This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

# Teletraﬃc Engineering

January 2013

Teletraﬃc Engineering

January 2013

1 / 18

Traﬃc Engineering Traﬃc engineering uses statistical techniques such as queuing theory to predict and engineer the behavior of telecommunications networks such as telephone networks or the Internet. Another important steps of teletraﬃc engineering is to ensure the desired 1 Mobile switching centre server – which is a 3G term Teletraﬃc Engineering January 2013 2 / 18 . One of the important steps of teletraﬃc engineering determines number of channels required on a route or a connection between two MSCs1 .

uninterrupted period 60 min during which the traﬃc volume is highest Used for traﬃc dimensioning Can be: ﬁxed/mobile In heterogeneous networks busy hours for diﬀerent traﬃc types may not coincide In cellular network.Busy hour Busy hour . Teletraﬃc Engineering January 2013 3 / 18 . busy hour occurs at diﬀerent time for diﬀerent cells Figure : Typical daily traﬃc usage in a cellular system.

Service blocking probability: the probability that service delay will exceed some speciﬁc value or The probability that the call will be denied or blocked Teletraﬃc Engineering January 2013 4 / 18 .Teletraﬃc Engineering Service Level Service Level can be divided into two main areas : 1 2 Dial tone delay: The maximum waiting time to hear a dial tone after removing the hand-set from the hook.

Teletraﬃc Engineering Service or call blocking probability is known as the grade of service (GoS) GoS = GoS = Block Call Total Call (1) (2) 10 1 Block Call = = Serviced calls + Blocked calls 380 + 10 39 Teletraﬃc Engineering January 2013 5 / 18 .

t) N(t): α(t ) − δ (t ) Number of customers in system at time t γ (t ): Total time that all customers together have spent in the system during the interval Teletraﬃc Engineering January 2013 6 / 18 .Basic Queueing Theory Figure : Number of customers as a function of time α(t ): Number of customers who have come to the system and not rejected in the interval (0. t) δ (t ): Number of customers who have left the system and completed served in (0.

the state transitions. The birth-death terminology is used to represent increases and decreases in the population size. if any. The underlying Markov process representing the number of customers in such systems is know as a birth-and-death process.Basic Queueing Theory . Teletraﬃc Engineering January 2013 7 / 18 .Birth-Death Processes A Birth-Death is a special type of discrete-time or continuous time Markov Chain with the restriction that at each step. can occur only between neighbouring states. The corresponding events in queueing systems are arrivals and departures.

If the process is a Birth-death process and if the current state Xn is i. when arrivals are in a Poisson process and service times are exponential. i or i+1. When the population is the number of customers in the system.. λn and µn indicate that the arrival and service rates depend on the number in the system. i. let λn and µn be the inﬁnitesimal transition rates (generators) of birth and death. when the population size is n.Basic Queueing Theory . we can make the following probability statements for a transition during (t.Birth-Death Processes Again using the birth (arrival)-death (departure) terminology. respectively. Based on the properties of the Poisson process. then the above condition implies that the next state Xn+1 can only be i-1.e. t + ∆t ]: Teletraﬃc Engineering January 2013 8 / 18 .

2 Note that is these statements the o (∆t ) terms do not specify actual values. the o (∆t ) terms sum to 0 so that the total probability of the three events is equal 1. let µk be the death rate in state k. Since a continouse-time process is being considerd.λn ∆t + o (∆t ) o (∆t ) t) where o (∆t ) is such that o(∆ ∆t n → 0 as ∆t → 0.Birth-Death Processes birth(n ≥ 0): P (one birth) P (no birth) P (more than one birth) death(n > 0): P (one death) P (no death) P (more than one death) = = = µn ∆t + o (∆t ) 1 . In each of the two cases.Basic Queueing Theory . Let λk be the birth rate in state k2 Similarly. Teletraﬃc Engineering January 2013 9 / 18 .µn ∆t + o (∆t ) o (∆t ) = = = λn ∆t + o (∆t ) 1 . we need to focus on changes in the process over time interval o (∆t ) as o (∆t ) → 0.

