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SALVAGE AND TOWING Baptist, C. N. T., Salvage Operations, Stanford Maritime Ltd., 1979. Accounts of several salvage operations highlighting unique salvage problems, techniques and skills. Bartholomew, C. A., Mud, Muscles, and Miracles, Naval History Center, 1990. Comprehensive history of U.S. Navy marine salvage. Blank, John, S., 3rd, Modern Towing, Cornell Maritime Press, 1989. Brady, Edward M., Marine Salvage Operations, Cornell Maritime Press, 1960. Salvage practices pertaining to strandings and sinkings, salvage equipment and structures, and integration of naval architecture principles. Clay, John S. Salvage of Stranded Tank Vessels with Computer Assistance, Department of Ocean Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 1983. Describes modification of the Ship Hull Characteristics Program (SHCP), that assists modeling to determine probability of exceeding longitudinal hull strength of stranded ships. George, R. L., Quirk, John L., Use of Magnets in Marine Salvage, NCEL Technical Report R583, 1968. Explores the application of magnets to underwater work, concludes that magnets have uses in shallow water but are of little value in deep water salvage because of low payload/weight ratios. Hancox, David, Reeds Commercial Salvage Practice, Volumes 1 and 2, Thomas Reed Publications Ltd., 1987. Encyclopedic treatment of practical casualty salvage and wreck removal. NAVAIR 00-80R-19, NATOPS U.S. Navy Aircraft Crash and Salvage Operations Manual, 1989. Salvage procedures, lift points, weights, and other pertinent details for U.S. Navy aircraft. NAVSHIPS 250-880-5, Ship Salvage Operations, Miscellaneous Techniques, 1946. Collection of ship salvage operations notes. NAVSHIPS 250-631-2, Submarine Salvage Pontoons and Related Equipment, Boston Naval Shipyard, 1964. Description and operation of submarine salvage pontoons and other submarine salvage equipment. Reid, George H., Ship Handling with Tugs, Cornell Maritime Press, 1986. Short practical guide to tug work. Ship Salvage Notes, Parts 1 and 2, Naval Deep-Sea Diving School, Washington, D.C., 1960. Student guide formerly used in salvage officer course of instruction. TM 55-503, Marine Salvage and Hull Repair, Department of the Army, 1966. Reference and training guide to salvage and repair of marine hulls and related equipment.



SALVAGE REPORTS Boyd, J. H., Suez Canal SALVOPS in 1974, 1974. Removal of ten large wrecks from the Suez Canal in seven months. Commander Service Group THREE/Commander Task Force SEVENTY-THREE ltr 4740, ser 70-0172, of 16 Jun, 1966, SS EXCELLENCY Salvage Operations; report of. Refloating of MSTS freighter stranded on Triton Island by pulling/wrenching with beach gear and tugs, and discharging 368 tons of cargo into an LST. "Marine Technology Society Journal," Second Quarter 1984. Issue devoted to marine salvage, with reports of several operations. Matich, M.A. J., Burial of Wreck Obstructing the St. Lawrence Channel, N.Z. Engineering, 15 February 1969. Soil Mechanics aspects of the successful disposal of a 527-foot ore carrier in the river bottom to below specified navigation clearance. NAVSEA S0300-BJ-RPT-010, Commercial Aircraft Salvage Operations, 10 February 1991. Four aircraft recovery/salvage report overviews (KAL Flight 007, Air India Flight 182, South African Airways Flight 295, and United Airlines Flight 811), illustrating the evolution of recovery/ salvage equipment and procedures. NAVSEA SL740-AC-RPT-010/SUPSALV, USCGC MESQUITE Salvage Operation Dec. 89-July 90 Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan, 19 July 1991. Removal and disposal of 180-foot buoy tender from shallow water over a rock ledge. Details construction and employment of heavy lift barge and preparations of wreck for lifting. NAVSEA Supervisor of Salvage Report, USNS Chauvenet Salvage Report, 1982. Difficult refloating of AGOR stranded on steeply shelving coral reef; addresses solutions to stability problems and lack of suitable beach gear anchorages. NAVSEA Supervisor of Salvage Report 84-06, EX-USS BLUEGILL Salvage Operations, 1984. GATO class submarine (WW II fleetboat) raised from 138 FSW on internal buoyancy with 8.4 ton salvage pontoon for added lift and control. NAVSEA SL740-AB-RPT-010/SUPSALV, Barge 45 Salvage Operations, Buffalo, N.Y. 1986, 1988. Removal and disposal of barge in heavy current in Niagara river. Calculations include hydrodynamic force prediction and ad hoc lift barge design NAVSEA T9597-AB-RPT-010/SUPSALV, EX-USS TORTUGA (LSD 26) Salvage Report, 1989. Removal and scuttling of large vessel from San Miguel Island. Details extensive topside weight removal and use of prototype Ship Salvage Engineering Program (SSEP). NAVSEA T9597-AA-RPT-010/SUPSALV, Space Shuttle "Challenger" Salvage Report, 1988. Underwater search and salvage using manned and unmanned submersibles in a logistically complex operation. NAVSEA 0994-016-7010/SUPSALV, "A. Mackenzie" Salvage Operation, 1975. Unique operation using "cut in place and lift" technique; report details solutions to difficulties encountered using explosives as a cutting technique.



NAVSEA 0994-LP-017-4010/SUPSALV, SS "Sidney E. Smith, Jr." Salvage Operation, 1976. Removal of Great Lakes coal carrier from busy ship channel using cast-in-place foam. NAVSEA 0994-LP-016-6010 through 6060, Salvops 69-70, 6 volumes, 1970-1975. Annual summaries of significant salvage operations. NAVSHIPS 250-880-21, Salvage of the USS LAFAYETTE (EX-SS NORMANDIE), 1946. Righting and refloating of large ocean liner in New York harbor. Details removal of superstructure, shoring, and pumping operations. Petersen, Charles, C., The Soviet Port Clearing Operation in Bangladesh, March 1972-April 1973, Center For Naval Analyses Memorandum, (CNA) 1406-73, 28 August 1973. Analyses of Soviet port clearance and salvage capabilities as evidenced by operations in Bangladesh. Whitaker, F. H., Captain, USN, The Salvage of USS "Oklahoma," Transactions SNAME, Vol. 52, 1944. Righting and refloating of battleship capsized and sunk by extensive torpedo damage at Pearl Harbor, HI, 7 December 1941.

DIVING AND UNDERWATER WORK Hackman, Donald J. and Cardy, Donald W., Underwater Tools, Battelle Press, 1981. Guide to fabrication and design of underwater work systems. Larn, Richard and Whistler, Rex, Commercial Diving Manual, David and Charles, 1984 basic diving procedures and underwater work techniques for construction, inspection, and maintenance. NAVFAC P-990, Conventional Underwater Construction and Repair Techniques, not dated. Guide for underwater construction team (UCT) conventional operations - based on UCT case histories and commercial practice. NAVSEA P-991, Expedient Underwater Repair Techniques, not dated. Guide for underwater construction team (UCT) repairs in contingencies. Companion volume to NAVFAC P-990. NAVSEA 0994-LP-007-8010/8020, Underwater Inspection, Maintenance, and Repair of Naval Ships (Underwater Work Techniques Manual) Volumes 1 and 2, not dated. Shallow water ships husbandry and equipment guide. NAVSEA 0994-LP-001-9010, U.S. Navy Diving Manual, Vol. 1, AIR (REV 2), 1988. Navy air diving procedures and requirements; discussions of physics, medicine, physiology operations planning, decompression procedures and tables, and recompression therapy. Addresses SCUBA, lightweight diving apparatus, MK 12 deep-sea diving dress. NAVSEA 0994-LP-001-9020, U.S. Navy Diving Manual, Vol. 2, Mixed Gas Diving, Second Edition, 1977. Continuation of Volume 1, detailing Navy mixed gas diving procedures and requirements; includes gas properties for use in diving, saturation diving theory and practice.



NAVSEA 50600-AA-PRO-010, Underwater Ships Husbandry Manual, 1988. Information, techniques, and procedures for underwater inspection, maintenance, and repair of hulls and appendages of surface ships, submarines, and small craft. Completed chapters include: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Index and users guide General information and safety procedures Propellers Auxiliary Propulsion Units Master emitter belts Sonar systems

NOAA Diving Manual, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Manned Undersea Science And Technology Office, 1979. Comprehensive treatment of diving and related technology as applied to scientific research. Talkington, Howard R., Undersea Work Systems, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA., 1981. Fabrication and design of underwater work systems, including vehicles. Tucker, Wayne C., Divers Handbook of Underwater Calculations, Cornell Maritime Press, 1980. Calculations and data commonly used in underwater work for divers and engineers.

NAVAL ARCHITECTURE Lewis, E. V. (Editor), Principles of Naval Architecture, Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME), Second Revision, 1988. Standard reference of basic naval architecture calculations and methods. Taggart, R. (Editor), Ship Design and Construction, Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME), Second Edition, 1980. Companion volume to PNA, addressing advanced topics. Atwood, E. L. and Pengelly, H. S., Theory of Naval Architecture, 1937. Comprehensive text and reference by a recognized master of the subject. A "standard" reference. Muckle, W., revised by Taylor, D. A., Muckles Naval Architecture, Second Edition, Butterworths, 1987. Fundamental principles and practices of naval architecture. Gillmer, Thomas C. and Johnson, Bruce, Introduction to Naval Architecture, Naval Institute Press, 1987. Fundamental text written for freshmen naval architecture students. Rawson, K. J. and Tupper, E. C., Basic Ship Theory, Volumes 1 and 2, Third Edition, Longman Inc., 1983. Introductory naval architecture, including computer application and usage. Pursey, H. J., Merchant Ship Construction, Seventh Edition, Brown, Son, and Ferguson Ltd., 1975. Illustrated discussion of construction and arrangement of ship structural components. Manning, George C., Manual of Ship Construction, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1942. Fundamentals of naval architecture, ship construction, and shipyard practice.



