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Prepared by William Harbin - 21-Oct-09 Technical Director – BND TechSource
Table of Contents
• Understanding that people employed in a company… o Tips for Motivating Employees o 7 motivational strategies o Classes, seminars, and certifications o Allow input from each and every employee o Have employees set goals o Cross-Train Employees o Schedule periodic performance reviews o Weekly Staff Meetings • Meetings can add value to the company if managed properly o Meetings generally fall into two main categories o All Meetings do take up precious time for all involved o Document the Meeting Minutes o The Signature Process • A Company Intranet o General Access Area o Restricted Access Areas o Beneficial in passing an ISO audit
Suppliers (vendors) play a vital role in the success of the company o Supplier nomination process o ISO 9000/1 QMS o ISO 14001 EMS o Compliance/certification to the ISO procedures o Supplier nomination committee o Monitor suppliers o Supplier consequences/incentives o Suppliers’ compliance to contractual agreements and obligations
• • •
Motorsports activities Automotive/Trade Magazine Editors and Journalists Keeping valued customers loyal to your brand o Expectations of your customers o Analyze Failures
Cross Functional Teams (CFT) o Sales/Marketing o Program Planning o Purchasing o Styling o Engineering - Weekly Design Reviews Pre-Product (Packaging) Engineering Product Engineering • • • • • • Engine Engineering Drivetrain Engineering Chassis Engineering Vehicle Systems Engineering Interior Engineering Body Engineering
R & D Engineering
Computer Analysis Engineering Customer Synergy Engineering Build and Validation Engineering Proving Grounds - Development Engineering Engineering Change Control/Tracking Management Documentation/Service Manuals/Illustration Department o Fasteners/Attachment Department o Materials Department o Certification/Homologation Department o Quality Control Department o Tooling Department o Manufacturing Department o Support Departments Human Resources (HR) Information Technology Department (IT) Health, Safety & Environmental Department (HSE) Logistics Department Accounting Department Security Facilities • Basis for this paper
• Understanding that people employed in a company can make or break that company.
Many people spend more waking hours of their day working with others than they get to spend with their own families. To keep employees productive, they need a positive attitude. Proper motivation is the key for giving employees a positive attitude.
Tips for Motivating Employees
Motivating Workers is Key to a Company's Success By Heather Rothbauer-Wanish Apr 8, 2009 “Knowing what motivates employees and realizing that it doesn't have to cost a fortune are the first steps to developing a motivation program at the workplace.” “Employees are a key to the success of any business. Keeping them motivated can become difficult at times; however, motivated and happy employees perform much better on-thejob, leading to happy and satisfied customers.” Know What Motivates Them “For many people, money is not the greatest motivator. In addition to money, many people work because they enjoy being around others, they may enjoy the camaraderie of an office setting or they actually like what they do. Remember that different things motivate different people. Employers should take the time to get to know the employees and tailor the motivational tools to their specific work environment.” Notice when People Do Things Correctly “So often, employees feel that management only notices them when something is going wrong. The supervisor or manager appearing on the assembly line or in the office is a negative thing. Reinforcing the employees’ actions when something has gone correctly shows them that they are noticed and that management appreciates what they are doing. Maintaining a visual display of these positive items creates an atmosphere of encouraging energy.” Encourage People to Motivate Themselves “Employers should encourage their employees to develop new ways of doing things. Setting aside one or two hours per week for brainstorming and creativity could mean a new product is developed during that time. By allowing employees to make suggestions, employers motivate their employees to think of new and improved ways of doing business. A
workplace that appreciates employee input is a workplace where those same employees are motivated to do their best.” Motivation Starts at the Top of the Organization “If a manager is not motivated, his/her employees will not be motivated either. Management sets the tone for the rest of the company. Managers should set a good example for the employees. Developing a new product or a better way of doing a task will show employees that the manager is on their side and willing to put the work in to make it a better workplace.” “Motivation can be one of the keys to a successful company. In general, motivated employees are much happier employees. Although it may take some creativity, motivation does not require spending a lot of money. Be unique when setting your goals and objectives for your organization and encourage your employees to brainstorm. Most of all, management should set the example for the rest of the organization by being motivated themselves and encouraging employees to do the same.”
