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Bosnia and Herzegovina

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"Bosnia" redirects here. For other uses, see Bosnia (disambiguation). "BiH" redirects here. For other uses, see BiH (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosna i Hercegovina

Flag

Coat of arms

Anthem: Dravna himna Bosne i Hercegovine


The National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Location of Bosnia and Herzegovina (green) in Europe (dark grey) [Legend] Capital (and largest city) Sarajevo
4352N 1825E

Official languages[1]

Bosnian Croatian Serbian 48% Bosniaks 37.1% Serbs 14.3% Croats 0.6% others Bosnian,Herzegovinian[2] Federal democratic republic[2] Valentin Inzkoa

Ethnic groups(2005[2])

Demonym Government - High Representative - Presidency members

Neboja Radmanovib eljko Komic Bakir Izetbegovid Vjekoslav Bevanda Parliamentary Assembly House of Peoples House of Representatives

- Prime Minister Legislature - Upper house - Lower house

Independence - First mentioned - Banate of Bosnia - Kingdom of Bosnia - Conquered by Ottoman Empire - Bosnian uprising - Jurisdiction transferred toAustriaHungary - Annexation of Bosniaby Austria-Hungary - National Day - Independence fromSFR Yugoslavia - Observed Area - Total 51,197 km2 (127th) 19,741 sq mi Population - 2011 estimate 3,839,737[3] (128the) April 6, 1992 November 25, 1943 March 1, 1992 1908 753 / 950 1154 1377 1463 1831 1878

- 1991 census - Density

4,377,033 75/km2 (130the) 194/sq mi

GDP (PPP) - Total - Per capita GDP (nominal) - Total - Per capita Gini (2007) HDI (2011) Currency Time zone - Summer (DST) Date formats Drives on the ISO 3166 code Internet TLD Calling code
a.

2011 estimate $31.638 billion[4] $8,133[4] 2011 estimate $17.965 billion[4] $4,618[4] 34.1[5] 0.733[6] (high) (74th) Convertible mark (BAM) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) dd.mm.yyyy (CE) right BA .ba 387

Not a government member; the High Representative is an international civilian overseer of the Dayton peace agreement with authority to dismiss elected and non-elected officials and enact legislation.

b. c. d. e.

Chair of current presidency (Serb). Current presidency member (Croat). Current presidency member (Bosniak). Rank based on 2011 official estimate of de factopopulation.

Bosnia and Herzegovina ( i/bzni n hrtsovin/; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina/ ; Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, is a country in Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Sarajevo. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the 20 kilometres (12 miles) of coastline on the Adriatic Sea surrounding the city of Neum.[7][8] In the central and southern interior of the country the geography is

mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, bookended by hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a region that traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age, during and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally, politically, and socially, the country has one of the richest histories in the region, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries AD. They then established the first independentbanate in the region, known as the Banate of Bosnia, in the early 12th century upon the arrival and convergence of peoples that would eventually come to call themselves Dobri Bonjani ("Good Bosnians"). This evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it would remain from the mid 15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, and altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country. This was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. Following the dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the country proclaimed independence in 1992, which was followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. Today, the country maintains high literacy, life expectancy and education levels and is one of the most frequently-visited countries in the region.[9]Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural beauty and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music, architecture and the Sarajevo Film Festival and Sarajevo Jazz Festival, both the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.[10][11] The country is home to three ethnic groups or, officially, constituent peoples, a term unique for Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second and Croats third. Regardless of ethnicity, a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina is often identified in English as a Bosnian. The terms Herzegovinian and Bosnian are maintained as a regional rather than ethnic distinction, and the region of Herzegovina has no precisely defined borders of its own. Moreover, the country was simply called "Bosnia" until the Austro-Hungarian occupation at the end of the nineteenth century.[12] Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is highly limited, as the country is largely decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third region, the Brko District, governed under local government. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is itself complex and consists of 10 federal units - cantons. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan at the summit in Tallinn.

Additionally, the country has been a member of the Council of Europe since April 2002 and a founding member of the Mediterranean Union upon its establishment in July 2008.
Contents
[hide]

1 Etymology 2 History

o o o o o o o o

2.1 Early history 2.2 Medieval Bosnia 2.3 Ottoman Era (14631878) 2.4 Austro-Hungarian rule (18781918) 2.5 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (19181941) 2.6 World War II (194145) 2.7 Socialist Yugoslavia (19451992) 2.8 Bosnian War for independence (19921995)

3 Geography 4 Government and politics 5 Military 6 Foreign relations 7 Demographics 8 Economy

o o

8.1 Communications 8.2 Tourism


9 Education 10 Culture

8.2.1 Tourist attractions

o o o o o o o

10.1 Architecture 10.2 Literature 10.3 Art 10.4 Music 10.5 Cinema 10.6 Sports 10.7 Cuisine

10.8 Leisure activities

11 See also 12 Notes 13 Bibliography 14 External links

[edit]Etymology
The first preserved mention of the name "Bosnia" is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century (between 948 and 952) describing the "small country" ( in Greek) of "Bosona" ().[13]The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja from 1172-1196 of Bar's Roman Catholic Christian Archbishop Grgur names Bosnia, and references an earlier source from the year of 753 - the De Regno Sclavorum (Of the Realm of Slavs). The name "Bosnia" probably comes from the name of the Bosnariver around which it has been historically based, which was recorded in the Roman era under the name Bossina.[14] More direct roots of the river's names are unknown. Philologist Anton Mayer proposed a connection with the Indo-European root *bos or *bogh, meaning "running water".[15]Certain Roman sources similarly mention Bathinus flumen as a name of the Illyrian Bosona, both of which would mean "running water" as well.[15]Other theories involve the rare Latin term Bosina, meaning boundary, and possible Slavic origins.[15] The origins of "Herzegovina" can be identified with more precision. During the Early Middle Ages the region was known as Hum, from theZachlumoi tribe of southern Slavs which inhabited it. In the 1440s, the region was ruled by the powerful nobleman Stephen Vuki Kosaa. In a document sent to Friedrich III on January 20, 1448, Stefan Vuki Kosaa called himself "Herzog of Saint Sava, Lord of Hum and Primorje, Grand Duke of Bosnia". Herzog is the German for "duke", and so the lands he controlled later became known as Herzegovina ("Dukedom", from the addition of -ovina, "land").[14] The region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina (Hersek), which was briefly elevated to the status of an Eyalet of Herzegovina in the 19th century. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992 the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the name was officially changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina.

[edit]History
Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina

[edit]Early

history

Main article: Early history of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia has been inhabited since at latest the Neolithic age. The earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were also notable. Concrete historical evidence for this period is scarce, but overall it appears that the region was populated by a number of different peoples speaking distinct languages. Conflict between the Illyrians and Romans started in 229 BC, but Rome did not complete its annexation of the region until AD 9.

Walls of ancient Daorson, Oanii, near Stolac, Bosnia and Herzegovina (3rd century BC).

It was precisely in what is now Bosnia and Herzegovina that Rome fought one of the most difficult battles in its history since the Punic Wars, as described by the Roman historian Suetonius.[16] This was the Roman campaign against the revolt of indigenous communities from Illyricum, known in history as theGreat Illyrian Revolt, and also as the Pannonian revolt, or Bellum Batonianum, the latter named after two leaders of the rebellious Illyrian communities,Bato of the Daesitiates, and Bato of the Breuci.[17] The Great Illyrian revolt was a rising up of Illyrians against the Romans, more specifically a revolt against Tiberius' attempt to recruit them for his war against the Germans. The Illyrians put up a fierce resistance to the most powerful army on earth at the time (the Roman Army) for four years (AD 6 to AD 9), but they were finally subdued by Rome in AD 9. The last Illyrian stronghold, of which their defence won the admiration of Roman historians, is said to have been Arduba.[18] Bato of Daesitiates was captured and taken to Italy. It is alleged that when Tiberius asked Bato and the Daesitiates why they had rebelled, Baton was reputed to have answered: "You Romans are to blame for this; for you send as guardians of your flocks, not dogs or shepherds, but wolves ." Bato spent the rest of his life in the Italian town of Ravenna.[19] In the Roman period, Latin-speaking settlers from the entire Roman Empire settled among the Illyrians, and Roman soldiers were encouraged to retire in the region.[14] The land was originally part of Illyria up until the Roman occupation. Following the split of the Roman Empire between 337 and 395 AD, Dalmatia and Pannonia became parts of the Western Roman Empire. Some claim that the region was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 455 AD. It subsequently changed hands between the Alans and the Huns. By the 6th century, Emperor Justinianhad reconquered the area for the Byzantine Empire. The Illyrians were conquered by the Avars in the 6th century.

However, the Illyrians did not entirely vanish from Bosnia and Herzegovina with the arrival of new cultures. A large part of the remaining Illyrian culture intermingled with those of new settlers, some of it is believed to have been adopted by the latter, and some survived up to date, such as architectural remains (e.g. Daorson near Stolac), certain customs and traditions (e.g.tatooing, the 'gluha kola' dances, the 'ganga' singing, zig-zag and concentric circles in traditional decorations), place names (e.g. apljina, from 'aplja', a south Slavic word for 'heron', coincides with 'Ardea', aLatin word for 'heron', and 'Ardea', in turn, bears striking similarity with the name of Ardiaei, the native Illyrian people of the wider Neretva valley region, where the town of apljina is situated), etc.[20]

[edit]Medieval

Bosnia

Expansion of the Bosnian kingdomduring the 14th century.

Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (9581463) Modern knowledge of the political situation in the west Balkans into the region in the late 9th century. The Slavic tribes also brought their mythology and pagan system of beliefs, the Rodovjerje. In particular, Perun / , the highest god of the pantheon and the god of thunder and lightning is also commonly found in Bosnian toponymy, for instance in the name of Mount Perun (Perunova Gora / ). Along with the Slavic settlers, the native Illyrians were Christianized. Bosnia and Herzegovina, because of its geographic position and terrain, was probably one of the last areas to go through this process, which presumably originated from the urban centers along the Dalmatian coast. Thus, Slavic Bosnian tribes remained pagans for a longer time, and finally converted to Christianity. The principalities of Serbia and Croatia split control of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 9th and 10th century, but by the High Middle Ages political circumstance led to the area being contested between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Byzantine Empire. Following another shift of power between the two in the early 12th century, Bosnia found itself outside the control of both and emerged as an independent state under the rule of local bans.[14]

The first Bosnian monarch was Ban Bori. The second was Ban Kulin whose rule marked the start of a controversy with the Bosnian Church, because he allowed an indigenous Bogomilism sect considered heretical by the Roman Catholic Church. In response to Hungarian attempts to use church politics regarding the issue as a way to reclaim sovereignty over Bosnia, Kulin held a council of local church leaders to renounce the heresy and embraced Catholicism in 1203. Despite this, Hungarian ambitions remained unchanged long after Kulin's death in 1204, waning only after an unsuccessful invasion in 1254. Bosnian history from then until the early 14th century was marked by a power struggle between the ubi and Kotromani families. This conflict came to an end in 1322, when Stephen II Kotromani became Ban. By the time of his death in 1353, he was successful in annexing territories to the north and west, as well as Zahumlje and parts of Dalmatia. He was succeeded by his nephew Tvrtko who, following a prolonged struggle with nobility and inter-family strife, gained full control of the country in 1367. Tvrtko crowned himself in 1377 as Stephen Tvrtko I the King of "Serbia, Bosnia, Pomorje, and the Western lands".[21] Based on archaeological evidence, he was crowned in Mile near Visoko in the church which was built in the time of Stephen II Kotromani's reign, where he was also buried alongside his uncle Stjepan II.[22][23] Following his death in 1391 however, Bosnia fell into a long period of decline. The Ottoman Empire had already started its conquest of Europe and posed a major threat to theBalkans throughout the first half of the 15th century. Finally, after decades of political and social instability, the Kingdom of Bosnia ceased to exist in 1463.

[edit]Ottoman

Era (14631878)

The Ottoman provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 17th century.

Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (14631878) The Ottoman conquest of Bosnia marked a new era in the country's history and introduced drastic changes in the political and cultural landscape. The Ottomans allowed for the preservation of Bosnia's identity by

incorporating it as an integral province of the Ottoman Empire with its historical name and territorial integrity a unique case among subjugated states in the Balkans.[24] Within Bosnia the Ottomans introduced a number of key changes in the territory's socio-political administration; including a new landholding system, a reorganization of administrative units, and a complex system of social differentiation by class and religious affiliation.[14] The three centuries of Ottoman rule also had a drastic impact on Bosnia's population make-up, which changed several times as a result of the empire's conquests, frequent wars with European powers, forced and economic migrations, and epidemics. A native Slavic-speaking Muslim community emerged and eventually became the largest of the ethno-religious groups due to lack of strong Christian church organizations and continuous rivalry between orthodox and catholic churches. The Bosnian Christian communities also experienced major changes. The Bosnian Franciscans (and the Catholic population as a whole) were to a minor extent protected by official imperial decree, while the Bosnian Church disappeared altogether.[14] As the Ottoman Empire continued their rule in the Balkans (Rumelia), Bosnia was somewhat relieved of the pressures of being a frontier province, and experienced a period of general welfare. A number of cities, such as Sarajevo and Mostar, were established and grew into regional centers of trade and urban culture and were then visited by Ottoman traveler Evliya elebi in 1648. Within these cities, various Ottoman Sultans financed the construction of many works of Bosnian architecture such as the country's first library in Sarajevo, madrassas, a school of Sufi philosophy, and a clock tower (Sahat Kula), bridges such as theStari Most, the Tsar's Mosque and the Gazi Husrev-beg's Mosque. Furthermore, some Bosnians played influential roles in the Ottoman Empire's cultural and political history during this time.[24] Bosnian recruits formed a large component of the Ottoman ranks in the battles of Mohcs and Krbava field, while numerous other Bosnians rose through the ranks of the Ottoman military to occupy the highest positions of power in the Empire, including admirals such as Matrak Nasuh; generals such as Isa-Beg Isakovi, Gazi Husrev-beg and Hasan Predojevi and Sar Sleyman Paa; administrators such as Ferhat-paa Sokolovi and Osman Gradaevi; and Grand Viziers such as the influential Mehmed Paa Sokolovi and Damad Ibrahim Pasha. Some Bosnians emerged as Sufi mystics, scholars such as Muhamed Hevaji Uskufi Bosnevi, Ali Dabi; and poets in the Turkish, Albanian, Arabic, and Persian languages.[15]

The Sebilj is a pseudo-Ottoman style wooden fountain in the centre of Baarijasquare in Sarajevo, Bosnia.

However, by the late 17th century the Empire's military misfortunes caught up with the country, and the conclusion of the Great Turkish War with thetreaty of Karlowitz in 1699 once again made Bosnia the Empire's westernmost province. The following century was marked by further military failures, numerous revolts within Bosnia, and several outbursts of plague. The Porte's false efforts at modernizing the Ottoman state were met with distrust growing to hostility in Bosnia, where local aristocrats stood to lose much through the proposed reforms. This, combined with frustrations over territorial, political concessions in the north-east, and the plight of Slavic Muslim refugees arriving from the Sanjak of Smederevo into Bosnia Eyalet, culminated in a partially unsuccessful revolt by Husein Gradaevi, who endorsed a multicultural Bosnia Eyaletautonomous from the authoritarian rule of the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II, who persecuted, executed and abolished the Janissary and reduced the role of autonomous Pasha's in Rumelia. Mahmud II sent his Grand Vizier to subdue Bosnia Eyalet and succeeded only with the reluctant assistance of Ali-paa Rizvanbegovi.[15] Related rebellions would be extinguished by 1850, but the situation continued to deteriorate. Later agrarian unrest eventually sparked the Herzegovinian rebellion, a widespread peasant uprising, in 1875. The conflict rapidly spread and came to involve several Balkan states and Great Powers, a situation which eventually led to the Congress of Berlin and the Treaty of Berlin in 1878.[14]

[edit]Austro-Hungarian

rule (18781918)

Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (18781918)

Cazin, Bosnia, circa 1906.