White, G. W., Elementary Beam Theory and the Ship Girder, Stanford Maritime Ltd., 1979. Shipboard loading and discharging operations, strength of materials, ship girders, and problem solving by manual and automated methods. NAVFAC DM 28, Design Manual: Weight Handling Equipment and Service Craft, 1975. Design data and operating procedures for heavy lift equipment on all types of platforms. NAVSEA 0900-LP-097-4010, Structural Design Manual for Naval Surface Ships, 15 Dec 1976. Comprehensive steel and aluminum ship structure design manual. PB 171471, NAVSHIPS 250-443-1, Manual of Properties of Combined Beam and Plate, Volumes 1 and 2. Tabulated area, moment of inertia, and section modulus for various stiffener-plating combinations. NAVSHIPS 250336, Wood: A Manual for Its Use as a Shipbuilding Material, 1957. Wooden ship design and construction in four volumes.

NAVSHIPS ENGINEERING CENTER DESIGN DATA SHEETS DDS 079-1, Stability and Buoyancy of U.S. Naval Surface Ships, 1975. NAVSEA design practice for stability and buoyancy. DDS 100-1, Reinforcement of Openings in Structures of Surface Ships, Other Than In Protective Plating, 1984. DDS 100-4, Strength of Structural Members, 1982. Uniform standards for design of structural members in compression and shear. DDS 100-5, Strength of Glass Reinforced Plastic Structural Members. DDS 100-6, Longitudinal Strength Calculation, 1987. Standard practice for longitudinal hull strength calculations and drawings (traditional static balance).

SHIP CHARACTERISTICS AND DATA Classification society and regulatory body registers: Lloyds Register of Shipping: Register of Ships, annual Ship name and former names, official number, Lloyds Register number, call sign, owners, managers, port of registry, tonnages, hull type/classification, builder and date and place of build, extreme and molded dimensions, construction details, hold and hatch dimensions and/or tank capacities, number and capacity of winches and cranes/derricks, machinery type and power, speed. Updated by monthly supplements and a "Weekly List of Alterations." Register of Offshore Units, Submersibles and Diving Systems, annual Data on mobile drilling rigs able to operate in at least 50 feet of water, submersibles, diving systems classed with or certified by Lloyds Register, and selected work units (ships, barges, and platforms employed in offshore construction, pipelaying, heavy lifting, firefighting, and submersible/diving support). Sections cover units in existence and under construction. Also included is a list of owners and managers with addresses, telex, telephone, and telefax numbers. Maritime Guide, annual Data on drydocks, gazetteer, maps, telegraphic addresses and telex numbers for shipbuilders, marine engine builders and boilermakers, shipbreakers, marine insurance companies, and marine associations. U.S. Department of Transportation/U.S. Coast Guard: Merchant Vessels of the United States, annual Official U.S shipping register, including yachts, giving official number, name, call sign, hull type, tonnage, dimensions, place and year built, service, horsepower, name of owner, and home port. Updated by monthly supplements.



Janes Publications (Janes Publishing Co. Ltd.): Sharpe, Richard (Editor), Janes Fighting Ships, annual. Descriptions of ships and major aircraft of the worlds navies with selected illustrations. Trillo, Robert J. (Editor), Janes Ocean Technology, annual. Compendium of data on manufacturers and operators of tugs, salvage vessels, submersibles, and offshore supply vessels. Includes vessel characteristics and operator addresses. Other: Polmar, Norman, Combat Fleets of the World, biennial, United States Naval Institute, 1978-79. Similar in scope to Janes Fighting Ships, with slightly less detail

ENGINEERING Ocean, Coastal, and Marine Geotechnical Engineering: Beer, Tom, Environmental Oceanography, Pergamon Press Inc., 1983 An introduction to coastal zone processes, including wave generation and decay, surf, current effects, and beach erosion/accretion. Myers, John J., Holm, Carl H., McAllister, and Raymond F. (Editors), Handbook of Ocean and Underwater Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1969. Guidelines for design of systems and structures for over-water construction; written for engineers without ocean-related background Rocker, Karl, Handbook for Marine Geotechnical Engineering, Naval Civil Engineering Lab, 1985. Response of seafloor materials to foundation and mooring loads. Includes very comprehensive discussion of performance factors for all types of anchors. Puech, A., The Use of Anchors in Offshore Petroleum Operations, Gulf Publishing Company, 1984. Excellent guide to drag anchor selection and employment. Descriptions and data for wide selection of commercial anchors. CRC Practical Handbook of Marine Science, Chemical Rubber Company, 1990. Reference data of physical, chemical and biological aspects of the ocean environment. Includes air-sea interactions and ocean engineering information. Shore Protection Manual, Volumes 1 and 2, Fourth Edition, U. S. Army Coastal Engineering Research Center, 1984. Volume 1 analysis and solution of coastal design problems. Volume 2 details of selected projects such as seawalls and breakwaters. TM 5-360, Port Construction and Rehabilitation, Department of the Army, 1964. Construction and rehabilitation of ship unloading and cargo handling facilities in theater of operations harbors; harbor clearance; port administration Huston, John, Hydraulic Dredging, Cornell Maritime Press, 1970. Design, hydraulics, pipe friction and pump hydraulics related to hydraulic dredging.



Turner, Thomas M., Fundamentals of Hydraulic Dredging, Cornell Maritime Press, 1984. A noncalculus approach emphasizing hydraulic principles. Herbich, John B., Coastal and Deep Ocean Dredging, Gulf Publishing Company, 1975. Theory of centrifugal pumps, dredge pump cavitation, head losses, and pipeline transport of solids. Driscoll, Alan H. (Editor), Handbook of Oceanic Winch, Wire, and Cable Technology, Second Edition, 1989. Comprehensive handbook encompassing most aspects of usage and safety of wire rope, winches, sheaves. Includes sections on Kevlar, fiber optics, coatings, testing, and calculation tables. Vendrell, J., The Oil Rig Moorings Handbook, Brown, Son and Ferguson, Ltd., 1985. Anchoring and mooring systems for various rigs; details computer programs useful in catenary calculations. API Recommended Practice 2P (RP2P), Analysis of Spread Mooring Systems for Floating Drilling Units, Second Edition, American Petroleum Institute, 1987. Design, and evaluation of spread mooring systems for floating drilling platforms. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) Design Manuals: DM 25.1, Waterfront Operational Facilities, 1971 Design criteria for piers and wharves DM 26.1, Harbors, (Change 1), 1984 General planning criteria including functional layout and data sources. DM 26.2, Coastal Protection, 1982 Principles of coastal structures with general planning and structural design criteria. Includes wave theory and transformations. DM 26.3, Dredging, 1968 Dredging project logistics for harbors, turning basins, and channels. DM 26.4, Fixed Moorings, 1986 Guidelines for designing and loading fixed moorings. DM 26.5, Fleet Moorings, Basic Criteria and Planning Guidelines, 1985 Criteria and planning guidelines with example calculations for design of fleet moorings. DM 26.6, Mooring Design, Physical and Empirical Data, 1986 Vessel characteristics, strength and dimensions of anchors, buoy, chain and fittings. Mechanical Engineering, Structures: Parrish, A., Mechanical Engineers Reference Book, Butterworths, 1973. General reference mechanical engineering topics, with extensive tables and charts. Karassik, Krutzsch, William C., Fraser, Warren H., and Messina, Joseph P. (Editors), Pump Handbook, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1985. In-depth treatment of pump design, application, selection, and operation. Syska, R. E. and Birk, J. R. (Editors), Pump Engineering Manual, The Duriron Company, Inc. 1983. Compact guide to pump selection, installation and operation. Mih, W. C., Chen, C. K. and Orsborn, J. F., Bibliography of Solid-Liquid Transport in Pipelines, Albrook Hydraulic Laboratory College of Engineering Research Division Washington State University, December 1971. Bibliography with brief theoretical discussion of slurry transport.



Encyclopedia of Fluid Mechanics, Gulf Publishing Company, 1986. Volume 1 flow phenomena and measurement Volume 5 slurry flow technology Volume 6 complex flow phenomena and modeling. Avallone, Eugene A. and Baumeister, Theodore III (Editors), Marks Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, Ninth Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1987. Encyclopedic reference of mechanical engineering and related disciplines. Lindeberg, Michael R., Mechanical Engineering Review Manual, Seventh Edition, Professional Publications, Inc., 1984. A concise comprehensive review course for the professional engineers examination. Manual of Steel Construction, Eighth Edition, American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., 1980. Detailed information on properties, design and specifications. Also math tables and other data on fabricated steel structures. Levinson, Irving J., Mechanics of Materials, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1970. Concise, noncalculus treatment of the most common strength of materials problems. Timoshenko, Stephen, Strength of Materials, Third Edition, Van Nostrand, 1956. Comprehensive text by a recognized master of the subject. A "standard" reference. Roark, R. J. and Young, W. C., Formulas for Stress and Strain, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1975. Load response and stress, strain, and deflection relationships for common structural components, including beams, plates, cylinders, spheres, struts, etc. NAVFAC DM 3, Design Manual: Mechanical Engineering, 1972. General shore-based guide covering plumbing, ventilation, vacuum, refrigeration, and air systems. Civil Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics: Krynine, Dimitri P., Soil Mechanics, McGraw Hill Book Company, Inc., 1947. Comprehensive and understandable text. NAVFAC DM 5, Design Manual: Civil Engineering, 1972. Surveying, hydrology and hydraulics, pollution control systems. NAVFAC DM 7, Design Manual: Soil Mechanics, Foundations, and Earth Structures, 1971. Soil classification and measurement, rock and soil stability, structure settlement analysis. Lindeberg, Michael R., Civil Engineering Reference Manual, Fourth Edition, Professional Publications, 1986. A concise comprehensive review course for the professional engineers examination. Brady, Nyle C., The Nature and Properties of Soils, Tenth Edition, MacMillan Publishing Co, 1990. Soil properties reference guide.