7 motivational strategies
Modern Machine Shop, Feb, 1991 by Dianne-Jo Moore 1. Team Work “Skillful managers form work groups when possible with the hope that peer pressure will induce high levels of performance. This is reported to be an effective means of motivation because individuals appear to be more concerned with living up to the expectations of fellow workers rather than the expectations of their bosses. Complexities arise when a group conforms to a level of achievement rather than a high performance level, or when a particular work setting makes it difficult to structure group activities.” 2. Personal involvement “Workers who are allowed to set their own performance levels will usually try to meet their own expectations. It is important to have the worker make a verbal commitment regarding their anticipated achievement levels. Also, individuals and groups are most likely to attain goals when they make a public commitment to do so. This may be due to the fact that such commitments are promises and most people view themselves as persons who keep their word.” “The chief problem with this strategy results from workers who maintain a low self-image. At this point, managers are faced with the problem of motivating a worker to think positively about himself so his self-image will correlate with high performance. On the whole, this strategy is effective, but it might demand a manager to reinforce an employee's strengths first.” 3. Work Enhancement
“With this method, managers structure jobs so the work provides fulfillment. The experiment in job enrichment underway at the Saab-Volvo automobile plant in Sweden illustrates rather nicely how job enrichment works. They use a team-assembly concept in which workers rotate the tasks required for building an automobile. Basically, the entire group is responsible for assembling the complete automobile. This is in contrast to the monotonous production system which now characterizes auto manufacturing in the United States.” “One of the difficulties with this type of motivational strategy is that workers want to be compensated adequately for the work they do. When employees are expected to perform more complicated job skills, they expect increased compensation. When this does not happen, the work may no longer offer an internal incentive.” 4. Rewards “This type of planning is based on the behavior modification approach that workers will increase or repeat the desired work performance if they are given rewards. It is also hoped that poor performance will be eradicated once the subordinate comprehends the relationship between commendable performance and rewards.” “Generally, the reward approach is successful but it is not without its complications. Individuals are unique and maintain different value systems. What may be considered rewarding to one worker may be no incentive whatsoever to the next employee. Some people prefer pay increases. Others seek promotions. Still others may desire new rugs on their office floors. Establishing meaningful incentives for performance with individuals can be a difficult task for a manager.” 5. Mutual Exchange “Sometimes, managers promise special privileges for the exchange of desired work performance. A supervisor may allow a worker to leave work early if he completes his task for the day, or he may be allowed a day away from the job if he finishes a required project within a specified time.” “Mutual exchange is a frequently used strategy, but not necessarily the most effective. Problems arise when the employee feels the exchange is out of balance, or when he cannot come to an agreement with his supervisor as to what would be a fair exchange.” 6. Competitive measures “In this design, workers compete against others for certain bonuses or prizes. Banners, plaques, vacations, and free dinners are examples of some rewards offered. This strategy is often used for sales incentives.” “Difficulties emerge when managers design contests that do not offer a fair opportunity to achieve the specified goals. If the same individuals and groups consistently win the prizes due to the contest design, interest in competing is likely to grow lukewarm for many of the workers. Also, competition does not promote a cooperative strategy and work performance can actually be sabotaged due to the hostility that competition can trigger.” 7. Punishment and Fear
“Although frequently used, the least effective method of motivating a worker is with a negative consequence, such as a verbal dressing-down, suspension, or the loss of the job. Punishment may achieve immediate results, but it does not accomplish internal motivation for several reasons. First, adults are not inclined to remain in employment where they are threatened and intimidated. Second, workers who are backed by a strong union may dissolve the threat with a higher level of authority. Third, scares and intimidation can create animosity toward a superior and employees may respond with hostility and subversion. Another problem with the fear strategy is that it creates a punitive climate in which individuals are afraid of being different from or of offending others. This particular situation has a tendency to diminish creativity and lead to intellectual stagnation.” “It would appear the most effective motivational strategies demand the most time and concern on the part of the manager. Threatening a worker with punishment [only] takes but a moment. Forming a cohesive work group with the team-building approach demands effort and hard work. If a manager is concerned only with production and immediate results, he may choose punishment and fear.” “However, if a superior is interested in performance levels, job satisfaction, and the internal motivation of his workers, it may benefit him to use more effective and demanding managerial strategies.”
o There are numerous classes, seminars, and certifications available for managers to increase their knowledge in motivating their team. The preceding articles offer a few different motivational strategies, and a clear message seems to be that good, productive management takes patience, understanding, and encouragement rather than “ruling with an iron fist”.
o Allow input from each and every employee. Have a company Intranet that allows any employee access. On the company Intranet, employees would have an area where they could send their concern(s) and/or suggestions for any changes to company policy, process, product enhancements, etc. All of which would be monitored by HR and sent on to the appropriate department managers for review. Each and every concern/suggestion must be answered in such a manner as to show the employee respect and to encourage further input. The company may institute a motivational awards program for suggestions resulting in product improvement, safety issues, cost savings, etc. This could be as simple as listing the person’s name in the company news letter, or maybe give the person a designated parking spot for a month, or maybe a small bonus check for their contribution. Have a method in place for anonymous concerns and/or suggestions. Some people may not trust a company Intranet as being a source of anonymity. So maybe a “ballot box” of sorts might be made available where anyone could input their issue on a slip of paper. Again, this would need to be monitored by HR.