At the Congress of Berlin in 1878, the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister Gyula Andrssy obtained the occupation and administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and he also obtained the right to station garrisons in the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, which remained under Ottoman administration. The Sanjak preserved the separation of Serbia and Montenegro, and the Austro-Hungarian garrisons there would open the way for a dash to Salonika that "would bring the western half of the Balkans under permanent Austrian influence."[25] "High [Austro-Hungarian] military authorities desired [an...] immediate major expedition with Salonika as its objective."[26] On 28 September 1878 the Finance Minister, Koloman von Zell, threatened to resign if the army, backed by the Archduke Albert, were allowed to advance to Salonika. In the session of the Hungarian Parliament of 5 November 1878 the Opposition proposed that the Foreign Minister should be impeached for violating the constitution with his policy during the Near East Crisis and by the occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The motion lost 179 to 95. The gravest accusations were raised by the opposition rank and file against Andrassy.[26] Although an Austro-Hungarian side quickly came to an agreement with Bosnians, tensions remained in certain parts of the country (particularly the south) and a mass emigration of predominantly Slavic dissidents occurred.[14] However, a state of relative stability was reached soon enough and Austro-Hungarian authorities were able to embark on a number of social and administrative reforms which intended to make Bosnia and Herzegovina into a "model colony". With the aim of establishing the province as a stable political model that would help dissipate rising South Slav nationalism, Habsburg rule did much to codify laws, to introduce new political practices, and to provide for modernisation. The Austro-Hungarian Empire built the three Roman Catholic churches in Sarajevo and these three churches are among only 20 Catholic churches in the state of Bosnia. Within three years of formal occupation of Bosnia Herzegovina, Austria-Hungary, in 1881, obtained German, and more importantly, Russian, approval for the annexation of these provinces, at a time which suited Vienna. This mandate was formally ratified by the Dreikaiserbund (Three Emperor's Treaty) on June 18 of that

year.[27] Upon the accession of Czar Nicholas II, however, the Russians reneged on the agreement, asserting in 1897 the need for special scrutiny of the Bosnian Annexation issue at an unspecified future date.[28]

Plaque commemorating the location of theAssassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.

External matters began to affect the Bosnian Protectorate, however, and its relationship with Austria-Hungary. A bloody coup occurred in Serbia, on June 10, 1903, which brought a radical anti-Austrian government into power in Belgrade.[29] Serb attempts to foment agitation followed, advocating a unified South Slavic state, ruled from Belgrade. This gained little support amongst most of the population of Bosnia Herzegovina, and only found fertile ground with disaffected portions of the Orthodox minority. Also, the revolt in the Ottoman Empire in 1908, raised concerns that the Istanbul government might seek the outright return of Bosnia Herzegovina. These factors caused the Austrian-Hungarian government to seek a permanent resolution of the Bosnian question, sooner, rather than later. On July 2, 1908, in response to the pressing of the Austrian-Hungarian claim, the Russian Imperial Foreign Minister Alexander Izvolsky offered to support the Bosnian Annexation in return for Vienna's support for Russia's bid for naval access through the Dardanelles Straits into the Mediterranean.[30] With the Russians being, at least, provisionally willing to keep their word over Bosnia Herzegovina for the first time in 11 years, Austria-Hungary waited and then published the annexation proclamation on October 6, 1908. The international furor over the annexation announcement caused Izvolsky to drop the Dardanelles Straits question, altogether, in an effort to obtain a European conference over the Bosnian Annexation.[31] This conference never materialized and without British or French support, the Russians and their client state, Serbia, were compelled to accept the Austrian-Hungarian annexation of Bosnia Herzegovina in March 1909. Political tensions culminated on 28 June 1914, when Serb nationalist youth Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Serb movement, Young Bosnia,assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in Sarajevo an event that proved to be the spark that set off World War I. Although some Bosnians died serving in the armies of the various warring states, Bosnia and Herzegovina itself managed to escape the conflict relatively unscathed.[24]

[edit]Kingdom

of Yugoslavia (19181941)

Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (19181941) Following the war, Bosnia and Herzegovina joined the South Slav Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (soon renamed Yugoslavia). Political life in Bosnia at this time was marked by two major trends: social and economic unrest over property redistribution, and formation of several political parties that frequently changed coalitions and alliances with parties in other Yugoslav regions.[24] The dominant ideological conflict of the Yugoslav state, between Croatian regionalism and Serbian centralization, was approached differently by Bosnia's major ethnic groups and was dependent on the overall political atmosphere.[14] The political reforms brought about in the newly established Yugoslavian kingdom saw few benefits for the Bosniaks; according to the 1910 final census of land ownership and population according to religious affiliation conducted in AustroHungary, Muslims (Bosniaks) owned 91.1%, Orthodox Serbians owned 6.0%, Croatian Catholics owned 2.6% and others, 0.3% of the property. Following the reforms Bosnian Muslims had a total of 1,175,305 hectares of agricultural and forest land taken away from them.[32] Although the initial split of the country into 33 oblasts erased the presence of traditional geographic entities from the map, the efforts of Bosnian politicians such as Mehmed Spaho ensured that the six oblasts carved up from Bosnia and Herzegovina corresponded to the six sanjaks from Ottoman times and, thus, matched the country's traditional boundary as a whole.[14] The establishment of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929, however, brought the redrawing of administrative regions into banates or banovinas that purposely avoided all historical and ethnic lines, removing any trace of a Bosnian entity.[14] Serbo-Croat tensions over the structuring of the Yugoslav state continued, with the concept of a separate Bosnian division receiving little or no consideration. The Cvetkovi-Maek Agreement that created the Croatian banate in 1939 encouraged what was essentially a partition of Bosnia between Croatia and Serbia.[15] However the rising threat of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany forced Yugoslav politicians to shift their attention. Following a period that saw attempts at appeasement, the signing of the Tripartite Treaty, and a coup d'tat, Yugoslavia was finally invaded by Germany on 6 April 1941.[14]

[edit]World

War II (194145)

The railway bridge over the Neretva river, twice destroyed during the Battle of the Neretva.

Monument commemorating the Battle of Sutjeska in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (19411945) Once the kingdom of Yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces in World War II, all of Bosnia was ceded to the Nazi puppet regime, Independent State of Croatia. The Croat leaders embarked on a campaign of extermination of Serbs, Jews, Roma, Croats who opposed the regime, communists and large numbers of Josip Broz Tito's Partisans by setting up a number of death camps.[33] Many Serbs themselves took up arms and joined the Chetniks, a Serb nationalist movement that conducted operations against the Nazi forces and the partisans. The Chetniks were also known to persecute and murder non-Serbs and communist sympathizers. They committed many war crimes against Bosnian Muslims in Eastern Bosnia.[citation needed] On October 12, 1941 a group of 108 notable Muslim citizens of Sarajevo signed theResolution of Sarajevo Muslims by which they condemned the persecution of Serbs organized by Ustae, made distinction between Muslims who participated in such persecutions and whole Muslim population, presented informations about the persecutions of Muslims by Serbs and requested security for all citizens of the country, regardless of their identity.[34] Later, many Bosnian Muslims served in the Waffen-SS units.[35] Starting in 1941, Yugoslav communists under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito organized their own multi-ethnic resistance group, the partisans, who fought against both Axis and Chetnik forces. On 29 November 1943 the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia with Tito at its helm held a founding conference in Jajce where Bosnia and Herzegovina was reestablished as a republic within the Yugoslavian federation in its Habsburg borders. Military success eventually prompted the Allies to support the Partisans, but Tito declined their offer to help and relied on his own forces instead. All the major military offensives by the antifascist movement of Yugoslavia against Nazis and their local supporters were conducted in Bosnia-Herzegovina and its peoples bore the brunt of fighting. More than 300,000 people died in Bosnia and Herzegovina in World War II.[36] At the end of the war

the establishment of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, with the constitution of 1946, officially made Bosnia and Herzegovina one of six constituent republics in the new state.[14]

[edit]Socialist

Yugoslavia (19451992)

Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (19451992) Due to its central geographic position within the Yugoslavian federation, post-war Bosnia was selected as a base for the development of the military defense industry. This contributed to a large concentration of arms and military personnel in Bosnia; a significant factor in the war that followed the break-up of Yugoslavia in the 1990s.[14] However, Bosnia's existence within Yugoslavia, for the large part, was peaceful and prosperous. Though considered a political backwater of the federation for much of the 1950s and 1960s, in the 1970s a strong Bosnian political elite arose, fueled in part by Tito's leadership in the Non-Aligned Movement and Bosnians serving in Yugoslavia'sdiplomatic corps. While working within the communist system, politicians such as Demal Bijedi, Branko Mikuli and Hamdija Pozderac reinforced and protected the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina[37]Their efforts proved key during the turbulent period following Tito's death in 1980, and are today considered some of the early steps towards Bosnian independence. However, the republic did not escape the increasingly nationalistic climate of the time. With the fall of the Soviet Union and the start of the break-up of Yugoslavia, the old communist doctrine of tolerance began to lose its potency, creating an opportunity for nationalist elements in the society to spread their influence.

[edit]Bosnian

War for independence (19921995)

The parliament building in the centre ofSarajevo burns after being hit by tank fire during the siege in 1992.

Sarajevo after the siege lifted in 1995.

Detainees at the Manjaa Camp, nearBanja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina.


(Photograph courtesy of the ICTY)

Gravestones at the Srebrenica Genocide memorial.

Main article: Bosnian War On 18 November 1990, the first multi-party parliamentary elections were held. A second round followed on 25 November, resulting in a national assembly where communist power was replaced by a coalition of three ethnically-based parties.[38] Croatia and Slovenia's subsequent declarations of independence and the warfare that ensued placed Bosnia and Herzegovina and its three constituent peoples in an awkward position. A significant split soon developed on the issue of whether to stay with the Yugoslav federation (overwhelmingly favored among Serbs) or seek independence (overwhelmingly favored among Bosniaks and Croats). The Serb members of parliament, consisting mainly of the Serb Democratic Party members, abandoned the central parliament in Sarajevo, and formed the Assembly of the Serb People of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 24

October 1991, which marked the end of the tri-ethnic coalition that governed after the elections in 1990. This Assembly established the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 9 January 1992, which became Republika Srpska in August 1992. On 18 November 1991, the party branch in Bosnia and Herzegovina of the ruling party in the Republic of Croatia, the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), proclaimed the existence of the Croatian Community of HerzegBosnia, as a separate "political, cultural, economic and territorial whole", on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with Croat Defence Council (HVO) as its military part.[39] The Bosnian government did not recognize it. TheConstitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared Herzeg-Bosnia illegal, first on 14 September 1992 and again on 20 January 1994.[40][41] A declaration of Bosnia and Herzegovina sovereignty on 15 October 1991 was followed by a referendum for independence from Yugoslavia on 29 February and 1 March 1992 boycotted by the great majority of the Serbs. The turnout in the independence referendum was 63.4 per cent and 99.7 per cent of voters voted for independence.[42] Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence on 3 March 1992. Following a tense period of escalating tensions the opening shots in the incipient Bosnian conflict were fired when Serb paramilitary forces attacked Bosnian Croat villages around Capljina on 7 March 1992 and around Bosanski Brod and Bosniak town Gorazde on 15 March. These minor attacks were followed by much more serious Serb artillery attacks on Neum on 19 March and on Bosanski Brod on 24 March. The killing of a Bosniak civilian woman (Suada Dilberovi), on 5 April 1992 by a sniper, while she was demonstrating in Sarajevo against the raising of barricades by Bosnian Serbs, is widely regarded as marking the start of warfare between the three major communities.[38] Secret discussions between Franjo Tuman and Slobodan Miloevi on the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina between Serbia and Croatia were held as early as March 1991, known as the Karaorevo agreement.[43] Following the declaration of independence of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbs attacked different parts of the country. The state administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina effectively ceased to function having lost control over the entire territory. The Serbs wanted control and possession of virtually all territories in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as a top priority of Miloevi's mastermind plan of a "Greater Serbia". The Croats and their leader Tuman also aimed at securing the remaining parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina as exclusively Croatian.[44] The policies of the Republic of Croatia and its leader Franjo Tuman towards Bosnia and Herzegovina were never totally transparent and always included Franjo Tuman's ultimate aim of expanding Croatia's borders. Bosnian Muslims were an easy target, because the Bosnian government forces were poorly equipped and unprepared for the war.[45] International recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina increased diplomatic pressure for the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) to withdraw from the republic's territory which they officially did. However, in fact, the Bosnian Serb members of JNA simply changed insignia, formed the Army of Republika Srpska, and continued fighting.

Armed and equipped from JNA stockpiles in Bosnia, supported by volunteers and various paramilitary forces from Serbia, and receiving extensive humanitarian, logistical and financial support from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Republika Srpska's offensives in 1992 managed to place much of the country under its control.[14] Initially, the Serb forces attacked the non-Serb civilian population in Eastern Bosnia. Once towns and villages were securely in their hands, the Serb forces military, police, the paramilitaries and, sometimes, even Serb villagers applied the same pattern: Bosniak houses and apartments were systematically ransacked or burnt down, Bosniak civilians were rounded up or captured, and sometimes beaten or killed in the process. 2.2 million refugees were displaced by the end of the war (of all three nationalities).[46] Men and women were separated, with many of the men detained in the camps. The women and indeed some children, as young as twelve years of age, were kept in various detention centres where they had to live in intolerably unhygienic conditions, where they were mistreated in many ways including being raped repeatedly. Serb soldiers or policemen would come to these detention centres, select one or more women, take them out and rape them.[47] In June 1992, the focus switched to Novi Travnik and Gornji Vakuf where the Croat Defence Council (HVO) efforts to gain control were resisted. On 18 June 1992 the Bosnian Territorial Defence in Novi Travnik received an ultimatum from the HVO which included demands to abolish existing Bosnia and Herzegovina institutions, establish the authority of the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia and pledge allegiance to it, subordinate the Territorial Defense to the HVO and expel Muslim refugees, all within 24 hours. The attack was launched on June 19. The elementary school and the Post Officewere attacked and damaged.[48] Gornji Vakuf was initially attacked by Croats on 20 June 1992, but the attack failed. The Graz agreement caused deep division inside the Croat community and strengthened the separation group, which led to the conflict with Bosniaks. One of the primary pro-union Croat leaders, Bla Kraljevi (leader of the Croatian Defence Forces(HOS) armed group) was killed by HVO soldiers in August 1992, which severely weakened the moderate group who hoped to keep the Bosnian Croat alliance alive.[49] The situation became more serious in October 1992 when Croat forces attacked the Bosniak population in Prozor. According to Jadranko Prli indictment, HVO forces cleansed most of the Muslims from the town of Prozor and several surrounding villages.[39] By 1993, when an armed conflict erupted between the predominantly Bosniak government in Sarajevo and the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia, about 70% of the country was controlled by Republika Srpska. Ethnic cleansing and civil rights violations against non-Serbs were rampant in these areas. DNA teams have been used to collect evidence of the atrocities committed by Serbian forces during these campaigns.[50] One single most prominent example is the Srebrenica Massacre, ruled genocide by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. An estimated 8,372 Bosnians were killed by the Serbian political authorities.[51]

In March 1994, the signing of the Washington Accords between the leaders of the republican government and Herzeg-Bosnia led to the creation of a joint Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which absorbed the territory of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia and that held by the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Federation soon liberated the small Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia.

