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Even though there has been no definition written on stone about leadership, the majority of definitions try to base it on elements like “group”, “influence” and “goal” (Bryman, 1992). Leadership can be considered as the process of influencing people in achieving a desired outcome, whether positive or negative. There has been much interest in leadership studies lately and researches taking into consideration, different perspectives, behaviours, and effectiveness of the leader depending on situational characteristics, have all been studied. Most often, the research is focused on transformational and charismatic leadership (Den Hartog & Koopman, 2001). Transformational leadership can be considered as a moral leadership because it involves the leaders inspiring their followers to work together without self-interest, in achieving a common purpose (Burns, 1978). While most of the ideal leaders could be characterized as being a transformational, it would be worthwhile to consider that transformational leaders could be ethical or unethical depending on their motivation (Bass B. M., 1985). This distinction was later further explored by (Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999) and they came up with idea of authentic transformational leaders and pseudo transformational leaders. They pictured the former as the morally superior leaders because of their more ethical and moral disposition and the lack of coercive and manipulative influence. The latter on the other hand were more strongly motivated in a selfish manner and also found greater influence in politics. There were other similar studies which distinguished between transformational leaders as personalized and socialized charismatic leaders, with personalized charismatic leaders considered to be in tune to the pseudo transformational leader (Howell, 1988) . While a transformational leadership has a definite ethical orientation, the focus of studies on transformational leadership overlaps with ethical leadership. Transformational & ethical leaders act in a similar manner; they care about their followers, and act consistently with their moral behaviour (Brown & Treviño, 2006). Hence it is important to consider ethical leadership as a part of this research. Prior to that, we would like to shift our focus from the transformational leadership model to the pseudo transformational model on which we will be basing this research on. Pseudo transformational leaders are characterized by their self interest and their powerful disposition. While they are not very ethical, they are still inspirational but they use their influence for self gain (Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999). Thus a pseudo transformational leader loves absolute power, maximizes self interest, irrespective of followers’ interests (Christie, Barling, & Turner, 2011). The research by (Barling, Christie, & Turner, 2008) found that the followers of pseudo transformational leaders perceived these leaders to be more abusive, more influential, demanding obedience; they were more fearful of their leaders and had higher job insecurity as compared to followers of transformational leaders. The main characteristics of a pseudo transformational leader can be understood by contrasting this type of leadership with transformational leadership. The table below shows the contrasting styles of transformational and pseudo transformational leadership (Christie, Barling, & Turner, 2011).
Their followers trust him/her. and critiques from followers. we will be able to analyze the main characteristics of the leader we have chosen and arrive upon a conclusion about his style of leadership. independent thought. seldom harming other and this way they demand better attention from their followers (Eisenbeiß & Brodbeck. Another characteristic of ethical leaders is their attractiveness to followers and hence they are able to draw attention as a role model. When we look at the individual characteristics of ethical leaders.Characteristics Idealized influence Inspiration/motivation Transformational Leadership Have visions based on the collective good and aligning to the morals and aspirations of followers. They try to get in touch with their followers in order to talk about ethics or set clear ethical standards. Do not encourage opposing viewpoints. 2006) The ethical leaders tries to analyze and solve problems in an ethical way. Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Encourage followers to examine problems in different ways. caring and individuals with values. Exploit followers. often for self interest. . using them as a means to an extent. it is possible to identify five individual characteristics in the ethical leadership literature from the Five Factor Model (Big Five) (Digman. (Brown & Treviño. who make fair and balanced decisions. conscientiousness (someone who is dependable and responsible) and emotional stability (someone who is not over anxious. who care about people. and find creative solutions. they use rewards and punishments. In order to keep those ethical standards. Hereby they are seen as fair and decision-makers with principle. agreeableness (someone who is altruistic and trusting). hostile or impulsive) are related to ethical leadership. extraversion. Cares about the individual needs of followers. conscientiousness and emotional stability. because of their ethical standards. openness. These traits are clustered in five dimensions: agreeableness. 2013). pseudo transformational and ethical leadership. 1990). (Brown & Treviño. think critically. Influence followers to envision and work toward future goals by expressing a vision of the future. Pseudo Transformational Leadership Visions that are driven by self-interest and exclude the best interests of followers. acting as a coach or a mentor. Influence followers to envision and work toward future goals by expressing a vision of the future. 2006) Within this theoretical framework of transformational. Within these five dimensions. Ethical leaders can be seen as leaders who behave ethically in their personal and professional lives. They are characterized as honest.
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