o Have employees set goals which would benefit the company and supply the training for them to achieve their goals. LEAN Six-Sigma training HSE (Health, Safety and Environmental) training Internal PDM/PLM/Procedural training Management Improvement training ISO 9000/1 and ISO 14001 training Departmental Advancement training Manufacturing/Tooling awareness training CFT (Cross Functional Team) awareness training
o Cross-Train Employees who are performing repetitive tasks. An example would be to train assembly line workers in multiple workstations and set up a rotation schedule. This would break the daily monotony for the employees and would allow management the opportunity to cover any worker who might be absent.
o Schedule periodic performance reviews between employees and their supervisor to ensure communication and feed-back. Many times a manger will ask for feed-back in a staff meeting and nobody says a word. The performance review serves to reinforce areas of employee improvement/weakness as well as offer the opportunity for communication and feed-back between each employee and their supervisor in a private setting.
o Weekly Staff Meetings These allow for dissemination of information from upper management to all employees. They offer managers the opportunity to delegate assignments and follow up on the progression of assignments. This is done in the presence of the entire staff and acts as incentive to employees due to peer pressure. They also allow managers to assess different areas of concern and add additional manpower to ensure a successful outcome.
• Meetings can add value to the company if managed properly.
o Meetings generally fall into two main categories. They are either Informational or Working Meetings. Informational Meetings are intended for dissemination of information. They are a general assembly of people and there may be questions and answers at the end. Examples include, State of the Business Meetings, Departmental Meetings, Staff meetings, etc. Working Meetings are an important aspect of getting the job done. They are the means for us to communicate, come to agreements, assign responsibility, and make decisions that affect cost, timing, quality, etc. and must have signatures of concurrence by all attendees to make them effective. Meeting Minutes must be taken, and hard copies signed for
o All Meetings do take up precious time for all involved. So they must be taken seriously and kept on schedule. Every meeting needs to have a “champion”. Usually it is the person who called the meeting and prepared the agenda. Whoever calls a meeting must prepare an agenda for the meeting. • The agenda consists of : o Meeting Title (if an ongoing/follow-up meeting, add a number) o Where: (site, bldg, room, etc.) o When: (date, time start, time finish) o Invitees (list all who were invited) o Open Issues (list the issues/specify amount of time for each issue to be discussed) o Closed Issues (list the issues/specify amount of time for each issue to be discussed)
o New Issues (allow enough time for new issues to be tabled) There must be a process in place for all invitees to respond for their acceptance/non-acceptance of the proposed meeting. (i.e. MS Outlook, Lotus Notes, e-mail, etc.) • All those who accept the meeting should have secondary delegates who will attend in their absence. • Some form of consequence must be in place for those who accept a meeting and do not show. An e-mail to one’s manager/superior sometimes works for those in-house. The same e-mail to purchasing on a no-show supplier might get the message across. If the meeting has attendees not physically present (i.e. video or phone conference), then their verbal concurrence must be documented and signatures by those in attendance will serve as binding to any verbal concurrence of those not physically present. Meeting Minutes are a valuable resource in resolving issues of “who agreed to what-when-how” during a project. There must be proper documentation and agreement (signatures on hard copies) of such documentation to keep the project on track. If there were a means to get signatures electronically (with safeguards against duplication), then all the hard copies would become unnecessary. Until this happens, it is required to hold this important documentation safely and to make it available to upper management for review. Therefore, it is recommended to scan the signed Meeting Minutes and input them into a database/file folder that would be accessible to those who require this information.
o Document the Meeting Minutes. Meeting Minutes – Whiteboard (w/ hard copy capability) • The Whiteboard allows for input from any attendee and also allows for sketches, timelines, etc. to be added as required. At the end of the meeting, all attendees must receive and sign a hard copy of the meeting minutes. Do not let the meeting adjourn before the signature process! • All of the following will be documented on a Whiteboard with a hard copy mechanism in place. o Meeting title, date, and attendees. o All issues (open, closed, and new). o Key points, sketches, etc. o Assignment of responsibility for each issue will be agreed upon, followed by the appropriate person(s) names/initials. o Time/date for issue resolution agreed to by those present. o Next meeting (where & when) Meeting Minutes – Laptop • Usually the Meeting Minutes taken during the meeting on a laptop is carried out by someone other than the meeting “champion”. At the end of the meeting, all attendees must receive and sign a hard copy of the meeting minutes. Do not let the meeting adjourn before the signature process! • All of the following will be documented on a laptop computer. o Meeting title, date, and attendees. o All issues (open, closed, and new). o Key points, sketches, etc. o Assignment of responsibility for each issue will be agreed upon, followed by the appropriate person(s) names/initials. o Time/date for issue resolution agreed to by those present.