Troxell, G. E., Harmer, E. D., and Kelly, J. W., Composition and Properties of Concrete, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1968 Concrete proportioning and placement, structural properties Meyers, Arnold, Current Bibliography of Offshore Technology and Offshore Literature Classifications, ASR Marketing, 1984. Chen, Andrie T. and Leidersdorf, Craig B. (Editors), Arctic Coastal Processes and Slope Protection Design, American Society of Civil Engineers, 1988. Papers addressing the civil engineering challenges of cold regions. The first six focus on arctic coastal processes including coastal geomorphology, ice processes, and other environmental ice processes. The last 5 cover slope protection design. Bowie, I. G., An Application of Flow Net Theory to Marine Salvage Operations, University of Sydney, School of Civil and Mining Engineering Research Report 490, March 1985. Theoretical examination of the feasibility of reducing ground reaction by inducing steady state water flow in the soil under a stranded ship. Marine Engineering: Osbourne, Alan and Bayne, Niel A., Modern Marine Engineers Manual, Volume 1, Second Edition, Cornell Maritime Press, 1973. Design, operation and repair of general types of marine equipment. Osbourne, Alan and Hunt, Everett, Modern Marine Engineers Manual, Volume 2, Second Edition, Cornell Maritime Press, 1991. Design, operation and repair of general types of marine equipment. Harrington, Roy L. (Editor), Marine Engineering, Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME), 1971. General applications of marine engineering for readers with engineering backgrounds NAVPERS 10788-B, Principles of Naval Engineering, 1970. Overview of shipboard engineering plants and fundamentals of machinery and equipment design and operation, General Engineering References: Gieck, Kurt, Engineering Formulas, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1986. Highly recommended pocket guide to the more important technical and mathematical formulas. Translated from the German. Hicks, Tyler G. and Hicks, David S., Standard Handbook of Engineering Calculations, Second Edition, McGraw Hill, 1985. Comprehensive reference encompassing all fields of engineering, including marine and nuclear. Includes over 5,000 routine and nonroutine problems. Hughes, William F. and Eber, W. Gaylord, Basic Equations of Engineering Science, 1964. Over 1,400 basic equations of continuum mechanics. Tuma, Jan J., Handbook of Numerical Calculations in Engineering, McGraw-Hill, 1989. Definitions, theorems, computer models, numerical examples, and tables with formulas and functions. CRC Standard Mathematical Tables, Chemical Rubber Co, 1989, Re-issued periodically Brief review of mathematics through integral calculus, with supporting tables.



Computer languages and software Birnes, William J. (Editor), McGraw-Hill Personal Computer Programming - Languages and Operating Systems Encyclopedia, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1989. Single volume cross-indexed desktop reference including language applications, software, and operating systems. Thirty-seven languages addressed, including ADA, Basic, COBOL, Fortran, Pascal, RPG, Paradox, DBase II, Lotus, "C", MS-DOS, Apple, Macintosh, Commodore software. Handbook and Guide for Comparing and Selecting Computer Languages, Stuff of Research and Education Association, 1985. Intended to help programmers make the correct choice by drawing comparisons between eight languages including Basic, COBOL, "C", Fortran, and Pascal. Kernighan, Brian W. and Ritchie, Dennis M. The "C" Programming Language, Prentice-Hall, 1978. Designed for "C" novices desiring a programming guide. Purdum, Jack J., Leslie, Timothy C., and Stegenoller, Alan L., "C" Programmers Library, Que Corporation, 1984. Design and writing functions plus several methods to analyze and attack problems. Grogono, Peter, Programming in Pascal, Addison Wesley Publishing Co., 1980. Assumes no prior knowledge of Pascal; suitable for an introductory course.

EXPLOSIVES Gregory, C. E., Explosives for North American Engineers, Trans Tech Publications, 1973. General guide to civil and mining engineering applications of explosive technology. Henrych, Josef, Dynamics of Explosion and Its Use, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, 1979. Analytical examination of the effects of explosion induce waves and forces on various media and interfaces, and their engineering applications. FM 5-25, Explosives and Demolitions Field Manual, Department of the Army, 1967. Guide to explosives use in destruction of military obstacles and certain construction projects. General reference for charge weight formulas, handling, safety, types, and preparation of explosives. Cole, Robert H., Underwater Explosions, Princeton University Press, 1948. Theoretical and logical exposition and compendium of the basic phenomena associated with underwater explosions. Blasterss Handbook, Fifteenth Edition, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (Inc.), Wilmington, Delaware (1967). Handbook for the use of commercial explosives, including many particular applications, historical sketches and safety precautions. Holland, Norma O. (Editor), Explosives - Effects and Properties (U), Naval Ordnance Laboratory (White Oak) Report NOLTR 65-218, 21 Feb 1967, CONFIDENTIAL. Handbook of explosive properties, and the effects of explosives in air and water. Kennard, E. H., Underwater Explosions - A Summary of Results (U), David Taylor Model Basin Report C-334, Feb 1951, CONFIDENTIAL. Excellent introductory summary of explosive phenomena and damage mechanisms.



Strange, J.N., Water Shock-Wave Reflection Properties of Various Bottom Materials, Summary Progress Report, Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, Miscellaneous Paper No. 1-826, Jun 1966. Data on shock reflection properties of unconsolidated clayey silt, consolidated clayey silt, sand, and concrete, with graphical results and tentative conclusions. Strange, J.N. and Miller, Louis, An Exploratory Study of the Effect of a Bubble Screen on Water Shock (U), Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, Miscellaneous Paper No. 2-285 Oct 1958, CONFIDENTIAL. A set of experiments that indicates the peak pressure and impulse are significantly reduced by an appropriate bubble screen: boundary conditions for the tests do not permit detailed predictions, however. Strange, J.N. and Miller, Louis, Shock-Wave Attenuation Properties of a Bubble Screen, Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, Technical Report No. 2-564, Apr 1961. Experimental results of shock-wave attenuation by a bubble screen 20 feet long and 0.5 to 3.0 feet thick with an airflow of 0.8 to 2.0 cubic feet per second on pressure, impulse, and energy. Thompson, W.M., Jr., The Effect of Liquid Loading on Double Bottom Response to Underwater Explosions (U), Underwater Explosions Research Division Report 1-59, Feb 1959, CONFIDENTIAL. Tests on a 3/8-scale model section of the FORRESTAL (CVA-59) bottom structure indicating that an optimum liquid loading to minimize damage does exist.

TECHNICAL MANUALS, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE GUIDES Naval Sea Systems Command, Naval Ships Technical Manual (NSTM), various dates. Administrative and technical instructions for operation and maintenance of U.S. Navy shipboard equipment. Chapter 001 is index and user guide. Chapters pertinent to salvage include: CHAPTER VOLUME TITLE 074 1 Welding and Allied processes 2 NDT of metals, qualification and certification requirements for Naval personnel 075 Threaded fasteners 079 1 Practical damage control 2 Damage Control - stability and buoyancy 096 Weights and stability 100 Hull structures 221 Boilers 223 Diesel engines 234 Marine gas turbines 503 Pumps 541 Petroleum fuel stowage, use and testing 542 Gasoline and JP-5 fuel systems 550 Industrial gases; generating, handling, and storage 555 Firefighting - ship 573 Booms 581 Anchors and anchoring 583 Boats and small craft 584 Stern gates, ramps, bow doors, turntables and water barriers 593 Pollution control 594 Salvage-submarine safety escape and rescue devices 611 Fenders 613 Wire and fiber rope and rigging 670 Stowage, handling and disposal of hazardous general use consumables 700 Shipboard ammunition handling and stowage 9180 Rigging 9200 Winches and capstans 9250 Towing gear 2980 Fiber ropes; natural and synthetic PUBLICATION # 59086-CH-STM-010/011/012 59086-CH-STM-020 59086-CJ-STM-000/001 59086-CN-STM-020 59086-CN-STM-010 59086-C6-STM-000-001 59086-DA-STM-000 59086-GY-STM-000-015 59086-HB-STM-000-004 59086-HC-STM-000/001/002 59086-RH-STM-000/001/002 59086-SN-STM-000/001/002 59086-SP-STM-000/001 59086-SX-STM-006 59086-S3-STM-010 59086-TM-STM-000 59086-TV-STM-000 59086-TX-STM-000/003 59086-TY-STM-000 59086-T8-STM-000 59086-T9-STM-000 59086-US-STM-000/001 59086-VV-STM-000 59086-WK-STM-000/006 59086-XG-STM-000/001/002 0901-LP-180-0001 0901-LP-200-0001 0901-LP-250-0001 0901-LP-280-0001



Hiscox, Gardner Dexter (Editor), Henleys 20th Century Book of Formulas, Processes, and Trade Secrets, Norman W. Henley Publishing Co., 1944. Over 10,000 scientific formulas and chemical recipes for industrial and general use compounds. Phillips, Arthur L. (Editor), Welding Handbook - Fundamentals of Welding, Fifth Edition, American Welding Society, 1963. Welding processes and materials, techniques and metallurgy. Swanson, W.E., Modern Shipfitters Handbook, Cornell Maritime Press, 1941 Heavy construction, welding, and fabrication practices that can be adapted to field work

MATERIAL PROPERTIES Moss, John B, Properties of Engineering Materials, CRC Press, 1971. Properties and behavior of materials and their response to the environment, Shubert, P.B., Moltrecht, K.H., and Ryffel, H.R. (Editors), Machinerys Handbook, 21st edition, Industrial Press Inc., 1981. Compendium of metal properties, component standards, and standard practices for design and fabrication of machine parts.

