Stem cell

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This article is about the cell type. For the medical therapy, see Stem cell treatment.

Stem cell

Adult stem cell displaying typical ultrastructural characteristics.


Cellula praecursoria


TH H2.

Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells —ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm (see induced pluripotent stem cells)—but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues. There are three accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans:

Adult stem cells are frequently used in medical therapies.1 Disadvantages      10 Research patents 11 Key research events 12 See also 13 References 14 External links . Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s. Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves. McCulloch and James E. that is. which requires extraction by harvesting. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through therapeutic cloning have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies. for example in bone marrow transplantation. which requires extraction through apheresis. just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. 2.3 Identification         2 Embryonic 3 Fetal 4 Adult 5 Amniotic 6 Cord blood 7 Induced pluripotent 8 Lineage 9 Treatments o 9. wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation).1. Of all stem cell types. autologous cells are obtained from one's own body. which requires extraction by liposuction. Bone marrow. By definition. and passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor.1 Self-renewal 1. autologous harvesting involves the least risk. and 3. Blood. Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. drilling into bone (typically the femur or iliac crest). Adipose tissue (lipid cells).[1] Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A.[2][3] Contents [hide]  1 Properties o o o 1.2 Potency definitions 1.

Potency definitions[edit] Main article: Cell potency Pluripotent. are totipotent. In the strictest sense. able to become all tissues in the body and the extraembryonic placenta. 2. . Self-renewal[edit] Two mechanisms exist to ensure that a stem cell population is maintained: 1. These stem cells can become any tissue in the body. Obligatory asymmetric replication: a stem cell divides into one mother cell that is identical to the original stem cell. another stem cell undergoes mitosis and produces two stem cells identical to the original. embryonic stem cells originate as inner cell mass (ICM) cells within a blastocyst. excluding a placenta. although multipotent or unipotent progenitor cells are sometimes referred to as stem cells. and another daughter cell that is differentiated.Properties[edit] The classical definition of a stem cell requires that it possess two properties:  Self-renewal: the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while maintaining the undifferentiated state. this requires stem cells to be either totipotent or pluripotent—to be able to give rise to any mature cell type. known as the morula. Apart from this it is said that stem cell function is regulated in a feed back mechanism. Stochastic differentiation: when one stem cell develops into two differentiated daughter cells.  Potency: the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types. Only cells from an earlier stage of the embryo.

[4] These cells are produced from the fusion of an egg and sperm cell. Cells produced by the first few divisions of the fertilized egg are also totipotent. Potency specifies the differentiation potential (the potential to differentiate into different cell types) of the stem cell.a. omnipotent) stem cells can differentiate into embryonic and extraembryonic cell types.[4] i.[6]  Multipotent stem cells can differentiate into a number of cell types.[4] . cells derived from any of the three germ layers. B: Nerve cells.e.[4]  Oligopotent stem cells can differentiate into only a few cell types. Such cells can construct a complete. an example of a cell type after differentiation. but only those of a closely related family of cells. viable organism.Human embryonic stem cells A: Stem cell colonies that are not yet differentiated.[5]  Pluripotent stem cells are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into nearly all cells. such as lymphoid or myeloid stem cells.[4]  Totipotent (a.k.

an earlystage embryo. in which single cells are assessed for their ability to differentiate and self-renew. Embryonic[edit] Main article: Embryonic stem cell Embryonic stem (ES) cells are stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst. at which time they consist of 50–150 cells. They do not contribute to the extra-embryonic membranes or the placenta. making it unclear whether the cells will behave in a similar manner in vivo. which distinguishes them from non-stem cells (e. Properties of stem cells can be illustrated in vitro. yet they require very different environments in order to maintain an undifferentiated state. they can develop into each of the more than 200 cell types of the adult body when given sufficient and necessary stimulation for a specific cell type. This demonstrates that the cells can produce new blood cells over a long term.[7][8] Stem cells can also be isolated by their possession of a distinctive set of cell surface markers. stem cells are identified by whether they can regenerate tissue. [13] . Nanog. using methods such as clonogenic assays. Both have the essential stem cell characteristics.[10] Without optimal culture conditions or genetic manipulation. A human embryonic stem cell is also defined by the expression of several transcription factors and cell surface proteins. Unipotent cells can produce only one cell type. ES cells are pluripotent and give rise during development to all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm. The molecular definition of a stem cell includes many more proteins and continues to be a topic of research. and Sox2 form the core regulatory network that ensures the suppression of genes that lead to differentiation and the maintenance of pluripotency. muscle stem cells). in vitro culture conditions can alter the behavior of cells. However. progenitor cells. In other words. There is considerable debate as to whether some proposed adult cell populations are truly stem cells. It should also be possible to isolate stem cells from the transplanted individual.g. demonstrating that the stem cell was able to self-renew.[4] but have the property of self-renewal.[11] embryonic stem cells will rapidly differentiate. endoderm and mesoderm. The transcription factorsOct-4. Mouse ES cells are grown on a layer of gelatin as an extracellular matrix (for support) and require the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF).[9] Human embryos reach theblastocyst stage 4–5 days post fertilization. For example. their own. which can themselves be transplanted into another individual without HSCs. Human ES cells are grown on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and require the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2). Identification[edit] In practice. Nearly all research to date has made use of mouse embryonic stem cells (mES) or human embryonic stem cells (hES). the defining test for bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is the ability to transplant the cells and save an individual without HSCs.[12] The cell surface antigens most commonly used to identify hES cells are the glycolipids stage specific embryonic antigen 3 and 4 and the keratan sulfate antigens Tra-1-60 and Tra-1-81.