o Next meeting (where & when) Meeting Minutes – Hand Written • If no laptop is available the Meeting Minutes can be taken by hand. This is normally carried out by someone other than the meeting “champion”. At the end of the meeting, all attendees must receive and sign a copy of the meeting minutes. Do not let the meeting adjourn before the signature process! • All of the following will be documented in the Meeting Minutes. o Meeting title, date, and attendees. o All issues (open, closed, and new). o Key points, sketches, etc. o Assignment of responsibility for each issue will be agreed upon, followed by the appropriate person(s) names/initials. o Time/date for issue resolution agreed to by those present. o Next meeting (where & when)
o The Signature Process at the end of each Working Meeting is crucial to the success of a project. Without a consistent chronologic path of information, the project is subject to multiple delays from misunderstandings, miscommunications, loss/transition of key employees, as well as subterfuge by some who may see the missing information as a weakness and take advantage of the situation.
• A Company Intranet is a safeguarded method to disseminate valuable information to all employees throughout the company.
o General Access Area – Open to all employees Company Mission Statement HR Information Departmental Organization Charts with employees’ photos Sales & Marketing Information Company News Letter Technical Library Meeting Room Availability ISO 9000/1 & ISO 14001 Information Phone Listing Etc.
o Restricted Access Areas – Open to employees in a particular department Lessons Learned Database • This database in a valuable source of information from successes and failures of past projects. • To lose an employee that carries his/her knowledge “around in their head” is hard on the company due to retraining, going down the same dead end roads, or simply the new employee not knowing where to look for the information. • This database must be maintained and supported by management to ensure the employees participation. Design Specifications • Each department would benefit highly from having their approved design standards/specifications available to staff members who are responsible for following these procedures.
Competitive Vehicle Benchmarked Reports • This is an excellent source of information for those who need comparative data. Company Approved Fasteners • A comprehensive list of all the fasteners, clips, torque specs, material, finish, usage, etc. already approved and in use throughout the company. Procedures and Forms • A database of all the procedures and forms to follow to work together with other departments within the company. Etc.
o The use of a Company Intranet would also be beneficial in passing an ISO audit.
ISO Auditing Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_9000
Two types of auditing are required to become registered to the standard: auditing by an external certification body (external audit) and audits by internal staff trained for this process (internal audits). The aim is a continual process of review and assessment, to verify that the system is working as it's supposed to, find out where it can improve and to correct or prevent problems identified. It is considered healthier for internal auditors to audit outside their usual management line, so as to bring a degree of independence to their judgments. Under the 1994 standard, the auditing process could be adequately addressed by performing "compliance auditing":
• • •
Tell me what you do (describe the business process) Show me where it says that (reference the procedure manuals) Prove that this is what happened (exhibit evidence in documented records)
Suppliers (vendors) play a vital role in the success of the company.
o Purchasing, Program Planning, Product Engineering, Tooling Engineering, and QC Engineering Departments will be involved in the Supplier nomination process to ensure good quality, functional, toolable, parts that are within the budget and will meet the timing requirements of the project. o There are two main ISO (International Standards Organization) Certifications normally required for suppliers within the automotive industry; ISO 9000/1 and ISO 14001. ISO 9000/1 QMS (Quality Management Systems) Certified
Summary of ISO 9001:2008 in informal language
The quality policy is a formal statement from management, closely linked to the business and marketing plan and to customer needs. The quality policy is understood and followed at all levels and by all employees. Each employee needs measurable objectives to work towards. Decisions about the quality system are made based on recorded data and the system is regularly audited and evaluated for conformance and effectiveness. Records should show how and where raw materials and products were processed, to allow products and problems to be traced to the source. You need to determine customer requirements and create systems for communicating with customers about product information, inquiries, contracts, orders, feedback and complaints. When developing new products, you need to plan the stages of development, with appropriate testing at each stage. You need to test and document whether the product meets design requirements, regulatory requirements and user needs. You need to regularly review performance through internal audits and meetings. Determine whether the quality system is working and what improvements can be made. Deal with past problems and potential problems. Keep records of these activities and the resulting decisions, and monitor their effectiveness (note: you need a documented procedure for internal audits). You need documented procedures for dealing with actual and potential nonconformances (problems involving suppliers or customers, or internal problems). Make sure no one uses bad product, determine what to do with bad product, deal with the root cause of the problem and keep records to use as a tool to improve the system.