SEAMANSHIP AND NAVIGATION General: Hayler, William B. (Editor), Merchant Marine Officers Handbook, Fifth edition, Cornell Maritime Press, 1989. Danton, Graham, The Theory and Practice of Seamanship, Ninth Edition, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985. Comprehensive commercial (British) seamanship reference. Knight, Austin M., Knights Modern Seamanship, Ninth Edition, 1941, Twelfth Edition, 1953 (D. Van Nostrand Co. Inc.), Eighteenth Edition, 1989 (Van Nostrand Reinhold). Fundamentals of basic seamanship, oriented towards Naval operations. Older editions include valuable guidance for improvising lifting, pulling, and handling rigs. Editions after the first revised by various authorities. House, D. J., Seamanship Techniques, Volumes 1 and 2, Heinemann, 1987. Volume 1 - shipboard practice and theory, rigging, lifting gear, cargo and anchors. Volume 2 - shiphandling, collision, tanker work and pollution, and watertight integrity. Vanderberghe, J. P., Chaballe, L. Y., Elseviers Nautical Dictionary, Elseviers Scientific Publishing Co., 1978. Over 18,000 nautical terms with definitions in English/American, Dutch, French, German, Italian, and Spanish. Chief of Naval Operations (CNO OP 03C2), U.S. Navy Cold Weather Handbook for Surface Ships, 1988. Operations manual describing cold weather effects on personnel, machinery, and ship handling. Macdonald, Edwin A., Polar Operations, United States Naval Institute, 1969. Comprehensive description of operational requirements particular to polar operations. Canadian Hydrographic Service Marine Sciences Branch, Pilot of Arctic Canada, Second Edition, 1970. Sailing directions for Arctic Canada, with comprehensive discussion Arctic ice formation and behavior.



Navigation: Maloney, Elbert S., Duttons Navigation and Piloting, Thirteenth Edition, Naval Institute Press, 1978. Comprehensive piloting and navigation information covering dead reckoning, celestial, and radio navigation. Bowditch, Nathaniel, American Practical Navigator, Defense Mapping Agency Hydrographic Center, 1977 (periodically updated). Recognized standard reference for celestial and terrestrial navigation. Cargo-handling and stowage: Leeming, Joseph, Modern Ship Stowage, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1942. Ship stowage standards and methods of handling cargo at ocean terminals. Ship-to-Ship Transfer Guide (Petroleum), Second Edition, International Chamber of Shipping, Oil Companies International Marine Forum, 1988. Safe transfer of petroleum products between ocean-going vessels at sea, including standard operating procedures and safety considerations. Sauerbier, Charles L., Meurn, Robert J., Marine Cargo Operations, Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 1985. Basic principles and techniques of cargo operations and stowage implications. International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals, Second Edition, International Chamber of Shipping, Oil Companies International Marine Forum, International Association of Ports and Harbors, 1984. Safety precautions and guidelines for the transport of petroleum products at sea. Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes, International Maritime Organization, 1987. Standards for safe stowage and shipment of solid bulk cargoes; includes stowage factors and hazard information for approximately 2400 items.

RIGGING Rossnagel, W. E., Higgins, J. R., and Macdonald, J. A., Handbook of Rigging for Construction and Industrial Operations, Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1988. Standard reference and regulation guide for rigging operations. NAVSEA 0900-LP-008-2010, Design and Care of Wire-Rope Installations, 1946. General guidance for design and operation of wire rope systems. Toss, Brion, The Riggers Apprentice, International Marine Publishing Company, 1984. General marlinspike seamanship guide including emergency rigging. Wire Rope Users Manual, Second Edition, American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), 1985. Information on load factors, rope grade, varieties and properties, and handling, storage, and safety considerations. Tables of standard strengths of various wire rope constructions. Blandford, Percy W, Knots and Splices, Arco Publishing Company, Inc., 1978. Pocket guide to essential knots and splices



HAZARDOUS MATERIAL HANDLING AND PRECAUTIONS CG-174, Manual for the Safe Handling of Flammable and Combustible Liquids and other Hazardous Products, U.S. Coast Guard, 1976. Procedures for safe handling of hazardous and combustible materials. Meyer, Eugene, Chemistry of Hazardous Materials, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1977. General properties of classes of hazardous materials.

STANDARDS Shipbuilding and Marine Safety: NAVSEA 0910-LP-007-4100, General Specifications for Ships of the U.S. Navy (GENSPECs), annual. American Bureau of Shipping: Rules for Building and Classing: Steel Vessels (annual) Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (1991) Reinforced Plastic Vessels (1978) Lloyds Register of Shipping: Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Ships (annual) Rules for Yachts and Small Craft (annual) Rules for Inland Waterways Ships (annual) General: American Society for Testing and Materials, Annual Book of ASTM Standards Standards on performance and characteristics of materials, products, systems and services. Volume 00.01 indexes standards by title, number, and keyword. Sections pertinent to salvage include: 1 2 4 5 Iron and steel Products Nonferrous Metal Products Construction Petroleum Products, Lubricants, and Fossil Fuels 11 15 Water and Environmental Technology General Products 15.06 Adhesives 15.08 Fasteners Rules for Floating Docks (annual) Rules for Ships for Liquefied Gases (annual) Rules for Ships for Liquid Chemicals (annual) Steel Barges (1991) Underwater Vehicles (1990) Aluminum Vessels (1975)

U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), revised annually. General and permanent rules published by executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. Divided into 50 titles that are further subdivided into chapters and parts. Titles pertinent to salvage include: 29 40 Labor Protection of the Environment 46 49 Shipping Transportation

International Standards Organization (ISO) Vendor Directories Thomas Register, Volumes 1 through 23, Thomas Publishing Co., annual Extensive vendor listings, primarily but not exclusively firms doing business in the U.S. Divided into 3 sections: Products & Services (volumes 1 through 14) a "yellow pages" type product-to-vendor cross reference, Company Profiles (volumes 15 and 16) brief product/services descriptions, contact points, Catalog File (volumes 17 through 23) detailed product descriptions, specifications, performance data, drawings, photos, availability. Regional buying guides are also published.



The glossary consists of two parts:

Definitions relating to or amplifying topics addressed in the text. Abbreviations and symbols commonly used on ships structural drawings.

A list of symbols and abbreviations used in the handbook is given on page xxix.

DEFINITIONS Air port. A hinged glass window, generally circular, in the ships side or deckhouse, for light and ventilation; also called porthole, portlight or side scuttle. Anchor, bower. The large anchors carried in the bow of a vessel. Weight varies with the size and service of the ship. Anchor, kedge. A small anchor used for warping or kedging. It is usually laid from a boat and the vessel hauled up toward it. Weight varies, usually from 900 to 1,200 pounds. Anchor, stream. An anchor weighing about one-fourth to one-third the weight of the main bowers and used when mooring in a narrow channel or harbor to prevent the vessels stern from swinging with the current or the tide. Anchor hawk. Grappling device used to recover lost anchors, chains, wire rope, etc. Ancillary equipment. Equipment that supports the operation of a systems principal components or assemblies. Angle collar. A collar or band made of one or more pieces of angle bar and fitted tightly around a pipe, trunk, frame, longitudinal, or stiffener intersecting or projecting through a bulkhead or deck to make a watertight or oiltight joint. Angle of Entrance (ae). The angle between the tangents to the load waterline at the fore end. Auxiliary. A vessel that maintains, supplies, or supports combatants. Auxiliary machinery, auxiliaries. Various pumps, motors, generators, etc., required on a ship, as distinguished from main propulsive machinery units. Bail. The part of a pelican hook or chain stopper that holds the hook closed. Bale cubic. The cubic capacity of a cargo hold measured to the inside of the frames or cargo battens. Ballasted condition. A condition of loading in which solid or liquid ballast is carried to obtain proper immersion, stability, and steering qualities. Barrel. The rotating drum of a capstan or winch. Basin. A naturally or artificially enclosed or nearly enclosed harbor. Batten. Long, thin strips of wood or steel used to keep tarpaulins in place over a hatch.



