Abstract Since the Internet was initially funded by the government, it was originally limited to research, education, and

government uses. Commercial uses were prohibited unless they directly served the goals of research and education. This policy continued until the early 90's, when independent commercial networks began to grow. Or something like When the idea began it was not supposed to be used by consumers, but instead by people of the “scientific and military fields” (Howe, 2010). There were many fundamental steps, spanning over 35 years, which played a crucial role in the development of the Internet. When the idea

When the idea of the internet began, initially funded by the US Government Defence Department, access was originally limited to research, education and government use only. As developments in hardware, software and protocol technology grew, so did the reality of the expansive use of the Internet for communications and connection with audiences devoid of global border limitations across the world, resulting in the growth of both Commerical and Public interaction across the Internet that we know today.

Introduction

The Internet is a globalized network and was officially launched in 1969. Since then, its role has changed rapidly from its original use as a communication tool to provide easier and faster access to information for universities and various other educational institutions. In today's world, it is an important tool used to reach various audiences around the world. Its users have striven to create more uses for the Internet than the mere sharing of academic information. The television, radio and newspapers are the world's main mediums for accessing news and entertainment. Now, all three mediums have converged into one, and people all over the

Now. telephone. download and upload media and communicate over social networks. The reaction of the US was to form a Ministry of Defence Department called the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) to create a network that would allow them to “maintain control and command over their missiles and bombers. and tracking information. saw Eisenhower announced that US were hoping to launch an Earth orbiting satellite to record solar activity. watch videos & television shows. all mediums have converged into one. destination address. 2011) ARPANET„s structure followed the grounds of a packet switched network. 2005) This essay explores the creation of the World Wide Web as we know it today. “If a packet was lost during the transfer.. watch videos & television shows. (Internet Society. the message could be resent by the originator” (Cerf. and computer set the stage for this unprecedented integration of capabilities. et al. 2008) in order to avoid being surprised by technological advances of the enemy. even after a nuclear attack” (Kristula. ballistic missiles and nuclear test monitoring. The ARPA‟s initial focus areas were on space. where data was broken down into parts or packets. Tina’s chapter The start of the International Geophysical Year. On 29 October 1969 the ARPANET was brought . 1957. but the USSR Kremlin beat the US and launched the Sputnik I Satellite into Earth‟s orbit before them. 2009). et al. and people all over the world now can reach multiple audiences and can read the latest news. listen to music. By 1966/67 research within the ARPA had developed to allow Leonard Roberts to publish a plan for computer network system called ARPANET with a Network Control Protocol (NCP) to allow the computers to transfer data. This essay explores the creation and continued development of the World Wide Web as we know it today. download and upload media and communicate over social networks with total disregard for geographical location. listen to music. (Cunningham. and send and receive messages via interface message processors (IMPs). . radio. The invention of the telegraph. which was then labelled with an origin address.world now can read the latest news. 1974). The Internet has revolutionized the computer and communications world like nothing before. (Griffiths.

2010) . the project pioneered the key idea where “the host computer should be responsible for data transmission rather than the network itself” (Howe. which was supposed to be "Login". et al. Charlie Klein sent the first message across the network. and the University of Utah” (Howe. Kahn led the design and implementation of a common language that would allow different networks to communicate with each using a Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). 2005). which are still the basis for current internetworking (Hafner. 2010). et al . the link between the two colleges crashed on the letter "g". The French Government also ran an Arpanet style project in 1972 called Cyclades. and although no longer running.1974) . 2006). “For computers to exchange digital data like Web pages. (Goldsmith. The ARPANET experiment was such a success that by 1971 there were already 23 computers linked to the ARPANET network. The Kahn-Cerf Transmission Control Protocol defines a standard way to package chunks of data into "datagrams. 2011). He later modified the program in 1972 so that the email system could be used by the ARPANET Network. incorporating the @ symbol to link the username and address. 2009).online. Cerf and Robert E. Stanford Research Institute." for sending across the network. and although no longer running. The Telnet protocol to enabling logging on to a remote computer was developed as NCP had its limitations and in 1973 Vinton G. et al. 1969 also saw the development of the UNIX operating system whose design heavily influenced that of Linux and FreeBSD (the operating systems most popular in today‟s web servers/web hosting services) (Howe. 2010). Ray Tomlinson combined two programs to create the first email program in 1971.” (Cerf. which only closed down in 1990 (Griffiths. Other Countries were also trying to produce their own Arpanet Style Networks at that time. 2006). Meanwhile. but reportedly. the project pioneered the key idea where “the host computer should be responsible for data transmission rather than the network itself” (Goldsmith. with the French Government creating a project in 1972 called „Cyclades‟. e-mail and digital movies. whereby email accounted for 75% of all the network‟s activity (Internet Society. they have to agree on a method for communicating with each other. UCSB. . creating a network consisting of “four major computers at the following universities: UCLA..

