Lnab||ng a Smarter Gr|d

ClaudioLima
September 2010, Silicon Valley
Smart Grid Series
Smart Grid Communications
Copyright©2010 C Lima
Agenda
• 1he 8u||d|ng 8|ocks of the Smart Gr|d
• A System|c Lnd-to-Lnd Þerspecnve of
the Smart Gr|d
• Smart Gr|d Cha||enges & Cpportun|nes
• Smart Gr|d Standards Arch|tecture & Case
Study
CopyrlghL 2010© C Llma
Three Key Smart Grid Challenges:
now to Þut A|| th|s 1ogether?
Standards Interoperab|||ty
Smart Gr|d System Sca|ab|||ty
2
1
Cyber secur|ty r|sks and
vu|nerab|||nes
3
1echno|ogy Cbso|escence
CopyrlghL 2010© C Llma
A Smart Grid Infrastructure USES:
• Advanced Sensors
• Meters
• L|ectron|c D|g|ta| Dev|ces
• Advanced Commun|canons 1echno|og|es
• Sohware Ana|ync 1oo|s and Agents to
• Automate
• Mon|tor
• Contro|
1he 1wo-Way I|ow of Lnergy from power p|ant to p|ug
1h|s |s rea||y what Smart Gr|d Lnab|es!
CopyrlghL 2010© C Llma
A Smart Grid CAN:
1. Idennfy and reso|ve fau|ts on the e|ectr|c|ty gr|d
2. Automanca||y se|f-hea|
3. Manage vo|tage
4. Idennfy |nfrastructure that requ|re ma|ntenance
S. ne|p consumers manage the|r |nd|v|dua|
e|ectr|c|ty consumpnon
6. Lnab|e the use of energy emc|ent 'smart
app||ances' that can be programmed to run on
oñ-peak power
CopyrlghL 2010© C Llma
DLk
Substanon
Automanon
AMI]
NAN
WAN
Un||ty Contro|
Center]AMI
Lnterpr|se
DA
DLk
WASA
nAN,
8AN,
IAN
ÞLV, Storage,
kenewab|es
3
rd
Þarty Þrov|ders
ISÞs, W|re|ess
Carr|ers, ILLCs,
Cab|es
Internet
8ackhau|
Markets
Smart
Meter
1he Smart Gr|d |s a Large System of 17 Sub-Systems
1he Smart Gr|d Iramework
CopyrlghL 2010© C Llma
NIST Smart Grid Conceptual Model
source: NIST
"#$%$ &%$ '#%$$
!" $%&'()*%')+ +),-./
lnformauon 1echnology Layer
Communlcauons Layer
Þower and Lnergy SysLem Layer
The Smart Grid Foundational Layers
1he Smart Gr|d |s a (Large) System
of (Lx|snng and New) Systems
1he Smart Gr|d w||| be created
by I1, 1e|ecom, Lmbedded
Þ|auorms, Advanced Contro|,
Cyber Secur|ty, Þower
L|ectron|cs & Lnergy
Lng|neers and Spec|a||sts
70¼
CopyrlghL © 2010 lLLL
8u||ds on Many 1echno|og|es
|n use by L|ectr|c Un||nes
Adds Smart Þower L|ectron|cs,
Contro|s, Sensors and
Advanced SCADA Systems
+
+
Adds Advanced Comms
Systems to Mon|tor, Cperate
and Integrate New d|str|buted
Lnergy Sources to the Gr|d
+
+
Smart Grid “Lego
TM
” Blocks
Cpen for Sohware and New
Apps Innovanon!
Contro| Þrocesses and
Manages Data
CopyrlghL © 2010 lLLL
Þower Generanon]
1ransm|ss|on
1ransm|ss|on]D|str|bunon App||canons
Þower D|str|bunon Customer Þrem|se
WAN
Core]Metro, 8ackhau|
(NAN]IAN)
AMI Networks
nAN, 8AN, IAN
Networks
Þower Contro| Network, L|ements & System (SCADA, sensors, etc)
I1 Infrastructure
Applications
Layer
Control
Layer
Communications
Layer
Power System
Layer










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1he Smart Gr|d |s made up of severa| enab||ng hor|zonta|
and vernca| e|ements, |ayers and protoco| stacks
Smart Grid Building Blocks
Lnergy Lmc|ency]Management
Consumer App||canons
CopyrlghL © 2010 lLLL
IT
Layer
ILLL Þ2030 Smart Gr|d Arch|tecture
Methodo|ogy
• Cpen
• Interoperab|e
• Modu|ar
• Secure
• Sca|ab|e
• ke||ab|e
key Þr|nc|p|es for a Smart
Gr|d Arch|tecture
Iramework
1he Arch|tecture Needs to Þrov|de the "8|g Þ|cture]Gener|c Approach" and at 1he Same
1|me |t Needs to 8reak Down the Larger System Into Sma||er Interoperab|e and Modu|ar
Components w|th C|ear Inter-doma|n]Segment Demarcanon Þo|nts Spec|hed.