Battens, cargo. Wood planks or steel shapes fitted to the inside of the frames in a hold to keep the cargo away from the shell plating; strips of wood or steel used to prevent shifting of cargo. Bay. A recess in the shore or an inlet of a sea between two capes or headlands, not as large as a gulf but larger than a cove. Beach berm. A nearly horizontal part of the beach or backshore formed by the deposit of material by wave action. Some beaches have no berms, others have one or several. Beach gear. A generic term for ground tackle and associated tensioning gear used to exert forces on grounded ships. Beam, cant. Beams supporting the deck plating in the overhanging portion of the stern. These beams radiate in fan-shaped formation from the transom beam to the cant frames. Beam, transom. A strong deck beam situated in the after end of the vessel connected at each end to the transom frame. The cant beams which support the deck plating in an overhanging stern are attached to and radiate from it. Beam ends. A vessel hove over or listed until her deck beams approach vertical is said to be on her beam ends. Beam knee. A bracket to stiffen the joint between a frame or stiffener and the end of a beam; also a beam arm or beam bracket. Beam line. A line showing the points of intersection between the top edge of the beam and the molded frame line, also called molded deck line. Bearding (bearding line). The line of intersection of the shell plating and stem or sternpost. Bearer. Foundations, particularly those having vertical web plates as principal members. The vertical web plates of foundations are also called bearers. Beaufort number or scale. A numerical scale (from 0 to 12) used for rating wind strength in order of ascending velocity. Between decks. The space between any two, not necessarily adjacent, decks. Frequently "tween decks." Bevel. The angle between the flanges of a frame or other member. (When greater than a right angle, open bevel; when less, closed or shut bevel); to chamfer. Bight. A loop or bend in a rope; strictly, any part of the rope between the two ends. Bilge. The rounded portion of a vessels shell which connects the bottom with side. To open a vessels lower body to the sea; curved section between the bottom and the side; the recess into which water drains from holds or other spaces. Bilge and ballast system. A system of piping generally located in the holds or lower compartments of a ship and connected to pumps. This system is used for pumping overboard accumulations of water in holds and compartments, and also for filling ballast tanks. Bilge bracket. A vertical transverse flat plate welded or riveted to the tank top or margin plate and to the frame in the area of the bilge. Bilge keels. Flat surfaces projecting normally or nearly normally from the hull at the turn of the bilge. Bilge keels usually run on or near the bilge diagonal. With full ships, bilge keels usually lie in one diagonal plane, but with finer forms it is sometimes necessary to lift the ends unless the keels are very short. Bilge plates. The curved shell plates that fit the bilge and form the bilge strake. Bill board. An inclined platform, fitted at the intersection of the weather deck and the shell, for stowing an anchor.



Bitter end. The inboard end of a vessels anchor chain which is made fast in the chain locker; the inboard end of any line or rope, i.e., the end that is secured to bitts. Bitts. Short metal or wood columns extending up from a base plate secured to a deck or bulwark rail or placed on a pier for the purpose of securing and belaying ropes, hawsers, cables, etc. Bitumastic. An elastic bituminous cement used in place of paint to protect steel, especially anchor chain. Block, snatch. A single sheave block having one side of the frame hinged so that it can be opened to allow the bight of a rope to be placed on the sheave, thus avoiding the necessity of threading the end of the rope through the swallow of the block. Often employed as a fair lead around obstructions. Bollard. Single posts secured to a pier or vessel deck to which heavy hawsers are secured. Boom crutch/boom rest. A light structure built up from a deck to support the free end of a boom when it is not in use. Boom table. A small, stout platform attached to a mast to support the hinged heel bearings of booms and to provide proper working clearances when a number of booms are installed on or around one mast. Also mast table. Boot topping. An outside area on a vessels hull from bow to stern between certain waterlines to which special air, water, and grease-resisting paint is applied; also the paint applied to such areas. Bosom piece. A short piece of angle riveted inside a butt joint of two angles to form a strap. Bossing or boss. The convex curved portion of the ships shell plating that surrounds and supports the propeller shaft. Bossing plate. Steel plate covering the bulged portion of hull where the propeller shaft passes outboard. Bottom plating. That part of the shell plating which is below the water line. More specifically, the immersed shell plating from bilge to bilge. Bow thruster. A propulsive device located forward in the ship and used to control lateral movement. Bowing. Lack of flatness in sheet or strip metal in which the longitudinal or transverse section forms an arc. Bracket. A plate (usually triangular or trapezoidal) used to connect rigidly two or more structural parts, such as deck beam to frame, or bulkhead stiffener to the deck or tank top. Break. The end of a partial superstructure such as a poop, bridge or forecastle where it drops to the deck below. Breakwater. A structure protecting a shore area, harbor, anchorage, or basin from waves; a plate or timber structure fitted on a forward weather deck to form a V-shaped shield against water that is shipped over the bow. Breast line. A mooring line from ship to pier, or ship to ship, perpendicular to the fore and aft axis, or at right angles to the ship. Buckler. A portable cover secured over the deck opening of the hawsepipes and the chain pipes to restrict the flow of water through the openings. Bulk cargo. Liquid or solid cargo made up of commodities such as oil, coal, ore, grain, etc., not shipped in bags or containers; more specifically applied to solid cargoes. Bulkhead, aft peak. The first main transverse bulkhead forward of the sternpost, forming the forward boundary of the after peak tank. Bulkhead, collision. A transverse watertight bulkhead, extending to the bulkhead deck and located 5 to 8 percent of the ships length aft of the forward perpendicular, to resist flooding caused by collision damage. The collision bulkhead often forms the aft boundary of the fore peak tank.



Bulkhead, screen. A light nonwatertight transverse bulkhead. Bull rope. Colloquial term for a towline or large hawser. Bullnose. A closed chock at the bow of a vessel. Bulwark. Section of a ships side continued above the main deck or fore-and-aft vertical plating immediately above the upper edge of the sheer strake installed as protection against heavy weather, usually about 3 feet 6 inches high. Butt. The joint formed when two parts are placed edge to edge; the end (transverse or vertical) joint between two plates. Butt strap. A strap that overlaps the butt between two plates in a bolted or riveted strap joint. Butt welding. Joining two edges or ends by placing one against the other and welding. Calk or caulk. To fill seams in a wood deck with oakum and pay them with pitch, marine glue, etc. To drive or hammer the adjoining edges of metal together to stop or prevent leaks. Cant. An inclination of an object from a perpendicular; to turn anything so that it does not stand perpendicularly or square to a given object. Caprail. Rail on the stern of a towing vessel, over which the tow wire rides. Cargo port/side port. Opening in a ships side for loading and unloading cargo. Casing, engine and boiler. Bulkheads enclosing a large opening between the weather deck and the engine and boiler rooms that provides space for the boiler uptakes, access to these rooms, and permits installing or removing large propulsion units such as boilers or turbines. Catenary. The downward curve or sag of a rope suspended between two points. Ceiling, hold and tanktop. A covering, usually of wood, placed over the tank top for its protection. Chafing plate. Bent plate laid over a sharp edge to minimizing chafing of ropes, as at hatches. Chain locker. Compartment in forward lower portion of ship in which anchor chain is stowed. Chain pendant. A piece of chain used as a strap; chain rigged between the tow and tow hawser; chain used to create a catenary. Chain pipe. Pipe for passage of chain from windlass to chain locker. Chain riveting. Two or more rows of rivets so arranged that the rivets in one row are abreast those in the adjacent row; see also zig-zag riveting. Chamfer. To bevel, to form a smooth, round surface; to cut off the sharp edge of a 90-degree corner; to trim to an acute angle. Chine. When the shell curvature is changed abruptly at a knuckle, the points of inflection lie on a line known as a chine. Chock. A heavy, smooth-surfaced fitting usually located near the edge of the weather deck through which wire ropes or fiber hawsers may be led. Clay. Generally, fine-grained soils having particle diameters less than 0.002 millimeter and exhibiting plastic properties when wet. Cleat. A piece of wood or metal, of various shapes according to use, usually having two projecting arms or horns upon which to belay ropes; a clip on the frames to hold the cargo battens in place.



Clinometer. An instrument that indicates the angle of roll or pitch of a vessel, by means of a pendulum or a bubble in a curved, fluid-filled tube. Coaming, hatch. A frame bounding a hatch for the purpose of stiffening the edges of the opening and forming the support for the covers. In a steel ship, it generally consists of a strake of strong vertical plating completely bounding the edges of a deck opening. Cofferdams. Empty spaces separating two or more compartments as insulation or to prevent the liquid contents of one compartment from entering another in the event of rupture or leak in the compartment bulkheads (naval architecture). Watertight enclosures built around deck openings or the entire deck of a sunken ship to permit water to be removed by pumping (salvage). Temporary dams enclosing a basin so the water level within can be lowered (civil engineering). Cordage. A comprehensive term for all ropes of whatever size or kind. Counter. That part of a ships stern which overhangs the stern post, usually that part above the water line. Cowl. A hood-shaped top or end of a natural ventilation trunk that may be rotated to cause wind to blow air into or out of the trunk. Crabbing. Moving sideways through the water. Cutwater. The stem of a ship, the forwardmost portion of the bow, which cuts the water as the ship moves. Datum planes. The three reference planes from which offset measurements are taken. Dead flat. The portion of a ships structure that has the same transverse shape as the midship section. Dead light or fixed light. A portlight that does not open. Deck, shelter. Formerly, a nonwatertight superstructure deck continuous from stem to stern and fitted with at least one tonnage opening. Deck, tonnage. The upper boundary of the internal volume of the measurable portions of the ship, as defined by the tonnage regulations. Deck height. The vertical distance between the molded lines of two adjacent decks. Deck machinery. Capstans, windlasses, winches, and miscellaneous machinery located on the decks of ship. Deck stringer. The strip of deck plating that runs along the outboard edge of a deck. Deep tanks. Tanks extending from the bottom or inner bottom of a vessel up to or higher than the lowest deck. They are often fitted with hatches so they can also be used for solid cargo. Derrick. A device for hoisting and lowering heavy weights, cargo, stores, etc. Diagonals. The intersections of diagonal planes with the molded surface. Bilge diagonals are diagonal planes intersecting the molded surface in the vicinity of the turn of the bilge. Dog. A pawl; a device applied to a winch drum to prevent rotation; a small metal fitting used to hold doors, hatch covers, manhole covers, etc., closed. Dolphin. Several piles bound together, free standing or situated at the corner of a pier and used for docking and warping vessels. Also applied to single piles and bollards on piers that are used in docking and warping. Downdrift. The direction of predominant movement of littoral materials.



