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Unit-1 1.evaluate the directive of, i)An isotropic sources i)sources with bidirectional cos power pattern .

2.explain the Lorentz gauge condition and show that, .. A / J !" #J

&agnetic vector potential. '.explain following ter&s related to antenna i)field radiation pattern iii) directivit( v) effective length ii)power radiation pattern iv) radiation resistance vi) effective aperture

!$ A

). %here , A


).define and explain about following antenna para&eters. i)gain ii)antenna efficienc( iii)half#power bea& width iv)bea& efficienc( *.define the ter& effective aperture, effective length of a radiator and show that the effective length of an antenna +sed in trans&itting &ode is sa&e used in receiving &ode. ,.distinguish between the ter&s- effective length and effective area and deduce the relation between the& . ..what is retarded vector potential/ 0btain the expression for retarded vector potential.

1.derive the expression for electric field in case of short current ele&ent 2.starting fro& the funda&entals,derive an expression for radiated electric field for half#wave dipole '.fine the effective length of a half#wave $1/2) dipole ).find the radiation resistance of a current ele&ent. *. write the radiation resistance of the half wave dipole . ,.calculate the power gain of a half#wave dipole whose oh&ic losses and directive gain are ..2 oh&s and 1.,) oh&s respectivel(. ..what is hertzian dipole /write relation between a current ele&ent and an electric dipole writing suitable exepression.


1. deter&ine the fields at an( far point 3 for unifor& ,linear arra( of n ele&ents. 2. derive the conditions for the linear arra( of 4 isotropic ele&ents to radiate in end fire and broad side &ode/ '.find the radiation pattern of )#isotropic ele&ents fed in phase, spaced 1/2 apart b( using pattern &ultiplication . ).explain about the following a)power patterns b)field patterns c)phase patterns

*.derive the field co&ponents and draw the field pattern for two point source with spacing of 1/2 and fed with 5urrents of e6ual &agnitude and phase. ,. find the radiation pattern of 7 isotropic ele&ents fed in# phase ,spaced 1/2 apart b( using pattern &ultiplication. ..deter&ine the expression for total far field for the two point sources with currents of une6ual &agnitudes and %ith sa&e phase

Bits: 1.radiation resistance dissipates an a&ount of power that is e6ual to 2.effective of an antenna in ter&s of directive gain and power gain is 8888888888888888888888888888888888 '.the bea& efficienc( of an antenna can be defined as the ratio of 8888888888888888 to 88888888888888888 ).an isotropic radiator has the directivit( of 88888888888888888888888888888 *.the abilit( of an antenna to extract energ( fro& an 9: wave is ter&ed as 8888888888888888888888 ,.the noise te&perature of an antenna is e6ual to its 88888888888888888888888888 te&perature. ..front#to#bac; ratio is power radiated in 8888888888888888888 direction to the power radiated in 888888888 direction. 7.with the help of 8888888888888888 &ethod, an electrical length of the parasitic ele&ent can be ad<usted. =.friis trans&ission for&ula is ,p> ? 8888888888888888888888888888888888 12.according to the @el&holtz theore&, if the 8888888888888 and 888888888888888 of the field are ;nown at a point then an( Aector can be defined uni6uel(. 11.due to non#existence of &onopole ,&axwellBs e6uation is 8888888888888888888888888888888888 12.the efficienc( of an antenna in ter&s of radiated antenna and oh&ic losses is C D


r r + l


l r + l


2r r + l


2l r + l

1'. the variation of radiated power with an elevation angle is called 888888888888888888 a) electric field pattern b) &agnetic field pattern c) power pattern d) none.

1).the relation between antennaBs size and fre6uenc( is,

a)directl( proportional the s6uare of

b)inversel( proportional

c)independent of fre6uenc( d) inversel( proportional to

the fre6uenc( 1*.if ELeffB is an effective length and ELB is the actual length of antenna,then the relation between effective length and actual length Fs ,

a) Leff G L

b) Leff H L

c) Leff ? L

d) Leff ? ' L

1,. when the directivit( of an antenna increases then its bea& width a) increases b) decreased c) increases b( 2 ti&es d) no effect

1.a chain of hertizian dipole is a half#wave dipole .