ISO 14001 EMS (Environmental Management System) Certified
Example of Bry-Air (Asia) Pvt. Ltd. ISO 14001 Certification Statement
All employees, working in harmony as one team, commit ourselves to prevent pollution and continually improve, monitor and maintain the improved environment in and around our workplace through • • • • • • • •
Creation of general environmental awareness amongst all employees and other interested parties Introduction of environment management systems in our operations Minimization of waste such as scrap Conservation of resources and basic amenities (such as raw material, water, fuel, electricity and compressed air) through recovery and recycling as applicable Prevention of pollution through minimization of emissions, effluents and solid wastes Strive to make products environment friendly Ensuring safety, health and hygiene of all the employees Compliance with all the legal / regulatory requirements as applicable.
o While compliance/certification to the ISO procedures alone does not ensure good quality, functional, toolable, parts that are within the budget and will meet the timing requirements of the project, it does show a willingness to take the required steps in the right direction. o Each department member on the nomination committee will have a check list of various criteria they must be satisfied that the Supplier has met, or can meet, before the nomination process is complete. o Even though a Supplier has been chosen for a particular part, assembly, or system, it is the responsibility of the company management/staff to monitor the Suppliers throughout the entire project to ensure they are performing adequately and can meet the deadlines, cost targets, and quality targets put forth in their contract. o Consequences must be written into the contracts with Suppliers for
nonconformance of the company’s targets.
o There can also be bonus incentives within the contracts for cost reduction, quality improvements, etc. o Controlling Cost, Quality, and Timing go hand in hand. Suppliers must get onboard with the Company’s mission. All Departments must work together to ensure the Suppliers’ compliance to contractual agreements and obligations.
• Motorsports activities enhance the Company’s image in the public’s view.
o Motorsports allows people to connect with the Company on a more personal level. People identify with the vehicles in Motorsports and tend to rally behind their team. This type of exposure is better than any 30 second television ad because it lasts for 1 – 2 hours. Motorsports shows customers and potential customers the Company’s products under extreme conditions and this instills confidence in those products. Due to the advertising nature of Motorsports, it is normally funded through the Company’s Marketing Department.
• Automotive/Trade Magazine Editors and Journalists.
o Get feedback from all sources that will critique the Company’s products in publication before they are released to the consumer. Ensure enough time in the project to correct the main issues of concern. This procedure is best handled by the Sales/Marketing Department in conjunction with the Customer Synergy Engineering Department.
• New Styling may bring new customers to your brand, but Quality Products and Customer Care is the key to keeping valued customers loyal to your brand. o Find out the expectations of your customers, and then exceed them.
Get the customers’ feedback through survey incentive programs. • • • • • Home Mailing Dealership Service Center Auto Shows Motorsports Events Customer Clinics
Ensure the Dealerships show your customers care and respect. • So many customers are lost due to bad experiences at their Dealership. The Dealership network must be onboard with the Company’s mission. • The Company needs to monitor and rate the Dealerships based on Customer Satisfaction. • • Implement Dealerships incentives based on their CS rating. Offer assistance to those Dealerships struggling with their CS ratings.
o Analyze Failures Warranty Issues • Have all parts which have failed under warranty returned to the Company for inspection. QC and Engineering must perform root
cause analysis to find and implement the solution for the failures. This is an additional method for monitoring the Dealership network. Service Bulletins • Have an easily accessible webpage providing all the Service Bulletins available both on the internet and in the Dealership Service Centers.
Cross Functional Teams (CFT) involvement and cooperation is essential for the successful completion of a project.
Sales/Marketing Department o New Program Vision normally begins through the knowledge of the consumer based upon data gathered form the Sales/Marketing Department. o They know what is selling and what is not. o Demographic Studies will show marketing trends of the customer. o During the New Program Vision period, Styling and Synergy Engineering must be onboard with renderings of new products to show in Demographic Clinics where future customers will evaluate/critique them. o Once the New Program Vision has been established, it is time to Plan the Project.
Program Planning – from Concept to SOP (Start of Production) o The most efficient way to get through a program successfully is to first plan a Timeline. The Timeline will travel through the entire project with Milestone Dates called out for each significant Departmental Function. Since one Timeline for an entire project can sometimes be overwhelming, there may be a Master Timeline, and then each Department would have their own version of the Timeline as it pertains to them. The Program Manager will revise the timeline whenever necessary to keep the project and all those involved up to date and on course. Program Planning will establish Prototype and Production Volumes. o Throughout the project, Program Planning are the over-seers of the project Timing.