2009). et al . closely followed by a world linked Unix systems network called Usenet in 1979. routed through the fastest available route where no portion of the network would be the single point of failure. 2009). newsgroups using Usenet were a significant part in building network communities. BITNET (Because It‟s Time Network) using Listserv software was developed in 1981 to connect and provide internet and email services via IBM Mainframes around the US Educational Community. the computers along the way can look at the addresses on the envelopes to relay them to their destinations without needing to look inside the envelopes.1974) The development of TCP/IP marked a crucial stage in networking development. CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research launched the ENQUIRE hypertext program in 1980 to enable scientists to track people. 1977 saw the start of the development of global Internet access with the development of the PC Modem by Dennis Hayes and Dale Heatherington.“The Internet Protocol provides a standard way of putting those datagrams into envelopes addressed to any computer in the world. et al. broken or slow routes until the packet arrived at its destination. with a gateway (router) to link to the „outside world‟ which would always be open and route the traffic without discrimination (Cert. so the introduction of the Domain Name Servers (DNS) in 1984 to replace host names with a numerical IP address displaying a human-friendly typed address to increase the range of addressing system (Goldsmith. . which spawned HEPNet devoted to High Energy Physics. (Howe. Meanwhile. Bells Labs produced a Unix to Unix Copy Protocol (UUCP) in 1978. This inspired NASA physicists to establish SPAN for space physicists (Griffiths. software and projects. Like postal sorters. 2010). Although not using the TCP/IP protocol. 2006). 2006). further enhancing the spread of community building (Howe. Packets would be given a sequence number. The development of email and increasing number of Hosts joining the network caused concerns that the entire system would grind to a halt.” (Cerf. In 1974 Stanford University opened the first public accessibility 'packet data service' called Telnet (a commercial version of ARPANET). and re-route around any blocked. In the 1970s the US Department of Energy established MFENet for researchers into Magnetic Fusion Energy. with the concept of „open-architecture‟. all working around the TCP/IP protocol (Griffiths. 2010). whereby each network worked independently and where subsections would be able to talk to each other.

JANET (Joint Academic Network) was introduced by the British Government in 1984 to encourage the use of the internet throughout the Higher Education System. On the Net. you find computers -..”(Goldsmith. On the Net.on the Web. (Howe. 2009). Echo Bay (Ebay) and Amazon. 2009). with mandatory TCP/IP protocols (Howe. 2010). Even the White House and United Nations of the US Government came online in 1993 and marked the beginning of the . although it took nearly 6 years for each business to turn a profit. sounds. connections are hypertext links. Compuserve and Prodigy in 1994. 2010). Internet Service Provider and Bill Gates‟ Windows 98 Services completed the major shift over to a commercial (both public and business) rather than the educational and scientific based Internet (Howe. which was re-named the World Wide Web by Berners-Lee while writing the code. with the first online US election using Social Media such as YouTube. 2009) The public use of the Internet only started to expand when America Online (AOL) launched and offered dial-up internet access via Modems at Home in 1989. Tim Berners-Lee and colleagues of CERN proposed a new protocol called “MESH” using a hypertext system. information. with the US developing the NSFNet for their campus users. you find document.. web pages and Graphical Browsers (1st being Mosaic by Marc Andreessen of National Centre for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) followed by Netscape. 2010). HTTP and URLs. along with standards for HTML.com.gov domain names. Second Life and MUD (MultiUser Dungeon) quickly followed in 1979. two major businesses started up purely online in 1995. starting the e-business revolution. the first weblog (blog) in 1997. the first news story („Monigate‟) in 1998. The Web could not be without the Net. web cams. Hotmail in 1996. Napster audio file sharing site in 1998. Multiplayer Games such as World of Warcraft. and Microsoft‟s Internet Explorer.org and . 2006). with Virtual Communities such as „The Well‟ founded by Stewart brand and Larry Brilliant in 1985 marking the start today‟s trend of social interaction via the Internet (Goldsmith. The Web exists because of programs which communicate between computers on the Net. Berners-Lee states … “The Internet ('Net) is a network of networks. Facebook and Twitter taking place in 2008 (Griffiths. The early 90s saw the development of Search Engines (1st called Gopher). (Goldsmith. on the Web. The Web is an abstract (imaginary) space of information. videos . Server. Google‟s Search Engine. the connections are cables between computers. .