[14] However. and are generally obtained after an abortion. On November 14. 2011 the company conducting the trial announced that it will discontinue further development of its stem cell programs.[17] There are two types of fetal stem cells: 1. causing a teratoma.[15] ES cells. These stem cells are not immortal but have a high level of division and are multipotent. The first human trial was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2009.There are currently no approved treatments using embryonic stem cells.[18] Adult[edit] . Extraembryonic fetal stem cells come from extraembryonic membranes. Fetal proper stem cells come from the tissue of the fetus proper. being pluripotent cells.  Mouse embryonic stem cells with fluorescent marker  Human embryonic stem cell colony on mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layer Fetal[edit] The primitive stem cells located in the organs of fetuses are referred to as fetal stem cells. 2. Because of their combined abilities of unlimited expansion and pluripotency. These stem cells are acquired after birth. embryonic stem cells remain a theoretically potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. and are pluripotent. they are not immortal but have a high level of cell division.[16] Many nations currently have moratoria on either ES cell research or the production of new ES cell lines. Differentiating ES cells into usable cells while avoiding transplant rejection are just a few of the hurdles that embryonic stem cell researchers still face. the human trial was not initiated until October 13. require specific signals for correct differentiation—if injected directly into another body. 2010 in Atlanta for spinal injury victims. ES cells will differentiate into many different types of cells. and are generally not distinguished from adult stem cells.

1: symmetric stem cell division.[30][31] . 2: asymmetric stem cell division.[21] Bone marrow is a rich source of adult stem cells.). 3: progenitor division. pluripotent stem cells are directly generated from adult fibroblast cultures.[27] Much adult stem cell research to date has aimed to characterize their potency and self-renewal capabilities. "of the body") stem cells. mice do not live long with stem cell organs. are stem cells which maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found.[24] chronic limb ischemia [25] and endstage heart failure. also called somatic (from Greek Σωματικóς. B: progenitor cell. 4: terminal differentiation Adult stem cells. as well as adults. However.[28] In mice.[29] Most adult stem cells are lineage-restricted (multipotent) and are generally referred to by their tissue origin (mesenchymal stem cell.[20] Pluripotent adult stem cells are rare and generally small in number. but they can be found in umbilical cord blood and other tissues.[19] They can be found in children. A: stem cell.[22] which have been used in treating several conditions including spinal cord injury. C: differentiated cell. adipose-derived stem cell. etc. endothelial stem cell.[26] The quantity of bone marrow stem cells declines with age and is greater in males than females during reproductive years.Main article: Adult stem cell Stem cell division and differentiation. dental pulp stem cell.[23] liver cirrhosis.

because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo. CD105. CD1a. by Biocell Center Corporation[39][40][41] and collaborates with various hospitals and universities all over the world. CD3. endothelial. [35]Amniotic stem cells are a topic of active research. osteogenic.. accordingly. CD4. CD11c. MA. but that they are negative for blood cell lineage markers (e.[43][46] More specifically. transcription factors OCT-4 and Nanog. Additionally.Amniotic stem cells are multipotent and can differentiate in cells of adipogenic.. These stem cells are very active. stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-3. and CD133). the Vatican newspaper "Osservatore Romano" called amniotic stem cells "the future of medicine". and SSEA-4) and leukocyte common antigen CD45. CD19. Use of stem cells from amniotic fluid overcomes the ethical objections to using human embryos as a source of cells. CB-SCs tightly adhere to culture dishes with a large rounded morphology and are resistant to common detaching methods (trypsin/EDTA).[43][45] They can give rise to three embryonic layer-derived cells in the presence of different inducers.[33] The use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not as controversial as the use of embryonic stem cells. CD41b. CD14. CD83. more US government funding is being provided for adult stem cell research.g. CD41a. Consequently. CD34. Phenotypic characterization demonstrates that (CB-SCs) display embryonic cell markers (e. CD13.[43][45][46] CB-SCs are the active agent in stem cell . CD20. expand extensively without feeders and are not tumorigenic. CB-SCs display very low immunogenicity as indicated by expression of a very low level of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and failure to stimulate the proliferation ofallogeneic lymphocytes.[36] It is possible to collect amniotic stem cells for donors or for autologuous use: the first US amniotic stem cells bank [37][38] was opened in 2009 in Medford. CD8. CD11b.[32] Adult stem cells are also used in veterinary medicine to treat tendon and ligament injuries in horses.[34] Amniotic[edit] Multipotent stem cells are also found in amniotic fluid.[42] Cord blood[edit] Main article: Cord blood-derived multipotent stem cell A certain kind of cord blood stem cell (CB-SC) is multipotent and displays embryonic and hematopoietic characteristics.[43][44] Additionally.g. hepatic and also neuronal lines. Roman Catholic teaching forbids the use of embryonic stem cells in experimentation.Adult stem cell treatments have been successfully used for many years to treat leukemia and related bone/blood cancers through bone marrow transplants. myogenic. the risk of rejection is essentially non-existent. C D90. in instances where adult stem cells are obtained from the intended recipient (anautograft).

produces only one stem cell and a progenitor cell with limited self-renewal potential.[29]However.[50] and carried out their experiments using cells from human foreskin. pluripotent stem cells equivalent to embryonic stem cells have been derived from human adult skin tissue.g. opening a new avenue for obtaining the valued cells. . which has therapeutic potential against autoimmune diseases like type 1 diabetes according to studies by Yong Zhao et al. has announced that he will abandon somatic cell nuclear transfer as an avenue of research. and their colleagues at the University of Wisconsin–Madisonused a different set of factors.[50][51][52] Shinya Yamanaka and his colleagues at Kyoto University used the transcription factors Oct3/4. James Thomson. Symmetric division gives rise to two identical daughter cells both endowed with stem cell properties.[55] An alternative theory is that stem cells remain undifferentiated due to environmental cues in their particular niche.[44][47][48][49][unreliable medical source?] Induced pluripotent[edit] Main article: Induced pluripotent stem cell These are not adult stem cells. the need to transform these cells with an oncogene may prevent the use of this approach in therapy. Initial studies indicate that transformation of mice cells with a combination of these anti-differentiation signals can reverse differentiation and may allow adult cells to become pluripotent. Sox2. on the other hand. epithelial cells) reprogrammed to give rise to pluripotent capabilities. Nanog and Lin28. Stem cells differentiate when they leave that niche or no longer receive those signals. It is possible that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors) between the daughter cells. Ian Wilmut. These signal pathways include several transcription factors including the oncogene c-Myc.[56][57] The signals that lead to reprogramming of cells to an embryonic-like state are also being investigated.[54] Lineage[edit] Main article: Stem cell line To ensure self-renewal. c-Myc. Studies in Drosophila germarium have identified the signals decapentaplegic and adherens junctions that prevent germarium stem cells from differentiating. Junying Yu. and Klf4[50] in their experiments on cells from human faces.educator therapy. who helped create the first cloned animal Dolly the Sheep. Progenitors can go through several rounds of cell division before terminally differentiating into a mature cell. As a result of the success of these experiments. Asymmetric division.[53] Frozen blood samples can be used as a source of induced pluripotent stem cells. Using genetic reprogramming with protein transcription factors. Sox2. but rather adult cells (e. stem cells undergo two types of cell division (see Stem cell division and differentiation diagram). Oct4.

Challenging the terminal nature of cellular differentiation and the integrity of lineage commitment.[58] Treatments[edit] Main article: Stem cell treatments Diseases and conditions where stem cell treatment is promising or emerging. the only established use of stem cells. It implies that all cells are totipotent: with the proper tools. all cells may form all kinds of tissue. A number of adult stem cell therapies already exist. Medical researchers believe that stem cell therapy has the potential to dramatically change the treatment of human disease. which could possibly be overcome through public debate and future research. One concern of treatment is the risk that transplanted stem cells could form tumors and become cancerous if cell division continues uncontrollably. researchers identified three neural-lineage-specific transcription factors that could directly convert mouse fibroblasts (skin cells) into fully functionalneurons. and further education of the public. This "induced neurons" (iN) cell research inspires the researchers to induce other cell types. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. and muscledamage. [59] Bone marrow transplantation is. particularly bone marrow transplants that are used to treat leukemia. as of 2009. amongst a number of other impairments and conditions. for their potential therapeutic use and for their inherent interest.[63] Stem cells are widely studied.[60] In the future.[61][62] However. there still exists a great deal of social and scientific uncertainty surrounding stem cell research. [64] . medical researchers anticipate being able to use technologies derived from stem cell research to treat a wider variety of diseases including cancer. multiple sclerosis. spinal cord injuries. it was recently determined that the somatic expression of combined transcription factors candirectly induce other defined somatic cell fates. Parkinson's disease.

2011).200. Laws limiting the destruction of human embryos have been credited for being the reason for development of iPS cells. fetal proper stem cells. It has been proposed that surplus embryos created for in vitro fertilization could be donated with consent and used for the research. WARF sold Geron Corp. developed by James A. because not all cells in a population differentiate uniformly. Another part of the challenge states that these techniques. are rendered obvious by a . Recent work demonstrates hotspots of aberrant epigenomic reprogramming in hiPS cells (Lister. two of the patents granted to WARF are invalid because they cover a technique published in 1993 for which a patent had already been granted to an Australian researcher. or because the patient's immune system may target the stem cells. The two sides agreed that Geron Corp.[66] Research patents[edit] The patents covering a lot of work on human embryonic stem cells are owned by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF).843. that are capable of detecting toxicity early in the drug development process.. induced pluripotent stem cells. WARF came under public pressure to widen access to human stem-cell technology. 6.Supporters of embryonic stem cell research argue that such research should be pursued because the resultant treatments could have significant medical potential. highlighting the need for screening assays such as stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells. exclusive rights to work on human stem cells but later sued Geron Corp. but it is still not completely clear whether hiPS cells are equivalent to hES cells. WARF does not charge academics to study human stem cells but does charge commercial users. It is also difficult to obtain the exact cell type needed. to recover some of the previously sold rights. One approach to avoid the second possibility is to use cells from the same patient that is being treated. Fetal proper stem cells form tumors despite multipotency.029. Disadvantages[edit] Stem cell treatments may require immunosuppression because of a requirement for radiation before the transplant to remove the patient's previous cells.. and the Public Patent Foundation as well as molecular biologist Jeanne Loring of the Burnham Institute. pluripotency is linked to tumor formation especially in embryonic stem cells. According to them.806. In 2001.[67] A request for reviewing the WARF patents 5. 7. would keep the rights to only three cell types.[65] Some stem cells form tumors after transplantation. R. The recent development of iPS cells has been called a bypass of the legal controversy. et al. Undifferentiated cells can create tissues other than desired types.[citation needed] Hepatotoxicity and drug-induced liver injury account for a substantial number of failures of new drugs in development and market withdrawal.913 US Patent and Trademark Office were filed by non-profit patent-watchdogs The Foundation for Taxpayer & Consumer Rights. Thomson. Pluripotency in certain stem cells could also make it difficult to obtain a specific cell type.780.

Based on this challenge.[72]  1997: Leukemia is shown to originate from a haematopoietic stem cell. ongoing stem cell activity in the brain.1990 paper and two textbooks. patent 7. B. 1981: Mouse embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass by scientists Martin Evans. 1995: Dr.G. Matapurkar pioneers in adult stem-cell research with clinical utilization of research in the body and neo-regeneration of tissues and organs in the body.  1998: James Thomson and coworkers derive the first human embryonic stem cell line at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.[75] .[73]  1998: John Gearhart (Johns Hopkins University) extracted germ cells from fetal gonadal tissue (primordial germ cells) before developing pluripotent stem cell lines from the original extract. The two remaining hES WARF patents are due to expire in 2015.     1963: McCulloch and Till illustrate the presence of self-renewing cells in mouse bone marrow. 2001: Scientists at Advanced Cell Technology clone first early (four. their reports contradict Cajal's "no new neurons" dogma and are largely ignored.(December 2013)  1908: The term "stem cell" was proposed for scientific use by the Russian histologist Alexander Maksimov (1874–1928) at congress of hematologic society in Berlin. Martin. Gail Martin is attributed for coining the term "Embryonic Stem Cell". It postulated existence of haematopoietic stem cells. Clinical utilization in human body also demonstrated and patented in 60 patients (World Journal of Surgery-1999[69] and 1991[70]). Please consider splitting content into sub-articles and/or condensing it.029.[68]   1992: Neural stem cells are cultured in vitro as neurospheres. Matapurkar's surgical technique on regeneration of tissues and organs is published. 1968: Bone marrow transplant between two siblings successfully treats SCID.G. Matthew Kaufman. Songtao Shi of NIH discovers new source of adult stem cells in children's primary teeth.913 was rejected in 2010. Key research events[edit] This section may be too long to read and navigate comfortably.[71] Regeneration of fallopian tube and uterus is published.[74]  2003: Dr. 1978: Haematopoietic stem cells are discovered in human cord blood. Received International Patent from US Patent Office (USA) in 2001 (effective from 1995).  1960s: Joseph Altman and Gopal Das present scientific evidence of adult neurogenesis. the first direct evidence for cancer stem cells. and Gail R.   2000s: Several reports of adult stem cell plasticity are published.  1997: six-cell stage) human embryos for the purpose of generating embryonic stem cells. B.