Purchasing Department with signoff authority for cost issues. o Purchasing needs to be onboard early in the project to ensure proper cost estimations are complete. There is no sense to try to build a vehicle that would be too expensive to produce for the given program directive. o During the styling and pre-engineering phase Purchasing is working on Supplier nominations with the other respective departments. o Throughout the project, Purchasing are the over-seers of the project Cost/Budget.
Styling Department with signoff authority for styling issues. o Demographic Studies Get input from the end consumer first. o Competitive Vehicle Benchmark photos are used for Comparison. o There may be much iteration before final approval. These should be stored chronologically in a database for future reference. o Exterior/Interior Design must be specified and approved by the Styling Department. o Color, Grain, and Texture of all stylized surfaces must be specified and approved by the Styling Department. o Any deviation from the originally approved styling, at any point throughout the project, must be re-approved by the Styling Department.
Engineering Department with signoff authority for design/functionality issues. o Weekly Design Reviews The most effective method for Engineering Managers to follow the status of the project at hand is to over-see each engineer’s progress on a weekly basis. Otherwise significant time may be spent moving in a wrong direction and this adds delays to the project.
o Pre-Product (Packaging) Engineering Vehicle Layout/Specifications • • • • • • • • Three-dimensional Reference System Specified Fiducial Marks (Body Datums) Specified Vehicle Measuring Axis Specified Vehicle Track and Wheelbase Specified Overall Height, Width, and Length Specified Approach/Departure Angles Specified Ground Clearance Specified GVWR (Gross Vehicle Weight Rating), GAWR (Gross Axle Weight Rating) and GCWR (Gross Combined Weight Rating Specified • • Vehicle Roll Axis and CG (Center of Gravity) Specified Engine/Transmission/Drivetrain Type(s), Angles, Clearance Zones Specified • Suspension/Tire/Wheel Type(s), Angles, Clearance Zones Specified • • Basic Vehicle Packaging Established Lighting Zones Established
Ergonomics • H-Point(s) (Hip Point) and R-Point(s) (Seating Reference Point) Specified • Torso-line, Actual Torso Angle, and Design Torso Angle Established • • • • Center Plane of Occupant (C/LO) Established Sight & Vision Studies Ingress/Egress Established Occupant Reach Zones Established
Arrangement of Foot Controls Established All Occupant Clearance Zones Established
Regulations • • • FMVSS Regulations Specified (USA) CMVSS Regulations Specified (Canada) Emissions Regulations Specified (Country Specific)
Homologation • • EEC Regulations Specified Emissions Regulations Specified (EEC)
o Product Engineering Engine Engineering • Feasibility o Sectional Studies o Rotational/Kinematic Studies/Rod Path Clearance/etc. o Attachment Schemes • Base Engine o Blocks o Heads o Crankshafts/Rods/Pistons/Bearing Caps/etc. o Camshafts/Valvetrain/Valve Covers o Oil Systems/Oil Pans o Water Pumps o Bearings/Seals/Gaskets • Ancillary Components o Intake/Exhaust Plenums/Manifolds o Accessory Drive Systems o Turbochargers/Superchargers o Air Boxes/Air Filters • Control Systems o Fuel Systems o Electrical Systems o Emission Systems Calibration/Certification Drivetrain Engineering • Feasibility o Sectional Studies o Rotational/Kinematic Studies/Jounce-Rebound Clearance/etc.
o Attachment Schemes • Transmissions - Automatic o Cases o Torque Convertors o Oil Pumps/Systems o Valve Bodies/Springs o Gears/Shafts o Electrical Solenoids/Systems o Clutch Packs o Parking Pawls/Shift Mechanisms o Governors o Bearings/Seals/Gaskets • Transmissions - Manual o Cases o Clutches/Springs o Gears/Shafts o Shift Mechanisms o Bearings/Seals/Gaskets • Axles/Differentials/Prop Shafts/U-joints/CV Joints/etc.
