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Electric Power 2006 May 2-4, 2006, Atlanta, Georgia

INCREASING GENERATOR EFFICIENCY AND CAPACITY: A CASE STUDY


John Speranza/Proton Energy Systems Tom Skoczylas/Proton Energy Systems

ABSTRACT The purity of hydrogen used within electric power generators has a direct affect on cooling efficiency, windage friction losses, generating capacity and generator longevity. Hydrogens high thermal conductivity is the primary reason it is used as the cooling media in a generator instead of air. Hydrogen has a thermal conductivity of nearly seven times that of air, and its ability to transfer heat through forced convection is about 50% better than air. Maintaining hydrogens high thermal conductivity through purity monitoring and continuous improvement is important to the overall operation of hydrogen cooled electric generators. Continuous hydrogen replenishment has been proven to be an effective technique in maintaining purity within hydrogen cooled electric generators. A properly implemented continuous replenishment system will maintain a consistent high level of purity, low gas dew point, and constant pressure within the generator. Critical to the proper implementation of such a system is the supply of a continuous stable flow of high purity hydrogen from a trusted source. The list of traditional sources of hydrogen includes delivered cylinders, tube trailers, and liquid tanks. Historically, the alternative onsite hydrogen generation systems have been deployed to very remote, hard to reach locations around the globe. In recent years however, onsite hydrogen generation systems have been adopted by an increasing number of power plants as an alternative supply method for a variety of reasons. Furthermore, when the method of continuous replenishment is coupled with the implementation of onsite hydrogen generation, advantages in lower hydrogen cost, improved plant operations, assured supply, and increased safety can also be realized. This paper will discuss the affects increased hydrogen purity and stable pressure within a generators casing can have on power plant operations. A case study will also be presented showing the proposed improvements to the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico and the dramatic effect the increase in efficiency and capacity could have on the islands dependence on imported oil for electric power production. INTRODUCTION The high thermal conductivity of hydrogen has proven to be a key advantage in its use as a cooling fluid in electric power generators. It permits a reduction of nearly 20% in the amount of active material required in the construction of a generator of given output and for a given temperature rise of the windings. The density of hydrogen is also an advantage

over that of air. Since hydrogens density is approximately onefourteenth the density of air at a given temperature and pressure, the use of hydrogen reduces the windage friction losses within a generator to a small fraction of the losses encountered when the generator is cooled by air. Electric power generator Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have all published literature regarding the negative affects that low hydrogen purity and pressure has on the overall operation of their generators. The OEMs agree that maintaining the hydrogen gas coolant at stable pressures as specified will insure the maximum rated capacity of the generator can be achieved. Pressure stability within the generator casing is also beneficial in maintaining a good hydrogen seal. Hydrogen coolant gas purity must be maintained at the highest possible levels to meet the rated efficiency of the power generator as specified by the OEM. All OEMs agree that a properly maintained hydrogen gas coolant system is critical to operating a power generator at OEM specified levels. Critical to the proper implementation of such a system is the supply of a continuous stable flow of high purity hydrogen from a trusted source. The list of traditional sources of hydrogen includes delivered cylinders, tube trailers, and liquid tanks. Historically, the alternative onsite hydrogen generation systems have been deployed to very remote, hard to reach locations around the globe. In recent years however, onsite hydrogen generation systems have been adopted by an increasing number of power plants as an alternative supply method for a variety of reasons. Furthermore, when the method of continuous replenishment is coupled with the implementation of onsite hydrogen generation, advantages in lower hydrogen cost, improved plant operations, and increased safety can also be realized. This paper will discuss the affect hydrogen purity and pressure has on the operation and longevity of an electric power generator, and how, primarily for safety reasons, purity and pressure optimization has been compromised at a large number of power plants. The effects these compromises in efficiency may have on an individual power generator or power plant alone is measurable, but the impact becomes astounding when these compromises are allowed to compound throughout an entire electric power system. This paper will present those compounding effects to the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico and propose a solution that will not only reduce the islands dependence on imported oil, reduce total power plant emissions, and increase the overall power production capacity

