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Hirabayashi vs.

US Facts:

1943

In the wake of the Japanese attack on Pear Harbor! Presi"ent #ooseve t acte" to prevent inci"ents of s$bversion an" espiona%e fro& in"ivi"$a s of Japanese "escent ivin% in the Unite" States. He iss$e" two e'ec$tive or"ers which were ($ick y enacte" into aw.. )n Febr$ary 19! 194*! Presi"ent Frank in +. #ooseve t iss$e" ,'ec$tive )r"er 9-.. which per&itte" the /ie$tenant 0enera +e1itt 2as hea" of the &i itary for &ost of the 1estern Unite" States3 to confine an" e'c $"e certain persons fro& 4&i itary areas!4 re%ar" ess of their ancestry or co$ntry of citi5enship. )ver the co$rse of severa weeks! /60 +e1itt i&pose" severa p$b ic proc a&ations! which first i&pose" a c$rfew $pon resi"ent a iens of Japanese "escent an" $pon Japanese78&ericans. 6hen! ater or"ers confine" Japanese an" Japanese78&ericans to 9i itary 8rea :o. 1! where Hirabayashi ive". 6hen! on 9ay 3! 194*! +e1itt iss$e" an or"er re($irin% Japanese an" Japanese7 8&ericans to report to offices! where they wo$ " be taken to re ocation centers. 0or"on ;iyoshi Hirabayashi! 8&erican citi5en of Japanese ancestry! a st$"ent at the University of 1ashin%ton. 6he char%es that appe ant! bein% a person of Japanese ancestry! ha" on a specifie" "ate! contrary to a restriction pro&$ %ate" by the &i itary co&&an"er of the 1estern +efense <o&&an"! Fo$rth 8r&y! fai e" to re&ain in his p ace of resi"ence in the "esi%nate" &i itary area between the ho$rs of =:-- o>c ock p.&. an" .:-- a.&. 8n" that on 9ay 11 an" 1*! 194*! ha"! contrary to a <ivi ian ,'c $sion )r"er iss$e" by the &i itary co&&an"er! fai e" to report to the <ivi <ontro Station within the "esi%nate" area! it appearin% that appe ant>s re($ire" presence there was a pre i&inary step to the e'c $sion fro& that area of persons of Japanese ancestry. He was convicte" of vio atin% a c$rfew an" re ocation or"er. Iss$e: 1): 6he Presi"ent>s e'ec$tive or"ers an" the power "e e%ate" to the &i itary a$thorities "iscri&inate a%ainst 8&ericans an" resi"ent a iens of Japanese "escent. 1): the or"ers were constit$tiona . He ": :o! it "i" not "iscri&inate a%ainst 8&ericans an" resi"ent a iens of Japanese "escent an" is constit$tiona . #atio +eci"en"i: 6he <o$rt fo$n" the Presi"ent>s or"ers an" the i&p e&entation of the c$rfew to be constit$tiona . <hief J$stice Stone! writin% for the $nani&o$s <o$rt! took into acco$nt the %reat i&portance of &i itary insta ations an" weapons pro"$ction that occ$rre" on the 1est <oast an" the 4so i"arity4 that in"ivi"$a s of Japanese "escent fe t with their &other an". He reasone" that restrictions on Japanese actions serve" an i&portant nationa interest. 6he <o$rt "$cke" the thorny re ocation iss$e an" foc$se" so e y on the c$rfew! which the <o$rt viewe" as a necessary 4protective &eas$re4 after "ec arin% war a%ainst Japan. 6he s$ccessf$ prosec$tion of the war re($ires every possib e protection a%ainst espiona%e an" a%ainst sabota%e to nationa "efense &ateria ! nationa "efense pre&ises! an" nationa "efense $ti ities. Stone ar%$e" that racia "iscri&ination was ?$stifie" since 4in ti&e of war resi"ents havin% ethnic affi iations with an inva"in% ene&y &ay be a %reater so$rce of "an%er than those of a "ifferent ancestry.4

J. Paler