Dunnage. Cushioning, blocks, boards, paper, burlap, or loose material placed under or among cargo in the holds to prevent their motion or chafing. Dutchman. A piece of steel fitted or driven into an opening to cover up open joints or crevices usually caused by poor workmanship. Eddy. A circular movement of water formed on the side of a main current. Eddies may be created at points where the main stream passes projecting obstructions or where two adjacent currents flow counter to each other. Embankment. An artificial bank, such as a mound or dike, generally built to hold back water or to carry a roadway. Equilibrium, neutral. The state of equilibrium in which a vessel inclined from its original position of rest by an external force tends to maintain the inclined position assumed after that force has ceased to act. Equilibrium, stable. The state of equilibrium in which a vessel inclined from its original position of rest by an external force tends to return to its original position after that force has ceased to act. Equilibrium, unstable. The state of equilibrium in which a vessel inclined from its original position of rest by an external force tends to depart farther from the inclined position assumed after that force has ceased to act. Escape trunk. A vertical trunk fitted with a ladder to permit personnel to escape if trapped. Usually provided from the after end of the shaft tunnel to topside spaces in commercial vessels. Expansion trunk or tank. A trunk extending above a space which is used for the stowage of liquid cargo. The surface of the cargo liquid is kept sufficiently high in the trunk to permit expansion without risk of excessive strain on the hull or of overflowing, and to allow contraction of the liquid without increase of free surface. Face plate, face bar. Generally a narrow stiffening plate fitted along the inner edge of web frames, stringers, etc., to form the flange of the member. Fair. To smooth curves, such as a ships lines; to eliminate irregularities; to assemble the parts of a ship so that they will be fair, i.e., without kinks, bumps, or waves; to bring rivet or bolt holes into alignment. Fairings are plates, castings, etc., placed over or adjacent to projections to give a streamlined form. Fairwater. Plating or casting fitted around the ends of a shaft tube or strut barrel, and shaped to streamline the parts, thus eliminating abrupt changes in the waterflow. Also applied to any casting or plating fitted to the hull for the purpose of preserving a smooth flow of water. Fall. The entire length of rope used with blocks to make up a tackle. The end secured to the block is called the standing part, the opposite end, the hauling part. Falling off. Drifting away from a desired position or direction. Fantail. Formerly, the overhanging stern section of ships with round or elliptical after endings to uppermost decks and which extend well abaft the after perpendicular. Now commonly applied to the after end of the weather deck of any ship. Fathom. A nautical unit of length used in measuring cordage, chains, depths, etc., normally equivalent to 6 feet. Faying surface. The surface between two adjoining parts. Fidley. The top of engine and boiler room casings on the weather deck. A partially raised deck over the engine and boiler casings, usually around the smokestack. Fines. The smaller particles of a granular material, such as silt and clay in sandy soils or sand in sandy gravel. Fish hooks. Outer wires of wire rope that have broken so that short ends project from the rope.



Flange. The part of a plate or shape bent at right angles to the main part; to bend over to form an angle. Floodable length. The length of ship that may be flooded without sinking below her safety or margin line. The floodable length of a vessel varies from point to point throughout her length and is usually greatest amidships and least near the quarter length. Floor. A vertical transverse plate in the bottom of a ship running from bilge to bilge usually on every frame to deepen it. In wood ships, the lowest frame timber or the one crossing the keel is called the floor. Flounder(s) plate. A triangular steel plate to which chain bridle legs are connected, sometimes called a "fish plate." Forefoot. The lower end of a vessels stem which is stepped on the keel. Fouling. The attachment and growth of marine plants and animals on surfaces of operational importance to man. Foundation. Structural supports for heavy machinery and equipment. Main foundations support propulsion boilers, main engines or turbines, and reduction gears; auxiliary foundations support machinery space auxiliaries. Frame, cant. A frame not square to the centerline at the counter of the ship and connected at the upper end to the cant beams. At the stern and at wide flaring bows, the inclination of the molded surface to the middle line of the ship may become so great that it is desirable to cant or incline the frames so that the standing flanges are more normal to the surface. Frame spacing. The fore-and-aft distances between frames, heel to heel. Freeboard. On a ship, the distance from the waterline to main deck or gunwale; the additional height of a coastal structure above design high water level to prevent overflow. Also, at a given time, the vertical distance between the water level and the top of the structure. Freeboard, statutory. The vertical distance between the permissible water line and a margin line established near the freeboard deck. Freeing port. An opening in the lower portion of a bulwark to allow deck water to drain overboard. Freshening the nip. Paying out or hauling in a line to move the point of contact with a chock or caprail so as to distribute wear. Fully-arisen sea. The condition when the fetch length and duration are long enough for a given wind velocity to produce the highest waves possible. This steady wave state requires a minimum fetch and duration which can be related to the wind velocity at a specific height above the sea surface. Furnaced plate. A plate that requires heating in order to shape it. Fuse pendant. A pendant of wire rope or chain specifically designed to fail at a known tension. May be used to protect the rest of the rigging arrangement. Gear. A comprehensive term in general use on shipboard signifying the total of all implements, apparatus, mechanism, machinery, etc., appertaining to and employed in the performance of any given operation, as "cleaning gear," "steering gear," "anchor gear," etc. Girth. Any expanded length, such as the length of a frame from gunwale to gunwale. Grain cubic. The cubic capacity of a hold when carrying bulk cargo, measured to the shell plating rather than to the inside of the frames or cargo battens. Grapnel/grappling hook. An implement having from four to six hooks or prongs, usually four, arranged in a circular manner around one end of a shank having a ring at its other end, used as an anchor for small boats, for recovering small articles dropped overboard, to hook on to lines, and for similar purposes. Groin/groyne. A shore protection structure built (usually perpendicular to the shoreline) to trap littoral drift or retard erosion of the shore.



Grommet. A soft ring used under a nut or bolt head to maintain watertightness; a leather, fabric, metal, or plastic reinforcement around an opening in a sail, tarpaulin, or similar piece of fabric. Ground tackle. A general term for all anchors, cables, wire ropes, etc., used to moor or anchoring a ship to the bottom. Gudgeon. Bosses or lugs on sternpost drilled for the pins (pintles) on which the rudder hinges. Gunwale. The line where a weather deck stringer intersects the shell. Gunwale bar. See stringer bar. Gusset plate. A bracket plate lying in a horizontal, or nearly horizontal plane. Gypsy head. A cylinder-like fitting on the end of winch or windlass shafts. Fiber line or wire rope is hauled or slacked by winding a few turns around it, the free end being held taut manually as it rotates. Hamper, top hamper. Articles of outfit, especially spars, rigging, etc., above the deck, that may become in certain emergencies a source of danger or inconvenience. Harbor. Any protected water area affording a place of safety for vessels. Hardness. Defined in terms of the method of measurement: usually the resistance to indentation, but also the stiffness or temper of wrought products, or machinability characteristics. Hatch (hatchway). An opening in a deck through which cargo and stores are loaded or unloaded. Hatch battens. Flat bars that are wedged against hatch coamings to secure tarpaulins. Hatch beam. Portable beam across a hatch to support hatch covers. Hawsepipe. Heavy castings through which the anchor chain runs from the deck down and forward through the ships bow plating; stockless anchors are usually stowed in the shank in the hawsepipe. Hawser. A heavy line or wire rope used in warping, towing, and mooring; any line over 5 inches in circumference. Headland. A high steep-faced promontory extending into the sea. Heel. The corner of an angle, bulb angle or channel. The inclination of a ship to one side. Holds. Large below deck spaces where cargo is stowed; the lowermost cargo compartments; the lowest deck in combatant ships. Horsepower, brake. Engine horsepower as measured at the engine output shaft. Horsepower, delivered. Horsepower delivered to the propeller, i.e., brake horsepower less losses in reduction gearing and line shafting. Horsepower, indicated. Theoretical engine horsepower based on cylinder pressures and temperatures, piston stroke, and engine speed, that does not account for mechanical efficiency. Horsepower, shaft. Propulsion plant power measured at the propeller shaft. Intercostal. The term broadly applied, where two members intersect, to the one that is cut; the opposite of continuous; made in separate parts; between floors, frames or beams, etc.



