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Lecture 4

• Channel Assignment Strategies • Handoff Strategies

. a frequency reuse scheme should increase the capacity and minimize the level of interference. Flexible Assignment 3. etc) 3. Class of use for a particular portion of the frequency spectrum (Frequency Allocation) 2.Channel Assignment Strategies For efficient utilization of the radio spectrum. Who may use the limited spectrum available (Frequency Assignment) • Channel assignment strategies may be classified as 1. Dynamic Assignment Channel Assignment Strategies Fixed Flexible Dynamic Basic Fixed Simple Borrowing Call-by-Call Optimized Borrowing with Ordering Scheduled Hybrid Predictive .g. Rules governing technical characteristics (e. Fixed Assignment 2. power levels. • FCC Requirements and Provisions 1. channelization. modulation. coding techniques.

Large market shares – invest in more base stations to increase frequency reuse/capacity. on a call-by-call basis. Trunking Efficiency Loss Let h = percentage efficiency loss A1 = traffic load served by a single operator with B channels AN = traffic load served by N operators with B/N channels each Then  A − AN  h ( % ) = 100  1   A1  .Low market shares – less efficient use of spectrum . MSC decides. . Any call attempts within the cell can only be served by unused channels. Therefore. Disadvantages of Fixed Assignment: 1.multiple providers utilize fragmented spectrum instead of sharing common allocation. When borrowing occurs. if providers have unequal market shares. When all permanent channels of a cell are busy. MSC collects real-time data on channel occupancy. traffic distribution.same quality of service expected for each operator. 2. All calls are referred to the MSC. Advantages of Dynamic Channel Assignment: 1. Inefficient Spectrum Utilization In particular. . the call is blocked and the subscriber does not receive service. 3. and radio signal strength indications of all channels on a continuous basis.• Fixed Channel Assignment Strategies Each cell is allocated a predetermined set of voice channels. a channel may be borrowed from neighboring cell provided that this does not interfere with existing calls. . Average Case Interference Scenario FCA requires worst case scenario considerations while DCA allows channel reuse ratio relying on average cochannel interference. DCA allows lower margins for lognormal shadowing. • Dynamic Channel Assignment Strategies Cells have no channels to themselves. which manages all channel assignment in the region. which channel to assign to which call attempt. Requires strict frequency planning. If all the channels in that cell are occupied. No trunking efficiency loss 2. the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) supervises the borrowing process.

DCA is incorporated in 2nd generation digital cordless and cellular standards.. (Refer to Fig.. DCA is therefore more suitable for microcellular systems. Eliminates frequency planning. forced handoff) S ) I . 4. e.3) Parameters used to determine handoff • Received signal strength • • • • • Signal-to-interference-ratio (in practice S + I is easier to measure than Distance Bit error rate (BER) Traffic load Resource management need (e. DAMPS • Flexible Channel Assignment Strategies Combines aspects of both fixed and dynamic strategies. 3.3. 6. DCA improves resource management and “self-planning” within a given operator’s network.g. Compatible with open access. Requires MSC to collect data about the traffic patterns in its area and other network directed criteria in order to manage its set of flexible channels efficiently.g. DCA allows usage of channel proportional to each operator’s market share. Adaptive Bandwidth Sharing In dynamic multi-operator environment. Handoff Strategies Handoff is the process used to maintain a call in progress in a cellular system as the mobile moves between cells. 5.

2. 4. Handoff Threshold is set at a point the power received from the BS has started to exceed the current BS by a certain amount and/or from a certain time.This reduces the total traffic since fewer channels available for originating new calls. Some Practical Issues Involved with Handoff: • Integration of high speed/low speed users. Receiver Threshold is the point at which the received power at the BS is at a minimum acceptable level. handoff requests are prioritized in two ways: 1. 2. (refer to Fig. • Umbrella Cell – provides larger coverage area to high speed users and small coverage area to low speed users.4) • Cell Dragging – pedestrian (very low speed) user transmitting a strong signal near a base station and moves away very slowly. The Guard Channel Concept . • Therefore. Initialization – the mobile unit or network identifies the need for a handoff and alerts the necessary network elements. forced termination of ongoing call is less desirable than blocking a new call attempt. . Prioritizing Handoff • From the mobile user’s point of view. Completion – any unneeded network resources are freed and access signals are exchanged following a successful handoff.Some channels in the cell are reserved exclusively for handoff of ongoing calls.Handoff is generally needed in two situations: • Mobile user at cell boundary • Mobile user reaching a signal strength gap. Steps Involved in Handoff Process: 1. Queuing of Handoff Requests This may incur delay large enough to cause forced termination of call. Execution – actual handoff connection of the network resources takes place. . Resource Allocation – the appropriate network element reserve resources necessary to support the handoff. 3. 3.

since the connection is disrupted solely by device mobility.g. e.Classification of handoff: 1.“break before make” 2.communication is terminated before handoff . when a mobile device moves in and out of various 802. Soft versus Hard Handoff • Soft handoff – Mobile connected to two or more base stations are simultaneously (base station diversity) .no interruption of communication .11b network domains. For example. Cellular-to-Cellular handoff WiFi-toWiFi Handoff WLAN-to-WLAN Handoff .“make before break” • Hard handoff . the handoff activities would be considered as a horizontal handoff. Horizontal versus Vertical Handoff • Horizontal Handoff A horizontal handoff is a handoff between two network access points that use the same network technology and interface.

e. both horizontal and vertical handoff are used to maintain user connectivity.• Vertical handoff A vertical handoff is a handoff between two network access points. the handoff would be considered a vertical handoff. which are usually using different network connection technologies. For example.g. . WiFi-to-Cellular Handoff WLAN-to-WIFI Handoff In 3G heterogeneous overlay networks. when a mobile device moves out an 802.11b network into a GPRS network.