2.the half wave dipole contains two legs each of length

L 2 .

'.the dipole are fed at centre . ).the po(enting vector &ethod is used to calculate the power radiated b( half#wave dipole antenna. *.if ElB is the actual length of a linear antenna then its effective length EleB when the current distribution is in linear fashion is given


l 2

,.a loop consists of &ore than one turn is called fra&e . .. vector loop antennas are used to find the direction of radiation.

7. the radiation resistance of s&all loop antenna is 1=.

( )

=.the far fields of s&all loop and short loop dipoles are in ti&e phase 6uadrature. 12.if the dia&eter of a circular loop is 1.* 1.,then its directivit( is '.17.* . antenna having a large nu&ber of ver( short conductors connected in series is C a a) linear antenna b)non#linear antenna C b c)dipole antenna D c)72J d)7*J C c D

d) none of the above.

12.the radiation resistance of half#wave dipole is a).1J b).'J

1'.the radiation resistance of a 6uarter wave &onopole antenna is88888888888888 of the resistance of a dipole. D a)'ti&es b)2ti&es c)half C d D d)none of the above.

1).the radiation resistance of a s&all loop antenna is



b) '2


c) )2


d) ,2

1*. the size of the closed loop antenna and its radiation efficienc( are a)directl( proportional to each other c)independent to each other C a D

b)inversel( proportional to each other d)none of the above arra( of ele&ents for which the radiation is &axi&u& in the direction of nor&al to the arra( axis is called broad# side arra(. 2.the progressive phase shift of an end#fire arra( is ' .directivit( of a broad side arra( of *1 length is #Kd 12

).an end fire arra( has the null#to#null bea& width of

Nd 2 L )D

*.the direcitivit( of an end fire arra( with increased directivi( is 1..7=C)n$

,.the bino&ial arra( has zero side lobe level ..the product of the pattern of the individual antenna with its arra( pattern is called principal of patten &ultiplication 7.the null#to#null bea& width of an antenna reduces with the increase in its arra( length. bino&ial arra(,the excitation of central ele&ents is ver( storng 12.all the tcheb(scheff pol(no&ials oscillate between the values 1 to #1 excitation value of the broad#side arra( is C a D a)2 b)1 c)2 d)'

12.for broad side arra(,null#to#null bea&width is C d D


Nd 2

Nd b) 2 2
C b D

2 c) Nd


2 Nd

1'.null#to#null bea&width is a)less than 'dI bandwidth c) e6ual to 'Lb band width

b)greater than 'Lb band width d)not related to 'Lb bandwidth

1).directivit( of an end fire arra( is C c D



c) )$

d) *$

L )

1*.A three ele&ent bino&ial arra( has excitation level as, C d





..the half power bea& width in ter&s of null#to#null bea& width is @3I%?

1 2


7.desired power of side lobes is waste power in undesired direction. =.the directivit( gain is increases as the antenna length increases. 12.antenna radiates &axi&u& when it is at resonance. 11.if the radiation resistance is low ,antenna efficienc( is low. 12.the directional pattern of a short dipole in the horizontal plane is a circle 1'.the directional pattern of a horizontal half#wave centre fed dipole is figure of eight. 1).the directivit( in db of half#wave dipole is 2.1*. 1*.the directivit( in db of current ele&ent is 1.,). 1,.the units of radiation intensit( is watts/unit solid angle. 1..the current distribution in the alternating current ele&ent is constant. 17.for a '22J antenna operating with * A of current, the radiated power is .*22%. 1=.the current distributions in a half#wave dipole is sinusoidal 22.the far field is indicated b( the presence of 1/r ter& 21.induction field is indicated b( the presence of 888888 ter& 22.radiated resistance of the 6uarter wave &onopole is 8888888 2'. expression for the relationship between effective area and directivit( is 8888888888