Bosnia and Herzegovina after theDayton Agreement.

Following the Srebrenica massacre, a NATO bombing campaign began in August 1995 against the Army of Republika Srpska. Meanwhile, a ground offensive by the allied forces of Croatia and Bosnia, based on the treaty in Split by Tudjman and Izetbegovi, pushed the Serbs away from territories held in western Bosnia which paved the way to negotiations. In December 1995, the signing of the Dayton Agreement in Dayton, Ohio by the presidents of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Alija Izetbegovi), Croatia (Franjo Tuman) and Serbia (Slobodan Miloevi) brought a halt to the fighting, roughly establishing the basic structure of the present-day state. A NATO-led peacekeeping force was immediately dispatched to Bosnia to enforce the agreement. The number of identified victims is currently at 97,207. Recent research estimates the total number to be no more than 110,000 killed (civilians and military),[52][53][54] and 1.8 million displaced. Those declared missing are being investigated by International Commission on Missing Persons. According to numerous International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) judgements, the conflict involved Bosnia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (subsequently Serbia and Montenegro)[55] as well as Croatia.[56] At the International Court of Justice (ICJ), the Bosnian government charged Serbia of complicity in genocide in Bosnia during the war. The ICJ ruling of 26 February 2007 effectively determined the war's nature to be international, though exonerating Serbia of direct responsibility for the genocide committed by Serb forces of Republika Srpska. The ICJ concluded, however, that Serbia failed to prevent genocide committed by Serb forces and failed to punish those who carried out the genocide in particular General Ratko Mladi and bring them to justice.[57] Mladi was arrested in a village in northern Serbia on 26 May 2011 and, amongst other

genocide and war crime charges, accused of directly orchestrating and overseeing the slaughter of 8,000 Muslim men and boys.[58] The judges ruled that the criteria for genocide with the specific intent (dolus specialis) to destroy Bosnian Muslims were met only in Srebrenica or Eastern Bosnia in 1995.[59] The court concluded that the crimes committed during the 19921995 war may, according to international law, amount to crimes against humanity, but that these acts did not in themselves constitute genocide.[60]The Court further decided that Serbia was the only respondent party in the case after Montenegro's declaration of independence in June 2006, but that "any responsibility for past events involved, at the relevant time, the composite State of Serbia and Montenegro".[61]

[edit]Geography

Topographic map of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Various parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina: The coast of Neum; Igmanmountain with the Olympic ski jumping hills covered in snow; and some landscape near Ivan mountain.

Main article: Geography of Bosnia and Herzegovina See also: List of mountains in Bosnia and Herzegovina, List of lakes in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and List of rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia is located in the western Balkans, bordering Croatia (932 km/579 mi) to the north and southwest, Serbia(302 km/188 mi) to the east, and Montenegro (225 km/140 mi) to the southeast. It lies between latitudes 42 and46 N, and longitudes 15 and 20 E. The country's name comes from the two regions Bosnia and Herzegovina, which have a very vaguely defined border between them. Bosnia occupies the northern areas which are roughly four-fifths of the entire country, while Herzegovina occupies the rest in the south part of the country. The country is mostly mountainous, encompassing the central Dinaric Alps. The northeastern parts reach into thePannonian basin, while in the south it borders the Adriatic. Dinaric Alps generally run in east-west direction, and get higher towards the south. The highest point of the country is peak Magli at 2,386 m, at the Montenegrin border. Major mountains include Kozara, Grme, Vlai, vrsnica, Prenj, Romanija, Jahorina, Bjelanica and Treskavica. Overall, close to 50% of Bosnia and Herzegovina is forested. Most forest areas are in Central, Eastern and Western parts of Bosnia. Herzegovina has drier Mediterranean climate, with dominant karst topography. Northern Bosnia (Posavina) contains very fertile agricultural land along the river Sava and the corresponding area is heavily farmed. This farmland is a part of the Parapannonian Plain stretching into neighboring Croatia and Serbia. The country has only 20 kilometers (12 mi) of coastline,[7] around the town of Neum in the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton. Although the city is surrounded by Croatian peninsulas, by the international law, Bosnia and Herzegovina has a right of passage to the outer sea. The major cities are the capital Sarajevo, Banja Luka in the northwest region known as Bosanska Krajina, Bijeljina and Tuzla in the northeast, Zenica andDoboj in the central part of Bosnia and Mostar, the capital of Herzegovina.

There are seven major rivers in Bosnia and Herzegovina[62]

The Sava is the largest river of the country, but it only forms its northern natural border with Croatia. It drains 76%[62] of the country's territory into the Danube and the Black Sea. Bosnia and Herzegovina is therefore also a member of the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River(ICPDR).

The Una, Sana and Vrbas are right tributaries of Sava river. They are located in the northwestern region of Bosanska Krajina.

The Bosna river gave its name to the country, and is the longest river fully contained within it. It stretches through central Bosnia, from its source nearSarajevo to Sava in the north.

The Drina flows through the eastern part of Bosnia, and for the most part it forms a natural border with Serbia.

The Neretva is the major river of Herzegovina and the only major river that flows south, into the Adriatic Sea.

Phytogeographically, Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to the Boreal Kingdom and is shared between the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region and Adriatic province of the Mediterranean Region. According to the WWF, the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Pannonian mixed forests, Dinaric Mountains mixed forests and Illyriandeciduous forests.

[edit]Government

and politics

This section needs additionalcitations for verification.(February


2010)

Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH); Republika Srpska(RS); and Brko District (BD).

Bosnia and Herzegovina's government building in Sarajevo.

The Presidency Building in central Sarajevo.

Main articles: Politics of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina has several levels of political structuring, according to the Dayton accord. The most important of these levels is the division of the country into two entities: Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina covers 51% of Bosnia and Herzegovina's total area, while Republika Srpska covers 49%. The entities, based largely on the territories held by the two warring sides at the time, were formally established by the Dayton peace agreement in 1995 because of the tremendous changes in Bosnia and Herzegovina's ethnic structure. Since 1996 the power of the entities relative to the State government has decreased significantly. Nonetheless, entities still have numerous powers to themselves. TheBrko District in the north of the country was created in 2000 out of land from both entities. It officially belongs to both, but is governed by neither, and functions under a decentralized system of local

government. The Brko District has been praised for maintaining a multiethnic population and a level of prosperity significantly above the national average.[63] The third level of Bosnia and Herzegovina's political subdivision is manifested in cantons. They are unique to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity, which consists of ten of them. All of them have their own cantonal government, which is under the law of the Federation as a whole. Some cantons are ethnically mixed and have special laws implemented to ensure the equality of all constituent people. The fourth level of political division in Bosnia and Herzegovina is the municipalities. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided in 74 municipalities, and Republika Srpska in 63. Municipalities also have their own local government, and are typically based on the most significant city or place in their territory. As such, many municipalities have a long tradition and history with their present boundaries. Some others, however, were only created following the recent war after traditional municipalities were split by the Inter-Entity Boundary Line. Each canton in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of several municipalities, which are divided into local communities. Besides entities, cantons, and municipalities, Bosnia and Herzegovina also has four "official" cities. These are: Banja Luka, Mostar, Sarajevo, and East Sarajevo. The territory and government of the cities of Banja Luka and Mostar corresponds to the municipalities of the same name, while the cities of Sarajevo and East Sarajevo officially consist of several municipalities. Cities have their own city government whose power is in between that of the municipalities and cantons (or the entity, in the case of Republika Srpska). As a result of the Dayton Accords, the civilian peace implementation is supervised by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina selected by thePeace Implementation Council. The High Representative has many governmental and legislative powers, including the dismissal of elected and non-elected officials. More recently, several central institutions have been established (such as defense ministry, security ministry, state court, indirect taxation service and so on) in the process of transferring part of the jurisdiction from the entities to the state. The representation of the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina is by elites who represent the country's three major groups, with each having a guaranteed share of power. The Chair of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina rotates among three members (Bosniak, Serb, Croat), each elected as the Chair for an eight-month term within their four-year term as a member. The three members of the Presidency are elected directly by the people with Federation voters voting for the Bosniak and the Croat, and the Republika Srpska voters for the Serb. The Chair of the Council of Ministers is nominated by the Presidency and approved by the House of Representatives. He or she is then responsible for appointing a Foreign Minister, Minister of Foreign Trade, and others as appropriate.

The Parliamentary Assembly is the lawmaking body in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It consists of two houses: the House of Peoples and the House of Representatives. The House of Peoples has 15 delegates, two-thirds of which come from the Federation (5 Croat and 5 Bosniaks) and one-third from the Republika Srpska (5 Serbs). The House of Representatives is composed of 42 Members, two-thirds elected from the Federation and one-third elected from the Republika Srpska. The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the supreme, final arbiter of legal matters. It is composed of nine members: four members are selected by the House of Representatives of the Federation, two by the Assembly of the Republika Srpska, and three by the President of the European Court of Human Rights after consultation with the Presidency. However, the highest political authority in the country is the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the chief executive officer for the international civilian presence in the country. Since 1995, the High Representative has been able to bypass the elected parliamentary assembly, and since 1997 has been able to remove elected officials. The methods selected by the High Representative have been criticized as undemocratic.[64] International supervision is to end when the country is deemed politically and democratically stable and self-sustaining.

[edit]Military

Bosnian-Herzegovinian soldiers armed with Yugoslavian-made SKSrifles.

Main article: Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina were unified into a single entity in 2005, with the merger of the Army of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Army of Republika Srpska, which had defended their respective regions. The Ministry of Defense had been founded in 2004. The Bosnian military consists of the Bosnian Ground Forces and Air Force and Air Defense. The Ground Forces number 10,000 active and 5,000 reserve personnel. They are armed with a mix of American, Yugoslavian, Soviet, and European-made weaponry, vehicles, and military equipment. The Air Force and Air Defense Forces has 2,500 personnel and about 45 aircraft. All of its aircraft are utility helicopters and basic trainers. The Air Defense Forces operate MANPAD hand-held missiles, SAM missile batteries, anti-aircraft

cannons, and radar. Almost all of its anti-aircraft equipment is of Soviet origin, though it also operates some U.S. and Swedish hardware.

[edit]Foreign

relations

Main article: Foreign relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina See also: Accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the European Union EU integration is one of the main political objectives of Bosnia and Herzegovina; it initiated the Stabilisation and Association Process in 2007. Countries participating in the SAP have been offered the possibility to become, once they fulfill the necessary conditions, Member States of the EU. Bosnia and Herzegovina is therefore a potential candidate country for EU accession.[65] The implementation of the Dayton Accords of 1995 has focused the efforts of policymakers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the international community, on regional stabilization in the countries-successors of the former Yugoslavia. Within Bosnia and Herzegovina, relations with its neighbors of Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro have been fairly stable since the signing of theDayton Agreement in 1995. On April 23, 2010, Bosnia and Herzegovina received the Membership Action Plan from NATO, which is the last step before full membership in the alliance. Full membership is expected in 2014 or 2015, depending on the progress of reforms.

[edit]Demographics

A mosque, Eastern Orthodox church andRoman Catholic church in Bosanska Krupa.

Main articles: Demographics of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Demographic history of Bosnia and Herzegovina Further information: Ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and List of people from Bosnia and Herzegovina
Religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina
religion percent

Islam Serb

45% 36%

Orthodoxy Catholicism Protestantism Others

15% 1% 3%

Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to three ethnic "constituent peoples": Bosniaks, Serbs andCroats. Tensions between the three constitutional peoples remain high and often provoke political disagreements. According to the 1991 census, Bosnia and Herzegovina had a population of 4,377,000, while the 1996 UNHCR unofficial census showed a decrease to 3,920,000.[citation needed] Large population migrations during the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s have caused demographic shifts in the country. No census has been taken since 1991/96, and political disagreements have made it impossible to organize one. Nevertheless, a census has been planned for 2012.[66] As almost all of the post-war data is simply an estimate, a census would be a statistical, inclusive, and objective way to analyze the demographics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Most sources, however, estimate the population to be about four million, representing a decrease of 500,000 since 1991. The last official estimate by BHAS (Agency for Statistics of BiH) for 2011 shows a decrease of the population to 3,840,000.[67] Other BHAS estimation of population done on 30 June 2009 is 3,843,000.[68] Ethnically, according to data from 2000 cited by the CIA, Bosniak constitute 48% of the population, Serbs 37.1%, Croats 14.3%, and others 0.6%, including Jews, Roma, and Albanians.[2]According to unofficial estimates from the Bosnian State Statistics Agency cited by the US Department of State in 2008, 45 percent of the population identify religiously as Muslim, 36 percent as Serb Orthodox, 15 percent as Roman Catholic, 1 percent as Protestant, and 3 percent other (mostly atheists, Jews, and others).[69] Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian are official languages, but all three are mutually intelligible standards of Serbo-Croatian.

Largest cities or towns of Bosnia and Herzegovina


2012 estimate[70] Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 City name Sarajevo Banja Luka Tuzla Zenica Mostar Bijeljina Division Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Republika Srpska Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Republika Srpska

Sarajevo

7 8 9

Prijedor Brko Biha

Republika Srpska Brko District Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

10 Banja Luka

Doboj

Republika Srpska

[edit]Economy

Graphical depiction of Bosnia and Herzegovina's product exports in 28 color-coded categories.

The Avaz Twist Tower is the headquarters of the newspaperDnevni avaz.

Sarajevska Pivara, a Sarajevo brewery.