CopyrlghL 2010© C Llma
End-to-End Smart Grid Communications
Lnd-to Lnd Smart Gr|d Commun|canons Arch|tecture
CopyrlghL © 2010 lLLL
IEEE P2030 Smart Grid Communications
Reference Architecture (SG-CRA)
SG-CkA
uraû v.0.3
CopyrlghL © 2010 lLLL
Use Case Mapp|ng - examp|e
Advanced Meter|ng Infrastructure (AMI) Use Cases
8ackhau|
Un||ty Contro|]
Cperanons]
Lnterpr|se LAN
D|str|bunon
Automanon
Inte|||gent
I|e|d
Dev|ces
Smart
Meter
Customer
Þrem|se
Network
L1
L4
L7
L12
L8
L14
CCN1kCL]CÞLkA1ICNS
DIS1kI8U1ICN
CUS1CMLk
Access
Þo|nt
(AÞ)
Ne|ghborhood
Area Network
(NAN)
CopyrlghL 2010© lLLL
neLwork 1echnology SLandards Mapplng
Wide Area Network (WAN) (public/private)
Backhaul Network
(NAN/ FAN) AMI Networks (public/private)
HAN, BAN, IAN
wireless wireline wireless wireline wireless wireline wireless wireline
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Smart Grid Network Technology & Protocols Standards Mapping
6
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Substation
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Core/Metro Network
LAN Enterprise Network
(AMI Ent, Utility
Control Center)
Backhaul Network
Core/Metro-Backhaul
Demarcation
Neighborhood Area Network (NAN)/
Field Area Networks (FAN) - AMI
Smart
Meter
NAN/FAN/
AMI-xAH
Demarcation
Backhaul-NAN/FAN/
AMI Demarcation
HAN, BAN, IAN
HAN – Home Area Network
BAN – Building Area Network
IAN – Industrial Area Network
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Smart Grid Communications Layer
Workforce
Automation
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Field Area Network (FAN)
Substation
LAN
Substation LAN
Neighborhood
Area Network (NAN)
A
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Smart
Meters
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(licensed/unlicensed)
Smart Grid Network Technology Mapping
CopyrlghL © 2010 lLLL
Smart Grid Communications
Technologies
CopyrlghL 2010© C Llma
Smart Grid Technologies
Narrowband
Smart Grid
Broadband
Smart Grid
WiMAX LTE Fiber WiFi PLC RF Mesh 3G M2M
BPL
MAS
3mln 13mln 2-4x /day (33 days/year)
10kb/s
28kb/s
128kb/s
1Mb/s
(per
subsLauon)
0mln
(real ume)
AMI
DLk
SA
DA
W
A
S
A
Dk
Substanon Automanon
conunuous sLreamlng, 10ms
laLency, , 99.9° avallablllLy
W|de Area S|tuanona| Awareness
20ms for real-ume conLrol slLuauons. 10ms-100ms for
ÞMu/Synchophasor. 99.9° avallablllLy
Demand kesponse
120 8yLes/message,
3mln laLency, 99°
avallablllLy
AMI
8equlremenL per
meLer. 300ms laLency,
99.9° avallablllLy
D|str|bunon Automanon
8equlremenL per polnL. 30-300ms
laLency. 99° avallablllLy
D|str|buted
Lnergy kesource
8equlremenL per
resource. 300ms
laLency, 99.9°
avallablllLy
frequency
bandw|dth
Smart Gr|d App||canons
Þerformance kequ|rements
(1CDA¥)
CopyrlghL 2010© C Llma
WAn
cell Lower
or wlrellne
hub
w|re|ess
or w|re||ne
Contro| and Cperanon
Center]AMI neadend
Smart Grid Last Mile Network
D|str|bunon
Automanon
(DA)
Substanon
Automanon
(SA)
SCADA
Cperanon
(Cr|nca| assets)
AMI
I|e|d Area Network (IAN) Ne|ghborhood Area Network (NAN)
Data Card
CopyrlghL 2010© C Llma
two-tiers
one-tier
In-nome
D|sp|ay (InD)
Lnergy Serv|ce
Interface (LSI)
AMI]
NAN
Lnergy Serv|ce
Interface (LSI)
Lnergy Serv|ce
Interface (LSI)
1hermostat,
nVAC, Þoo|
Þump
3
rd
Þarty
Þrov|ders]
Apps
Markets
Un||ty Contro|]
Cperanons]
Lnterpr|se LAN
WAN
nome Area Network (nAN)
ÞLV, Storage,
kenewab|es
Smart
Meter
Home Area Network (HAN) Framework
Serv|ce
Þrov|ders
(Cab|e, ILLC, Mob||e
Cperators, etc)
8roadband
kouter]
Gateway
Internet
CopyrlghL 2010© C Llma
wireline/
wireless
wireline/
wireless
Smart Meter & the Lnergy Management D|sp|ay
consumer
d|sp|ay un|t
Consumer d|sp|ay un|t may be lncluded as parL of Lhe
overall smarL meLerlng uullLy's soluuon or mosL llkely
be a consumer's elecLronlc cusLomer opuon.