International Great Lakes Datum (IGLD). The common datum used in the Great Lakes area based on mean water level in the St. Lawrence River at Father Point, Quebec, established in 1955. Intertidal Zone. The land area that is alternately inundated and uncovered with the tides, usually considered to extend from mean low water to extreme high tide. Intrinsically safe. Equipment or devices that do not produce sparks, heat, or provide other ignition source. Primarily applicable to electrical and communication equipment. Jetty. On open seacoasts, a structure extending into a body of water, and designed to prevent shoaling of a channel by littoral materials, and to direct and confine the stream or tidal flow. Jetties are built at the mouth of a river or tidal inlet to help deepen and stabilize a channel. Joggle. To offset a plate or shape to avoid the use of liners in riveted construction. Keckling. Chafing gear on a cable, consisting of old rope. Keel blocks. Heavy wood or concrete blocks on which the ship rests during construction or drydocking. Keelson, side. Fore-and-aft vertical plate member located above the bottom shell on each side of the center vertical keel and some distance therefrom. Kenter shackle. A type of detachable link. Kjellam grips. A lightweight stopper useful for passing a wire rope where only low tension is exerted on the rope. Knee, beam. Bracket between a deck beam and frame. Knuckle. A sudden change of curvature; an abrupt change in direction of the plating, frames, keel, deck, or other structure of a vessel. Kort nozzle. A nozzle enclosing a ships propeller. Lagging. Insulating material on the outside of boilers, piping, bulkheads, etc. Lap. The distance that one piece of material is laid over another, the amount of overlap, as in a lapped joint. Laying off. The development of the lines of ships form on the mold-loft floor and making templates therefrom; also called laying down. Lee. Shelter, or the part or side sheltered or turned away from the wind or waves. Lightening hole. A hole cut out of a structural member, as in the web, to reduce weight. Lightening holes are located in low stress areas to minimize loss of strength. Lightening holes are commonly cut in floor plates and longitudinals in double bottoms, where they provide access as well as reduce weight. Lighter. A boat used in harbors for transporting merchandise; a full-bodied, heavily built craft, usually not self-propelled, used in bringing merchandise or cargo alongside or in transferring same from a vessel. Limber hole. A hole or slot cut into a frame or plate to prevent water from collecting. Most frequently found in floor plates just above the frame flange or shell plating and near the center line of the ship. Line shafting. Sections of the main shafting located in the shaft tunnel between the engine room and the after peak bulkhead. Liner. A flat or tapered strip placed under a plate or shape to bring it in line with another part that it overlaps; a filler.



Littoral transport. The movement of sediments (littoral drift) in the littoral zone by waves and currents. Includes movement parallel (longshore transport) and perpendicular (on-offshore transport) to the shore. Locking pin. Keeper or device used to hold or maintain a chain stopper, shackle, or other similar devices in a designated position. Longitudinal direction. The direction in a wrought metal product parallel to direction of working (drawing, extruding, rolling). The fore and aft direction in a ship. Low Water Datum (LWD). An approximation to the plane of mean low water that has been adopted as a standard reference plane. Magazine. Spaces or compartments for the stowage of ammunition. Manhole. A round or oval access hole cut in decks, tanks, boilers, etc. Margin angle. Angle connecting margin plate to shell. Margin bracket. See bilge bracket. Margin plate. The outboard strake of the inner bottom. When the margin plate is turned down at the bilge it forms the outboard boundary of the double bottom, connecting the inner bottom to the shell plating at the bilge. Mast. A tall vertical or raked structure, normally located on the centerline of a ship and used to carry navigation lights, radio antennae, or cargo booms. Mast step. The foundation on which a mast is erected. Mast table. See boom table. Mean Sea Level (MSL). The average height of the surface of the sea for all stages of the tide over a 19-year period, usually determined from hourly height readings. Not necessarily equal to mean tide level. Messenger. A light line used for hauling over a heavier rope or hawser. Mooring ring. A round or oval casting inserted in the bulwark plating through which the mooring lines, or hawsers, are passed. A heavy ring on the top of a mooring buoy. Mortise. The opening of a shackle or detachable link. Mud. A fluid-to-plastic mixture of finely divided particles of solid material and water. Nearshore (zone). In beach terminology an indefinite zone extending seaward from the shoreline well beyond the breaker zone. It defines the area of nearshore currents. Neutral Axis. For a beam in bending, an axis through the centroid of a beam cross section, perpendicular to the plane of the bending moment, where bending stresses are zero. Nip. A sharp bend in a line or wire. Norman pin. A steel rod or post that can be raised or lowered, and which usually is mounted toward the stern of a vessel to limit the sweep of a hawser across the rear deck. Offset shackle. A plate shackle used to connect different sized ropes and chains. Overhang. That portion of a ships bow or stern clear of the water which projects beyond the forward or after perpendiculars.



Pacific iron. Alternate term for gooseneck (cargo boom fitting, see Figure 7-40)> Pelican hook. A hook which can be opened while under a strain by knocking away a locking ring or bale which holds it closed; used to provide an instantaneous release. Pendant. A length of wire rope, chain, or fiber line used to facilitate connecting longer lengths of the same. Percolation. The process by which water flows through the interstices of a sediment. In wave phenomena, the process by which wave action forces water through the interstices of the bottom sediment, tending to reduce wave heights. Permeability. The characteristics of a material which allow a liquid or gas to pass through. Pillar. See Stanchion. Pile, sheet. A pile with a generally slender flat cross section to be driven into the ground or seabed and meshed or interlocked with like members to form a diaphragm, wall, or bulkhead. Pintles. The pins or bolts that hinge the rudder to the gudgeons on the sternpost or rudder post. Plating, clinker. Plating laid up so the edges of the plates form lap joints so that one edge of a plate is inside, while the other is outside of the adjacent strakes. Plating, flush. Plating laid up so the edges of the plates form butt joints resulting in a flush surface. The connections between the plates are made by butt welds or by seam and butt straps in riveted construction. Plating, in and out. Plating laid up with alternate strakes lying outside the adjacent strakes; the plates are connected by lap joints with both edges of alternate strakes of plating either inside or outside of the adjacent strakes. Plating, joggled. Plating laid up with the edges of the plates joggled, or offset, to avoid the use of liners between the plating and the framing. Plunging breaker. A wave breaking on a shore, over a reef, etc., where the crest curls over an air pocket; breaking is usually with a crash. Smooth splash-up usually follows. Poop. A superstructure fitted at the after end of the upper deck. Porosity. Ratio of volume of soil voids to total volume. Preventer. Any line, wire, or chain whose general purpose is to act as a safeguard should another tension member be carried away. Propeller shaft/tail shaft. The short aftermost section of the main shafting to which the propeller is attached. Prow. The part of the bow above the waterline. Pudding. A fiber or fabric filled canvas or leather bag used as chafing gear or a fender to protect such items as a towline or spar. Rabbet. A groove, depression, or offset in a member into which the end or edge of another member is fitted, generally so that the two surfaces are flush. Reeving. The threading of a line or wire through a block, sheave, or other parts of a wire rope system. Relation coefficient (e). The ratio between the prismatic and water line coefficients. It has a more constant value than the other coefficients and is of use in the prediction of the water plane coefficient before the lines have been drawn. Rider plate. A continuous flat plate attached to the top or bottom of a girder.



Riding chocks. The chock on deck through which the anchor chain or towing gear passes inboard. Riprap. A layer, facing, or protective mound of stones randomly placed to prevent erosion, scour, or sloughing of a structure or embankment; also the stone so used. Rockered keel. A keel curved so that it is deeper in the midships region than at the ends. Roll. To impart curvature to a plate. Also the cyclic, reversing transverse inclination of a ship in waves. Roundings. Condemned rope under 4 inches in diameter, used to wrap around a rope to prevent chafing. Rudder post. See sternpost. Rudder stock. A vertical rudder shaft that connects to the steering engine. Salvage towing. Towing undertaken to rescue or save a discarded, wrecked, or damaged ship, or to transport a refloated ship to a safe haven. Samson post. A strong vertical post that supports cargo booms. Scantlings. The dimensions of a ships frames, girders, plating, etc. Scarf. A connection made between two pieces by tapering their ends so that they fit together in a joint of the same breadth and depth as the pieces connected. It is used on bar keels, stem and stern frames, and other parts. Scow. A large, open, usually flat-bottomed boat or barge for transporting sand, gravel, mud, garbage, etc. Screen bulkhead. See bulkhead, screen. Screw stopper. A chain stopper fitted with a turnbuckle. Scuppers. Drains from decks to carry off accumulations of rainwater, condensation or seawater. Scuppers are located in the gutters or waterways, on open decks, and in corners of enclosed decks, and connect to pipes usually leading overboard when fitted below decks. Scuttle. A small circular or oval opening fitted in decks to provide access. When used as escape scuttles and fitted with dogs that permit quick opening, they are called quick-acting scuttles. Also, to intentionally open a ships hull to the sea to sink it. Sea chest. A shell opening for supplying seawater to condensers, pumps, etc., and for discharging water from the ships water systems to the sea. It is a box-like structure located in the hull below the waterline and having means for the attachment of the associated piping. Suction sea chests are fitted with strainers or gratings, and sometimes have a lip that forces water into the sea chest when under way. Seas. Waves caused by wind at the place and time of observation. Seawall. A structure separating land and water areas, primarily designed to prevent erosion and other damage due to wave action. Seam. Fore-and-aft joint of shell plating, deck and tank top plating, or a lengthwise edge joint of any plating. Seam strap. A strip of plate serving as a connecting strap between the butted edges of plating. Strap connections at the ends of plates are called butt straps. Seaway. The motion of the sea when clear of shoal water. Section modulus. A geometric property of a beam, indicating its resistance to bending, equal to the moment of inertia of the cross section divided by the distance from the neutral axis to the outer fibers of the beam, measured in the plane of the bending moment.