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of the electrical generating system, but will provide Puerto Ricos power producers with a safer and more efficient hydrogen gas supply mode to meet their needs. THE EFFECT OF HYDROGEN ON GENERATOR OPERATION AND PERFORMANCE The quality of hydrogen coolant gas has an impact on the overall operation of an electric power generator in three principal ways. ! Hydrogen purity directly affects the operating efficiency of the generator. ! Hydrogen dew point within a generator affects the condition and longevity of the generator's internal windings. ! The stability of the hydrogen gas pressure within the generator affects the maximum generating capacity of the electric power generator. Purity The purity of hydrogen within a generator casing is important for several reasons. First and foremost is safety. An explosive atmosphere exists when the hydrogen over air concentration in a generator falls below 74%. The primary function of purity monitoring systems has been to avoid this disastrous condition. Most plants will initiate a shutdown and automatic CO2 purge of the generator if the concentration falls below 85%. Secondarily, hydrogen's purity within a generator correlates with windage friction losses associated with an increase in density. As windage friction losses increase due to impurities, the financial loss to the power plant correspondingly increases. Generator windage loss is a direct function of gas density. Since hydrogen is about 14.4 times less dense than air, the corresponding percent decrease in windage loss reduction for an increase in hydrogen purity would be: WR = [Pmin + R x (Pmax - Pmin)]-1 Where: Pmin = Minimum H2 Purity (%) Pmax = Maximum H2 Purity (%) R = Air/H2 Density Ratio WR = Reduction of Windage Loss (%) GE Power states that the friction and windage losses for a 907 MW generator operating at 75 psig would decrease by about 685 kW for a H2 purity increase from 95% to 98% or about 228 kW for a 1% increase in H2 purity. Figure 1 illustrates the impact low purity hydrogen coolant gas has on the operating efficiency of medium to large power generators (400-800 MW).

Figure 1 Dew Point When the impurity in hydrogen gas coolant is moisture, overall efficiency of the generator is compromised through increased windage friction loss. In addition to increasing windage loss, water vapor contamination inside a generator has been shown to reduce the life of its components, and high humidity can induce stress corrosion cracking on its retaining rings and cause stator winding shorts. It is recommended that the hydrogen dew point be maintained below +32"F in most generators, but will vary depending on the generator's original equipment manufacturer (OEM), the size of the generator, and the hydrogen gas pressure. Studies have shown that generators that operate with high hydrogen gas dew points are much more susceptible to insulation degradation in windings that inevitably lead to disastrous shorts and major unplanned repair actions. Operators of hydrogen-cooled generators have found that moisture degrades the electrical creepage strength of a surface. When moisture migrates to the end turn area of a generators rotor windings, it attacks the interturn insulation and results in shorted rotor end winding turns. The costs to a power generation plant for premature or unplanned shutdowns and repairs due to moisture-induced failures are significant. In addition to hard costs of parts and labor, a generator repair of this type usually means an extended plant outage and significant lost revenues. Pressure At increased pressures, hydrogen becomes denser, improving its capacity to absorb and remove heat. As a result, additional load may be carried with no increase in the temperature rise of the windings. An increase in kilovoltampere output of about 1 % may be obtained for every 1-psi increase in hydrogen pressure up to 15 psig, while for pressure between 15 and 30 psig, an increase in output of about 1/2 percent per psi of an increase in pressure may be obtained. Increasing hydrogen pressure also permits operation at normal load with the temperature of the water supplied to the gas cooler in excess of normal. An increase in cooling temperature of approximately 1"F may be obtained for every 1-