During the first Web 2. better known as the CAN-SPAM Act. Social media–sites and web applications that allow its users to create and share content and to connect with one another–started around this period. 2004: Web 2. Leading onto James‟ Bit. My word count is 1235 (not including quotes) and if you don‟t count the citation words either it‟s down to 1167 !!!!!! so with your 60 and a few from James. 2003: CAN-SPAM Act puts a lid on unsolicited emails Another major advance in 2003 was the signing of the Controlling the Assault of NonSolicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003.0".Major implications for the future of the Internet is the growth of high speed internet connections for both line and wireless. and android applications (Howe. 2004: Social Media and Digg The term "social media". 2010).0 Though coined in 1999 by Darcy DiNucci. giving a user-friendly interface to Voice over IP calling. ye of little faith .0" became a mainstream concept. MySpace opens up its doors. 2003: MySpace becomes the most popular social network Also in 2003. referring to websites and Rich Internet Applications (RIA) that are highly interactive and user-driven became popular around 2004.0 conference. It later grew to be the most popular social network at one time (though it has since been overtaken by Facebook). with the need for faster communications to support the every advancing levels and demands required to carry and support end user requirements such as gaming and multimedia. but not allowing for summary etc – nearly there – HA – lol. was coined in the same year that "Web 2. at home. which should have covered the following areas …… 2003: VoIP goes mainstream In 2003: Skype is released to the public. both in the workplace. . John Batelle and Tim O‟Reilly described the concept of "the Web as a Platform": software applications built to take advantage of internet connectivity. and on the go with the continued growth of the use of tablets. believed to be first used by Chris Sharpley. moving away from the desktop (which has downsides such as operating system dependency and lack of interoperability). smart phones. the term "Web 2.

2007: Major move to place TV shows online Hulu was first launched in 2007. is quoted as saying "A lot of people are responsible for the success of the Internet. which was almost wholly responsible for renewed interest in mobile web applications and design. Digg revolutionized traditional means of generating and finding web content. and Yahoo! Buzz. the future of the Internet is one of unknown entity and continued innovations. 2007: The iPhone and the Mobile Web The biggest innovation of 2007 was almost certainly the iPhone. Summary Suggestions As this essay shows. Cerf created the original TCP/IP protocol. considered to be the computing profession’s equivalent of the Nobel Prize As technology continues to advance. and Fox to make popular TV shows available to watch online. launched on November of 2004.M. As this essay shows. President of the Association for Computing Machinery. As David Patterson. . democratically promoting news and web links that are reviewed and voted on by a community. Kahn and Dr. later on.Digg.com still works. the communication revolution that was begun by Morse and Bell has vastly expanded from the first packet-switching network to the internet and wireless communications expanse known today as the World Wide Web. NBC. 2004: "The" Facebook open to college students Facebook launched in 2004. the first Twitter message was "just setting up my twttr". though the URL http://www." during his presentation to them both for the 2004 A. . paving the way for sites such as Reddit. 2005: YouTube – streaming video for the masses YouTube launched in 2005. 2006: Twitter gets twittering Twitter launched in 2006. with the development of mobile accessibility. "The" was dropped from the name. the communication revolution that was begun by Morse and Bell has vastly expanded over the past 15 years from the first packet-switching network to the internet and wireless communications expanse known today as the World Wide Web. a joint venture between ABC. Vint and Bob are responsible for the vocabulary of the Internet. It was originally going to be called twittr (inspired by Flickr). software and applications. though at the time it was only open to college students and was called "The Facebook". a social news site. With continual development of software and applications.thefacebook. bringing free online video hosting and sharing to the masses. but factions in computer science point to different inventions as being most vital to the Internet's existence (Hafner. 2005). Turing Award 2004. No one disputes that Dr. Mixx. the future of the Internet is one of unknown entity and continued innovations.

– Flew. use for introduction ? – citation????? Cunningham and Turner .References Already put in doc file for assignment. Sydney. 259–78. pp. Terry (2005) New Media: an Introduction (second edition) . G (eds) The Media and Communications in Australia (second edition). Allen & Unwin.

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