lnLeroperablllLy requlremenLs
for 1wo-way Commun|canons
wlLh meLerlng sysLem
• consumer cholce
• suppller dlñerenuauon
01%21), 3%44&'53)*%'/ 1506
06-/- (-753-
WAN]AMI
CopyrlghL 2010© C Llma
CopyrlghL © 2010 C Llma
Smart Gr|d Arch|tecture Cha||enges
• 1echno|ogy Cbso|escence - Iast |nnovanon pace of IC1 techno|og|es
• Data 1sunam| - now to hand|e the app||canons and serv|ces that's not
env|s|oned today?
• Gr|d-Connected kenewab|e - now soph|sncated the Smart Gr|d
des|gn w||| be to accommodate gr|d-connected energy resources?
• Lack of Interoperab|e Standards - Comp|ex system of sub-systems
1here are four ma|n Smart Gr|d Arch|tecture
Cha||enges. 1hey are:
now to Des|gn a Iuture Þroof Next Generanon Smart
Gr|d Arch|tecture that cons|der a|| these uncerta|nnes?
CopyrlghL 2010© C Llma
xGrid Definitions
xGr|ds are auLonomous, self-conLalned power
generauon, Lransmlsslon, dlsLrlbuuon and sLorage zones
LhaL can elLher operaLe ln ºlsland" or ºparallel" modes.
Macrogr|ds
Iemtogr|d
M|crogr|ds
Un||ty-Grade D|str|buted
Lnergy kesources (DLk)
WAN]Ne|ghborhood
Area Network (NAN)]
Advanced Meter|ng
Infrastructure (AMI)
Campus-Grade DLk
Customer Þrem|ses DLk
(ÞLV, So|ar ÞV, W|nd
Þortab|e Lnergy Storage,
nAN
NAN]AMI,
Ne|ghborhood
Area, Storage,
Ieeder-Leve|
D|str|buted
kesources
Þ|cogr|d
CopyrlghL 2010© C Llma
Smart Grid Innovation Zones:
Innovation Strategies for Smart Grid
Generanon 1ransm|ss|on D|str|bunon Customer
I1 Infrastructure (M|dd|eware)
App||canons]SohGr|d 2.0
Innovanon Curve
Un||ty Lnterpr|se
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3
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Þarty Serv|ce Þrov|ders
W|de-Area S|tuanona|
Awareness
Consumer
L|ectron|cs
3
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Un||ty
L|ectr|c 1ransm|ss|on & D|str|bunon and
Commun|canons]Contro| Infrastructure
Copyr|ght © 2010 (used by perm|ss|on by the Smart Gr|d Counc||)
Smart Grid Applications/Technology Evolution
• ulsLrlbuuon AuLomauon (uA)
• SubsLauon AuLomauon (SA)
• AMl/SmarL MeLerlng
• 8ulldlng Lnergy Lmclency
• uemand 8esponse (u8) Þrograms
• Pome Lnergy ManagemenL
• Pead Lnd/MuMS SysLem lnLegrauon
• Pome Area neLwork (PAn)
• Mlcrogrlds
• AMl/LMS uaLa Analyucs
• Wlde Area SlLuauonal Awareness (WASA)/ÞMus
• ulsLrlbuLed Lnergy 8esources (uL8) lnLegrauon
(Wlnd/Solar)
• Managed SmarL Crld Communlcauons
• Lnergy Storage (xGr|d)
• ÞnLV]ÞLV
• Se|f-nea||ng, Autonomous D|str|bunon
• Un||ty Sensor Network|ng
2009 2020 2030 2012
CopyrlghL 2010© C Llma
Key Take Away
An End-to-End Smart Grid
Communications System Shall be:
• Standards-Based (interoperable)
• Manageable
• Modular
• Scalable
• Secure
CopyrlghL 2010© C Llma
Thank You
crlima10@hotmail.com

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