Seiche. (1) A standing wave oscillation of an enclosed water body that continues after the cessation of the originating force, which may have been either seismic or atmospheric. (2) An oscillation of a fluid body in response to a disturbing force having the same frequency as the natural frequency of the fluid system. Tides are seiches induced primarily by the periodic forces caused by the sun and moon. (3) In the Great Lakes area, any sudden rise in the water of a harbor or a lake whether or not it is oscillatory. Although inaccurate in a strict sense, this usage is wellestablished in the Great Lakes area. Seize. To bind with small stuff, as one rope to another or a rope to a spar. Shaft tunnel, shaft alley. A watertight enclosure for the propeller shafting large enough to walk in, extending aft from the engine room to provide access and protection to the shafting. Shape (structural). A bar of constant cross section such as a channel, T-bar, angle bar, etc., either rolled or extruded; a rolled bar of constant cross section such as an angle, bulb angle, channel, etc.; to impart curvature to a plate or other member. Sheers, shear legs. Alternate terms for sheer legs (See Paragraphs 7-6.3 and 7-6.4.3). Shell landings. Points on the frames where the edges of shell plates are located. Shell plating. The plates forming the outerside and bottom skin of the hull, sometimes extended to include weather deck plating. Shifting boards. Portable bulkheads, generally constructed of wood planking and fitted fore and aft in cargo holds when carrying grain or other cargo that might shift to one side when the ship is rolling in a seaway. Shift of butts. The arrangement of the butts in structural plating members whereby the butts of adjacent members are located a specified distance from one another. Shore. A brace or prop used for support. Shroud. A fixed wire rope running from a mast to the ships side, to provide lateral support to the mast. See also Stays. Shut bevel. The closing together of the flanges of an angle to less than 90 degrees, the opposite of open bevel. Shut bevel makes riveting difficult and was avoided on ships of riveted construction; a "turning frame" was arranged about amidships. All frames forward of turning frame had the shell flanges of the frames on the aft side of the frame station. The aft frames had the shell flanges on the forward side so that they too "looked in" towards the midship section. Side plating. Plating above the bilge in the main body of a vessel. Also plating on the sides of deck houses, and the vertical sides of enclosed plated structures. Side port. See Cargo port. Sight edge. The visible edge of shell plating as seen from outside the hull. Significant wave height. The average height of the one-third highest waves of a given wave group. Skeg. A deep, vertical, fin-like projection on the bottom of a vessel near the stern, installed to provide directional stability, support the lower edge of the rudder, support the propeller shaft in single-screw ships, and support the vessel in dry dock. Skylight. A framework with covers with glass panels fitted over a deck opening to admit light and air to the compartment below. Sling. A length of chain or rope made fast to an object to be lifted, the other end connected to or laid over the hook of a crane or other lifting rig; the rods, chains, or ropes attached near the bow and stern of a small boat into which the davit or crane tackle is hooked; the chain or rope supporting the yard at the masthead. Slip stopper. A chain stopper hooked or shackled to the deck and fitted with a slip-hook for holding a towline.



Small stuff. Small-circumference fiber line (generally less than 2 inches). Soffit. The underside of a structural part, as of a beam, arch, or deck. Sounding tube, sounding pipe. A pipe leading to the bottom of an oil or water tank, used to guide a sounding tape or jointed rod when measuring the depth of liquid in the tank. Span. The distance between any two similar members, as the span of the frames. The length of a member between its supports, as the span of a girder. A rope whose ends are both made fast some distance apart, the bight having attached to it a topping lift, tackle, etc. A line connecting two davit heads so that when one davit is turned the other follows. Spanish windlass. A device to exert force in bringing together two parts of a rope, e.g., shortening a pair of parallel lines by twisting them with a lever inserted between them at a right angle to their axis. Spectacle frame. A large casting extending outboard from the main hull and furnishing support for the ends of the propeller shafts in a multiscrew ship. The shell plating (bossing) encloses the shafts and is attached at its after end to the spectacle frame. Used in place of shaft struts. Spring, spring line. A mooring or docking line leading at an angle less than 45 degrees with the fore-and-aft lines of the vessel. Used to turn a vessel or prevent it from moving ahead or astern. Stanchion/pillar. A vertical member or column supporting a deck. Standing rigging. Fixed rigging, (shrouds, stays, etc.) that support masts and kingposts. Stays. Fixed wire ropes that run either forward or aft from aloft on a mast to the deck to support the mast, as opposed to shrouds that run in a generally athwartships direction. Stealer. A single wide plate that is butt-connected to two narrow plates, usually near the ends of a ship, to reduce the number of strakes of plating. Stern, cruiser. A spoon-shaped stern designed to give maximum immersed length. Stern, transom. A square-ended stern used to provide additional hull volume and deck space aft and/or to decrease resistance in some high speed ships. Sternpost. A vertical part of the stern frame to which the rudder is attached in some types of construction. Stern rollers. The horizontal and vertical rollers at the very stern of a tug used to lead, capture, and control the tow hawser. Stern tube. The watertight tube enclosing and supporting the propeller shaft. Still Water Level (SWL). The elevation that the surface of the water would assume if all wave action were absent. Stopper. A short length of rope secured at one end and lashed with rolling hitches to a line under tension to stop it from running. Strake, bilge. Course of shell plates at the bilge. Strap. A ring of wire or line, made by splicing the ends together, used for handling weight, etc. Stringer bar. The angle connecting the deck plating to the shell plating or to the inside of the frames. The strength deck stringer bar is usually called the gunwale bar. Stringer plate. The course of plating that runs along the outboard edge of a deck.



Strut. Structural member loaded in tension or compression in line with its longitudinal axis. Outboard column-like or V-arranged supports for the propeller shaft, used on some ships with more than one propeller instead of bossings. Rarely used on merchant vessels. Surf zone. The area between the outermost breaker and the limit of wave uprush. Surge, surge load. A violent or sudden increase in load on a wire, line, winch, etc. Swell. Wind-generated waves that have traveled out of their generating area. Swells characteristically exhibit a more regular and longer period, and have flatter crests than waves within their fetch. Tackle. An arrangement of ropes and blocks to give a mechanical advantage; a purchase; any combination of ropes and blocks that multiplies power. Also applied to a single whip which does not multiply power but simply changes direction. Tail shaft. See propeller shaft. Tank, settling. Relatively deep fuel oil tanks where oil is allowed to stand for a few hours until entrained water has settled to the bottom, to be drained or pumped off. Tank, trimming. A tank located near the ends of a ship. Seawater (or fuel oil) is carried in such tanks as necessary to change trim. Tarpaulin. A pliable waterproof cloth cover secured over nonwatertight hatch covers. Template. Wood or paper full-size patterns to be placed on materials to indicate the size and location of rivet holes, plate edges, etc.; also to indicate the curvature to which frames, plate or other members are to be bent. Tidal inlet. A natural inlet maintained by tidal flow. Loosely, any inlet in which the tide ebbs and flows. Tie plate. A fore-and-aft course of plating attached to deck beams under a wood deck to increase strength. Tonnage deck. See Deck, tonnage Tonnage openings. Formerly, nonwatertight openings in the shelter deck and in the tween deck bulkheads immediately below in order to exclude spaces from tonnage measurement and thus obtain reduced gross and net tonnage; also fitted at ends of partial superstructures. The openings could be closed by nonwatertight wood shifting boards or metal covers meeting the tonnage and load line regulations. Transom frame. The aftermost transverse side frame, see also beam, transom. Tripping bracket. Flat bars or plates fitted perpendicular to the webs of girders, stiffeners, or beams to prevent their free flanges from tripping. Trunk. A vertical or inclined space or passage formed by bulkheads or casings, extending one or more deck heights, around openings in the decks, through which access can be obtained and cargo, stores, etc., handled, or ventilation provided without disturbing or interfering with the contents or arrangements of the adjoining spaces. Turbid. Of a liquid, containing suspended matter that interferes with the passage of light so that visibility through the liquid is restricted. Turning frame. See shut bevel. Tween decks. See between decks Two-blocked. When the two blocks of a tackle have been drawn together or tightened. Ullage. The void above a liquid surface in a tank, and the measurement of this void.



Uptake. A metal casing connecting the boiler smoke outlet with the inner smokestack. It conveys the smoke and hot gases from the boiler to the stack. Waterway. A narrow gutter along the edge of the deck for drainage. Wave crest. The highest part of a wave. That part of the wave above still water level. Wave height. The vertical distance between a crest and the preceding trough. Wavelength. The horizontal distance between similar points on successive waves measured perpendicularly to the crest. Wave period. The time for a wave crest to traverse a distance equal to one wavelength, i.e., the time for two successive wave crests to pass a fixed point. Wave trough. The lowest part of a wave form between successive crests. That part of a wave below still water level. Web. The vertical portion of a beam; the athwartship portion of a frame; the portion of a girder between the flanges. Web frame. A built-up frame consisting of a deep web plate with flanges on its edges, placed several frame spaces apart, with the smaller, regular frames in between. Welding. A process used to join metals by the application of heat. Fusion welding, which includes gas, arc, and resistance welding, requires that the parent metals be melted. In brazing, the joining (brazing) metal is melted but the parent metal(s) are not. In pressure welding joining is accomplished by the use of heat and pressure without melting. The parts that are being welded are pressed together and heated simultaneously, so that recrystallization occurs across the interface. Well. Space in the bottom of a ship to which bilge water drains so that it may be pumped overboard; space between partial superstructures. Whip. A term loosely applied to any tackle used for hoisting light weights and designates the use to which a tackle is put rather than to the method of reeving the tackle. Wildcat. A special type of drum whose faces are so formed to fit the links of a chain of given size. Winch. An electric, hydraulic, or steam machine aboard ship used for hauling in lines, wire, or chain; a hoisting or pulling machine fitted with a horizontal single or double drum. Windlass. An apparatus in which horizontal or vertical drums or gypsies and wildcats are operated by means of an engine or motor for the purpose of handling heavy anchor chains, hawsers, etc. Yard tug. A harbor tug used in berthing operations; e.g., YTL, YTM and YTB classes of tugs. Yellow gear. Colloquial term for portable salvage machinery. Zig-Zag riveting. Two or more rows of rivets spaced so that the rivets of one row are offset; see also chain riveting.