.) P0 = −λ0 P0 (t ) + µ1 P1 (t ). 2. . . n = 1. . . .Basic Queueing Theory The inﬁnitesimal transition rates of previous equation lead to the following generator matrix for birth-and-death process model of the queueing systems: −λ0 λ0 ··· ··· µ1 −(λ1 + µ1 ) λ1 ··· A= 0 µ − ( λ + µ ) λ2 2 2 2 . . . The generator matrix A leads to the following forward Kolmogorov equations for Pin (t )(Pin (t ) ≡ Pn (t ) and insert the initial state i only when needed. . ··· · · · · · · . . .. . . . Teletraﬃc Engineering January 2013 10 / 18 . Pn (t ) = −(λn + µn )Pn (t ) + λn−1 Pn−1 (t ) + µn+1 Pn+1 (t ). .

Basic Queueing Theory Figure : State Transition Diagram (Birth-Death) Teletraﬃc Engineering January 2013 11 / 18 .

Another Way Teletraﬃc Engineering January 2013 12 / 18 .Basic Queueing Theory .

we get that P {state k to state k+1 in time ∆t } = Pk .k −1 = µk (∆t ) P {state k to state k in time ∆t } = Pk .Another Way Let Q(t) be the number of customers in the system at time t. t + ∆t ]) we have P0 (t + ∆t ) = P0 (t )[1 − λ0 ∆t ] + P1 (t )µ1 ∆t Pk (t + ∆t ) = Pk (t )[1 − (λk − µk )∆t ] + Pk −1 (t )λk −1 ∆t + Pk +1 (t )µk −1 ∆t with ∞ k =0 Pk (t ) = 1 Teletraﬃc Engineering January 2013 13 / 18 .k +1 = λk (∆t ) P {state k to state k-1 in time ∆t } = Pk .Basic Queueing Theory . Deﬁne Pik (t ) = P [Q (t ) = k |Q (0) = i ] Considering transitions over a time interval ∆t as ∆t → 0 .k = 1 − (λk + µk )(∆t ) P {other transitions in ∆t } = 0 Considering the transitions of the process Q(t) for the state transitions between the time instant t and the time instant t + ∆t we have (in other words (t.

Basic Queueing Theory Figure : State Transition Diagram (Birth-Death) Teletraﬃc Engineering January 2013 14 / 18 .

C = 5] = C Ai i =0 i ! = 1.55 /5! 1.51 1! + 1. If the call holding times are distributed exponentially with an average of 90 sec.52 2! + 1.54 4! + 1. The average call origination rate is 60 calls per hour.55 5! ≈ 0. calculate the GOS Average birth rate λ = 60 calls/hour 1 H λ µ Average death rate µ = Traﬃc Intensity A= = = 1 90/3600 60 40 = 40 calls/hour = 1.Erlang-B Example A cell site has 5 FDMA radios.0142 Teletraﬃc Engineering January 2013 15 / 18 .53 3! + 1.5.5 Erlangs GoS AC /C ! B [A = 1.50 0! + 1.

Erlang–B Formula Teletraﬃc Engineering January 2013 16 / 18 .

Cell Capacity Average number of MSs requesting service (Average arrival rate): λ Average length of time MS requires service (Average holding time): T Oﬀered load: A = λT where a is in Erlangs e.g.e. i. in a cell with 100 MSs. on an average 30 requests are generated during an hour.. A= 30 calls 3600 sec · 360 sec call = 3 Erlangs Teletraﬃc Engineering January 2013 17 / 18 .. with average holding time T=360 seconds Then. arrival rate λ=30/3600 requests/sec A completely occupied channel (1 call-hour per hour) is deﬁned as a load of one Erlang.

529 So. A) In the previous example. the blocking probability B(2. 3) is AC /C ! C Ai i =0 i ! 32 /2! 2 3i i =0 i ! B [2.Capacity of a Cell This is Erlang B formula B(C.529 = 15. if C = 2 and A = 3. 3] = = = 0. the number of calls blocked 30 · 0.87 Teletraﬃc Engineering January 2013 18 / 18 .