Main article: Economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina See also: List of companies of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia faces the dual problem of rebuilding a war-torn country and introducing market reforms to its formerly centrally planned economy. One legacy of the previous era is a greatly overstaffed military industry; under former leader Josip Broz Tito, military industries were promoted in the republic, resulting in the development of a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants but fewer commercially-viable firms. For the most of Bosnia's history, agriculture has been based on small and inefficient privately owned farms; food has traditionally been a net import for the republic.[71] The war in the 1990s caused a dramatic change in the Bosnian economy.[72] GDP fell by 75% and the destruction of physical infrastructure devastated the economy.[73] While much of the production capacity has been restored, the Bosnian economy still faces considerable difficulties. Figures show GDP and per capita income increased 10% from 2003 to 2004; this and Bosnia's shrinking national debt being positive trends, but high unemployment and a large trade deficit remain cause for concern. The national currency is the (Euro-pegged) Convertible Mark (KM), controlled by the currency board. Annual inflation is the lowest relative to other countries in the region at 1.9% in 2004. [74] The international debt was $3.1 billion (2005 est) the smallest amount of debt owed of all the former Yugoslav republics. Real GDP growth rate was 5% for 2004 according to the Bosnian Central Bank of BiH and Statistical Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Bosnia and Herzegovina has one of the highest income equality rankings in the world, ranking eighth out of 193 nations.[75] According to Eurostat data, Bosnia and Herzegovina's PPS GDP per capita stood at 29 per cent of the EU average in 2010.[76] The International Monetary Fund (IMF) announced a loan to Bosnia worth $500 million to be delivered by Stand-By Arrangement. This is scheduled to be approved in September 2012.[77] Overall value of foreign direct investment (19992008):[78]

1999: 166 million 2000: 159 million 2001: 133 million 2002: 282 million 2003: 338 million 2004: 534 million 2005: 421 million 2006: 556 million 2007: 1.628 billion 2008: 1.083 billion

From 1994 to 2008, 5.3 billion were invested in the country.[79] The top investor countries (19942007):[78]

Austria (1,294 million) Serbia (773 million) Croatia (434 million) Slovenia (427 million) Switzerland (337 million) Germany (270 million) Italy (94.29 million) Netherlands (63.52 million) United Arab Emirates (56.70 million) Turkey (54.81 million) All Other Countries (892.54 million)

Foreign investments by sector for (19942007):[78]

37.7% Manufacturing 21% Banking 4.9% Services 9.6% Trade 0.30% Transport 1% Tourism

The United States Embassy in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina produces the Country Commercial Guide an annual report that delivers a comprehensive look at Bosnia and Herzegovinas commercial and economic environment, using economic, political, and market analysis. It can be viewed on Embassy Sarajevos website.

[edit]Communications
Main article: Telecommunications in Bosnia and Herzegovina The Bosnian communications market was fully liberalised in January 2006. There are three landline telephone providers, although each one predominantly serves a partile services are provided by three operators, with nationwide services. Mobile data services are also available, including high-speed EDGE and 3G services.[80] Osloboenje (Liberation), founded in 1943, is one of the country's longest running continuously circulating newspapers. There are many national publications, only some of which include theDnevni Avaz (Daily Voice), founded in 1995, and Jutarnje Novine (Morning News) in circulation in Sarajevo.[81] Other local periodicals include the Croatian newspaper Hrvatska rije and the Bosnian magazine Start, as well as the weekly newspapers Slobodna Bosna (Free Bosnia) and BH Dani (BH Days). Novi Plamen, a monthly magazine, is the most left-wing publication currently. The international news station Al Jazeera maintains a sister channel that caters to the Balkan region, Al Jazeera Balkans, broadcasting out of and based in Sarajevo.[82] Additionally, the country is the most liberated in terms of freedom of the press in the region, ranking 43rd internationally.[83]

[edit]Tourism

Various tourist attractions: Sarajevo, the capital and the largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina; Marian shrine of Meugorje; general view of Mostar (with the Stari Most);Trebinje town and river; and the Mehmed Paa Sokolovi Bridge in Viegrad.

Main article: Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina See also: Sites of interest in Sarajevo According to an estimation of the World Tourism Organization, Bosnia and Herzegovina will have the third highest tourism growth rate in the world between 1995 and 2020.[84] In 2006, when ranking the best cities in the world, Lonely Planet placed Sarajevo, the national capital and host of the 1984 Winter Olympic Games, as #43, ahead of Dubrovnik at #59, Ljubljana at #84, Bled at #90, Belgrade at #113, and Zagreb at #135.[85] Tourism in Sarajevo is chiefly focused on historical, religious, and cultural aspects. Bosnia has also become an increasingly popular skiing andEcotourism destination. In 2010, Lonely Planet's "Best In Travel" nominated it as one of the top ten cities to visit that year.[86] Sarajevo also won travel blog Foxnomad's "Best City to Visit" competition in 2012, beating more than one hundred other cities around the entire world.[87] Meugorje has become one of the most popular pilgrimage sites for Christians in the world and has turned into Europe's third most important religious place, where each year more than 1 million people visit.[88] It has been estimated that 30 million pilgrims have come to Meugorje since the reputed apparitions began in 1981. [89] Bosnia and Herzegovina remains one of the last undiscovered natural regions of the southern area of the Alps, with vast tracks of wild and untouched nature attracting adventurers and nature lovers. National Geographic magazine named Bosnia and Herzegovina as the best mountain biking adventure destination for 2012. [90] The

central Bosnian Dinaric Alps are favored by hikers and mountaineers, containing both Mediterreanean and Alpine climates. Whitewater rafting is somewhat of a national pastime, with three rivers, including the deepest river canyon in Europe, the Tara River Canyon.[84]

[edit]Tourist attractions
Some of the tourist attractions in Bosnia and Herzegovina include:

Sarajevo, the "Olympic City" or "European Jerusalem"; the scientific, cultural, tourist and commercial center of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Shrine of Our Lady of Meugorje, with Annual Youth Festival; the site of a Marian apparition and susequent Catholic pilgrimage destination.

Mostar, the "City on Neretva" or "City of Sunshine"; the location of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Stari most and old-town Mostar.

Srebrenica, where the worst war crimes committed in Europe since World War II occurred; features natural beauty, rafting and boat-rides along on the Drina river to Viegrad via the second-deepest canyon in Europe.

Viegrad, location of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of the Mehmed Paa Sokolovi Bridge.

Banja Luka, the "Green City", with sights such as the Kastel fortress and Ferhadija mosque.

Biha and the wateralls of the river Una within Una National Park. Jajce, city of the Bosnian kings and the place where Yugoslavia was founded.

Prijedor, featuring its Old City Mosque, Kozara National Park and, at Mrakovica, Bosnia's largest World War II monument.

The salt-lakes of Tuzla, birthplace of Mea Selimovi. The Neretva river and the Rakitnica river canyons in Upper Neretva. The Trebiat river and its waterfalls at Kravice and Koua. The Buna with its spring and historic town of Blagaj. The Lower Tara river canyon, the deepest canyon in Europe. Sutjeska National Park, featuring the ancient forest of Peruica (one of the last two remaining primeval forests in Europe) and the Sutjeska river canyon.

Poitelj historical village.

Mount Bjelanica and Jahorina, sites used during XIV Olympic Winter Games in 1984.

The coastal city of Neum. Doboj and its 13th century fortress. Stolac, featuring the Begovina neighborhood and Radimlja tombstones. Visoko, city of the Bosnian nobility and monarchy, historical capital of the Kingdom of Bosnia and the site of the alleged Bosnian pyramids;

Teanj, one of Bosnia's oldest known cities. Bijeljina, known for its agriculture and ethnic village Stanii. Lukavac, featuring Modrac Lake (Jezero Modrac), the largest artificial lake in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Travnik, the birthplace of Ivo Andri and once the capital city of the Bosnia Eyalet.

Ostroac Castle, a 16th-century castle built by the Ottoman Empire and later expanded by the House of Habsburg.

[edit]Education

Gornji Vakuf Konjic, featuring Tito's underground nuclear bunker.[91]

The University of Sarajevo's Faculty of Law.

Main article: Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina Higher education has a long and rich tradition in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The first bespoke higher-education institution was a school of Sufi philosophy established by Gazi Husrev-beg in 1531. Numerous other religious schools then followed. In 1887, under the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a Sharia law school began a five-year program.[92] In the 1940s the University of Sarajevo became the city's first secular higher education institute. In the 1950s post-bachelaurate graduate degrees became available.[93] Severely damaged during the war, it was recently rebuilt in partnership with more than 40 other universities. There are various other institutions of higher

education, including: University "Demal Bijedi" of Mostar, University of Banja Luka, University of Mostar, University of Tuzla, American University in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is held in high regard as one of the most prestigious creative arts academies in the region. Also, Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to several private and international higher education institutions, some of which are:

Sarajevo School of Science and Technology International University of Sarajevo American University in Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Graduate School of Business International Burch University

Primary schooling lasts for nine years. Secondary education is provided by general and technical secondary schools (typically Gymnasiums where studies typically last for four years. All forms of secondary schooling include an element of vocational training. Pupils graduating from general secondary schools obtain the Matura and can enroll in any tertiary educational institution or academy by passing a qualification examination prescribed by the governing body or institution. Students graduating technical subjects obtain a Diploma.[94]

[edit]Culture
This section needs additionalcitations for verification.(February
2010)

National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Statues of Mea Selimovi (left) and Ismet Mujezinovi in Tuzla.

Main article: Culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina

[edit]Architecture
Main article: Architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina The architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina is largely influenced by four major periods where political and social changes influenced the creation of distinct cultural and architectural habits of the population. Each period made its influence felt and contributed to a greater diversity of cultures and architectural language in this region.

[edit]Literature
Main article: Literature of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina has a rich literature, including a Nobel prize winner Ivo Andri and poets such as Antun Branko imi, Aleksa anti, Jovan Duiand Mak Dizdar, writers such as Mea Selimovi, Semezdin Mehmedinovi, Miljenko Jergovi, Isak Samokovlija, Safvet beg Baagi, Abdulah Sidran, Petar Koi, Aleksandar Hemon, and Nedad Ibriimovi. The National Theater was founded 1919 in Sarajevo and its first director was famous drama-play writerBranislav Nui. Magazines such as Novi Plamen or Sarajevske biljeznice are some of the more prominent publications covering cultural and literary themes. Besides native Bosnian literature there are many books which cover the nineties Bosnian conflict written by international authors. A few books worthy of mention are:

Slaughterhouse: Bosnia and the Failure of the West by David Rieff Love Thy Neighbor: A Story of War by Peter Maass Safe Area Gorazde: The War in Eastern Bosnia 19921995 by Joe Sacco, and Christopher Hitchens

The Balkans: Nationalism, War & the Great Powers, 18041999 by Misha Glenny

Zlata's Diary: A Child's Life in Wartime Sarajevo, by Zlata Filipovi

and in novels:

From Bosnia with Love by Javed Mohammed, S: A novel about the Balkans by Slavenka Drakuli.

[edit]Art

Steak from Radimlja, nearStolac (13th century).

Main article: Art of Bosnia and Herzegovina The art of Bosnia and Herzegovina was always evolving and ranged from the original medieval tombstones called Steci to paintings in Kotromani court. However, only with the arrival of Austro-Hungarians did the painting renaissance in Bosnia really begin to flourish. The first educated artists from European academies appeared with the beginning of 20th century. Among those are: Gabrijel Jurki, Petar Tijei, Karlo Miji, piro Bocari, Petar ain, oko Mazali, Roman Petrovi and Lazar Drljaa. Later, artists such as: Ismet Mujezinovi, Vojo Dimitrijevi, Ivo eremet, and Mica Todorovi amongst others came to rise. After World War II artists like: Virgilije Nevjesti, Bekir Misirli, Ljubo Lah, Meho Sefi, Franjo Likar, Mersad Berber, Ibrahim Ljubovi, Devad Hozo, Affan Rami, Safet Zec, Ismar Mujezinovi and Mehmed Zaimovi rose in popularity. In 2007, Ars Aevi, a museum of contemporary art that includes works by renowned world artists was founded in Sarajevo.

[edit]Music

Vedran Smailovi, the "Cellist of Sarajevo".

Main article: Music of Bosnia and Herzegovina Typical Bosnian and Herzegovinian songs are ganga, rera, and the traditional Slavic music for the folk dances such as kolo and from Ottoman era the most popular is sevdalinka. Pop and Rock music has a tradition here as well, with the more famous musicians including Dino Zoni, Goran Bregovi, Davorin Popovi,Kemal Monteno, Zdravko oli, Edo Maajka, Hari Mata Hari and Dino Merlin. Very popular are also the numerous Slavic Metal bands, performing an interesting combination of upbeat tempos and traditional tunes. Among them Silent Kingdom, Emir Hot, D'n'K, Toxicdeath, Agonize and Irina Kapetanovi, often performing with folk metal musicians from other neighbouring Slavic countries like Stribog (Croatia), Svarica (Croatia/Bosnia) and Arkona (Russia). Also, it would be unfair not to mention some of the talented composers such as ore Novkovi, Al' Dino, Haris Dinovi, Kornelije Kova, and many pop and rock bands, for example, Bijelo Dugme, Crvena Jabuka, Divlje Jagode, Indexi, Plavi Orkestar, Zabranjeno Puenje, who were among the leading ones in the former Yugoslavia. Bosnia is home to the composer Duan esti, the creator of the current national anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina and father of singer Marija esti, composer Saa Loi and pianist Sasha Toperich. In the villages, especially in Herzegovina, Bosniaks, Serbs, and Croats play the ancient Gusle. The gusle is used mainly to recite epic poems in a usually dramatic tone. Probably the most distinctive and identifiably "Bosnian" of music, Sevdalinka is a kind of emotional, melancholic folk song that often describes sad subjects such as love and loss, the death of a dear person or heartbreak. Sevdalinkas were traditionally performed with a saz, a Turkish string instrument, which was later replaced by the accordion. However the more modern arrangement, to the derision of some purists, is typically a vocalist accompanied by the accordion along with snare drums, upright bass, guitars, clarinets and violins. Sevdalinkas are unique to Bosnia and Herzegovina as they are not only a mix of Turkish and Bosnian music, especially Muslim religious melodies called ilahije/nasheeds. Example of songs mixing all three influences are "Kad ja

pooh na Benbau", the unofficial anthem of the city of Sarajevo, and "Kraj Tanana Sadrvana". Though not as common as it once was, traditional Sevdalinka singers like Kadir Kurtagi, Emina Ahmedhodi, Haim Muharemovi and Muhamed Meanovi-Hami are still popular to the extent that their recordings are available.

[edit]Cinema
Main article: List of Bosnia-Herzegovina films Bosnia has a rich cinematic and film heritage, dating back to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia; many Bosnian filmmakers have achieved international prominence and most have won international awards ranging from the Academy Awards to multiple Palme d'Ors and Golden Bears. Some notable Bosnian filmmakers, screenwriters and cinematographers are Academy Award-winner Danis Tanovi (known for the Academy Award and Golden Globewinning 2001 film No Man's Land), Golden Bear-winning Jasmila bani, Hajrudin Krvavac-iba, Mirza Idrizovi, Aleksandar Jevevi, Ivica Mati, Ademir Kenovi, the late Benjamin Filipovi, Jasmin Dizdar, Pjer alica, Dino Mustafi, Sran Vuleti, Aida Begi, among many others.

[edit]Sports
Bosnia and Herzegovina has produced many athletes. Many of them were famous in the Yugoslav national teams before Bosnia and Herzegovina's independence. The most important international sporting event in the history of Bosnia and Herzegovina was the hosting of the 14th Winter Olympics, held in Sarajevo from the 7th to 19 February 1984. Some notable local Olympians were:

Rome, 1960: Tomislav Knez and Velimir Sombolac (football), Tokyo, 1964: Mirsad Fazlagi (football), Munich, 1972: Abaz Arslanagi, Milorad Karali, Neboja Popovi, ore Lavrini, Dobrivoje Sele (handball)

Moscow, 1980: Mirza Delibai and Ratko Radovanovi (basketball) Los Angeles, 1984: Zdravko Raenovi, Zlatan Arnautovi (handball) and Anton Josipovi (boxing).