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psi increase in hydrogen pressure up to 15 psig, while for pressure between 15 and 30 psig, an increase in cooling water temperature of 0.5"F per psi of an increase in pressure may be obtained. The improvement in the thermal capability of the generator is proportional to the square root of the absolute pressure increase. This is shown as: G = {[( PF +14.695)/( PL +14.695)] Where: G = Increase in Generator Capacity (%) PL= Pressure below OEM Max Specification PF= Pressure at OEM Max Specification Therefore, a pressure increase of 1 psi would improve the generator output by 0.6% towards the OEM rated generator capacity. The increased capacity is due to better heat removal from the copper windings Safety The concern over large hydrogen gas supplies 40,000 to 120,000 cubic feet in the case of a tube trailer, potentially feeding a huge undetected seal or casing leak is a valid one. There is also the potential of pressure reducing regulator failures causing catastrophic generator casing or seal failures due to high pressure hydrogen supply systems as well. To reduce the risk of a catastrophic leak in a plant, batch feed hydrogen supply methods are often employed to maintain the generator pressure manually. This manual batch feed system is also used to track seal wear by tracking the hydrogen leak rate. The hydrogen seal leak rate can be determined if the pressure drop in the generator, temperature, and duration between fills is known. Although a batch feed hydrogen supply method is safe considering the potential for a catastrophic leak to occur it is not without negative consequences. A batch feed method causes wide fluctuations in cooling gas purity and pressure. As discussed above, these fluctuations have a huge effect on plant operations and ultimately hit the plants bottom line. The development of a continuous hydrogen supply system that maintains generator cooling gas pressure and purity at optimum levels while assuring plant infrastructure and personnel are safe from the hazards of a major hydrogen leak has begun to change the way plants view their hydrogen demands. IMPROVEMENT METHOD Continuous replenishment A hydrogen supply system designed to continuously replenish hydrogen within a generator with a controlled flow rate of high purity gas (while an equal amount of impure gas is vented) has been proven to be an effective alternative to traditional gas delivery systems. The vent flow rate is controlled according to the desired purity level in the generator.
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As the purity in the generator decreases the vent flow is increased until it reaches the desired purity set point. In most cases, just a small continuous bleed of the generators cooling gas can make a dramatic change in overall purity and dew point. This method has certain disadvantages when implemented using delivered gas cylinders and tube trailers. The operating cost of such a system can be substantial if the price of delivered hydrogen is even a few dollars per 100 cubic feet. Also, the safety concerns associated with implementing a continuous feed gas supply method with bulk storage are certainly relevant with this method. Onsite hydrogen generation systems should be the primary hydrogen supply choice when implementing this method. Delivered hydrogen versus onsite hydrogen generation Delivered hydrogen is relatively expensive when compared to onsite generation. Delivered gas prices fluctuate with the volatility associated with the supply, transportation, and increased security concerns over bulk hydrogen. Onsite generation, especially when employed at a power plant, offers the plant operator a fixed cost of hydrogen supply. An electrolysis-based onsite hydrogen generator requires a small amount of de-mineralized water and electricity to operate. An on-site hydrogen electrolyzer sized for an average power plant requires less than 20 gallons of water a day and 17kWh of electricity per 100 cubic feet of hydrogen produced. As these feedstock components water and electricityare a surplus to the power plant, they enable the plant to effectively source its own hydrogen supply. Frequent cylinder changes can introduce particulate impurities and introduce air gases if not purged. Purity varies from cylinder to cylinder depending upon the source of the gas and what the cylinder was used for in the past. In contrast, onsite hydrogen generation systems monitor the hydrogen product purity continuously to insure the gas that is being introduced to the generator is of the desired quality. The ability to trend and provide alarms is also available. In addition to quality variances, delivered hydrogen presents siting, storage and occupational safety challenges. High-pressure cylinders require personnel to monitor supply, manage delivery schedules to prevent unnecessary downtime, monitor the cylinders condition and gas purity, and store cylinders in accordance with a facilitys safety protocols. The alternative, onsite generation systems, carry low gas volume and less than 100scf of stored hydrogen while delivering gas on demand to the process. The maximum flow rate from an onsite generator will never exceed its maximum capacity, which is very important when performing worst case safety analysis. Onsite hydrogen generation systems are designed to stay online and feed a continuous supply of hydrogen as required by the process. An onsite hydrogen generator has the inherent ability to meter the flow rate of hydrogen used. This flow metering function can be used to alarm operators of a sudden demand for hydrogen in the case of a catastrophic component

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failure, while tracking seal wear over time to aid in preventative maintenance actions. Power plant operators can reduce the destructive presence of water vapor and air within their hydrogen-cooled generators with a constant flow of dry hydrogen gas. Continuous hydrogen replenishment is a technique that offers a way to keep generators free of moisture, oxygen, and other contaminants that can prematurely degrade equipment, maintain hydrogen pressure at a level that supports an increased load, and supply hydrogen on demand at the rate it is required by the electric generator. All of these benefits are in addition to providing seal leakage makeup gas at a fraction of the cost of delivered gas. Using PEM technology for onsite hydrogen generation The most widely used onsite hydrogen generation technology at power plants in the U.S. is PEM electrolysis. Onsite hydrogen generators that use Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) technology offer a cost-effective approach to ensure hydrogen purity and low dew point. PEM electrolysis allows 99.999+% pure hydrogen gas at a dew point of -90F to be produced on demand at process pressure without mechanical compression and without caustic electrolytes. Table A lists the results of a detailed gas analysis conducted on electrolytic hydrogen produced from a PEM electrolyzer. Table A Sample of H2 gas @ 225 psi generated by a PEM electrolyzer
Test Description/Units Nitrogen (ppm vv/by MS) Oxygen (ppm v/v by MS) Carbon Dioxide (ppm v/v by MS) Argon (ppm v/v by MS) Helium (ppm v/v by MS) Hydrogen (% v/v by MS) Total hydrocarbon (ppm v/v as CH4) Water Vapor (ppm v/v by EDP) Result nd nd nd nd nd 99.9+ -nd D.L. 4 4 4 4 10 0.1 0.1 0.5

Figure 2 Using onsite hydrogen generators with continuous hydrogen replenishment By using an onsite hydrogen generator combined with a continuous hydrogen replenishment technique, plants can minimize hydrogen inventory, while guaranteeing consistent purity, dryness and pressure. As illustrated in Figure 3, hydrogen that is continually produced by the hydrogen generator flows through a hydrogen manifold and pressure reducing regulators, and through the electric generator at 1575psig. The hydrogen is vented through a control valve, through a purity monitor, and escapes through the plants existing hydrogen vent system.

Figure 3 A complete hydrogen supply solution for the power plant exists with the implementation of an onsite PEM based hydrogen generation system. The onsite system does not solely address all of the concerns associated with low purity, high dew point, and pressure instability. An onsite generator implemented as part of a system that includes seal oil cleanup, hydrogen analyzers, a dew point monitor, and a control valve will provide plant operators with all of the tools needed to maintain their generators at the optimum operating level possible. Hydrogen safety must also be considered and appreciated with the implementation of an onsite hydrogen supply method. A PEM electrolyzer has the inherent ability to allow for precise metering of gas as it is being produced. This inherent ability allows the electrolyzer to become a gas supply that precisely matches the process demand, much like a bulk supply, but with

PEM electrolysis works within a hydrogen generators cell stack, which is composed of individual membrane assemblies stacked into an embodiment that brings water in to produce hydrogen gas. As illustrated in Figure 2, de-ionized water flows into the positive side of the cell where it is dissociated by electrolysis into protons, electrons and oxygen. The oxygen is carried away by the water flow. The positively charged protons are attracted to the negative side of the cell. These protons use the sulfonic acid ion groups embedded within the membrane as the path to travel through the solid material. Meanwhile, the electrons flow through the power supply to the negative electrode where they link up with the emerging protons to form molecules of pure hydrogen gas.

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a few distinct differences. First, the electrolyzer has the ability to deliver an unlimited supply of hydrogen as long as water and electricity is supplied. A bulk supply will eventually empty and need to be replaced. Second, the electrolyzer has the ability to limit the instantaneous flow rate of hydrogen gas due to its capacity limit. A bulk supply will deliver as much gas as can flow through the process infrastructure. Third, the electrolyzer has a very low volume of stored hydrogen at any one time and only produces gas as it is demanded. Most bulk supplies contain in excess of 40,000 cubic feet and exceed 100,000 cubic in some locations. The PEM electrolyzers inherent ability to meter flow allows it to be used as a leak detection device. The production rate of hydrogen can be trended and used to measure seal wear and plan maintenance activities by monitoring the amount of direct current that is applied to each PEM cell stack over time. If a major leak occurs either in the seal, generator casing, or infrastructure piping the generator will detect the sharp increase in demand alarm and shutdown the electrolyzer. All existing hydrogen inventory within the electrolyzer will be safely vented. Also, due to the inherent limit of instantaneous supply of hydrogen the electrolyzer output will be limited. This limit is also adjustable and should be set to limit the max production rate of hydrogen to the level where it is well below the Lower Flammability Level within a well ventilated space. Due to the low gas inventory and limited flow capability of the PEM electrolyzer it can be installed and operated in an unclassified space without changing the classification of that space. CASE STUDY With 3.9 million inhabitants populating only 3,508 sq. mi. of land mass the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico is one of the most densely populated islands in the world. Puerto Rico also lacks domestic hydrocarbon reserves and relies on imports for nearly all of its energy requirements. These two factors are the main reasons why there is a significant strain on Puerto Ricos electric power system. In 1999, about 16.7 billion kilowatt-hours (Bkwh) of electricity was generated in Puerto Rico, nearly all from imported oil. In 2003, Puerto Rico consumed 21.4 Bkwh and produced 23.0 Bkwh of electric power. The power demand continues to grow about 3.5% per year, which will necessitate additional power capacity to keep pace with Puerto Ricos growing economy. Oil is the dominate fuel for power production on the island and is used at five of the seven power plants as a primary fuel source. The total island installed capacity of the seven power plants is 5411 MW. The islands largest power plant is Cost Sur, a 1,090-MW oil fired power plant on Puerto Ricos southern coast. A number of power plants on the island were visited in 2005 to determine if onsite hydrogen generation could be used to improve the overall efficiency of the plants and increase generating capacity. As discussed above, it was learned that certain operating conditions were compromised because of limitations of the current supply mode or safety concerns.

The key objectives of the power plant visits were: ! Interview Plant Operator: Determine what hydrogen needs are and solicit concerns over current supply mode. Site Survey: Review possible site locations for OnSite Hydrogen Generator and Hydrogen Control System. Gather Data: Obtain plant operating data with regards to Key operating parameters recommended by generator OEMs for optimum operating performance.

The information obtained from the plant visits was used to generate an equipment recommendation and fuel savings estimate as illustrated in Figure 4 below:

Figure 4 A summary of the proposed improvements to a typical power generator operating at a power plant in Puerto Rico: ! The estimated capacity increase if operated at the OEM specified maximum operating pressure is 8.2 MW. ! The Estimated annual incremental capacity increase for this generator if operated at OEM specified maximum operating pressure is 66,912 MWhr

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Estimated windage loss reduction for this generator if hydrogen casing purity is maintained at 99% is 769 kW or 6,273,000 kWh/year Estimated Hydrogen Savings based on PEM electrolyzer generated H2 cost @ 17 kWh per 100 scf H2 (at $0.04/ kWh electricity generation cost) is $0.04/100 scf or $64,994 per year. Annual Hydrogen used per MW of capacity is 1433 scf

The windage loss avoidance potentially saves Puerto Rico 4,382,070 barrels of oil per year or roughly 5 oil tankers assuming there is an average of 1889 kWh/barrel of Bunker C fuel oil (Fuel Oil No. 6). The reduced oil tanker delivery also brings the added benefit of risk avoidance whenever hazardous shipments to the island can be avoided. Hydrogen Cost Benefits ! Based on the stated assumptions listed above, the total island annual consumption of hydrogen for generator cooling is 7,600,400 scf (1433 scf X 5302 MW). ! Present cost of delivered hydrogen at approximately $0.111/scf is $843,600 Generating cost of producing hydrogen on site is estimated to be $4000 at $0.0004/scf.

If we apply these improvements to the entire generating capacity of the island of Puerto Rico with the following assumptions: ! > 98% generation capacity is from hydrogen cooled generators ! Operating parameters of hydrogen pressure and purity is typical ! Plant Capacity Factor is 96% ! All hydrogen cooled generators are using the same quantity of hydrogen per MW of capacity ! Plants charge themselves $0.04/kWh for electricity used at the plant And use the following basis for calculating the increased benefits of implementing onsite hydrogen generation with a continuous hydrogen replenishment system: ! Estimated MW capacity deficit total is 2% (Based on example: 8.2MW/410MW = 0.02) ! Estimated kW windage loss reduction per MW capacity is 1.875 kW (Based on example: 769 kW/410 MW) ! Estimated annual hydrogen savings per MW capacity $159 (Based on example: $64,994/410 MW) The benefits can be summarized into three main categories: Capacity, Windage Loss, and Hydrogen Costs. Summary of Capacity Benefits The total as built (installed) rated capacity of all 7 major power plants on the island is 5411 MW. Assuming 98 % of this capacity includes hydrogen cooled generators, the total is 5302 MW. The survey that was conducted determined that the typical power generator in Puerto Rico is operating at 2% below the OEM rated capacity due to average hydrogen pressure below the OEM rated specification. Applying this 2% to the total capacity of 5302 MW equals 106 MW of capacity that can be regained through pressure stability improvements. Summary of Windage Loss Benefits: The total Island capacity of 5411 MW x 1.875 kW/MW of capacity = 10,145 kW potential windage loss avoided. The total potential kWh windage loss avoided per year = 10,145 kW X 8,500 hr/year x capacity factor (96%) = 8.28x109 kWh

Potential annual hydrogen savings is approximately is $839,600. CONCLUSION The many benefits of utilizing hydrogen as a cooling fluid in electric generators can only be realized safely when implementing an onsite hydrogen generation supply method. Overall power plant operations are greatly improved when an onsite hydrogen generation supply method is utilized and hydrogen coolant gas purity, pressure, and dew point are optimized to meet or exceed OEM specified levels. An onsite hydrogen generation supply method provides the lowest cost and least labor intensive mode of supply to todays power plants. Increases in productivity, generating efficiency, and capacity are key drivers in the decision to implement onsite generation. PEM electrolysis provides the power industry with the most robust, reliable, and safe method of implementation. When the benefits of onsite generation and continuous hydrogen replenishment are implemented as a system wide strategy to increase efficiency and capacity the results can be astounding. The improvements that can be made will affect the overall performance and longevity of the generating assets along with mitigating significant risk of unplanned outages. The improvements that can be made will allow the generating assets to operate at their highest efficiency and deliver their rated capacity. The results of these improvements to the island of Puerto Rico can be significant enough to avoid the construction of additional generating capacity, reduce the islands dependence on imported oil, improve air quality by significantly reducing power plant emissions, mitigate the risk of a disastrous oil tanker spill by reducing the number of tankers entering Puerto Ricos ports, improve power plant safety by reducing the onsite inventory of hydrogen, and save the Puerto Rican Electric Power Authority millions of dollars in fuel and delivered hydrogen costs.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS John Speranza is Director of Applications and Technical Service at Wallingford, Conn.-based Proton Energy. Tom Skoczylas is Senior Applications Engineer at Wallingford, Conn.-based Proton Energy. REFERENCES Albright, J.D. and Albright D.R., Generatortech, Inc. Generator Field Winding Shorted Turns: Moisture Effects. Presented at EPRI Steam Turbine Generatortech Workshop and Vendor Exposition, Nashville, Tenn., August 25-27, 2003. Borkey, Ed (general manager, Fluid Energy); Reynolds, Tom (electrical engineer, Progress Energy). Water Contamination in Hydrogen-Cooled Generators Lurks as Serious Operational Threat. Power Engineering, August 2003. Vandervort, Christian L. and Kudlacik, Edward L. GE Power Systems, Schenectady NY: GE Generator Technology Update, April 2003 Bothwell, Jim, Jim Bothwell Consulting, Stuart, FL Monitoring Moisture in Hydrogen Cooled Generators. Presented at EPRI Conference Oct 1983 GE Power Systems Generator Products Overview, October 2003. GE Power, Hydrogen Purity Analyzers, http://www.gepower.com/prod_serv/products/generators/en/mo nitoring_prod.htm Zawoysky, Generator Rotor Thermal Sensitivity Theory and Experience, Ronald J. and Genovese, William M., Publication GER-3809, GE Power Systems, Schenectady, NY welcome.topuertorico.org

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