate K factor transformers for non-linear load applications. like copper or aluminum windings. it is my recommendation that K-13. your vacuum devices or your neighbors vacuum devices. "Understanding Electrical Insulation Life" by Jerome M. 1970. They should also have.

Electrical Consultant. "Transformer Listings" by Jerome M.there is another solution by Jerome M.T y p e Winding of Distribution and Power T r a n s f o rm e rs " by Alexander Mazur. M. McPartland.. Isodoro Kerszenbaum and Jerome Frank IEEE Transactions IAS May/June 1988 IEEE Prize Paper D ry D i st r ib u t i on "S pecify ing Ty p e Transformers for Solid State Applications" by I. Frank Electrical Construction and Maintenance August 1975 "Transients and Harmonics" by C. Dry Type. Mistry and J..Over 600 Volts December 1988 ANSI/IEEE C57-110 1986 Recommended Practice for Establishing Transformer Capability when Supplying Non-Sinusoidal Load Currents "Watch Out for Energy Losses in Transformers" by Jerome M."Increasing Insulation Life by Jerome M. Kerszenbaum. 'I Methods to Determine K Factor" by Jerome M. A. Warren Lewis and Jerome Frank Electrical Design and Installation NOV/DEC 1990 I' "New Transformer Technology" by Frank Winter issue NETA World 1992-1993 Jerome "The How and Why of K-Factor Transformers by Jerry Frank Intertec Publishing April 1993 . Frank IEEE PSE 04-346 October 1994 1971. March.R. Frank IEEE Prize Paper "Nonlinear Loads and Transformers .R. Underwriters Laboratory UL 1561 Underwriters Laboratory UL 1562 "Transformers. Frank Electrical Construction and Maintenance May 1990 T r an s f o rm e r H a r m o nic an d Currents Loading" by Joseph F. Frank Electrical Construction and Maintenance January 1988 "Maximum Insulation Stresses Under Transient Voltages in HV B a r r e l .Luebke IEEE CN2272-3 1986 by Jerome M. Luebke and Jerry Frank Square D company November 1985 "Transients and Harmonics" Frank and C. Mazur. Distribution. Frank.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful