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Chapter 1: Recognizing Main Ideas in Paragraphs and Short Selections

p. 5 1. a main idea
2. reasons or details that develop the idea
The main idea most often appears in the first sentence of a paragraph.

pp. 6–7 (Activity 1)

1. During the Depression, money shortages produced important changes in the
daily lives of people.
2. Fear seems to break down normal rational behavior.
3. In our society a person who wishes to marry cannot completely disregard the customary patterns of
4. But even on a simple level, being honest is not always easy.

Note: The first sentence provides the definition of integrity, but it is not the main idea of the
selection. If it were the main idea, the selection would consist of a number of examples of integrity. In fact, the
material in the selection is devoted to showing how “being honest is not always easy.”

pp. 7–9 (Activity 2)

1. d. 2. d. 3. d. 4. b.

pp. 10–11 (Review Test)

1. 1 Little in American society remained untouched by World War II.
2. 2 But many children with disabilities still are not receiving the education that
could help them to become fully functioning members of society.
3. 5 It seems pretty clear that smoking is harmful not only to the smoker but also to the fetus.
4. 6 Regardless of how well you listen, you can be overloaded with details.

pp. 11–13 (Mastery Test)

1. 1 Violence surrounds us—not only in real life but in our entertainment.
2. 2 There are many reasons why this child and other children can be unpopular.
3. 2 At times, however, the changes backfire and reduce rather than increase
customers’ satisfaction with the product in question.
4. 11 This self-sufficiency, or ability to provide for themselves, was a
characteristic of many early American settlers.
5. 6 The price on the cologne box reflects not only the cost of the raw materials
but a variety of additional costs.
Unit 3
Chapter 6: The Fourth Step in Essay Writing
Activity 1 on Use Parallelism (p.231)
Note: Answers may vary slightly.
1. The novelty store sells hand buzzers, plastic fangs, and fake insects.
2. Many people share the same three great fears: being in high places, working with
numbers, and making speeches.
3. To decide on a career, people should think closely about their interests, hobbies,
and skills.
4. At the body shop, the car was sanded down to the bare metal, painted with primer,
and sprayed with red enamel.
5. In order to become a dancer, Lola is taking lessons, working in amateur shows,
and auditioning for professional companies.
6. Juan’s last job offered security; his new job offers a better chance for
7. People in today’s world often try to avoid silence, whether on the job, in school,
or at home.
8. Because the dying woman was dignified and courageous, she won everyone’s
9. The politician trusted no one, rewarded loyalty, and depended only on his own
10. If we’re not careful, we’ll leave the next generation polluted air, contaminated
water, and dying forests.

Review Test 1 on Using Parallelism (p.251–252)

1. filled with suspense suspenseful 6. selling toys toy salesperson
2. furniture for the office 7. food on the table putting food on the table office
furniture 8. to cram cramming
3. my kitchen working in my kitchen 9. bags are put on them bagged / put into bags
4. preparing to prepare 10. with friendliness as well and
his friendliness
5. being kind kindness

Review Test 2 on Using Parallelism (p.252–253)

1. to buy buying 6. were whispering whispered
2. shows on science science shows 7. to start starting
3. porch furniture that was rotted 8. pay that is good good pay
rotting porch furniture
4. her shirt was torn a torn shirt 9. was putting put
5. taking take (or: climbing . . . taking) 10. losing lost