Chassis Engineering • Feasibility o Sectional Studies o Rotational/Kinematic Studies/Tire Envelopes/etc. o Attachment Schemes • • • • • Frames/Sub-frames Suspensions Wheels & Tires Steering Systems Brake Systems
• • • •
Fuel Systems Cooling Systems Exhaust Systems Engine/Transmission Mounts
Vehicle Systems Engineering • Feasibility o Sectional Studies o Rotational/Kinematic Studies/Glass Drops/etc. o Attachment Schemes • Electrical Systems o Battery/Cables/Wiring Harnesses o Audio/Visual/GPS/Antenna o CPU/ECU o Various Electrical Components • • • • • • Wipers Lighting (Exterior/Interior) HVAC Locks /Hinges/Door Mechanisms Hydraulics/Pneumatics Bumper Systems
Interior Engineering • Feasibility o Sectional Studies o Rotational/Kinematic Studies/Ergonomic Reach Envelopes/etc. o Attachment Schemes • • • Instrument Panels/Cross Car Beam Steering Wheel/Steering Column Seating
Interior Trim (Floors, Doors, Consoles, Headliners, Pillars, etc.) o The Dry Bits
Occupant Safety (Air bags/Restraints)
Body Engineering • Feasibility o Sectional Studies o Rotational/Kinematic Studies/Door Swing Clearance/etc. o Attachment Schemes • • • • • BIW-Structural Glass/Sunroofs Retractable Roofs Exterior Panels (A-Class) Exterior Trim (Moldings, Handles, Fascias, Seals, Appliqués, etc.) o The Wet Bits
o R & D Engineering (Research & Development) Investigate new technologies/methodologies to improve the
Company’s products, processes, systems, or services that can increase the Company's sales and profits. R & D works across all CFT (Cross Function Teams) to achieve the optimum solution to each challenge they encounter. Each R & D project would require a Risk Assessment up front to establish the benefit vs. cost to the Company. Each R & D project would require a Timeline similar to those from Program Planning to ensure the deliverables are on schedule. Some companies choose to integrate R & D into the various Engineering Departments rather than have a separate autonomous group. This works well for them as most of the knowledge base to
improve their product is already working on and intimately familiar with their product. However, the benefits to having an autonomous R & D department would be to have employees dedicated to “thinking outside the box”. o Computer Analysis Engineering FEA (Finite Element Analysis) CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) 3D Vehicle Crash Simulation 3D Vehicle Suspension Simulation 3D Ergonomic Simulations
o Customer Synergy Engineering (In-house Quality Control to meet customer requirements) with signoff authority for synergy issues. Ergonomic Studies • • Tactile feel quality of various Interior/Exterior components Occupant Comfort Verification • • • • • • Seating Comfort Interior/Exterior Controls Noise intrusion Water intrusion Climate Control Comfort Audio/Visual/GPS
Customer expectations • • • • Fit & Finish Quality of Overall Vehicle Ride & Handling Verification Engine Bay Dress Overall Vehicle Performance
o Build and Validation Engineering Benchmarking • • • • Competitive Vehicle Teardown 3D Scanning Biometric/Ergonomic Evaluation Database of results (Intranet)
DMU (Digital Mock Up) Cubic Jigs Component Prototyping and Rapid Prototyping Component Bench Testing Engine Dynamometers (Thermal/Harmonic Frequency Data Acquisition) Chassis 4 Post Shaker Testing (HSP and Harmonic Frequency Data Acquisition) K & C (Kinematics & Compliance) Testing Chassis 7 Post Shaker Testing (HSP, Harmonic Frequency Data Acquisition and Aerodynamic Loading) Occupant Safety Validation Testing (HSP - High Speed Photography) Bumper Validation Testing Acoustic Testing (Anabolic Chamber) Extreme Temperature Testing (Hot/Cold Room) NVH (Noise, Vibration, and Harshness) Testing • BSR (Buzz, Squeak, Rattle) Testing
o Proving Grounds - Development Engineering Ride and Handling Development Test/Optimize Ride and Handling Characteristics Durability Testing Brake Testing Fuel Economy Testing
Emission Testing Vehicle Load Testing Vehicle Performance Testing Tire Testing Lighting Testing RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) Testing Emissive Off-Gas Testing Water Intrusion Testing
o Engineering Change Control/Tracking Management Engineering Changes during a project generally have a negative impact on cost and timing. There must be a system in place to alert the management of all departments as to any Engineering Changes that may cause problems within their scope of responsibility. There are many PDM/PLM (Product Data/Lifecycle Management) systems available on the market today. Systems such as ENOVIA, Smarargd, Smarteam, and Oracle that will achieve multiple product implementation goals. Enhancing design methodology according to company specific needs. Automating product data and business processes such as part number control, BOM and engineering change management across the organization. Bridging from engineering to manufacturing and other key enterprise applications. Linking design management throughout CFT including the supplier base.
o Documentation/Service Manuals/Illustration Department Exploded Assemblies for Build Sheets, Parts & Service, Owner’s Manuals, etc.
Fasteners/Attachment Department with signoff authority for fasteners/attachment issues. o Specify/Approve Fastener/Attachment Schemes o Torque Specifications o Hydrogen Embrittlement Testing/Approval o Retention Testing o Structural Adhesives Testing o Corrosion Protection Testing o Strength/Yield Testing o Lock Feature Testing (i.e. lock washer, encapsulated loc-tite, integrated nylon, etc)
Materials Department with signoff authority for material specification. o Testing and Validation of all materials would include: Ferrous and non-ferrous metals • • • Strength/Durability/Fatigue Corrosion Protection (Finish) Heat Treatment
Plastics/Rubber/Glass/Organic Materials • • • • • Strength/Durability/Fatigue Off-gassing (thermal) Sun-loading (UV) Environmental Deterioration Anti-Lacerative Glass (Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) laminate)
Certification/Homologation Department with signoff authority for certification issues. o Compliance to various global regulations must be validated and certified to be able to sell vehicles in a particular country. Regulations/ Homologation
• • •
FMVSS Regulations Specified (USA) CMVSS Regulations Specified (Canada) EEC Regulations Specified (Europe)
• • • •
UN/ECE Regulations (Europe) GTR (Global Technical Regulations) ADR (Australia) Emissions Regulations Specified (Country Specific)
Quality Control Department with signoff authority all quality issues. o ISO 9000/1 & ISO 14001 Audit Suppliers o Checking Fixture Approval (Supplier) o Overall Part Quality Approval (Supplier) o Grain/Texture Approval (Supplier) o Fit/Finish Approval (Supplier and Assembly Plant) o Throughout the project, Quality Control are the over-seers of the project Quality.
Tooling Department with signoff authority tooling issues. o Soft vs. Hard Tooling Assessment (base on volumes) o Tooling Life (durability/maintenance) Assessment o Material/Tolerance Assessment o EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining) Capabilities Assessment o Stamping Issues/Processes
Draw Depth Die Angles Material Thickness Minimum Radii Stretch Coining Progressive Dies Press Tonnage Requirements Scrap Assessment o Forging Issues/Processes Parting Line/Flash Die Angles Cold vs. Warm vs. Hot Forging Functionally Graded Material (FGM) Laser Process Deposition (LPD) Powder Metallurgy Orbital Forming Press Tonnage Requirements o Die Casting Issues/Processes Parting Line/Flash Die Angles Cams and Sliders Ejector Pins Gates, Runners Overflows and Venting Cooling Knit Lines & Sink Marks Porosity Alleviation (Vacuum Venting) Cold Chamber vs. Hot Chamber Process Thermal Fatigue or Heat Checking
Trim Dies Mold Flow Temperature/Pressure Requirements Gravity/Lost Foam/Lost Wax/Investment Casting o Sand Casting Issues/Processes Parting Line/Flash Cope and Drag Angles Cores Gates, Runners Overflows and Venting Mold Flow o Plastic/Rubber Molding Issues/Processes Parting Line/Flash Die Angles Cams and Sliders Ejector Pins Gates and Runners Cooling Knit Lines & Sink Marks Trim Dies Mold Flow Temperature/Pressure Requirements o Glass Molding Issues/Processes Gravity Bending External Press Bending Cylindrical Radius Bending o Extrusions (various materials) Extrusion Dies Trim Dies Speeds & Feed Rates
Temperature/Pressure Requirements o Machining Issues/Processes Drilling Grinding Broaching Lathing Milling Honing Thread Cutting/Forming Multiple Axis Milling Laser/Water Jet Cutting
Manufacturing Department with signoff authority Assembly Plant issues. o Fixturing/Alignment o Component Assembly o Fit and Finish o Stamping/Machining o Hemming/Roll Forming o Welding o Sealing/Structural Adhesives o Fastener Torque Validation o Corrosion Protection o Painting o Incoming Inspection o Employee Ergonomic Considerations o HSE (Health, Safety, Environmental) Considerations o Logistical Issues
Support Departments o Human Resources (HR) Employee Assistance o Information Technology Department (IT) Computer Assistance o Health, Safety & Environmental Department (HSE) Employee Safety and Environmental Concerns o Logistics Department Shipping & Receiving o Accounting Department Payroll, Accounts Receivable & Payable o Security o Facilities
• This paper is based on the supposition that an existing automotive company might be struggling and wants to reevaluate how they do business. It is also based on the supposition that Upper Management will support the implementation of some, if not all, of the changes mentioned within. It is not meant to be the absolute solution in fixing all the woes of a struggling automotive company. The purpose is merely to offer alternative actions which have been seen to work in other successful automotive companies that might help improve a struggling company’s bottom line. It was written through the eyes of an engineer and is therefore biased toward the engineering perspective.
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