The Borac handball club has won seven Yugoslav Handball Championships, as well as the European Championship Cup in 1976 and the International Handball Federation Cup in 1991. The Bosna basketball club from Sarajevo were European Champions in 1979. The Yugoslav national basketball team, which medaled in every world championship from 1963 through 1990, included Bosnian players such as Draen Dalipagi and Mirza Delibai. Bosnia and Herzegovina regularly qualifies for the European Championship in Basketball. Jedinstvo Aida women's basketball club, based in Tuzla, has won the 1989 European Championships in Florence.

Bosnia has produced many world-class basketball players, notably Mirza Teletovi, the first Bosnian in the NBA, who has signed a three-year deal with Brooklyn Nets. Among others are,Elmedin Kikanovi, Nihad edovi, Ognjen Kuzmi, Jusuf Nurki, Nedad Sinanovi, and Nemanja Mitrovi. The Tuzla-Sinalco karate club from Tuzla has won the most Yugoslav championships, as well as four European Championships and one World Championship. The Bosnian chess team has been Champion of Yugoslavia seven times, in addition to club K Bosna Sarajevo winning four Chess Club Cup : 1994 in Lyon, 1999 in Bugojno, 2000 in Neum, and 2001 in Kallithea Elassonos. Chess grandmaster Borki Predojevi has also won two European Championships: Under-12 years Litochoro (Greece) in 1999, and Under-14 years Kallithea Elassonos (Greece) in 2001, and in 2003 won World Championship Under-16 years Halkidiki (Greece). The most impressive success of Bosnian Chess was his runner-up position in Mens Olympiads of 1994 in Moscow, featuring Grandmasters Predrag Nikoli, Ivan Sokolov, Bojan Kurajica and Emir Dizdarevi. Middle-weight boxer Marijan Bene has won several Championships of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslav Championships and the European Championship.[95] In 1978 he won the World Title against Elisha Obed from the Bahamas. Another middle-weight boxer, Anton Josipovi won the Olympic Gold in Los Angeles, 1984. He also won Yugoslav Championship in 1982, the Championship of the Balkans in 1983, and the Belgrade Trophy in 1985. Association football is the most popular sport in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It dates from 1903, but its popularity grew significantly after World War I. At the local level, FK Sarajevo (1967 and 1984), eljezniar (1972) have both won the Yugoslav Championship. The former Yugoslav national football team has included a number of Bosnian players, such as Josip Katalinski, Bla Slikovi, Duan Bajevi, Enver Mari, Mehmed Badarevi, Ivica Osim, Safet Sui, Vahidin Musemi and Mirsad Fazlagi. Today, the team of Bosnia and Herzegovina has modern footballers like Edin Deko, Zvjezdan Misimovi, Vedad Ibievi, Emir Spahi, Asmir Begovi, Miralem Pjani, Sejad Salihovi, Senad Luli and others. The independent Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team has not qualified for a European or World Championship but has played twice in the play-off stages. For all time matches: Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team results (1995-Present). Bosnian national teams have struggled to draft the best national players. Many players born in Bosnia and Herzegovina choose to play for other countries because of their ethnic identification. For example Nikica Jelavi and Vedran orluka were both born in Bosnia and Herzegovina but play for Croatia. Other internationally famous players from Bosnia and Herzegovina, who have made similar choices, are: Dejan Lovren, Mladen Petri, Mario Stani, Neven Suboti, Zlatan Ibrahimovi (born and raised in Sweden, his mother a Croat, his father a Bosnian), Marko Marin, Boris ivkovi, Zlatko Junuzovi, Savo Miloevi, and Zdravko Kuzmanovi.

Bosnia and Herzegovina was the world champion of volleyball at the 2004 Summer Paralympics and volleyball at the 2012 Summer Paralympics. Many among those on the team lost their legs in the Bosnian War.

[edit]Cuisine

evapii.

Main article: Bosnia and Herzegovina cuisine Bosnian cuisine uses many spices, in moderate quantities. Most dishes are light, as they are cooked in lots of water; the sauces are fully natural, consisting of little more than the natural juices of the vegetables in the dish. Typical ingredients include tomatoes, potatoes, onions, garlic, peppers,cucumbers, carrots, cabbage, mushrooms, spinach, zucchini, dried beans, fresh beans, plums, milk, paprika and cream called Pavlaka. Bosnian cuisine is balanced between Western and Eastern influences. As a result of the Ottoman administration for almost 500 years, Bosnian food is closely related to Turkish, Greek, and other former Ottoman and Mediterranean cuisines. However, because of years of Austrian rule, there are many influences from Central Europe. Typical meat dishes include primarily beef and lamb. Some local specialties are evapi, burek, dolma, sarma, pilaf,goulash, ajvar and a whole range of Eastern sweets. Local wines come from Herzegovina where the climate is suitable for growing grapes. Herzegovinian loza (similar to Italian Grappa but less sweet) is very popular. Plum (rakija) or apple (jabukovaa) alcohol beverages are produced in the north. In the south, distilleries used to produce vast quantities of brandy and supply all of exYugoslavian alcohol factories (brandy is the base of mostalcoholic drinks).

[edit]Leisure

activities

Coffeehouses, where Bosnian coffee is served in dezva with rahat lokum and sugar cubes, proliferate Sarajevo and every city in the country. Coffee drinking is a favorite Bosnian pastime and part of the culture. Bosnians are believed to be some of the heaviest coffee drinkers in the world.[96]

[edit]See

also

Geography portal

Europe portal Mediterranean portal Bosnia and Herzegovina portal

[edit]Notes

Outline of Bosnia and Herzegovina List of people from Bosnia and Herzegovina List of populated places in Bosnia and Herzegovina List of radio stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina Rail transport in Bosnia and Herzegovina Transport in Bosnia and Herzegovina

1.

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Preporod. ISBN 9958-815-00-1 16. ^ Suetonius, Tiberius 16,17 17. ^ Miller, Norma. Tacitus: Annals I, 2002, ISBN 1-85399-358-1. It had originally been joined to Illyricum, but after the great Illyrian/Pannonian revolt of AD 6 it was made a separate province with its own governor 18. ^ Stipevi, Aleksandar, The Illyrians-History and Culture, 1974, Noyess Press 19. ^ Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 20. ^ Adzanela (Axhanela) Ardian, Illyrian Bosnia and Herzegovina-an overview of a cultural legacy, 2004, Centre for Balkan Studies, Online Balkan Centre :http://www.balkancenter.org/Anglisht/ardian.ilyrianbosna.html 21. ^ Singleton, Frederick Bernard (1985). A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples. Cambridge University Press. p. 496.ISBN 0-521-27485-0. 22. ^ "declared as national monument". declared as national monument.
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The Bosnian Manuscript Ingathering Project. 25. ^ Albertini, Luigi (1952). The Origins of the War of 1914, Volume I. Oxford University Press. p. 19. 26. ^
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Oxford University Press. p. 33. 27. ^ L.Albertini, The Origins of the War of 1914, vol 1, (New York, 2005), p37, ISBN 1-929631-31-6 28. ^ L.Albertini, The Origins of the War of 1914, vol 1, (New York, 2005), p94, ISBN 1-929631-31-6 29. ^ L.Albertini, The Origins of the War of 1914, vol 1, (New York, 2005), p140, ISBN 1-929631-31-6

30. ^ L.Albertini, The Origins of the War of 1914, vol 1, (New York, 2005), p195, ISBN 1-929631-31-6 31. ^ L.Albertini, The Origins of the War of 1914, vol 1, (New York, 2005), p227, ISBN 1-929631-31-6 32. ^ Danijela Nadj, dnadj@hic.hr. "An International Symposium "Southeastern Europe 19181995"". Hic.hr. Retrieved 14 June 2006. 33. ^ "Balkan 'Auschwitz' haunts Croatia". BBC News. 25 April 2005. 34. ^ Hadijahi, Muhamed (1973), "Muslimanske rezolucije iz 1941 godine [Muslim resolutions of 1941"] (in Serbocroatian), Istorija Naroda Bosne i Hercegovine, Sarajevo: Institut za istoriju radnikog pokreta, p. 277 35. ^ Lepre, George (1997). Himmler's Bosnian Division: The Waffen-SS Handschar Division 1943-1945. Schiffer Publishing. ISBN 0-7643-0134-9. 36. ^ erjavi, Vladimir. 'Yugoslavia manipulations with the number Second World War victims. Croatian Information Centre. ISBN 0-919817-32-7. 37. ^ Stojic, Mile (2005). Branko Mikulic socialist emperor manqu. BH Dani 38. ^
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2006. 39. ^
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40. ^ "Prlic et al. Initial Indictment". United Nations. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 41. ^ "The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Case NO: IT-01-47-PT (Amended Indictment)". January 11, 2002. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 42. ^ "The Referendum on Independence in Bosnia-Herzegovina: February 29 March 1, 1992". Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. 1992. p. 19. Retrieved 2009-12-28. 43. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P. (2006). The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation, 19182004. Indiana University Press. p. 379. ISBN 0-27101629-9. 44. ^ Yossef Bodansky (November 29, 1995). "Offensive in the Balkans: The Potential for a Wider War as a Result of Foreign Intervention in BosniaHerzegovina". International Strategic Studies Association. Retrieved 6 May 2012. 45. ^ "ICTY: Naletili and Martinovi verdict A. Historical background".

46. ^ "The humanitarian operation in Bosnia, 199295: the dilemmas of negotiating humanitarian access" (PDF). United Nations High Commission for Refugees. May 1999. Retrieved 2008-06-24. 47. ^ "ICTY: The attack against the civilian population and related requirements".
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48. ^ ICTY Kordic and Cerkez judgment II. Persecution: The HVO TakeOvers B. Novi Travnik [1]
[dead link]

49. ^ Sarajevo, i poslije, Erich Rathfelder, Mnchen 1998 [2] 50. ^ "Court wants exemplary Karadzic trial", BBC News, 2008-07-24, retrieve 2009-07-12 [3] 51. ^ "The Geography of Genocide", Allan D. Cooper, p. 178, University Press of America, 2008, ISBN 0-7618-4097-4 52. ^ "War-related Deaths in the 19921995 Armed Conflicts in Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Critique of Previous Estimates and Recent Results". European Journal of Population. June 2005. 53. ^ "Research halves Bosnia war death toll to 100,000". Reuters. 2005-1123.
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54. ^ "Review of European Security Issues". U.S. Department of State. 200603-03. 55. ^ "ICTY: Conflict between Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia". 56. ^ "ICTY: Conflict between Bosnia and Croatia". 57. ^ "ICJ: The genocide case: Bosnia v. Serbia" (PDF). 58. ^ "Profile: Ratko Mladic, Bosnian Serb army chief". BBC NEWS europe. 27 May 2011. 59. ^ "Courte: Serbia failed to prevent genocide, UN court rules". The San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press. 2007-02-26.
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60. ^ "Sense Tribunal: Serbia Found Guilty Of Failure To Prevent And Punish Genocide". 61. ^ "Statement of the President of the Court". 62. ^
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Regions in Bosnia and Herzegovina". FAO. p. 113. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 63. ^ OHR Bulletin 66 (February 3, 1998). Final hearing of the Arbitration Tribunal in Vienna. OHR.

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[edit]Bibliography

Coupland, Nikolas (2010). The Handbook of Language and Globalization. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4051-7581-4.

Phillips, Douglas A. Bosnia and Herzegovina (Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2004).

[edit]External

Robin Okey, Taming Balkan Nationalism: The Habsburg 'Civilizing' Mission in Bosnia, 18781914 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).

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d'Ethnographie de Genve. Accessed November 25, 2010.

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International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

The Tribunal building in The Hague

Established

25 May 1993

Country

former Yugoslavia

Location

The Hague, the Netherlands

Coordinates

52.0679N 4.3535ECoordinates: 52.0679N 4.3535E

Authorized by Judge term length Number of positions Website

United Nations Security Council Resolution 827 Four years 16 permanent 12 ad litem http://www.icty.org/ President

Currently Since

Theodor Meron (United States) 17 November 2011

The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia or ICTY, is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the wars in the former Yugoslavia, and to try their perpetrators. The tribunal is an ad hoc court which is located in The Hague, the Netherlands.

The Court was established by Resolution 827 of the United Nations Security Council, which was passed on 25 May 1993. It has jurisdiction over four clusters of crimes committed on the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991: grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, violations of thelaws or customs of war, genocide, and crimes against humanity. The maximum sentence it can impose is life imprisonment. Various countries have signed agreements with the UN to carry out custodial sentences. The final indictments were issued in December 2004, the last of which were confirmed and unsealed in the spring of 2005.[1] The Tribunal aims to complete all trials by the end of 2012 and all appeals by 2015,[2] with the exception of Radovan Karadi whose trial is expected to end in 2014[2]and recently arrested Ratko Mladi and Goran Hadi. The United Nations Security Council called upon the Tribunal to finish its work by 31 December 2014 to prepare for its closure and transfer of its responsibilities to the International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals which will begin functioning for the ICTY branch on 1 July 2013. The Tribunal will conduct and complete all outstanding first instance trials, including those of Radovan Karadi, Ratko Mladi and Goran Hadi. It will conduct and complete all appeal proceedings for which the notice of appeal against the judgement or sentence is filed before 1 July 2013. Any appeals for which notice is filed after that date will be handled by the Residual Mechanism.[3] Hadi became the last of 161 indicted fugitives to be arrested after Serbian President Boris Tadi announced his arrest on 20 July 2011.[4]
Contents
[hide]

1 History

o o o o

1.1 Creation 1.2 Implementation 1.3 Operation 1.4 Accomplishments

2 Organisation

o o

2.1 Prosecutors 2.2 Chambers

o o

2.2.1 Judges

2.3 Registry 2.4 Detention facilities

3 Indictees

4 Criticism 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

[edit]History [edit]Creation

Report S/25704 of the UN Secretary-General, including the proposed Statute of the International Tribunal, approved by UN Security Council Resolution 827.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 808 of 22 February 1993 decided that "an international tribunal shall be established for the prosecution of persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991" and calling on the SecretaryGeneral to "submit for consideration by the Council a report on all aspects of this matter, including specific proposals and where appropriate options taking into account suggestions put forward in this regard by Member States". The Court was originally proposed by German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel.[5] By 25 May 1993, the international community had tried to pressure the leaders of the former Yugoslavian republics diplomatically, militarily, politically, economically, and with Resolution 827 through juridical means.Resolution 827 of 25 May 1993 approved report S/25704 of the Secretary-General and adopted the Statute of the International

Tribunal annexed to it, formally creating the ICTY. It would have jurisdiction over four clusters of crime committed on the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991: grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, violations of the laws or customs of war, genocide, and crime against humanity. The maximum sentence it can impose is life imprisonment.

[edit]Implementation
In 1993, the ICTY built its internal infrastructure. 17 states have signed an agreement with the ICTY to carry out custodial sentences [6] 1993-1994: In the first year of its existence, the Tribunal laid the foundations for its existence as a judicial organ. The Tribunal established the legal framework for its operations by adopting the rules of procedure and evidence, as well as its rules of detention and directive for the assignment of defense counsel. Together these rules established a legal aid system for the Tribunal. As the ICTY is part of the United Nations and as it was the firstinternational court for criminal justice, the development of a juridical infrastructure was considered quite a challenge. However after the first year the first ICTY judges had drafted and adopted all the rules for court proceedings. 1994-1995: The ICTY completed a courtroom and detention facilities in Scheveningen in The Hague (The Netherlands). The ICTY hired now many staff members. By July 1994 there were sufficient staff members in the office of the prosecutor to begin field investigations and by November 1994 the first indictment was presented and confirmed. In 1995, the entire staff numbered more than 200 persons and came from all over the world. Moreover, some governments assigned their legally trained people to the ICTY.

[edit]Operation
In 1994 the first indictment was issued against the Bosnian-Serb concentration camp commander Dragan Nikoli. This was followed on 13 February 1995 by two indictments comprising 21 individuals which were issued against a group of 21 Bosnian-Serbs charged with committing atrocities against Muslim and Croat civilian prisoners . While the war in the former Yugoslavia was still raging, the ICTY prosecutors showed that an international court was viable. However, no accused was arrested.[7] The court confirmed 8 indictments against 46 individuals and issued arrest warrants. Duko Tadic became the subject of the Tribunal's first trial. The Bosnian-Serb Duko Tadi was arrested by German police in Munich in 1994 for his alleged actions in the Prijedor region in Bosnia-Herzegovina (especially his actions in the Omarska, Trnopolje and Keraterm detention camps). Tadic made his initial appearance before the ICTY Trial Chamber on 26 April 1995 and pleaded not guilty to all of the charges in the indictment. 1995-1996: Between June 1995 and June 1996, 10 public indictments had been confirmed against a total of 33 individuals. Six of the newly indicted persons were transferred in the Tribunal's detention unit. In addition to Duko Tadic, by June 1996 the tribunal had Tihofil Blakic, Draen Erdemovic, Zejnil Delalic, Zdravko Mucic,

Esad Lando and Hazim Delic in custody. The accused Erdemovic became the first person to enter a guilty plea before the tribunal's court. Between 1995 and 1996, the ICTY also dealt with miscellaneous cases involving several detainees - Djukic, Krsmanovic, Kremenovic, Lajic - which never reached the trial stage. Some of the accused had been arrested and others surrendered to the ICTY. However, most of the new states that came out of Yugoslavia - most notably Serbia and the Serbian entity in Bosnia-Herzegovina - refused to cooperate with the international tribunal.

[edit]Accomplishments
In 2004, the ICTY published a list of five successes which it claimed it had accomplished:[8][9] 1. "Spearheading the shift from impunity to accountability", pointing out that, until very recently, it was the only court judging crimes committed as part of the Yugoslav conflict, since prosecutors in the former Yugoslavia were, as a rule, reluctant to prosecute such crimes; 2. "Establishing the facts", highlighting the extensive evidence-gathering and lengthy findings of fact that Tribunal judgments produced; 3. "Bringing to justice thousands of victims and giving them a voice", pointing out the large number of witnesses that had been brought before the Tribunal; 4. "The accomplishments in international law", describing the fleshing out of several international criminal law concepts which had not been ruled on since the Nuremberg Trials; 5. "Strengthening the Rule of Law", referring to the Tribunal's role in promoting the use of international standards in war crimes prosecutions by former Yugoslav republics.

[edit]Organisation
The Tribunal employs around 900 staff.[10] Its organisational components are Chambers, Registry and the Office of the Prosecutor (OTP).

Lateral view of the building.

[edit]Prosecutors
The Prosecutor is responsible for investigating crimes, gathering evidence and prosecutions and is head of the Office of the Prosecutor (OTP).[11] The Prosecutor is appointed by the UN Security Council upon nomination by the UN Secretary-General.[12] The current prosecutor is Serge Brammertz. Previous Prosecutors have been Ramn Escovar Salom of Venezuela (19931994), Richard Goldstone ofSouth Africa (19941996), Louise Arbour of Canada (19961999), Eric stberg of Sweden, and Carla Del Ponte of Switzerland (19992007), who until 2003, simultaneously served as the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda where she led the OTP since 1999. David Tolbert, the President of the International Center for Transitional Justice, was also appointed Deputy Prosecutor of the ICTY.

[edit]Chambers
Chambers encompasses the judges and their aides. The Tribunal operates three Trial Chambers and one Appeals Chamber. The President of the Tribunal is also the presiding Judge of the Appeals Chamber.

[edit]Judges
There are 16 permanent judges and 9 ad litem judges who serve on the tribunal.[13] UN member and observer states each submit up to two nominees of different nationalities to the UN SecretaryGeneral.[14] The UN Secretary-General submits this list to the UN Security Council which selects from 28 to 42 nominees and submits these nominees to the UN General Assembly.[14] The UN General Assembly then elects

14 judges from that list.[14] Judges serve for 4 years and are eligible for re-election.[14] The UN SecretaryGeneral appoints replacements in case of vacancy for the remainder of the term of office concerned. [14] On 19 October 2011, Judge Theodor Meron (United States) was elected the new President of the ICTY by the permanent judges in a Special Plenary Session. Judge Carmel Agius (Malta) was elected VicePresident.[15] His predecessors were Antonio Cassese of Italy (19931997), Gabrielle Kirk McDonald of the United States (19971999), Claude Jorda of France (19992002),Theodor Meron of the United States (20022005), Fausto Pocar of Italy (20052008) and Patrick Robinson of Jamaica (2008-2011).

Name

Country

Position

Elected

Term Ends

Theodor Meron

United States

President

2001

Carmel A. Agius

Malta

Vice President

2001

Alphons M. M. Orie

Netherlands

Presiding Judge 2001

Fausto Pocar

Italy

Judge

2001

Burton P. C. Hall

The Bahamas

Judge

2009

Mehmet Gney

Turkey

Judge

2001

Liu Daqun

People's Republic of China Judge

2000

2012

Andrsia Vaz

Senegal

Judge

2005

2011

Patrick Robinson

Jamaica

Judge

1998

Christoph Flgge

Germany

Judge

2008

Name

Country

Position

Elected

Term Ends

O-Gon Kwon

South Korea

Judge

2001

Jean-Claude Antonetti

France

Judge

2003

Howard Morrison

United Kingdom

Judge

2009

2012

Guy Delvoie

Belgium

Judge

2009

Bakone Justice Moloto

South Africa

Judge

2005

2011

Arlette Ramaroson

Madagascar

Judge

2011

Khalida Khan

Pakistan

Judge

2011

Melville Baird

Trinidad and Tobago

Ad Litem Judge 2008

Elizabeth Gwaunza

Zimbabwe

Ad Litem Judge 2008

rpd Prandler

Hungary

Ad Litem Judge 2006

2012

Stefan Trechsel

Switzerland

Ad Litem Judge 2006

2012

Antoine Kesia-Mbe Mindua

Republic of the Congo

Ad Litem Judge 2006

2012

Prisca Matimba Nyambe

Zambia

Ad Litem Judge 2009

Michle Picard

France

Ad Litem Judge 2008

Name

Country

Position

Elected

Term Ends

Frederik Harhoff

Denmark

Ad Litem Judge 2007

2013

Flavia Lattanzi

Italy

Ad Litem Judge 2007

2013

List of judges provided on Organs of the Tribunal at: http://www.icty.org/sid/151

[edit]Registry
The Registry is responsible for handling the administration of the Tribunal; activities include keeping court records, translating court documents, transporting and accommodating those who appear to testify, operating the Public Information Section, and such general duties as payroll administration, personnel management and procurement. It is also responsible for the Detention Unit for indictees being held during their trial and the Legal Aid program for indictees who cannot pay for their own defence. It is headed by the Registrar, currently John Hocking of Australia (since May 2009). His predecessors were Hans Holthuis of the Netherlands (2001 2009), Dorothe de Sampayo Garrido-Nijgh of the Netherlands (19952000), and Theo van Boven of the Netherlands (February 1994 to December 1994).

[edit]Detention

facilities

A typical 10 m2[16] single cell at the ICTY detention facilities

Those defendants on trial and those who were denied a provisional release are detained at the United Nations Detention Unit on the premises of thePenitentiary Institution Haaglanden, location Scheveningen, located some 3 km by road from the courthouse. The indicted are housed in private cells which have a toilet, shower, radio, satellite TV, personal computer (without Internet access) and other comforts. They are allowed to phone family and friends daily and can have conjugal visits. There is also a library, a gym and various rooms used for religious observances. The inmates are allowed to cook for themselves. All of the inmates mix freely and are not segregated on the basis of

nationality; Serbian and Bosnian Muslim detainees now reportedly share friendly chess and backgammon games and watch film screenings. As the cells are more akin to a university residence instead of a jail, some have derisively referred to the ICT as the Hague Hilton.[17] The reason for this luxury relative to other prisons is that the first president of the court wanted to emphasise that the indictees are innocent until proven guilty.[18]

[edit]Indictees
Main article: List of people indicted in the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia Since the very first hearing (referral request in the Tadi case) on 8 November 1994, the Tribunal has indicted 161 individuals, and has already completed proceedings with regard to 126 of them: 13 have been acquitted, 64 sentenced (1 is awaiting transfer, 26 have been transferred, 34 have served their term, and 3 died while serving their sentences), 13 have had their cases transferred to local courts. Another 36 cases have been terminated (either because indictments were withdrawn or because the accused died, before or after transfer to the Tribunal).[19] The indictees ranged from common soldiers to generals and police commanders all the way to Prime Ministers. Slobodan Miloevi was the first sitting head of state indicted for war crimes.[20]Other "high level" indictees included Milan Babi, former President of the Republika Srpska Krajina; Ramush Haradinaj, former Prime Minister of Kosovo; Radovan Karadi, former President of the Republika Srpska; Ratko Mladi, former Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army and Ante Gotovina, former General of the Croatian Army. Haradinaj's trial began at The Hague on 5 March 2007[21] and the closing brief was given on 23 January 2008.[22] The final decision of the ICTY was expected in March 2008. On 3 April 2008, ICTY issued a public notice of the Haradinaj verdict, in which he was acquitted of all charges. The judge said much of the evidence had been non-existent against Haradinaj or at best inconclusive.[23] But he also complained of witness intimidation, saying some witnesses had not testified because they had been afraid.[23] On 21 July 2010, the cases of UK (Kosovo Liberation Army) commanders Ramush Haradinaj, Idriz Balaj and Lahi Brahimaj were re-opened for trial.[24] However on 29 November 2012 all three were acquitted of all charges for a second time.[25] As of December 2011, there were seven ongoing trials and a further two cases in the pre-trial stage. Six further cases are at the appeals stage.[ ] The accused currently at the appeals stage
[19]

include Ante Gotovina and

Mladen Marka, Milan Luki and Sredoje Luki and Vujadin Popovi. A further 23 individuals have also been the subject of contempt proceedings.[26] Croat Serb General and former President of the Republic of Serbian Krajina Goran Hadi became the last fugitive wanted by the Tribunal to be arrested on 20 July 2011. [4]

[edit]Criticism

The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved. (November 2012)
Skeptics argued that an international court could not function while the war in the former Yugoslavia was still going on. This would be a huge undertaking for any court, but for the ICTY it would be an even greater one, as the new tribunal still needed judges, a prosecutor, a registrar, investigative and support staff, an extensive interpretation and translation system, a legal aid structure, premises, equipment, courtrooms, detention facilities, guards and all the related funding. Criticisms levelled against the court include:

Moscow has criticised the ICTY has being ineffective, costly and politically motivated, The tribunal has long discredited itself and eeljs case is just one more proof of that. Even Carla del Ponte admitted that the case against him was politically motivated, [27]

On 6 December 2006, the Tribunal at The Hague approved the use of force-feeding of Serbian politician Vojislav eelj. They decided it was not "torture, inhuman or degrading treatment if there is a medical necessity to do so...and if the manner in which the detainee is force-fed is not inhuman or degrading".[28]

Reducing the indictment charges - after the arrest of Ratko Mladi, Croatian officials publicly condemned chief prosecutor Serge Brammertz for his announcement that the former Bosnian Serb General will be on trial only for crimes committed in Bosnia, but not for those crimes committed in Croatia (kabrnja massacre, shelling of Zadar, ibenik, Poega, Kijevo as well as the destruction of the Perua dam).[29][30]

Critics[31] have questioned whether the Tribunal exacerbates tensions rather than promotes reconciliation,[32] as is claimed by Tribunal supporters. Polls show a generally negative reaction to the Tribunal among the Serb and Croat public.[32] The majority of Croats and Serbs doubt the tribunal's integrity and question the tenability of its legal procedures (although the Serbian and Croatian opinions on the court are almost always exactly the opposite with regard to the cases that involve both parties).[32]

Critics[who?], even within the United Nations, have complained of the Tribunal's high cost. The two-year budget for the Tribunal for 2004 and

2005 was $271,854,600 (currently $324 million).[33]The cost is borne by all U.N. members.

No indictments for NATO officials - even though the ICTY indicted and convicted individuals from every nation involved in the Yugoslav Wars, not a single indictment has been issued for NATO officials. Noam Chomsky observed that the ICTY should have indicted Tony Blair and Bill Clinton together with Milosevic over Kosovo War.[34]

68% of indictees have been Serbs (or Montenegrins),[32] to the extent that a sizeable portion of the Bosnian Serb and Croatian Serbian political and military leaderships have been indicted. Many have seen this as reflecting bias,[35] while the Tribunal's defenders have seen this as indicative of the actual proportion of crimes committed. However, Marko Attila Hoare observed how, apart from Miloevi, only Momilo Perii (Chief of the General Staff of the Yugoslav Army) has been indicted from the Serbian military or political top when it comes to wars in Croatia and Bosnia.[32]

According to Attila Hoare, a former employee at the ICTY, an investigative team worked on indictments of senior members of the joint criminal enterprise, including not only Milosevic but alsoVeljko Kadijevic, Blagoje Adzic, Borisav Jovic, Branko Kostic, Momir Bulatovic and others. However, upon Carla del Pontes intervention, these drafts were rejected, and the indictment limited to Milosevic alone, as a result of which most of these individuals were never indicted.[36][37]

Allegations of censorship - in July 2011, the Appeals Chamber of ICTY confirmed the judgment of the Trial Chamber which found journalist and former Tribunals OTP spokesperson Florence Hartmann guilty of contempt of court and fined her 7,000. She disclosed documents of FR Yugoslavias Supreme Defense Council meetings and criticized the Tribunal for granting confidentiality of some information in them to protect Serbias vital national interests' during Bosnia's lawsuit against the country for genocide in front of the International Court of Justice. Hartmann argued that Serbia was freed of charge of genocide because ICTY redacted some information in the Council meetings. Since these documents have in the meantime been made public by the ICTY itself, a group of organizations and individuals who supported her said that the Tribunal in this appellate

proceedings "imposed a form of censorship aimed to protect the international judges from any form of criticism".[38]

Klaus-Peter Willsch compared the Ante Gotovina verdict, where the late Croatian president Franjo Tuman was posthumously found to have been participating in a Joint Criminal Enterprise, with the 897 Cadaver Synod trial in Rome, when Pope Stephen VI had the corpse of Pope Formosus exhumed, put on trial and posthumously found guilty.[39]

Too mild sentences - some circles, even within the Tribunal,[40] complained at small sentences of convicted war criminals in comparison with their crimes. In 2010, Veselin ljivananin's sentence for his involvement in the Vukovar massacre was cut from 17 to 10 years, which caused outrage in Croatia. Upon hearing that news, Dr. Vesna Bosanac, in charge of the Vukovar hospital during the fall of the city, said that the "ICTY is dead" for her: "For crimes that he [ljivananin], had committed in Vukovar, notably at Ovcara, he should have been jailed for life. I'm outraged...The Hague(based) tribunal has showed again that it is not just a tribunal."[41] Danijel Rehak, the head of Croatian Association of Prisoners in Serbian Concentration Camps, said: "The shock of families whose beloved ones were killed at Ovcara is unimaginable. The court made a crucial mistake by accepting a statement of a JNA officer to whom Sljivancanin was a commander. I cannot understand that."[41] Pavle Strugar's 8 year sentence for shelling of Dubrovnik, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, also caused outrage in Croatia.[42] Judge Kevin Horace Parker has even been named in a Croatian Journal as the main cause of failure of the system because he dismissed numerous testimonies of witnesses.[42]

Some of the defendants, such as Slobodan Miloevi, claimed that the Court has no legal authority because it was established by the UN Security Council instead of the UN General Assembly, therefore it had not been created on a broad international basis. The Tribunal was established on the basis of Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter; the relevant portion of which reads "the Security Council can take measures to maintain or restore international peace and security". The legal criticism has been succinctly stated in a Memorandum issued by Austrian ProfessorHans Kchler, which was submitted to the President of the Security Council in 1999. British Conservative Party MEP Daniel Hannan has called for the court to be abolished, claiming that it is anti-democratic and a violation of national sovereignty.[43]

[edit]See

also

[edit]References

Command responsibility Joint Criminal Enterprise International Criminal Court International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

^ "History of the office of the prosecutor". ^


a b

"ICTY Completion Strategy Report 18 May 2011".

^ "UNSC Resolution 1966". ^


a b

Serbia's last war crimes fugitive arrested Al Jazeera, 20 July 2011

^ Hazan, Pierre. 2004. Justice in a Time of War: The True Story Behind the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. College Station: Texas A & M University Press

6. 7.

^ "Enforcement of Sentences". ^ Pronk, E.: "The ICTY and the people from the former Yugoslavia. A reserved relationship."

8.

^ "'The Tribunal's Accomplishments in Justice and Law'"(PDF). Retrieved 30 November 2011.

9.

^ "ICTY at a glance". Un.org. 5 March 2007. Retrieved 30 November 2011.

10. ^ "Employment section of ICTY website". 11. ^ Statute of the International Tribunal, Annex of Report S/25704 of the UN Secretary-General, Article 16(1) 12. ^ Statute of the International Tribunal, Annex of Report S/25704 of the UN Secretary-General, Article 16(4) 13. ^ "The Judges section of ICTY website". 14. ^
a b c d e

"Article 13bis".

15. ^ Judge Meron and Judge Agius elected President and Vice-President of the ICTY from ICTY 16. ^ "Profile: Scheveningen prison". BBC News. 16 May 2012. 17. ^ Evans, Judith (26 October 2009). "Radovan Karadzic cell life". The Times (London). Retrieved 5 May 2010. 18. ^ Stephen, Chris (13 March 2006). "Milosevic jail under scrutiny". BBC News. Retrieved 5 May 2010.

19. ^

a b

"ICTY website Key Figures".

20. ^ "ASIL.org". ASIL.org. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 21. ^ "Washington Post/Associated Press, Ex-Kosovo PM Pleads Innocent at Hague, 1 March 2007". Washingtonpost.com. 1 March 2007. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 22. ^ "Closing Arguments in Haradinaj Trial". Iwpr.net. 1 February 1981. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 23. ^
a b

Hague court acquits Kosovo ex-PM from BBC News

24. ^ "Partial re-trial for Haradinaj, Balaj and Brahimaj". Icty.org. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 25. ^ "Kosovo ex-PM Ramush Haradinaj cleared of war crimes". BBC News. 29 November 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 26. ^ "ICTY website Contempt Cases". 27. ^ [1] 28. ^ Traynor, Ian (7 December 2006). "War crimes tribunal orders forcefeeding of Serbian warlord". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 16 September 2007. 29. ^ "Kosor will insist on expansion of indictment against Mladic". Daily Portal. 3 June 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 30. ^ "Croatia Crimes 'Won't Be Included' in Mladic Indictment". Balkaninsight. 2 June 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 31. ^ Jeffrey T. Kuhner (20 April 2011.). "New Balkan war? Hague convicts Croatian hero, incites designs for Greater Serbia". World Tribune. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 32. ^
a b c d e

Marko Attila Hoare (April 2008). "Genocide in Bosnia and the

failure of international justice". Kingston University. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 33. ^ Staff. Consumer Price Index (estimate) 18002012. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 22, 2012. 34. ^ "On the NATO Bombing of Yugoslavia - Noam Chomsky interview". RTS Online. 25 April 2006. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 35. ^ "General jailed for Dubrovnik role". BBC News. 31 January 2005. Retrieved 16 June 2011.

36. ^ Attila Hoare, Marko (10 January 2008). "Florence Hartmanns Peace and Punishment". Wordpress.com. Retrieved 9 April 2011. 37. ^ Attila Hoare, Marko (June 2005). "The Capitulation of the Hague Tribunal". Henry Jackson Society. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
[dead link]

38. ^ "FLORENCE HARTMANN CASE: CONVICTION AND SENTENCE UPHELD ON APPEAL". The Hague: Sense Agency. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 39. ^ Klaus-Peter Willsch (2 June 2011). "Die Leichensynode von Den Haag [The Cadaver Synod at the Hague"] (in German). Frankfurter Allgemeine. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 40. ^ "Ten years in prison for Miroslav Deronjic". The Hague: Sense Agency. 30 March 2004. Retrieved 8 May 2011. "Judge Schomburg however thinks that the punishment is not proportional to the crime and is not within mandate and spirit of this Tribunal. According to him, the crime to which Deronjic pleaded guilty "deserves a sentence of no less than twenty years of imprisonment". In a brief summary of his dissenting opinion that he read after pronouncing the sentence imposed by the majority, Judge Schomburg criticized the prosecution for having limited Deronjic's responsibility in the indictment to "one day and to the village of Glogova." Secondly, Judge Schomburg adds that the "heinous and long-planned crimes committed by a high-ranking perpetrator do not allow for a sentence of only ten years", which in light of his possible early release could mean that the accused would spend only six years and eight months in prison. At the end of his dissenting opinion, Judge Schomburg quoted a statement by one of Deronjic's victims. The victim said that his guilty plea "can heal the wounds" that the Bosniak community in eastern Bosnia still feels - "provided that he is punished adequately". According to the victim, "a mild punishment would not serve any purpose."" 41. ^
a b

Dejong, Peter (8 December 2010). "War crimes court cuts Serb's

massacre sentence". The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 42. ^


a b

Jelini, Berislav (2 October 2010). "Kevin Parker The judge who

freed the villains of Vukovar". Nacional (weekly). Archived from the original on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 43. ^ Hannan, Daniel (26 February 2007). "He went unsung to his grave". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 May 2009.

[edit]Further

reading

Ackerman, J.E. and O'Sullivan, E.: Practice and procedure of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: with selected materials for the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, The Hague, KLI, 2000.

Laughland, J.: Travesty: T

Justice, London, Pluto Pre

Lescure, K.: Internationa

Aldrich, G.H.: Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia , American Journal of International Law, 1996, pp. 6468.

Tribunal of the Hague, Th

McDonald, G.K.: Reflecti

Bassiouni, M.C.: The Law of the International Criminal Tribunal of the Former Yugoslavia , New York, Transnational Publications, 1996.

Former Yugoslavia, Hasti

Mettraux, G.: Crimes aga

Boelaert-Suominen, S.: The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) anno 1999: its place in the international legal system, mandate and most notable jurisprudence , Polish Yearbook of International Law, 2001, pp. 95155.

for the Former Yugoslavia 316.

Morris, V. and Scharf, M.

Boelaert-Suominen, S.: The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the Kosovo Conflict, International Review of the Red Cross, 2000, pp. 217251.

Former Yugoslavia, Afric

Murphy, S.D.: Progress a

Cassese, Antonio: The ICTY: A Living and Vital Reality, Journal of International Criminal Justice Vol.2, 2004, No.2, pp. 585597

Yugoslavia, American Jou

Panovsky, D.: Some war c

Cisse, C.: The International Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda: some elements of comparison, Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems, 1997, pp. 103118.

Tribunal for the Former Y

University Law Review, 2

Clark, R.S. and SANN, M.: A critical study of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, European Journal of International Law, 1997, pp. 198200.

Pilouras, S.: International

York Law School Journal

Goldstone, R.J.: Assessing the work of the United Nations war crimes tribunals, Stanford Journal of International Law, 1997, pp. 18.

Pronk, E.: "The ICTY and

Roberts, K.: The law of pe

Ivkovi, S.K.: Justice by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Stanford Journal of International Law, 2001, pp. 255346.

Yugoslavia, Leiden Journ

Robinson, P.L.: Ensuring

Jones, J.W.R.D.: The practice of the international criminal tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, New York, Transnational, 2000.

Former Yugoslavia, Euro

Shenk, M.D.: Internationa

Kaszubinski, M.: The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, in: Bassiouni, M.C. (ed.), Post-conflict justice, New York, Transnational, 2002, pp. 459585.

International Lawyer, 199 Shraga, D. and Zackalin,

Kerr, R.: International judicial intervention: the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, International Relations, 2000, pp. 1726.

European Journal of Inter

Sjocrona, J.M.: The Intern

Kerr, R.: The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: an exercise in law, politics and diplomacy, Oxford, OUP, 2004.

remarks from a defence p

Tolbert, David: The ICTY

King, F. and La Rosa, A.: Current Developments. International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, B.T.I.R., 1997, pp. 533555.

Forum of World Affairs, V

Tolbert, David: Reflection No.2, 2004, pp. 480485

Klip, A. and Sluiter, G.: Annotated leading cases of international criminal tribunals; (Vol. III) The

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia 2000-2001, Schoten, Intersentia, 2003. Kchler, Hans: Global Justice or Global Revenge? International Criminal Justice at the Crossroads, Vienna/New York, Springer, 2003, pp. 166184. Kolb, R.: The jurisprudence of the Yugoslav and Rwandan Criminal Tribunals on their jurisdiction and on international crimes, British Yearbook of International Law, 2001, pp. 259315. Lamb, S.: The powers of arrest of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia , British Yearbook of International Law, 2000, pp. 165244. [edit]External

Vierucci, L.: The First Ste

European Journal of Inter

Warbrick, C. and McGold

Former Yugoslavia, Intern

Wilson, Richard Ashby: pp. 908942.

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Official website of ICTY International Progress Organization: Monitoring of the ICTY Del Ponte, Carla (2003). The role of international criminal prosecutions in reconstructing divided communities, public lecture by Carla Del Ponte, Prosecutor, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, given at the London School of Economics, 20 October 2003.

Topical digests of the case law of ICTR and ICTY, Human Rights Watch, 2004

Hague Justice Portal: Academic gateway to The Hague organisations concerning international peace, justice and security.

Calendar of court proceedings before the ICTY: Hague Justice Portal Why Journalists Should be Worried by the Rwanda Tribunal Precedents (deals also with ICTY) by Thierry Cruvellier for Reporters Without Borders

SENSE News Agency, a special project based in ICTY Complete web-based video archive of the Milosevic trial War Crimes, conditionality and EU integration in the Western Balkans, by Vojin Dimitrijevic, Florence Hartmann, Dejan Jovic, Tija Memisevic, edited by Judy Batt, Jelena Obradovi, Chaillot Paper No. 116, June 2009, European Union Institute for Security Studies

Introductory note by Fausto Pocar on the Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Historic Archives of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law

Procedural history of the Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Historic Archives of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law

Lecture by Fausto Pocar entitled Completing the Mandate: The Legal Challenges Facing the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Lecture Series of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law

Lecture by Fausto Pocar entitled Contribution of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia to the Development of International Humanitarian Law in the Lecture Series of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law

Lecture by Patrick Lipton Robinson entitled Fairness and Efficiency in the Proceedings of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Lecture Series of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law
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Women for Women International exists because of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1993, Women for Women International Founder Zainab Salbi heard reports of wartime atrocities against women in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Compelled to act, she visited the country herself. She spoke with women who'd been imprisoned in rape camps, endured daily mass rapes by soldiers and had lost their entire families to ethnic cleansing. When she returned to the U.S., she founded Women for Women International to help Bosnian women.

Although the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina was more than 15 years ago, it toppled the economy and shattered lives, and women are still struggling today: to heal, to recover and to reunite. With your help, Women for Women International in Bosnia and Herzegovina is working with women to rebuild their lives.

Bosnian Serbs voice grievances


From January, the burden of bringing Balkan war criminals to justice will shift to local courts in Bosnia, Serbia and Croatia - potentially thousands of cases. Already in the Republika Srpska - the Serb-dominated Bosnian Serb police have not caught the top area of Bosnia-Hercegovina - fugitives the police are in search of those accused of atrocities, with recent newspaper reports of eight men arrested on suspicion of war crimes. Most of those facing the international war crimes tribunal in The Hague are Bosnian Serbs. This has led many Serbs to say their whole nation is on trial. But at the same time, some who have already been tried in The Hague and served their sentences are now returning home - and they are unrepentant. "Everyone has to have justice - but justice doesn't exist," Miroslav Tadic, released last month after serving three years of a five-year sentence, told BBC World Service's Assignment programme. "That's the problem. Through my experience, I can't see how the right people will be brought to justice." 'Big political ambitions' Tadic was found guilty of driving non-Serbs from his town in northern Bosnia.

He claims he was performing "humanitarian" work, and that there was no plan to move non-Serbs from the area in order to link one majority Serb community with another. "There was no plan for this we're not talking about forcing people to leave," he said.

We've been here for 1,000 years, suffering for Christianity and for western civilisation

"You couldn't put anyone on a Andjelko Grahovac Banja Luka politician list who didn't want to go." In Banja Luka, de facto capital of the Republika Srpska, the sentiments of local politician Andjelko Grahovac remain the same as 13 years ago, when he first outlined plans to remove all non-Serbs. He told Assignment he was happy with the post-war make-up of Banja Luka - but not with the rest of the Republika Srpska. "Talking about the settlement of Serb people, we are quite satisfied - especially in this area," he said. "But it's extraordinarily little in comparison with what we wanted." He added that in 1991 they had "big political ambitions" but these had become "unrealistic." "The Serb people deserve our own state," he maintained. "We've been here for 1,000 years, suffering for Christianity and for western civilisation." But not all those directly involved in the dark recent past of this part of the world hold such strong views. Notorious camp
Profile: Bosnia-Hercegovina

On the edge of Prijedor, a town in north-west Bosnia, is a nondescript factory for bathroom tiles, which once housed one of the camps that Bosnian Muslims and Croats were sent to in 1992. In three months that year, nearly 2,000 Muslim and Croat Predrag Banovic: Jailed for eight years in October men died in detention camps 2003 in this area. One of the most notorious is Keraterm. Recent prosecutions at The Hague relating to Keraterm include: Guard Predrag Banovic, convicted of crimes against humanity Bosnian Serb propagandist Radoslav Brdjanin, convicted, amongst other things, of providing "moral encouragement and support" to military and police running the camp - as well as ones at Omarska and Trnopolje Dragan Kolundzija, a former prison guard found guilty of crimes against humanity, and who has served a three-year sentence.

Kolundzija said the camp guards had felt "much closer to robots that human beings". "We were all doing things that were not connected to our true selves," he added. "We didn't fear our superiors, we just feared those who caused the problems - people from outside. "They had guns and they could kill your friends, without anyone knowing you'd done it." Kolundzija said that the guards were unable to do more because they feared the consequences. "It was a time of chaos. The role of the guards was extraordinarily unpleasant, and no-one wants to talk about this today. "We guards were never clear where we were, which side we were on." He maintained that he had tried to prevent deaths at the camp when on shift.

'A dark, black night' But on one night, military trucks rolled into Keraterm. More than 200 people were locked in a warehouse and gunned down by guards who shot through the doors. More than 150 people were killed. A former prisoner at the camp, Suad Varmaz - known as Duda - said that he had seen Kolundzija tell the army not to shoot, but his pleas had not been heeded. Duda described the conditions at Keraterm as "catastrophic." "The room I was in was about 120 metres square, and there were 400 of us in it.
TV footage of camps in north Bosnia shocked the world

"There were four rooms about the same size - altogether about 2,000 men, men from 15 to 90 years old." Duda also said he still did not know the reason why they had been treated like this. "Before the war we lived together," he said. "It still doesn't make sense how overnight some people could become beasts." Meanwhile Kolundzija argued that thousands of his own people had escaped justice. "If you want individuals to face justice for all the problems in Bosnia, you can count on your fingers all the people who have been prosecuted," he said. "When something like this happens and you're a witness, the only way to survive is not to think about what's happening. "It was a dark, black night." But among the mix of emotions in the Republika Srpska is forgiveness. Mufti Edhem Camdzic, the spiritual leader of Bosnian Muslims in Banja Luka, pointed out that under the constitution each people must be recognised and given their own rights - but also called for reconciliation.

"It's natural people should regret what they did, which was bad, or be proud of what they did, which was good," he said. "Justice will spring like a fountain in humans. You just can't stop it."

Timeline of the Yugoslav wars


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Yugoslav wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) that took place between 1991 and 2001. This article is a timeline of relevant events preceding, during, and after the wars.
Contents
[hide]

1 Timeline

o o o o o o

1.1 Tito-era 1.2 Fall of communism 1.3 Armed fighting 1991-1993 1.4 Armed fighting 1993-1995 1.5 Post-1995 era and Kosovo 1.6 Aftermath

2 See also 3 References

[edit]Timeline [edit]Tito-era
1945 Victorious resistance army, Yugoslav Partisans form Socialist Yugoslavia, a communist union of several nations. 1949-1952 Tito-Stalin split leads to Yugoslavia breaking away from Moscow influence.

1966 Josip Broz Tito sacked Aleksandar Rankovi, an intelligence officer and main Serbian cadre, after which a purge of Serbian cadres from the establishment followed. 1968 Protests in 1968 are echoed in Yugoslavia too. There are student demonstrations, while in Kosovo demonstrators demand greater rights for Albanian people. Ailing Tito, in his late 70s, allows some liberalisation, but despite old age, refuses to retire. Croatian terrorists plant bombs at cinemas, several people die. 1971 Nationalist demonstrations in Croatia, known as Croatian spring or MASPOK. Tito and communist government condemn the demonstrations. Many hardline-nationalists were later convicted for hate-speech, including Stipe Mesi and Franjo Tudjman. Government crisis follows. A group of Croatian neo-Ustashas from Australia infiltrates Yugoslavia planning terrorist attacks, but their actions are prevented and the group is destroyed. 1972 Yugoslavian Airways (JAT) Flight 364 is destroyed by foreign Ustae 23 of the 24 on board are killed. Vesna Vulovi, a stewardess, is the only survivor after more than a 10 000 meter freefall.[dubious discuss] 1974 New constitution of SFRY proclaimed, granting more power to federal units, and more power to autonomous provinces Kosovo and Vojvodina of Serbia, giving them a vote in all relevant decisions in the federal government. It was aimed to address grievances of non-Serb nations within Yugoslavia, under what later became known as weak Serbia, strong Yugoslavia concept.Bosnian Muslims (after 1993 the name was changed to Muslim-Bosniacs, and finally to Bosniaks) were recognized as a sixth "nation" of Yugoslavia (note: "nations" or officially: "narodi"

were Slavic majority peoples, while "nationalities" of officially "narodnosti" were all other national minorities) and one of the three constituent peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina. May 1980 Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito dies.

[edit]Fall
1981

of communism

Economic crisis in Yugoslavia has begun. Albanian nationalist demonstrations in Kosovo, demanding status of a republic and more rights (the slogan "Kosovo republika"). Demonstrations are suppressed and condemned by all Yugoslav communists, including Albanian communists from Kosovo, as contrarevolutionary. Arrests follow. 1983 A group of Bosnian Muslim nationalists were convicted under SFRY law that prohibited spreading international hatred. In the group was Alija Izetbegovic who was among other things tried for his Islamic Declaration. 1986-1989 Controversial Memorandum of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts protests position of Serbia in Yugoslavia. Serb chetnik "archduke" Momilo uji (in emigration), promotes Vojislav eelj to Chetnik duke by declaration in the USA on Vidovdan, 28 June 1989. In his instructions to eelj, uji orders him to "expel all Croats, Albanians and other foreign elements from the holy Serb ground".[1] Perceived prosecution of Serbs by Kosovo Albanians fuels growing Serbian nationalist sentiment. Additional police forces were sent to Kosovo to calm down things. Slobodan Milosevic, a high government official at the time, gives a speech to a small group of Kosovo Serbs where he promises that "no one will beat them", which is aired in the main television news programme. Milosevic instantly becomes very popular in Serbia. Milosevic rises to power in Serbia.

Antibureaucratic revolution demonstrations bring pro-Milosevic governments to Vojvodina, Kosovo and Montenegro. Kosovo Albanian miners strike in the Stari Trg mine. Slovenian government holds a big rally in the Cankar Congress centre, supporting the Kosovo Albanians. Albanians outside Serbia (mostly in Slovenia and Croatia) pledge for help from Croatia and Slovenia. Relations between Slovenia and Serbia deteriorate. Unofficial embargo on Slovenian products introduced in Serbian stores (see Radmila Anelkovi) . Slovenia is increasingly talking about independence. 600th anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo is celebrated by Serbs across Yugoslavia. Slobodan Milosevic gives speech at Kosovo, described by his opponents as nationalist.

0 Communist Party dissolves on republic (and partially on national) lines at the 14th Congress of Yugoslav Communist Party (SKJ, Savez komunista Jugoslavije), with Slovenian and Croatian communists leaving the Congress protesting Miloevi's actions. Constitutional changes in Serbia revoke some of the powers granted to Kosovo and Vojvodina by the constitution of 1974, including a power to cast a vote in the federal council completely independently from Serbia, which in fact stripped off their nigh-to-republic status. This effectively gave Serbia 3 out of 8 votes in the federal council (4 with support from Montenegro). Serb nationalist meetings were held in some Serb-populated areas of Croatia, with iconography that was considered provocative by many Croats. Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) subjects formerly republic territorial defence system to a central command, effectivelly disarming Croatia and Slovenia.

First democratic elections in 45 years are held in Yugoslavia in an attempt to bring the Yugoslav socialist model into the new, postCold War world. Nationalist options won majority in almost all republics. Croatian winning party, HDZ offers a vice-presidential position to Serb Radical Party, which refuses. Croatian Serbs start a rebellion against the newly elected government, an event frequently referred to as the "Balvan revolution" (tree-log revolution). Constitutional changes in Croatia deny the status of a constituent nation to Serbs in Croatia, equalizing them with all other minorities. Slovenia holds a referendum on independence from Yugoslavia which passes with 88.5% of the electorate in favour of independence.

Evidence of illegal arming of Croatia and preparations for the war aired on TV. Despite the claims that the tapes were heavily tampered with, Croatian government dismisses Martin Spegelj. Unsuccessful negotiations between heads of the republics were held in several rounds.

Opposition demonstrations in Belgrade against Milosevic rule, ending in two deaths. Army puts tanks on the streets. Plitvice Lakes incident results in first Croatian fatality when Croatian policemen are ambushed.

Rising ethnic violence in Croatia. Slovenia and Croatia declare independence. JNA intervenes in Slovenia by deploying troops to take border areas. Following the Ten-day war, JNA is defeated. The ethnic homogeneity of Slovenia allows the country to avoid much fighting. The Yugoslav army agrees to leave Slovenia, but supports rebel Serb forces in Croatia.

A three month cease fire agreed on Brioni. Yugoslav forces would retreat from Slovenia, and Croatia and Slovenia put a hold on their independence for three months.

JNA forces openly attack Croat areas (primarily Dalmatia and Slavonia), starting the Croatian War of Independence. Battle of Vukovar begins. Battle of the barracks begins over JNA garrisons throughout Croatia. EU propose Carrington-Cutileiro plan for Bosnia and Herzegovina. All sides agree, but Izetbegovic later withdraws his signature.

JNA begins Siege of Dubrovnik. The last Yugoslav National Army soldier leaves Slovenia.

Full scale war in Croatia. Fall of Vukovar.

The Serb entity in Croatia proclaimed itself the Republic of Serbian Krajina, but remained unrecognized by any country except Serbia.

Vance peace plan signed, creating 4 UNPA zones for Serb-controlled territories, and ending large scale military operations in Croatia. UNPROFOR forces arrive to monitor the peace treaty. Macedonia declares independence. No wars erupted in this area. Slovenia and Croatia are internationally recognized (European Community countries, several EFTA and Central European countries).

Bosnia declares independence. Bosnian war begins. The siege of Sarajevo begins. Bosnian Serb forces mounted the siege of Sarajevo resulting in 10,000 killed by 1995. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia proclaimed, consisting of Serbia and Montenegro, the only two remaining republics.

Yugoslav army retreats from Bosnia and Herzegovina, leaving a large part of its armory to Bosnian Serbs. Military personnel who were born in Bosnia and Herzegovina retain ranks in the newly-founded VRS. United Nations impose sanctions against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and accepts Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina as members.

Bosnian Serbs gain control of 70% of territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Hundreds of thousands of refugees result from the war and large portions of Bosnia and Herzegovina are ethnically cleansed of non-Serbs.

Serbia elects Slobodan Miloevi as a president for the second time.

Vance-Owen peace plan offered. Under pressure from Slobodan Milosevic, Karadzic signs the plan, but after a vote in assembly of Bosnian Serbs he withdraws his signature.

Fighting begins between Bosniaks and Croats.

Owen-Stoltenberg peace plan offered. Refused by Izetbegovic in August.

Fighting begins in the Bihac region between Bosnian Government and Bosniaks loyal to Fikret Abdic. It lasts until August 1995.

Peace treaty between Bosniaks and Croats is signed (Washington Agreement), arbitrated by the United States.

Contact Group (U.S., Russia, France, Britain, and Germany) made steady progress towards a negotiated settlement of the conflict in Bosnia, but no agreement was reached.

Serbia closes border with Bosnian Serb republic and imposes embargo, as a measure of pressure to accept the plan of Contact Group.

Croatia launches Operation Flash and in 2 days enters Western Slavonia UNPA zone. The exodus of 30,000 Serbian refugees follows.

Srebrenica genocide reported, 8,000 Bosniaks killed by units of the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) under the command of General Ratko Mladi. July 21, Operation Miracle captures a number of VRS soldiers.[2]

Croatia launches Operation Storm and reclaims over 70% of its prewar territory, entering all UNPA zones except Eastern Slavonia. Often termed by critics as the "biggest ethnic cleansing operation of the Yugoslav Wars", it resulted in the exodus of the entire Serbian population in these areas, approximately 250,000 refugees. NATO decides to launch a series of air strikes on Bosnian Serb artillery and other military targets on August 30th, after many incidents with civilian deaths during the years of siege of Sarajevo and in particular the Srebrenica and Markale massacres.

Milosevic, Tudjman and Izetbegovic lead negotiations in Dayton, Ohio.

Dayton Agreement signed in Paris, marking end of the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

FR Yugoslavia recognizes Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina.

Following a fraud in local elections, hundreds of thousands of Serbs demonstrate in Belgrade against Milosevic regime for 3 months. The

West quietly supports Milosevic, who is branded the main factor of stability in the Balkans after Dayton, and Milosevic remains in power, after issuing lex specialis and admitting victory of opposition at the local level.

Fighting breaks out between Serbian forces and ethnic Albanians in Kosovo. Milosevic sends in troops.

NATO starts the military campaign Operation Allied Force in Kosovo. Ethnic cleansing of Albanians has begun and the Albanian refugees are deported by Serbian forces into Macedonia and Albania in hundreds of thousands until the end of the bombing.

Control of Kosovo is given to the United Nations, but still remains a part of Serbia. An exodus of 200,000 of Serbs and other non-Albanians follows in the wake of revenge attacks by Kosovo Albanians.

Franjo Tudjman dies. HDZ loses Croatian elections in early 2000.

Slobodan Miloevi is voted out of office, and Vojislav Kostunica becomes new president of Yugoslavia.

Fighting between Albanian militants and Macedonians erupts in Macedonia, but ends later on in 2001. Brief Conflict in Southern Serbia between Albanian militants and Serbian security forces ends in cease fire.

Miloevi is put on trial in The Hague on charges of war crimes in Kosovo, to which charges of violating the laws or customs of war and grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions in Croatia and Bosnia and massacres in Bosnia were latter added. Defiant Milosevic did not recognize the court and represented himself. His defence is aired in former Yugoslavia and his popularity among Serbs greatly increased as a result.

Yugoslavia becomes Serbia and Montenegro.

Alija Izetbegovic dies.

Peak of anti-Serbian violence in Kosovo. Hundreds of ancient Orthodox-Christian Serbian monasteries and churches were burned up to that point.

Ibrahim Rugova dies.

Slobodan Miloevi dies in the Hague prison, ending the proceedings with no verdict reached on any of the counts.

Montenegrins vote for independence from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in the Montenegrin independence referendum, 2006.

On February 17, 2008, Kosovo declared independence from Serbia and is recognised by 97 UN member states, including 4 of the former Yugoslav states.

On December 14, 1995, all participating parties of the Bosnian War signed the Dayton Agreement, ending the war. Bosnia and Herzegovina was officially at peace, but the Dayton Agreement institutionalized the division of the country initiated by the ethnic cleansing campaign of the Bosnian-Serb forces during the war. The resulting political, social and economic problems have lasted until the present day. Many people in Bosnia today say that it only needs some lunatics and some murder to let the whole war happen again. The state of Bosnia and Herzegovina is in transition. Young people have high hopes for integration into the European Union, but the peace still seems fragile and questions remain as to whether politicians will be able or willing to give up their power and nationalism for a strong common state. The current condition of the country, riddled by economic stagnation and the resulting frustration of the population, seems likely to drive many people back into the arms of fanatic nationalists. With this work, I explored a country still dealing with the past and trying to move forward to a better future. I visited mass graves, talked to and photographed the Mothers of Srebrenica, (a group of survivors of the genocide) and documented life in Srebrenica, where one can see and feel the aftermath of the war most clearly. There are many leftovers issues from the conflict. The ICMP (International Commission on Missing Persons) continues to search for new mass graves and identify remains with DNA Analysis. There are still more landmines in Bosnia and Herzegovina than anywhere else in Europe. Many people are still living in refugee camps, unable or unwilling to return to their former homes. The resolution of all of these issues may play a large role in determining the stability of the country and perhaps the entire Balkan region.