Anthony Atala and Harvard University report discovery of a new type of stem cell in amniotic fluid.[43]  August 2006: Mouse Induced pluripotent stem cells: the journal Cell publishes Kazutoshi Takahashi and Shinya Yamanaka. 2004–2005: Korean researcher Hwang Woo-Suk claims to have created several human embryonic stem cell lines from unfertilised human oocytes.[79] This may potentially provide an alternative to embryonic stem cells for use in research and therapy. University of Illinois at Chicago  April 2006 Scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago identified novel stem cells from the umbilical cord blood with embryonic and hematopoieticcharacteristics.[76] Yong Zhao.[80]  June 2007: Research reported by three different groups shows that normal skin cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic state in mice.  2005: Researchers at UC Irvine's Reeve-Irvine Research Center are able to partially restore the ability of rats with paralyzed spines to walk through the injection of human neural stem cells.  2005: Researchers at Kingston University in England claim to have discovered a third category of stem cell. dubbed cord-blood-derived embryonic-like stem cells (CBEs).[29]  November 2006: Yong Zhao et al. scientist Shoukhrat Mitalipov reports the first successful creation of a primate stem cell line through somatic cell nuclear transfer[82] . The group claims these cells are able to differentiate into more types of tissue than adult stem cells. The lines were later shown to be fabricated. derived from umbilical cord blood. revealed the immune regulation of T lymphocytes by Cord BloodDerived Multipotent Stem Cells (CB-SCs).[45]  October 2006: Scientists at Newcastle University in England create the first ever artificial liver cells using umbilical cord blood stem cells.[77][78]  January 2007: Scientists at Wake Forest University led by Dr.[81] In the same month.

. moreover genes that are required for iPS cells do not need to be inserted into specific sites. a co-winner of the Nobel Prize in recognition of his gene targeting work. albeit the risk of tumorigenesis due to c-myc and retroviral gene transfer remains to be determined. from the research group of James Thomson. "Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors".[88]  March 2008-The first published study of successful cartilage regeneration in the human knee using autologous adult mesenchymal stem cells is published by clinicians from Regenerative Sciences[89] .[84] and in Science byJunying Yu. et al. and Oliver Smithies win the 2007 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their work on embryonic stem cells from mice using gene targeting strategies producing genetically engineered mice (known as knockout mice) for gene research. Martin Evans.  October 2007: Mario Capecchi. "Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from human somatic cells":[85] pluripotent stem cells generated from mature human fibroblasts.  January 2008: Robert Lanza and colleagues at Advanced Cell Technology and UCSF create the first human embryonic stem cells without destruction of the embryo[86]  January 2008: Development of human cloned blastocysts following somatic cell nuclear transfer with adult fibroblasts[87]  February 2008: Generation of pluripotent stem cells from adult mouse liver and stomach: these iPS cells seem to be more similar to embryonic stem cells than the previously developed iPS cells and not tumorigenic. which encourages the development of non-viral reprogramming techniques.[83]  November 2007: Human induced pluripotent stem cells: Two similar papers released by their respective journals prior to formal publication: in Cell byKazutoshi Takahashi and Shinya Yamanaka.Martin Evans. It is possible now to produce a stem cell from almost any other human cell instead of using embryos as needed previously.

Germany generate pluripotent stem cells from spermatogonial cells of adult human testis by culturing the cells in vitro under leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) supplementation.[91] January 2009: Yong Zhao and colleagues confirmed the reversal of autoimmune-caused type 1 diabetes by Cord Blood-Derived Multipotent Stem Cells (CB-SCs) in an animal experiment.[44][47] . October 2008: Sabine Conrad and colleagues at Tübingen.[90]   30 October 2008: Embryonic-like stem cells from a single human hair.

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